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1. Basic Brush-up: HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is a type of SGML
(Standard Generalized Markup Language). SGML is the international standardized Markup Language. HyperText means machine-readable text so organized to create links to information at a different location. That is, it is not sequential but related items of information are connected. Instead of reading linearly to find information, one can jump from one topic to another. A Markup Language is set of symbols (alphabets, numbers & signs) and rules (syntax) for their use when doing a markup of a document. A markup or a tag is that portion of the document marked up or tagged to indicate how they should be displayed in the browser. These tags are not displayed by the browser. A syntax means rules governing an arrangement of symbols in a programming language acceptable to a compiler (a program that decodes) for that language.
2. Basic Tags: <html>
a browser reads HTML page due to this tag. A Html Page has a .html or .htm file extension. defines the header area (window top border) of a page. this tag is present in the head section and gives title to Html page.
<head> <title> a
marks the end of head section
[Here, </head> is also known as an end tag] <body> <br> defines the main part where contents will be displayed inserts a single line break
[Use   to insert more than one default space between two characters or images] </body> </html> defines the end of body defines the end of page
The above tags contain only the basic structural elements; and belong to Level 0 of HTML Evolution.
3. Text Formatting Tags: The following elements are all font style elements –
<b> </b> <i> </i>
defines start and end of bold texts defines start and end of italic text
[<dfn> Definition tag, <var> Variable tag, <cite> Citation tag, <em>Emphasized tag all give same output as <i>] <u> </u> defines start and end of underlined text <big> </big> <small> </small> <del> </del> <sub> </sub> <sup> </sup> defines start and end of bigger text defines start and end of smaller text defines start and end of strikethrough text defines start and end of subscript text defines start and end of superscript text
<tt> </tt> defines start and end of Teletype text <nobr> screen [<code>Computer Code tag, <samp> Sample tag, <kbd> Keyboard tag give same result]
4. Block Formatting Tags: The following are all text-block style elements
does not allow a new line in the text; on excess of 80 characters a scroll bar appears on the bottom of the
<p> </p> <center> text </center>
defines start and end of a paragraph defines start and end of horizontally centered enclosed
<blockquote> defines the start and end of a long quotation <blockquote> /h1> to </h6> <pre> </pre> defines end of header 1 to header 6
defines start and end of preformatted texts that preserve spaces and line breaks of the text enclosed
<address> defines start and end of e-contact information for </address> document or a section that is a hyperlink [It allows Class, ID and Style attributes of CSS to be applied] <base> defines start and end of base URL for all the links in a </base> page Example: Assume that the absolute address for an image is: <img src="http://www.niit.com/images/smile.gif" /> Now we insert the <base> tag, which specifies a base URL for all of the links in a page, in the head section of a page: <head> <base href="http://www.niit.com/images/" /> </head> When inserting images on the page in the example above, we just have to specify the relative address, and the browser will look for that file using the full URL, "http://www.niit.com/images/smile.gif": <img src="smile.gif" />
5. Tags with Attributes: The following are all text-block style elements with
Attributes. <body bgcolor = “#dfbfff” text = “#ff0808” bgproperties = “fixed” leftmargin = “60” topmargin = “60”> defines 4attributes of contents will be displayed </body > <font size=5 color=#45d11a face=arial> defines 3 attributes of font styles </font> <hr size=3 width=50% align =right color= #ff0808 noshade= false > defines 5 attributes of a horizontal rule. NOSHADE:when set to true the rule should render in a solid color, when set to false the rule should render in a two-color gradient </hr> <li type=circle/disc/square>
defines 1attribute that specifies the type of the list </li>
<ol type=A/a/I/i/1> <li>great <li>greater <li>greaest </ol> But there are better <ol type=i start=4> <li>better <li>best <li>best of the best defines 2attributes that specifie the type of the orderedlist; it must begin with <ol> tag followed by a <li> tag. </ol>
defines listwhen it is not an ordered one; it is a of writing <li> tag similar to <ol> tag and is thus followed by a <li> tag.
