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CARGO CALCULATIONS

Cargo calculations

The volume of cargo on board can be determined by means of soundings or ullage measurements and calibration tables (tank tables) The purpose of the cargo calculations is to convert the observed volume into weight Calculation of trim, stability, freeboard, shear forces, bending moments is based on weights On the B/L the quantity of cargo is stated as a weight (Metric Tons , Long Tons, Short Tons, Pounds, etc. )
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When making the stowage plan a lot of information has to be gathered, a lot of factors have to be taken into account Cargo calculations are important because they are the link between the available space and the weight to be loaded

Cargo calculations on board of a gas carrier

Cargo calculations

The volume of cargo on board can be determined by means of soundings or ullage measurements and calibration tables (tank tables) The purpose of the cargo calculations is to convert the observed volume into weight Calculation of trim, stability, freeboard, shear forces, bending moments is based on weights On the B/L the quantity of cargo is stated as a weight (Metric Tons , Long Tons, Short Tons, Pounds, etc. )

Cargo calculation
maximum filling limits

IMO specifies maximum filling limits as follows: Vl = 0.98 V dr/dt


Vl is the max volume to which the tank can be loaded V is the total volume of the tank Dr is the density of the cargo at ref. temperature Reference temperature = boiling temperature at relief valve setting pressure (the highest temperature that can be reached during the voyage, highest temperature = smallest density) Dt is the density of the cargo at the loading temperature PS. Liquefied gas is always transported at the boiling temperature, at this temperature liquid and gas are in equilibrium. Boiling temperature is determined by the pressure in the tank. Boiling temperature rises with the pressure and the pressure will never get higher than the relief valve setting.

Cargo calculation
maximum filling limits
Example: Fully ref. vessel loading propane at 42C. Relief valves set at 0.25barg (bar gauge = relative pressure)
Absolute pressure: 0.25+1.0 = 1.25 bar Ref. temperature (corresponding to SVP, Saturated Vapour Pressure, 1.25 bara for propane) = -375C Density of liquid propane dr = 0.5765 @ -375C Density of liquid propane dt = 0.582 @ -42C Vl =0.98 V 0.5765 / 0.582 = 0.97 V Thus tanks can be filled to 97%

Units of volume

1 U.S. Gallon = 1 U.S. Barrel = 1 U.S. Barrel = 1 Imperial Gallon= 1 Cubic feet = 1 Cubic meter =

3.78541 Litre 158.987 Litre 42 U.S. Gallons 4.54596 Litre 28.3169 Litre 6.28981 U.S. Barrel

Units of weight

1 Long Ton 1 Short Ton 1 Long Ton 1 Pound

= = = =

1.01605 Metric Ton 0.907185 Metric Ton 2240 Pounds 0.453592 Kilogram

Units of density
Density
True

is the relation between mass (weight) and volume


and apparant density Relative density and specific gravity Litre weight API

Temperature conversion
Degrees Celsius: C Degrees Fahrenheit: F Degrees Kelvin: K 0C = 32F & 100C = 212F => F=(C-32)x 5/9

C = (F x 9/5) + 32

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Cargo calculations
The

relationship between the volume and the mass/weight can be expressed by:
Density
True

density Apparent density Specific gravity Litre weight API gravity


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Cargo calculations
The

relationship between the volume and the mass or weight can be expressed by the density (specific gravity, litre weight, API, relative density etc.) Density and volume change in function of the temperature The weight of a cargo is of course independent of the temperature but the weight in air (apparent weight) the 13 weight in vacuum (true weight)

Density
Fundamentaly Density: Unit of mass per volume [kg/m3 or kg/litre ] When calculating cargo True density: Weight per unit of volume in vacuum Apparant density: Weight per unit of volume in air
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Mass
Mass

is the only SI unit not based on the fundamental atomic properties or the speed of light Reference standard is a small platinum cylinder with a mass of 1 kg made in 1880 and kept under inert conditions at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures near Paris
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Cargo calculations
Mass (massa )is a measure of the quantity

of material in a body and is constant regardless of geographical location, altitude or atmospheric conditions

