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**PROJECTWORK FOR ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS 2009
**

Osman bin Safee 920902-06-5301 5 Jaguh

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT DIVISION MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA

SEKOL AH BERASRAMA PENUH INTEGRASI PEKAN

circle

PROJECTWORK FOR ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS 2009

Osman bin Safee 920902-06-5301 5 Jaguh

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT DIVISION MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA

CONTENT

iTEM Appreciation Introduction -history -advanced properties Aim Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Conclusion -part 1 -part 2 -part 3 References PAGE S 01 02

20 21 24 28 30

31

APPRECIATION

First of all, I would like to say Alhamdulillah, for giving me the strength and health to do this project work. Not forgotten my parents for providing everything, such as money, to buy anything that are related to this project work and their advise, which is the most needed for this project. Internet, books, computers and all that. They also supported me and encouraged me to complete this task so that I will not procrastinate in doing it. Then I would like toexpress my gratitude to my teacher, Miss Elissa for guiding me and my friends throughout this project. We had some difficulties in doing this task, but she taught us patiently until we knew what to do. She tried and tried to teach us until we understand what we supposed to do with the project work. Last but not least, my friends who were doing this project with me and sharing our ideas. They were helpful that when we combined and discussed together, we had this task done.

INTRODUCTION A circle is a simple shape of Euclidean geometry consisting of those points in a plane which are the same distance from a given point called the centre. The common distance of the points of a circle from its center is called its radius. A diameter is a line segment whose endpoints lie on the circle and which passes through the centre of the circle. The length of a diameter is twice the length of the radius. A circle is never a polygon because it has no sides or vertices. Circles are simple closed curves which divide the plane into two regions, an interior and an exterior. In everyday use the term "circle" may be used interchangeably to refer to either the boundary of the figure (known as the perimeter) or to the whole figure including its interior, but in strict technical usage "circle" refers to the perimeter while the interior of the circle is called a disk. The circumference of a circle is the perimeter of the circle (especially when referring to its length). A circle is a special ellipse in which the two foci are coincident. Circles are conic sections attained when a right circular cone is intersected with a plane perpendicular to the axis of the cone.

The circle has been known since before the beginning of recorded history. It is the basis for the wheel, which, with related inventions such as gears, makes much of modern civilization possible. In mathematics, the study of the circle has helped inspire the development of geometry and calculus. Early science, particularly geometry and Astrology and astronomy, was connected to the divine for most medieval scholars, and many believed that there was something intrinsically "divine" or "perfect" that could be found in circles.

Some highlights in the history of the circle are: • • • 1700 BC – The Rhind papyrus gives a method to find the area of a circular field. The result corresponds to 256/81 as an approximate value of π.[1] 300 BC – Book 3 of Euclid's Elements deals with the properties of circles. 1880 – Lindemann proves that π is transcendental, effectively settling the millennia-old problem of squaring the circle[2]

The letter π

The name of the Greek letter π is pi, and this spelling is commonly used in typographical contexts when the Greek letter is not available, or its usage could be problematic. It is not normally capitalised (Π) even at the beginning of a sentence. When referring to this constant, the symbol π is always pronounced like "pie" in English, which is the conventional English pronunciation of the Greek letter. In Greek, the name of this letter is pronounced /pi/. The constant is named "π" because "π" is the first letter of the Greek words περιφέρεια (periphery) and περίμετρος (perimeter), probably referring to its use in the formula to find the circumference, or perimeter, of a circle.[3] π is Unicode character U+03C0 ("Greek small letter pi").[4]

Definition

In Euclidean plane geometry, π is defined as the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter:[3]

The ratio C/d is constant, regardless of a circle's size. For example, if a circle has twice the diameter d of another circle it will also have twice the circumference C, preserving the ratio C/d. Alternatively π can be also defined as the ratio of a circle's area (A) to the area of a square whose side is equal to the radius:[3][5]

These definitions depend on results of Euclidean geometry, such as the fact that all circles are similar. This can be considered a problem when π occurs in areas of mathematics that otherwise do not involve geometry. For this reason, mathematicians often prefer to define π without reference

to geometry, instead selecting one of its analytic properties as a definition. A common choice is to define π as twice the smallest positive x for which cos(x) = 0.[6] The formulas below illustrate other (equivalent) definitions.

