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Waste is an inevitable by-product of our use of natural resources.

The amount and make-up of waste in any given are depends on factor such as the local population density, economic development, time of the year and type of housing. Waste from houses, industries and businesses are called Municipal Solid Waste (Williams 2005, quoted in Dinis, 2009, 322). All around the world plastics and chemicals are being improperly disposed of. Theyre being thrown into the ocean, onto the ground, burnt in an open fire and thrown inside of massive landfills. This insanitary and malignant approach to the disposal of these materials proposes much environmental and physical harm. The three causes of waste management are lack of dumping sites, lack of funds to provide the machinery machine and inadequate law about waste management. Human activities create waste. Human waste usually transported through sewage system. High concentration of human waste is found in areas such as urban centers (Zurbrugg, 2003,1). Example in Indonesia, total amount of waste generation was 38.5 million ton per year in 2006. Most of the waste is collected and dumped on land in an out of control way. Even though some of the waste material degrade by itself and high percentage of it are recycled, there are still very high percentage of waste are being dumped at landsite. Due to this there has been issue on limited space on dumping sites. The waste company cannot cope with large volume of waste produced everyday hence they just dump the waste on available space. Soon as the volume of waste increases they would find other available space to dump the waste. Overtime, the illegal waste sites would attract disease-carries-fly, release foulsmelling odor and an unattractive sight to see. Plant life near landfill sites might be affected by landfill gas or water contaminated by waste, if these are allowed to escape from a site. Secondly, one major cause of waste management is the lack of funding from the government. This is a major issue in waste management in Indonesia (Meidiana and Gamse, 2010, 204). Indonesia received their budget from the state budget and some assistance from loans. The waste management in Indonesia depends on the local community for the fees and additional budget such as waste collection fees, local government budget. However, even with the local contribution the waste management still under a tight budget and hence cannot afford more advance machinery for collecting waste. Due to this waste management in Indonesia has a low level of service. Only 34% of Indonesian populations were provided with the waste management service in 2001. Another cause of waste management is the inadequate law and information on waste management. Government should impose fees and set up law to enhance the waste management system so that the locals aware about the waste system. In 2008, Indonesia took on a new improved waste management law and still in the process of implementing to the community but one aspect has already a success is the community participation. This shows that this new law could have the potential on saving the waste management in Indonesia. The awareness of this information and law could lead to the success of minimization of overloading of waste (Meidiana and Gamse, 2010, 207).

The causes of waste management above have caused some negative and positive effect. The effects of waste management are open dumping, change in attitude of public awareness and more participation of organization bodies in helping to curb the waste management. The first effect is the increase in activity of open dumping due to lack of dumping sites. Open dumping is solid trash that have been gathered only need to be piled up into two or four meters dumped in the available area before it is recycled or destroyed. This method is mostly seen in developing countries (Zurbrugg, 2003, 9). It would be easy if any trashes that were gathered had already been separated based on its material, so it could be process to the next step rapidly. people mix all of trashes together since the beginning, so it needs more time to separate it. As a result, the amount of trash that has been recycled cannot match with the amount which is come, so the pile is continuously getting bigger and bigger. That is way even though open dumping doesnt waste too much money in the beginning; after a several period, it needs much cost to enlarge or open for a new area. The last effect is there has been increasing number of organizing bodies participated to help curb the improper of waste management. More people are willing to cooperate with the government in managing the waste management. Numerous campaign are organize in order to spread the awareness.These organizing bodies hold campaigns and awareness such as Green and Clean campaigns in Manila. These campaigns program educate people on information of waste management and its health risks. One example in Sri Lanka, where they conduct a program called Environmental Pioneer Brigade Programme. This programme were teaches to children on how to prevent and manage waste management (Zurrbrugg, 2003, 8). The last effect is there has been increase in awareness and change in attitude in people. The community has been involved in community work such as recycling waste. Community work gives such a great response to the government showing that they care about the environment. They started doing initiatives such as collection group for women and youth, vermin composing facilities and collection of user-charge from each household. The communities also did collection of money to purchase necessity such as carts, garbage bins and containers, employing street sweepers and garbage collectors. In Indonesia, they enforce this community work in schools (Meidiana and Gamse, 2010, 206). The waste management need to improve promptly as there is only little improvement in this sector especially in the LEDCs (Less Economically Developing Countries). This issue should be curbing quickly before it get worse and become a world issue. NGOs should join forces with waste management sector in order to control the waste issue. The causes of waste management are limited dumping sites, lack of funding and inadequate law about waste management. These causes produces effects such as open dumping, increasing in awareness and change in attitude in people.