Weight is the force with which a body is

attracted to the earth and varies from place to place with g , the acceleration of gravity

Standard

???? g = 9,81m/sec2 Weight = Mass x 9,81m/sec2


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Cargo calculations

All commodities are sold by weight and this means weight in air. The term weight in general practice has been accepted as being the value secured when an object is weighed in air This weight or weight in air is often converted to weight in vacuum by the application of an air buoyancy correction (vacuum factor)
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Principle of Archimedes
Physical

law of buoyancy, discovered by the ancient Greek mathematician and inventor Archimedes, stating that any body completely or partially submerged in a fluid (gas or liquid) at rest is acted upon by an upward, or buoyant, force the magnitude of which is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body.
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Principle of Archimedes

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Principle of Archimedes
A

ship that is launched sinks into the ocean until the weight of the water it displaces is just equal to its own weight (). As the ship is loaded, it sinks deeper, displacing more water, and so the magnitude of the buoyant force continuously matches the weight of the ship and its cargo.
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Principle of Archimedes
P = Weight F = Force of Archimedes The ship floats if P = F If P > F => Submarine (ballast) If P < F => Air balloon (hot air or a very light gas f.i. hydrogen)
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The

bathescafe sinks because his own weight (light weight + ballast) > the weight of the water it displaces The Zepplin flies because his own weight (hydrogen gas is very light) < the weight of the air displaces.

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Density and kg/m3 in air

Density is defined as mass per unit volume , expressed in direct terms of mass and volume (kg/m3, kg/lit). In simple language, density is the weight of a unit volume of the substance, weighed in the absence of air Density varies as temperature changes and is therefore expressed at a specific temperature (15C) Density is sometimes referred to as true density or density in vacuum and will consequently give us true mass

Density and kg/m3 in air


The

conversion between true density and apparent density can be carried out with table 56. The most commonly encountered HC fluids need a negative correction of 1,1 kg/m3. m3 Calculations of quantity by means of kg/m3 will give apparent mass (weight) instead of true mass (weight)
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Relative density, Specific gravity and API


Relative

density and (American Petroleum Institute) API-gravity are commonly used in British and American publications. Relative density replaces the widely known term specific gravity which has been formerly used in the oil industry.

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Relative density, Specific gravity and API


Mass of a given volu me of substance at 15C Relative Density15/15C Mass of an equal volume of pure water at 15C Mass of a given volu me of substance at 60F Specific gravity 60/60F Mass of an equal volume of pure water at 60F

141,5 API gravity at 60F 131,5 Rel. Dens. 60/60F


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Relative density, Specific gravity and API


True weight a given volu me of substance at 15C Relative Density15/15C True weight equal volume of pure water at 15C

True weight a given volu me of substance at 60F Specific gravity 60/60F True weight an equal volume of pure water at 60F

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Relative Density Specific Gravity Apparent Relative Density Apparent Specific Gravity
Relative

density 15/20 = Weight in vacuum of a given volume prod. at 15C/ Weight in vacuum H2O same volume at 20C Apparent Relative Density 15/20 = Weight in air given volume of prod. at 15C/ Weight in air H2O same volume at 20C
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Relative density, Specific gravity and API

It should be noted that relative density (spec. grav.) is expressed as a ratio and no physical units are involved. It is possible to convert f.i. spec. grav. 60/60F to density at 60F by the following relationship Density substance at 60F [kg/m3] = spec. grav. 60/60F x 999,04 [kg/m3] (density H2O at 60F)

True and apparent density of water at different temperatures


TC 4 15 15.56 (60F) 20 25 50 True Density Apparent density 0.99888 0.99805 0.99796 0.99717 0.99604 0.98702

1.00000
0.99913 0.99904 0 99823 0.99707 0.98807

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Litre weight

Weight

in AIR of 1 litre of substance at a given temperature

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Conversion factors

Rel. Dens. 20/20C = Rel. Dens. 15.5/15.5C = Rel. Dens. 25/25C = Rel. Dens. 60/60F = Rel. Dens. 25/4C = Rel. Dens. 20/4C = Rel. Dens. 15/15C =

( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 0.99823 ( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 0.99905 ( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 0.99707 ( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 0.99903 ( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 1.00000 ( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 1.00000 ( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 0.99913

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Approx. vacuum factors

Liter weight 1.0 Liter weight 0.9 Liter weight 0.8 Liter weight 0.7

1.00108 1.00122 1.00139 1.00161

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ASTM 54 - LPG

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Volume and density corrections


Weight = volume x density
Only true if volume and density are known at the same temperature 3 solutions 1) Correct the volume to the temperature of the density VCF = Volume correction factor Volume correction to 60F or 15C 2) Correct density to the temperature of the volume DCC = Density correction per degree centigrade 3) Correct both to the same reference temperature, 60F or 15 C 38

Volume and density corrections


Both

factors are based on the same physical phenomenon. Fluids or solids expand when heated but the mass or weight remains unchanged => the density decreases Relation between change in temperature and change in volume is expressed by the coefficient of volume expansion
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Relation between density and temperature


Coefficient of volumetric expansion is not linear see curve. Curve is described by the ASTM-VCF tables. For a small temperature range curve can be replaced by tangent line. Inclination of this line is better known as the DCC coefficient DCC = Density correction per degree 40 centigrade

Examples of DCC factors


Acetone Caustic Ethanol Glycerine i-pentane Latex

Soda (50%)

0.00114 0.00070 0.00079 0.00063 0.00097 0.00100

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Volume correction factor


The

VCF factor (VCF) converts a volume or a density of a fluid at ambient temperature to a reference or standard temperature (15C or 60F) VCF factors are published in special tables ASTM-tables
ASTM

= American Standards on Technical Measurements

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Example ASTM tables

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ASTM tables
Table No Table 5A Table 5B Table 5D Description Correction of observed API gravity to API gravity at 60F (gen. crude oils) Correction of observed API gravity to API gravity at 60F (gen. Products) Correction of observed API gravity to API gravity at 60F (gen. Lub. Oils) Correction of volume to 60F against API gravity at 60F (gen. crude oils) Correction of volume to 60F against API gravity at 60F (gen. products) VCF for individual and special applications Correction of volume to 60F against API gravity at 60F (gen. lub. oils)
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Table 6A
Table 6B Table 6C Table 6D

ASTM tables
Table No Table 23A Table 23B products) Table 24A Table 24B Table 24C Description Correction of observed relative density to relative density 60/60F (sen. crude oils) Correction of observed relative density to relative density 60/60F (gen. Correction of volume to 60F against relative density 60/60F (gen. crude oils) Correction of volume to 60F against relative density 60/60F (gen. products) VCF for individual and special applications

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ASTM tables
Table No Table 53A Table 53B Table 54B Description Correction of observed density to density at 15C (gen. crude oils) Correction of observed density to density at 15C (gen. products) Correction of volume to 15C against density at 15C (gen. products) VCF for individual and special applications Correction of volume to 15C against density at 15C (gen. lub. oils)

Table 54C Table 54D

Vol XI and XII contain 58 conversion tables

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EXXON BUNKER COLCULATION TOOL

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Cargo calculations going from total observed volume to weight in air using VCF
Met ullage en trim ga je in tanktabellen en vind je het geobserveerde volume. Dit is zonder rekening te houden met temperatuur of densiteit. Vervolgens ga je met trim en dip nog eens in de tabellen en heb je berekend hoeveel water er onder je lading zit. Hiervoor wil niemand betalen en ze wordt dus met het geobserveerde volume vermindert. Zo bekom je het gross observed volume. Vervolgens doe je een aanpassing voor de temperatuur en de densisteit, je vindt zo de VCF factor, deze moet je met de gross observed volume vermeerderen. We bekomen zo ons volume. Als we nu nog een omzetting naar vacuum moeten doen, dan komt hier nog een vacuumfactor bij. Enkel met vacuum werken als men de hoeveelheden aan de wal bekend maakt, voor de rest verder werken in air.