**Irrationality and transcendence
**

Being an irrational number, π cannot be written as the ratio of two integers. This was proved in 1768 by Johann Heinrich Lambert.[7] In the 20th century, proofs were found that require no prerequisite knowledge beyond integral calculus. One of those, due to Ivan Niven, is widely known.[8][9] A somewhat earlier similar proof is by Mary Cartwright.[10] Furthermore, π is also transcendental, as was proved by Ferdinand von Lindemann in 1882. This means that there is no polynomial with rational coefficients of which π is a root.[11] An important consequence of the transcendence of π is the fact that it is not constructible. Because the coordinates of all points that can be constructed with compass and straightedge are constructible numbers, it is impossible to square the circle: that is, it is impossible to construct, using compass and straightedge alone, a square whose area is equal to the area of a given circle.[12] This is historically significant, for squaring a circle is one of the easily understood elementary geometry problems left to us from antiquity; many amateurs in modern times have attempted to solve each of these problems, and their efforts are sometimes ingenious, but in this case, doomed to failure: a fact not always understood by the amateur involved.

Numerical value

The numerical value of π truncated to 50 decimal places is:[13]

3.14159 26535 89793 23846 26433 83279 50288 41971 69399 37510

While the value of π has been computed to more than a trillion (1012) digits,[14] elementary applications, such as calculating the circumference of a circle, will rarely require more than a dozen decimal places. For example, a value truncated to 11 decimal places is accurate enough to calculate the circumference of a circle the size of the earth with a precision of a millimeter, and one truncated to 39 decimal places is sufficient to compute the circumference of any circle that fits in the observable universe to a precision comparable to the size of a hydrogen atom.[15][16] Because π is an irrational number, its decimal expansion never ends and does not repeat. This infinite sequence of digits has fascinated mathematicians and laymen alike, and much effort over the last few centuries has been put into computing more digits and investigating the

number's properties.[17] Despite much analytical work, and supercomputer calculations that have determined over 1 trillion digits of π, no simple base-10 pattern in the digits has ever been found.[18] Digits of π are available on many web pages, and there is software for calculating π to billions of digits on any personal computer.

Calculating π

π can be empirically estimated by drawing a large circle, then measuring its diameter and circumference and dividing the circumference by the diameter. Another geometry-based approach, due to Archimedes,[19] is to calculate the perimeter, Pn , of a regular polygon with n sides circumscribed around a circle with diameter d. Then

That is, the more sides the polygon has, the closer the approximation approaches π. Archimedes determined the accuracy of this approach by comparing the perimeter of the circumscribed polygon with the perimeter of a regular polygon with the same number of sides inscribed inside the circle. Using a polygon with 96 sides, he computed the fractional range: .[20] π can also be calculated using purely mathematical methods. Most formulae used for calculating the value of π have desirable mathematical properties, but are difficult to understand without a background in trigonometry and calculus. However, some are quite simple, such as this form of the Gregory-Leibniz series:[21]

While that series is easy to write and calculate, it is not immediately obvious why it yields π. In addition, this series converges so slowly that 300 terms are not sufficient to calculate π correctly to 2 decimal places.[22] However, by computing this series in a somewhat more clever way by taking the midpoints of partial sums, it can be made to converge much faster. Let

and then define

then computing π10,10 will take similar computation time to computing 150 terms of the original series in a brute-force manner, and , correct to 9 decimal places. This computation is an example of the van Wijngaarden transformation.[23]

History

See also: Chronology of computation of π and Numerical approximations of π

The history of π parallels the development of mathematics as a whole.[24] Some authors divide progress into three periods: the ancient period during which π was studied geometrically, the classical era following the development of calculus in Europe around the 17th century, and the age of digital computers.[25]

Geometrical period

That the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle is the same for all circles, and that it is slightly more than 3, was known to ancient Egyptian, Babylonian, Indian and Greek geometers. The earliest known approximations date from around 1900 BC; they are 25/8 (Babylonia) and 256/81 (Egypt), both within 1% of the true value.[3] The Indian text Shatapatha Brahmana gives π as 339/108 ≈ 3.139. The Hebrew Bible appears to suggest, in the Book of Kings, that π = 3, which is notably worse than other estimates available at the time of writing (600 BC). The interpretation of the passage is disputed,[26][27] as some believe the ratio of 3:1 is of an interior circumference to an exterior diameter of a thinly walled basin, which could indeed be an accurate ratio, depending on the thickness of the walls.