defines list similar to <ul> tag, but gives menu spacing to the enclosed content
[<dir>Directory tag will gives the same result and presents a list of upto 20 characters ] <dl> <dt> <dd> </dl> defines the definition list defines the definition term presents the definition of the term defines the end of definition list
defines anchor tag. The following creates a bookmark inside a document, by using the name or id attribute: <a name=n>Nonsense</a><br> <a href= "#n">N</a>
The following creates a link to another document by using the href attribute: <a name= "tea">tea is a light beverage <a href="drinks.html" target= "_blank">More</a> It also has the target attribute which defines where to open the target:
_blank _self _parent _top
the target the target the target the target window
URL URL URL URL
will will will will
open open open open
in in in in
a new window the same frame as it the parent frameset the full body of the
___________------------------___________________----------------------------__________________-----------------✔ Forms: this element creates form for user input. ✔ Action attribute handles the CGI script. ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
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There are two Method attributes : Get & Post Checkbox is used to give multiple values at the same time Text attribute is used along with Size and Maxlength attributes Radioaccepts only a single value File Attribute <input type = file value=”file:///c:/filename”></input> Radio Attribute <input name=R1 Type=Radio> Size Attribute <input type=text size=”20”> Maxlength indicates maximum number of characters Select attribute is used along with Name, Multiple and Size attributes Option Element can occur only within a Select element with Value attribute <img src = “abc.jpg” width=50 height=50 align=top/middle/absmiddle/baseline/bottom/testing> ISMAP image map <a herf=http://machine/htbin/imagemap/sample> <img src=”sample.gif”ISMAP></a> Image Map is saved as CSIM (Client Side Image maps) which has hotspot click and retrieve approach and SSIM (Server Side Image Maps) which is used for animating pictures. Mapthis is software used to create Image Maps <table></table> is the basic table element which wraps all other table elements
✔ Internal table borders is known as rules. ✔ Cell padding space within cells , Cell spacing space between cells ✔ <tr>table row, align-left,cent,right; Valign text within the cell –top middle
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bottom baseline, Bgcolor, Bordercolor, Bordercolorlight, Bordercolordark <td> table data NOWRAP is for tables what <nobr> is for text blocks and is used in <th> and <td> tags Colspan is used to span columns within cell Rowspan is used to span rows within cell <th> table header identical for data cells <colgroup align=left/right/center/justify valign span=2> Frames can load their own URL independent of other frames <frameset Cols=20%, 60%, 20%> <frameset rows=20%, 60%, 20%> “2*,*” would give 2/3 of the space to the first frame and 1/3 to second frame Marginwidth=”value” Marginheight=”value” Scrolling=”yes/no/auto” Noresize, by default resizable Frameborder=”0” no borders are drawn <frame framspacing=”55”> <noframes>.....</noframes> is used to display the alternate content Inline frame are floating frames that appear without dividing browser window horizontally or vertically<iframe width height align></iframe> Avoid nested and long vertical tables More than five colors should not be used in a web designFor colorblind visitors combinition of red, green, purple, mgray and brown should not be used To help them distinguish between objects and areas combinations of blue, yellow, white, and black should be used Linear design for short pages is the most suitable Non-Linear Design will contain multiple links to multiple sites The entire page should be created at once and saved as a single file HTML should not be used for small navigation toolbars Search engines deploy automated programs called spiders or crawlers Avoid using generic keywords, use specific words instead Data-matrix is data presented in a tabular form Highest level of sophistication is required to convert browsing eshoppers to buyers To target international multiple languages choice should be provided
✔ By default files are stored in Flash MX Document (.fla) ✔ The other format is (.swf) ✔ Direction line defines the height, depth and direction of a curve
✔ The arrow tool, or the sub selection tool should be used to make a rectangular marquee selection ✔ Irregular selection is done with Lasso Tool ✔ Gap size adds color to a shape that is not closed and has small gaps ✔ Lock Fill adds gradient to a shape such that gradient color appears to be stretched ✔ Flash has three color modes RGB, HSB and HEX ✔ If blue rectangle appears around the shape it means they are grouped ✔ Raster Graphics are based on grid of pixels ✔ Color Threshold of a vector image is from 1 to 500 ✔ Minimum Area is used to specify the number of pixels that will have consistent colors; value ranges from 1-1000 ✔ Curve Fit the smoothness of the outlines of the image ✔ Corner Threshold the sharpness that a shape will have ✔ Extending Text Block is used for short lines of texts ✔ Fixed Text Block is used for large blocks of texts ✔ Scrollable text box -> Change text type to multiline, Select multiline in Line Type drop list, Right-click text-box and choose Scrollable, from componebts drag and drop Scroll Bar ✔ To manipulate individual characters choose modify-> Break Apart ✔ Merging Layers ->Edit ->Cut -> Edit - > Paste in Place ✔ To rename a layer Modify-> Layer -> Layer Properties ✔ Current Frame, Frame Rate, Elapsed Time ✔ Playhead creates the illusion of motion in an animation ✔ Create Documents from templates: File-> New from Template ✔ Adding Sound files like wav and MP3 File-> Import ✔ You can add sound to buttons : Over and Down make more sense ✔ ADPCM is the format that converts analog to digital sound ✔ RAW has backward compatibility and is associated to the movie ✔ To convert and existing shape, bitmap, or image on the stage into a symbol, select it and choose Insert-> Convert to Symbol [F8] ✔ Instead of working with several movie files, you can work with one movie file having multiple scenes. To insert a Scene choose Insert-> Scenes ✔ To create a Graphic Symbol choose Insert->New Symbol and specify Graphic as the type of the symbol ✔ 4 stages of Button Symbols: Up, Over, Down, Hit ✔ You can position and set the behaviour relative to its registration point ✔ Right-click to mask ✔ To Create instance drag the symbol from the files library to the stage ✔ Instance Properties Windows->Panels->Effects ✔ Mouse Event: Variable: Stores values that can be used in scripts ✔ Roll out: the mouse is moved away from a particular object
✔ File->Export Movie
✔ Information Bar is used to analyze number of frames loaded ✔ Bandwidth Profiler shows bytes of data that will be downloaded Movie Preview Window shows the movie as it would appear when downloaded ✔ File->Publish Setting ✔ Action Panel F9 ✔ Zoom tool- z ✔ Document Properties cntrl + J ✔ Test Scene cntrl + alt + enter ✔ Test Movie cntrl +alt+enter ✔ Test Project cntrl +alt+ P ✔ Show frames cntrl +2 ✔ Show All Frames cntrl +3 ___________________--------------------------________________________------------------------------___________
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