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Cargo calculations on board of a gas carrier

Calculations are somewhat different from the calculations on board of an oil- or chemical carrier On board of a fully- or semi refrigerated gas carriers temperatures are very low. These low temperatures have an influence on the volume of the tank itself and on the the ullaging equipment, being the floater and the perforated tape (in case of a mechanical ullaging device)
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Cargo calculations on board of a gas carrier


In

a loaded gas tank an equilibrium exists between the cargo in the liquid phase and the cargo in the gas phase. Consequently a not negligible part of the cargo is gaseous All the above mentioned facts make a gas calculation somewhat more complicated
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Cargo calculations on board of a gas carrier


On discharge one normally retains sufficient cargo on board to keep the tanks cooled fore the next loading quantity loaded/discharged = quantity o/b on arrival - quantity o/b at departure Therefore calculations before AND after every loading or discharge operation

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LNG - calculations

LNG is traded within long-time projects with dedicated production, transportation and reception facilities LNG-carriers use the boil-off during loaded and ballast voyages as ships fuel Commercial quantification is usually done on the basis of the calorific value of the cargo delivered. Calorific calculations are based on liquid volume and density at tank conditions
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Shore measurements versus ship measurements


Shore tank measurements are not as accurate as ship measurements
Shore tanks have a greater cross-section => greater relative error During cargo handling operations a certain pressure has to be maintained in the shore tanks => vapours of different origins can be used.
Vapour flow from other shore tanks Liquid vaporisers Vapour return line from the ship

=> Exact vapour quantity is difficult to calculate.

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Shore measurements versus ship measurements


Vapour quantification ashore is difficult Some terminals, therefore, use a simplified approach. The weight-in-air of the liquid change in the shore tank is evaluated from measurements before and after transfer and 0.43 % (only for propane and butane in fully ref. condition) of the weight-in-air of the liquid transferred is subtracted or added to account for the vapor weight replacing the liquid transferred.

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Shore measurements versus ship measurements

It is common practice to use ships figures to determine cargo volumes (contrary to crude or chem. trade where shore figures are used) Some customs authorities require the ships tanks to be calibrated by an approved classification society or by suitable independent cargo surveyors (custody transfer)

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Shore measurements versus ship measurements

On loading it is important to take account of the density of the remaining cargo (liquid heel in each tank). If this is appreciably different from the cargo to be loaded => the density in the tanks after loading may be affected An independent cargo surveyor will be appointed to verify ship & shore volume measurements (ship-shore difference)

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Cargo calculations on board of a gas carrier


Liquefied gas cargoes are carried as boiling liquids in equilibrium with their vapour in closed containment systems

The vapour phase above the liquid cargo must be calculated and included in the total cargo quantity
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Cargo calculations on board of a gas carrier


Total quantity of cargo is equal to the sum of :
1.
2.

Quantity of cargo in liquid phase Quantity of cargo in vapour phase

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Liquid cargo calculation


volume determination Innage or sounding is measured on gas tankers, ullage on other tankers

Mechanically operated float gauges

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Mechanically operated float gauges

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Sonic systems

Sonic systems

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Liquid cargo calculation


volume determination
A calibration table is provided for each cargo tank, giving for each sounding the corresponding volume this table has been drawn up
under ambient conditions with the vessel being in upright position (no trim, no list) Therefore corrections must be applied to obtain a CORRECTED SOUNDING
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Liquid cargo calculation


volume determination
Corrections:
temperature corrections
Tape correction Float correction

not upright ship corrections


Trim correction List correction
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Liquid cargo calculation


volume determination

Low temperatures have an influence on

the ullaging equipment, being the floater and the perforated tape (in case of a mechanical ullaging device) the volume of the tank itself