Liu Hui's π algorithm Archimedes (287–212 BC) was the first to estimate π rigorously. He realized that its magnitude can be bounded from below and above by inscribing circles in regular polygons and calculating the outer and inner polygons' respective perimeters:[27] By using the equivalent of 96-sided polygons, he proved that 223/71 < π < 22/7.[27] Taking the average of these values yields 3.1419. In the following centuries further development took place in India and China. Around AD 265, the Wei Kingdom mathematician Liu Hui provided a simple and rigorous iterative algorithm to calculate π to any degree of accuracy. He himself carried through the calculation to a 3072-gon and obtained an approximate value for π of 3.1416, as follows:

π≈ A3072 = 3 ⋅ 28 ⋅ √(2 - √(2 + √(2 + √(2 + √(2 + √(2 + √(2 + √(2 + √(2 + 1))))))))) ≈ 3.14159.

Later, Liu Hui invented a quick method of calculating π and obtained an approximate value of 3.1416 with only a 96-gon, by taking advantage of the fact that the difference in area of successive polygons forms a geometric series with a factor of 4. Around 480, the Chinese mathematician Zu Chongzhi demonstrated that π ≈ 355/113, and showed that 3.1415926 < π < 3.1415927 using Liu Hui's algorithm applied to a 12288-gon. This value was the most accurate approximation of π available for the next 900 years.

Classical period

Until the second millennium, π was known to fewer than 10 decimal digits. The next major advance in π studies came with the development of calculus, and in particular the discovery of infinite series which in principle permit calculating π to any desired accuracy by adding sufficiently many terms. Around 1400, Madhava of Sangamagrama found the first known such series:

This is now known as the Madhava–Leibniz series[28][29] or Gregory-Leibniz series since it was rediscovered by James Gregory and Gottfried Leibniz in the 17th century. Unfortunately, the rate of convergence is too slow to calculate many digits in practice; about 4,000 terms must be summed to improve upon Archimedes' estimate. However, by transforming the series into

Madhava was able to calculate π as 3.14159265359, correct to 11 decimal places. The record was beaten in 1424 by the Persian mathematician, Jamshīd al-Kāshī, who determined 16 decimals of π. The first major European contribution since Archimedes was made by the German mathematician Ludolph van Ceulen (1540–1610), who used a geometric method to compute 35 decimals of π. He was so proud of the calculation, which required the greater part of his life, that he had the digits engraved into his tombstone.[30] Around the same time, the methods of calculus and determination of infinite series and products for geometrical quantities began to emerge in Europe. The first such representation was the Viète's formula,

found by François Viète in 1593. Another famous result is Wallis' product,

by John Wallis in 1655. Isaac Newton himself derived a series for π and calculated 15 digits, although he later confessed: "I am ashamed to tell

you to how many figures I carried these computations, having no other business at the time."[31] In 1706 John Machin was the first to compute 100 decimals of π, using the formula

with

Formulas of this type, now known as Machin-like formulas, were used to set several successive records and remained the best known method for calculating π well into the age of computers. A remarkable record was set by the calculating prodigy Zacharias Dase, who in 1844 employed a Machin-like formula to calculate 200 decimals of π in his head at the behest of Gauss. The best value at the end of the 19th century was due to William Shanks, who took 15 years to calculate π with 707 digits, although due to a mistake only the first 527 were correct. (To avoid such errors, modern record calculations of any kind are often performed twice, with two different formulas. If the results are the same, they are likely to be correct.) Theoretical advances in the 18th century led to insights about π's nature that could not be achieved through numerical calculation alone. Johann Heinrich Lambert proved the irrationality of π in 1761, and Adrien-Marie Legendre also proved in 1794 π2 to be irrational. When Leonhard Euler in 1735 solved the famous Basel problem – finding the exact value of

which is π2/6, he established a deep connection between π and the prime numbers. Both Legendre and Leonhard Euler speculated that π might be transcendental, which was finally proved in 1882 by Ferdinand von Lindemann. William Jones' book A New Introduction to Mathematics from 1706 is said to be the first use of the Greek letter π for this constant, but the notation became particularly popular after Leonhard Euler adopted it in 1737.[32] He wrote: There are various other ways of finding the Lengths or Areas of particular Curve Lines, or Planes, which may very much facilitate the Practice; as for instance, in the Circle, the Diameter is to the Circumference as 1 to

(16/5 − 4/239) − 1/3(16/53 − 4/2393) + ... = 3.14159... = π[3]}

**Computation in the computer age
**

The advent of digital computers in the 20th century led to an increased rate of new π calculation records. John von Neumann et. al. used ENIAC to compute 2037 digits of π in 1949, a calculation that took 70 hours. [33][34] Additional thousands of decimal places were obtained in the following decades, with the million-digit milestone passed in 1973. Progress was not only due to faster hardware, but also new algorithms. One of the most significant developments was the discovery of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) in the 1960s, which allows computers to perform arithmetic on extremely large numbers quickly. In the beginning of the 20th century, the Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan found many new formulas for π, some remarkable for their elegance and mathematical depth.[35] One of his formulas is the series,

and the related one found by the Chudnovsky brothers in 1987,

which deliver 14 digits per term.[35] The Chudnovskys used this formula to set several π computing records in the end of the 1980s, including the first calculation of over one billion (1,011,196,691) decimals in 1989. It remains the formula of choice for π calculating software that runs on personal computers, as opposed to the supercomputers used to set modern records. Whereas series typically increase the accuracy with a fixed amount for each added term, there exist iterative algorithms that multiply the number of correct digits at each step, with the downside that each step generally requires an expensive calculation. A breakthrough was made in 1975, when Richard Brent and Eugene Salamin independently discovered the Brent–Salamin algorithm, which uses only arithmetic to double the number of correct digits at each step.[36] The algorithm consists of setting

and iterating

until an and bn are close enough. Then the estimate for π is given by

Using this scheme, 25 iterations suffice to reach 45 million correct decimals. A similar algorithm that quadruples the accuracy in each step has been found by Jonathan and Peter Borwein.[37] The methods have been used by Yasumasa Kanada and team to set most of the π calculation records since 1980, up to a calculation of 206,158,430,000 decimals of π in 1999. The current record is 1,241,100,000,000 decimals, set by Kanada and team in 2002. Although most of Kanada's previous records were set using the Brent-Salamin algorithm, the 2002 calculation made use of two Machin-like formulas that were slower but crucially reduced memory consumption. The calculation was performed on a 64-node Hitachi supercomputer with 1 terabyte of main memory, capable of carrying out 2 trillion operations per second. An important recent development was the Bailey–Borwein–Plouffe formula (BBP formula), discovered by Simon Plouffe and named after the authors of the paper in which the formula was first published, David H. Bailey, Peter Borwein, and Plouffe.[38] The formula,

is remarkable because it allows extracting any individual hexadecimal or binary digit of π without calculating all the preceding ones.[38] Between 1998 and 2000, the distributed computing project PiHex used a modification of the BBP formula due to Fabrice Bellard to compute the quadrillionth (1,000,000,000,000,000:th) bit of π, which turned out to be 0.[39] In 2006, Simon Plouffe, using the integer relation algorithm PSLQ, found a series of beautiful formulas.[40] Let q = eπ, then

and others of form,

where q = eπ, k is an odd number, and a, b, c are rational numbers. If k is of the form 4m + 3, then the formula has the particularly simple form,

for some rational number p where the denominator is a highly factorable number, though no rigorous proof has yet been given.

Memorizing digits

Recent decades have seen a surge in the record for number of digits memorized.