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Liquid cargo calculation


volume determination
Tape correction or dip correction:
The float gauge tape passes through the cold vapour space Depending on the temperature it will contract It will therefore indicate a lower liquid level then actually present Tape correction should be added to the liquid level read
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Liquid cargo calculation


volume determination
Float correction:
The zero of the float gauge is determined by the manufacturer Immersion of the float depends upon the cargo density If cargo temp. and density are different from that assumed by the manufacturers zero determination a small correction for float immersion is required
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Liquid cargo calculation


volume determination
List correction
depending

on the actual list depending on the position of the liquid indicator on the cargo tank list is indicated in degrees

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Liquid cargo calculation


volume determination

In an upright position, liquid level and ships bottom are both horizontal. No correction has to be applied
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Liquid cargo calculation


volume determination
Depending upon the position of the liquid indicator a list correction has to be applied

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Volume in the tank has not changed


A B C A B C

List = 0 A=B=C

List = 5 A > A B = B C < C


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Liquid cargo calculation


volume determination
Trim correction
depending

on the trim position of the ship depending on the position of the level indicator on the cargo tank trim is expressed in metres (centimetres)

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Liquid cargo calculation


volume determination

If the ship is even keel, the liquid level is parallel to the keel. No trim correction in this condition

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Liquid cargo calculation


volume determination
If the ship is not even keel, the horizontal liquid surface is not parallel to the keel anymore. The liquid level will be different depending on the place of measurement

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Liquid cargo calculation


volume determination
Sounding observed actual sounding
list trim Dip or tape correction float

corrected sounding liquid volume


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Liquid cargo calculation


volume determination
Shrinkage factor:
The cargo tank is calibrated at ambient temperature (mostly 20C) If cold cargo is loaded, the tank will have a lower temperature and therefore a smaller volume Different corrections are applied to liquid and vapour phases because of different temperatures
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Liquid cargo calculation


volume determination

Liquid volume
x shrinkage factor

actual liquid volume

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Liquid cargo calculation


mass determination
observed sounding
dip and float correction

actual sounding
list and trim correction

corrected sounding
liquid volume at temperature

shrinkage factor

observed volume
ASTM D 1250 - table 54 B VCF correction (old) ASTM D 2598 - table 53 B density at cargo temperature density tables from an official surveyor (f.e. SGS) density at cargo temperature

standard volume x density at 15C

liquid mass

liquid mass
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liquid mass

Cargo calculations going from total observed volume to weight in air using VCF

Vapour cargo calculation


volume determination Vapour volume = total tank volume - liquid volume due to low temperatures in the tank, the total tank volume has to be corrected, by using the shrinkage factor for the mean (or weighed ) temperature in the tank
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Weighed average tank temperature


Weighed average tank temperature = ((liquid height x liquid temp.) + (gas height x gas temp.))/Total height of the tank. Used to obtain the shrinkage factor for the complete tank
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Vapour cargo calculation


mass determination
Due

to cargo operations, vapour and liquid are not in equilibrium in the tank therefore gas density cannot be obtained from the tables we will use the ideal gas law and Avogadros law

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Vapour cargo calculation


mass determination Basis: The ideal gas law

P1V 1 P 2V 2 T1 T2
The gas in a standard situation (P = 1013mbar en T = 288K) is compared with the gas in the tank atmosphere
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Some definitions

MOLE = also spelled MOL, in chemistry, a standard scientific unit for measuring large quantities of very small entities such as atoms, molecules, or other specified particles. The mole designates an extremely large number of units, 6.0221367 x 1023, which is the number of atoms determined experimentally to be found in 12 grams of carbon-12.

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MOLE or MOL

Carbon-12 was chosen arbitrarily to serve as the reference standard of the mole unit for the International System of Units (SI). The number of units in a mole also bears the name Avogadro's number, or Avogadro's constant, in honour of the Italian physicist Amedeo Avogadro (1776-1856). Avogadro proposed that equal

volumes of gases under the same conditions contain the same number of molecules, , a hypothesis that proved useful in
determining atomic and molecular weights and which led to the concept of the mole.