Even long before computers have calculated π, memorizing a record number of digits became an obsession for some people. In 2006, Akira Haraguchi, a retired Japanese engineer, claimed to have recited 100,000 decimal places.[41] This, however, has yet to be verified by Guinness World Records. The Guinness-recognized record for remembered digits of π is 67,890 digits, held by Lu Chao, a 24-year-old graduate student from China.[42] It took him 24 hours and 4 minutes to recite to the 67,890th decimal place of π without an error.[43] There are many ways to memorize π, including the use of "piems", which are poems that represent π in a way such that the length of each word (in letters) represents a digit. Here is an example of a piem, originally devised by Sir James Jeans: How I need (or: want) a drink, alcoholic in nature (or: of course), after the heavy lectures (or: chapters) involving quantum mechanics.[44][45] Notice how the first word has 3 letters, the second word has 1, the third has 4, the fourth has 1, the fifth has 5, and so on. The Cadaeic Cadenza contains the first 3834 digits of π in this manner.[46] Piems are related to the entire field of humorous yet serious study that involves the use of mnemonic techniques to remember the digits of π, known as piphilology. In other languages there are similar methods of memorization. However, this method proves inefficient for large memorizations of π. Other methods include remembering patterns in the numbers.[47]

Advanced properties

Numerical approximations

Due to the transcendental nature of π, there are no closed form expressions for the number in terms of algebraic numbers and functions.[11] Formulas for calculating π using elementary arithmetic typically include series or summation notation (such as "..."), which indicates that the formula is really a formula for an infinite sequence of approximations to π.[48] The more terms included in a calculation, the closer to π the result will get. Consequently, numerical calculations must use approximations of π. For many purposes, 3.14 or 22/7 is close enough, although engineers often use 3.1416 (5 significant figures) or 3.14159 (6 significant figures) for more precision. The approximations 22/7 and 355/113, with 3 and 7 significant figures respectively, are obtained from the simple continued fraction expansion of π. The approximation 355⁄113 (3.1415929…) is the best one that may be expressed with a three-digit or four-digit numerator and denominator.[49][50][51] The earliest numerical approximation of π is almost certainly the value 3.[27] In cases where little precision is required, it may be an acceptable substitute. That 3 is an underestimate follows from the fact that it is the ratio of the perimeter of an inscribed regular hexagon to the diameter of the circle.

Open questions

The most pressing open question about π is whether it is a normal number —whether any digit block occurs in the expansion of π just as often as one would statistically expect if the digits had been produced completely "randomly", and that this is true in every base, not just base 10.[52] Current knowledge on this point is very weak; e.g., it is not even known which of the digits 0,…,9 occur infinitely often in the decimal expansion of π.[53] Bailey and Crandall showed in 2000 that the existence of the above mentioned Bailey-Borwein-Plouffe formula and similar formulas imply that the normality in base 2 of π and various other constants can be reduced to a plausible conjecture of chaos theory.[54] It is also unknown whether π and e are algebraically independent, although Yuri Nesterenko proved the algebraic independence of {π, eπ, Γ(1/4)} in 1996.[55]

**Use in mathematics and science
**

Main article: List of formulas involving π

π is ubiquitous in mathematics, appearing even in places that lack an obvious connection to the circles of Euclidean geometry.[56]

**Geometry and trigonometry
**

See also: Area of a disk

For any circle with radius r and diameter d = 2r, the circumference is πd and the area is πr2. Further, π appears in formulas for areas and volumes of many other geometrical shapes based on circles, such as ellipses, spheres, cones, and tori.[57] Accordingly, π appears in definite integrals that describe circumference, area or volume of shapes generated by circles. In the basic case, half the area of the unit disk is given by:[58]

and

gives half the circumference of the unit circle.[57] More complicated shapes can be integrated as solids of revolution.[59] From the unit-circle definition of the trigonometric functions also follows that the sine and cosine have period 2π. That is, for all x and integers n, sin(x) = sin(x + 2πn) and cos(x) = cos(x + 2πn). Because sin(0) = 0, sin(2πn) = 0 for all integers n. Also, the angle measure of 180° is equal to π radians. In other words, 1° = (π/180) radians. In modern mathematics, π is often defined using trigonometric functions, for example as the smallest positive x for which sin x = 0, to avoid unnecessary dependence on the subtleties of Euclidean geometry and integration. Equivalently, π can be defined using the inverse trigonometric functions, for example as π = 2 arccos(0) or π = 4 arctan(1). Expanding inverse trigonometric functions as power series is the easiest way to derive infinite series for π.

Complex numbers and calculus

Euler's formula depicted on the complex plane. Increasing the angle φ to π radians (180°) yields Euler's identity.

A complex number z can be expressed in polar coordinates as follows:

The frequent appearance of π in complex analysis can be related to the behavior of the exponential function of a complex variable, described by Euler's formula

where i is the imaginary unit satisfying i2 = −1 and e ≈ 2.71828 is Euler's number. This formula implies that imaginary powers of e describe rotations on the unit circle in the complex plane; these rotations have a period of 360° = 2π. In particular, the 180° rotation φ = π results in the remarkable Euler's identity

There are n different n-th roots of unity

The Gaussian integral

A consequence is that the gamma function of a half-integer is a rational multiple of √π.

Physics

Although not a physical constant, π appears routinely in equations describing fundamental principles of the Universe, due in no small part to its relationship to the nature of the circle and, correspondingly, spherical coordinate systems. Using units such as Planck units can sometimes eliminate π from formulae.

• The cosmological constant:[60]

•

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, which shows that the uncertainty in the measurement of a particle's position (Δx) and momentum (Δp) can not both be arbitrarily small at the same time:[61]

•

Einstein's field equation of general relativity:[62]

•

Coulomb's law for the electric force, describing the force between two electric charges (q1 and q2) separated by distance r:[63]

•

Magnetic permeability of free space:[64]

•

Kepler's third law constant, relating the orbital period (P) and the semimajor axis (a) to the masses (M and m) of two co-orbiting bodies:

**Probability and statistics
**

In probability and statistics, there are many distributions whose formulas contain π, including:

• the probability density function for the normal distribution with mean μ and standard deviation σ, due to the Gaussian integral:[65]

•

the probability density function for the (standard) Cauchy distribution:[66]

Note that since for any probability density function f(x), the above formulas can be used to produce other integral formulas for π.[67] Buffon's needle problem is sometimes quoted as a empirical approximation of π in "popular mathematics" works. Consider dropping a needle of length L repeatedly on a surface containing parallel lines drawn S units apart (with S > L). If the needle is dropped n times and x of those times it comes to rest crossing a line (x > 0), then one may approximate π using the Monte Carlo method:[68][69][70][71]

Though this result is mathematically impeccable, it cannot be used to determine more than very few digits of π by experiment. Reliably getting just three digits (including the initial "3") right requires millions of throws,[68] and the number of throws grows exponentially with the number of digits desired. Furthermore, any error in the measurement of the lengths L and S will transfer directly to an error in the approximated π. For example, a difference of a single atom in the length of a 10-centimeter needle would show up around the 9th digit of the result. In practice, uncertainties in determining whether the needle actually crosses a line when it appears to exactly touch it will limit the attainable accuracy to much less than 9 digits.

Pi in popular culture

A whimsical "Pi plate".

Probably because of the simplicity of its definition, the concept of pi and, especially its decimal expression, have become entrenched in popular culture to a degree far greater than almost any other mathematical construct.[72] It is, perhaps, the most common ground between mathematicians and non-mathematicians.[73] Reports on the latest, mostprecise calculation of π (and related stunts) are common news items.[74] Pi Day (March 14, from 3.14) is observed in many schools.[75] At least one cheer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology includes "3.14159!"[76] One can buy a "Pi plate": a pie dish with both "π" and a decimal expression of it appearing on it.[77]

AIM

○ ○

Develops mathematical knowledge in a way which increases students confidence Apply mathematics to everyday situations and begin to understand the part that mathematics play in the world in world we live. ○ Improve thinking skills and promote effective mathematical communication

○

Assists students to develop positive attitude and personalities, intrinsic mathematical values such as accuracy, confidence and systematic reasoning. ○ Stimulate learning and enhance effective learning.

Part 1

There are a lot of things around us related to circles or parts of a circles. We need to play with circles in order to complete some of the problems involving circles. In this project I will use the principles of circle to design a garden to beautify the school.