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Avrogadros law

Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of different gases contain an equal number of molecules. The volume occupied by 6.0221367 x 1023 The volume occupied by one gram-mole of gas is about 22.4 l at standard temperature and pressure (0C, 1 atmosphere) and is the same for all gases. 22.4 l/mol at 0C or 273K becomes 23.645l/mol at 15C or 288K
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Ps.Vs Pv.Vv Ts Tv Ps 1013mbar Ts 288K (15C) Vs n.I n aantal mol I 23.645l/mo l Pv absolute pressure in the tanks Tv temperature in the tank expressed in K Vv n.M m/Dv M m molecular weight in kg/mol Dv density of the gas M m.n Pv. Ps.n.I Dv Ts Tv Ts Pv M m Dv Tv Ps I

Purpose = to calculate the vapour density at the observed temperature Starting point = the ideal gas law A volume gas = number of moles X the volume of 1 mole = 22,4l/mol if temp. 273K(0C) or 23,645 if temp. 288K A volume gas also = (number of moles x mulecular mass)/ vapour density 92

Example
Volume vapour in the tank = 29.952m3 Temp = -30C = (273K-30C = 243K) Pressure = 0.1bar relative = 1.1bar absolute Mm = 44.1 kg/kmol

288K 1100mbar 44.097kg / kmol dv x x 243K 1013mbar 23.645m3 / kmol


dv = 2.4 kg/m3

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Vapour cargo calculation


weight determination Vapour volume x vapour density = vapour weight

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cargo calculation
weight determination

Liquid weight + vapour weight = total cargo weight

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Cargo calculations - data


Product Innage Trim List Liq.temp Gas temp Vapour space pressure Molecular weight Density at 15C

Propane 10.020 + 2m 0.5 P -43C -38C 59 mbarg 44.097 511 kg/M3

Ships calibration tables

Trim correction List correction Level gauge correction Float immersion correction Corrected innage Volume at calibration temp 100% at calibration temp Volume vapour space at cal. temp. Shrinkage 43C Shrinkage 38C

-127mm + 46mm + 1mm 0mm 9.940m 5.441,88M3 9.893,63M3 4.451,75M3 0.99773 0.99791
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INNAGE corrections

Trim correction Innage 127mm

List correction Innage +46mm


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Liquid Calculation

Liq.vol. at cal. temp. Shrinkage factor Volume liquid at 43C VCF 43C -> 15C Volume at 15C Density at 15C (vac) Mass

5.441,88m3 0.99773 5429.52 m3 1.145 6.216,8 m3 511 kg/ m3 3.176,785 T

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Vapour Calculation

Vol.vapour at calib.temp Thermal factor Vol. at 38 Dens. at 38C (see slide) Mass Vapour Total Mass Weight in air factor (ASTM 54) Weight in air

4451,75 m3 0.99791 4442.45 m3 2.389 kg/ m3 10.613 T 3.187,398 T 0.99775 3.180,23 T


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Vapour density calculation

= 2.389 kg/M3

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Dynamic Flow Measurement


Some

modern terminals are being equipped with sophisticated liquid and vapour flow metering with associated in-line sampling. The equipment presently is expensive and requires complicated proving arrangements. However, this method allows flow rate and density to be continuously recorded at the flow temperature and, by combining these outputs electronically, mass flow rate can be provided and integrated to give total mass 102 transferred.

Ultrasonic flow measurement

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Quantity calculations on board of LNG carriers


The quantity discharged is measured by an ultrasonic flow measurement device Ultrasonic meters have no moving parts, they suffer no pressure loss and they provide maintenance-free operation - important advantages over conventional mechanical meters such as positive displacement meters (PDs), turbines, orifice plates and vortex meters
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Quantity calculations on board of LNG carriers

Ultrasonic flow measurement uses the transit time principle, whereby opposite sending and receiving transducers are used to transmit signals through the flow. The signal travels faster when moving with the flow stream rather than against the flow stream. The difference between the two transit times is used to calculate the flow rate. Measuring principle Doppler effect
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Operating principle

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Metering Unit on board of the Excalibur