Wheel of a bicycle wall clock

Circles on water surface

Round table plate

ball

coin

Definition In Euclidean plane geometry, π is defined as the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter:

The ratio C/d is constant, regardless of a circle's size. For example, if a circle has twice the diameter d of another circle it will also have twice the circumference C, preserving the ratio C/d. Area of the circle = π × area of the shaded square Alternatively π can be also defined as the ratio of a circle's area (A) to the area of a square whose side is equal to the radius:[3][5]

These definitions depend on results of Euclidean geometry, such as the fact that all circles are similar. This can be considered a problem when π occurs in areas of mathematics that otherwise do not involve geometry. For this reason, mathematicians often prefer to define π without reference to geometry, instead selecting one of its analytic properties as a definition. A common choice is to define π as twice the smallest positive x for which cos(x) = 0.[6] The formulas below illustrate other (equivalent) definitions.

History The ancient Babylonians calculated the area of a circle by taking 3 times the square of its radius, which gave a value of pi = 3. One Babylonian tablet (ca. 1900–1680 BC) indicates a value of 3.125 for pi, which is a closer approximation. In the Egyptian Rhind Papyrus (ca.1650 BC), there is evidence that the Egyptians calculated the area of a circle by a formula that gave the approximate value of 3.1605 for pi. The ancient cultures mentioned above found their approximations by measurement. The first calculation of pi was done by Archimedes of Syracuse (287–212 BC), one of the greatest mathematicians of the ancient world. Archimedes approximated the area of a circle by using the Pythagorean Theorem to find the areas of two regular polygons: the polygon inscribed within the circle and the polygon within which the circle was circumscribed. Since the actual area of the circle lies between the areas of the inscribed and circumscribed polygons, the areas of the polygons gave upper and lower bounds for the area of the circle. Archimedes knew that he had not found the value of pi but only an approximation within those limits. In this way, Archimedes showed that pi is between 3 1/7 and 3 10/71. A similar approach was used by Zu Chongzhi (429–501), a brilliant Chinese mathematician and astronomer. Zu Chongzhi would not have been familiar with Archimedes’ method—but because his book has been lost, little is known of his work. He calculated the value of the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter to be 355/113. To compute this accuracy for pi, he must have started with an inscribed regular 24,576-gon and performed lengthy calculations involving hundreds of square roots carried out to 9 decimal places. Mathematicians began using the Greek letter π in the 1700s. Introduced by William Jones in 1706, use of the symbol was popularized by Euler, who adopted it in 1737. An 18th century French mathematician named Georges Buffon devised a way to calculate pi based on probability.

10 d2 d1 Q cm

Part 2 (a)

Diagram 1 shows a semicircle PQR of diameter 10cm. Semicircles PAB and BCR of diameter d1 and d2 respectively are inscribed in PQR such that the sum of d1 and d2 is equal to 10cm. By using various values of d1 and corresponding values of d2, I determine the relation between length of arc PQR, PAB, and BCR. Using formula: Arc of semicircle = ½πd

d1 (cm) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0

d2 (cm) 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0

Length of arc PQR in terms of π (cm) 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Length of arc PAB in terms of π (cm) ¼ ½ ¾ π 5/4 3/2 7/4 2 9/4 5/2

Length of arc BCR in terms of π (cm) 19/4 9/2 17/4 4 15/4 7/2 13/4 3 11/3 5/2

From the table above we know that the length of arc PQR is not affected by the different in d1 and d2 in PAB and BCR respectively. The relation between the length of arcs PQR , PAB and BCR is that the length of arc PQR is equal to the sum of the length of arcs PAB and BCR, which is we can get the equation:

SPQR = S

Let d1= 3, and d2=7

PAB

+ S

PAB

BCR

SPQR = S

5π 5π 5π

+ S

BCR

= ½ π(3) + ½ π(7) = 3/2 π + 7/2 π = 10/2 π

5π = 5 π

E2 D 10 d1 Q cm 3

d1 1 2 2 2 2

d2 2 2 3 4 5

d3 7 6 5 4 3

SPQR 5π 5π 5π 5π 5π

SPAB 1/2 π π π π π

SBCD π π 3/2 π 2π 5/2 π

SDER 7/2 π 3π 5/2 π 2π 3/2 π

**SPQR = SPAB + SBCD + SDER
**

Let d1 = 2, d2 = 5, d3= 3

**SPQR = SPAB + SBCD + SDER
**

3/2 π 5π = 5π

5 π = π + 5/2 π +

bii) The length of arc of outer semicircle is equal to the sum of the length of arc of inner semicircle for n = 1,2,3,4,….