Ultrasonic type flow meter and gas chromatograph Applied extensively on land based plants (incl. Custody Transfer Systems on land) No moving parts => very reliable
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Gas Chromatography

Used to establish chemical composition of the gas and the derived values such as density and caloric value of the sample

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Cargo documentation

B/L is the most important cargo document Enables the cargo receiver to assess if the proper quantity has been discharged Before departure from the loading terminal the shipmaster should ensure that the B/L quantities accurately represent the cargo loaded The master should be sure that cargo calculation records made at loading and discharge are properly prepared
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Bill of Lading
A Bill of Lading is a document signed by the shipmaster at the port of loading. It details the type and quantity of cargo loaded, the name of the ship and the name of the cargo receiver. The Bill of Lading has three functions. It is:
The shipmaster's receipt for cargo loaded A document of title for the cargo described in it Evidence that a Contract of Carriage (such as a voyage charter party) exists
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Bill of Lading

By signing the document, the shipmaster attests to the apparent good order and condition of the cargo loaded. By signing the Bill of Lading, the shipmaster agrees to the quantity of cargo loaded In some circumstances, where the Bill of Lading quantities do not match the ship's figure, the shipmaster may be expected to issue a Letter of Protest at the loading port.
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Bill of Lading

Whoever possesses the Bill of Lading rightfully owns the cargo. The old practice of issuing three original Bills of Lading has been largely superseded and now it is common to find only one being issued. Should a cargo be sold before it reaches its destination, the Bill of Lading must be endorsed by the original cargo buyer to show the new cargo owner.
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Bill of Lading

Due to delays in banking or trading chains, an endorsed original is not always to hand at the discharge port. Accordingly, as an alternative to presenting the original Bill of Lading to the ship master, a receiver may issue a Letter of Indemnity (LOI) to the ship.

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B/L

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Certificate of Quantity

A Certificate of Quantity is issued by the loading terminal as, or on behalf of, the shipper and the cargo quantities declared as loaded may be verified by an independent cargo surveyor. The certificate is of assistance to the shipmaster in determining the quantities to be inserted in the Bill of Lading. However, the quantities as stated on the Bill of Lading remain the official record of the cargo as loaded.
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Certificate of Quantity

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Certificate of Quality

A Certificate of Quality provides the product specification and quality in terms of physical characteristics (such as vapour pressure and density) and component constituents. It is issued by the loading terminal as, or on behalf of, the shipper or may be issued by an independent cargo inspection service. Again, the data contained in the document assists the shipmaster in signing the Bill of Lading.
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Certificate of Quality

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Certificate of Origin

A Certificate of Origin is a document issued by the manufacturer or shipper, countersigned by the customs authorities, which attests to the country in which the cargo was produced. It may be required by financial authorities in the importing country so that they may assess import taxes or grants. Unlike the previous two certificates, it is not complementary to or supportive of the Bill of Lading but its distribution to shipper, carrier and cargo receiver is similar.

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Time Sheet

The Time Sheet records all salient port-times, from a ship's port entry until final departure. The Time Sheet is usually prepared by an independent cargo surveyor or the ship's agent and is checked and countersigned by the shipmaster and the shore terminal. Its purpose is to provide an agreed statement of facts relating to the timing of events and delays during the ship's port call and is used to facilitate demurrage claims.
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Time sheet

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NOR

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Cargo Manifest
A

Cargo Manifest is usually prepared by the ship's agent at the loading port or by the shipmaster and lists all cargoes according to the Bills of Lading. Its purpose is to provide readily available data for customs authorities and ships' agents in the discharge port. The appropriate preparation of the Cargo Manifest is controlled by the SOLAS & FAL convention.
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Certificate of tank fitness

A Certificate of Tank Fitness is usually issued by a specialist chemist from a cargo surveying company and is issued where particular tank cleanliness conditions are required prior to loading.

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Certificate of Inhibitor Addition

An Inhibitor Information Form is issued by the loading terminal or by the cargo manufacturer.

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Inhibitor addition

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