Souter = S1 + S2 + S3 + S4 + S5

c) Assume the diameter of outer semicircle is 30cm and 4 semicircles are inscribed in the outer semicircle such that the sum of d1(APQ), d2(QRS), d3(STU), d4(UVC) is equal to 30cm.

d1 10 12 14 15

d2 8 3 8 5

d3 6 5 4 3

d4 6 10 4 7

SABC 15 π 15 π 15 π 15 π

SAPQ 5π 6π 7π 15/2 π

SQRS 4π 3/2 π 4π 5/2 π

SSTU 3π 5/2 π 2π 3/2 π

SUVC 3π 5π 2π 7/2 π

let d1=10, d2=8, d3=6, d4=6,

**SABC = SAPQ + SQRS + SSTU +
**

15 π = 5 π + 4 π + 3 π + 3 π 15 π = 15 π

SUVC

Part 3

a. Area of flower plot = y m2 y = (25/2) π - (1/2(x/2)2π + 1/2((10-x )/2)2 π) = (25/2) π - (1/2(x/2)2π + 1/2((100-20x+x2)/4) π) = (25/2) π - (x2/8 π + ((100 - 20x + x2)/8) π)

= (25/2) π - (x2π + 100π – 20x π + x2π )/8 = (25/2) π - ( 2x2– 20x + 100)/8) π = = y= (25/2) π - (( x2 – 10x + 50)/4) (25/2 - (x2 - 10x + 50)/4) π ((10x – x2)/4) π

b.

y = 16.5 m2 16.5 = 66 = ((10x – x2)/4) π (10x - x2) 22/7

66(7/22) = 10x – x2 0 = x2 - 10x + 21 0 = (x-7)(x – 3) x=7 , x=3

When x = 4.5 , y/x = 4.3 Area of flower plot = y/x * x = = 4.3 * 4.5 19.35m2

d. Differentiation method dy/dx = ((10x-x2)/4) π = ( 10/4 – 2x/4) π 0 = 5/2 π – x/2 π 5/2 π = x/2 π x = 5

Completing square method y= ((10x – x2)/4) π

= =

5/2 π - x2/4 π -1/4 π (x2– 10x)

y+ 52 = -1/4 π (x – 5)2 y = -1/4 π (x - 5)2 - 25 x–5=0 x=5

Tn (flower

bed)

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 e.

Diameter (cm) 30 39.697 49.394 59.091 68.788 78.485 88.182 97.879 107.576 117.273 126.97 136.667

n = 12, a = 30cm, S12 = 1000cm

S12 = n/2 (2a + (n – 1)d 1000 = 12/2 ( 2(30) + (12 – 1)d) 1000 = 6 ( 60 + 11d) 1000 = 360 + 66d 1000 – 360 = 66d 640 = 66d d = 9.697

CONCLUSION Part 1

Not all objects surrounding us are related to circles. If all the objects are circle, there would be no balance and stability. In our daily life, we could related circles in objects. For example: a fan, a ball or a wheel. In Pi, we accept 3.142 or 22/7 as the best value of pi. The circumference of the circle is proportional as pi x diameter. If the circle has twice the diameter, d of another circle, thus the circumference, C will also have twice of its value, where preserving the ratio =Cid

Part 2

The relation between the length of arcs PQR, PAB and BCR where the semicircles PQR is the outer semicircle while inner semicircle PAB and BCR is Length of arc=PQR = Length of PAB + Length of arc BCR. The length of arc for each semicircles can be obtained as in length of arc = 1/2(2_r). As in conclusion, outer semicircle is also equal to the inner semicircles where Sin= Sout .

Part 3

In semicircle ABC(the shaded region), and the two semicircles which is AEB and BFC, the area of the shaded region semicircle ADC is written as in Area of shaded region ADC =Area of ADC – (Area of AEB + Area of BFC). When we plot a straight link graph based on linear law, we may still obtained a linear graph because Sin= Sout where the diameter has a constant value for a semicircle.

REFERENCES

(1) www.scribd.com (2) www.4shared.com (3) www.dogpile.com

(4) www.oneschool-net.com

(5)Wikipedia (6)Additional Mathematics Form 4 (7) www.alumnisbpip.ning.com

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