A TREATISE
ON THE
ANALYTICAL DYNAMICS
OF PARTICLES AND RIGID BODIES
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
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A TREATISE
ON THE
ANALYTICAL DYNAMICS
OF PARTICLES AND RIGID BODIES;
WITH AN INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM OF THREE BODIES
,
BY
E.
T.
WHITTAKER
Sc.E).
Hon.
(Dubl.)
;
F.R.S.
Professor of Mathematics in
the University of Edinburgh
SECOND EDITION
CAMBRIDGE
1917
:
AT THK UNIVERSITY
PRESS
J 1 1 n r Uf irst Edition 1904 Second Edition 1917 .
and in some cases accounts of. researches in matter. E. T. 1916. August. a3 . but thought better to give only such an account as might impel the reader to consult Mr Sundman s own accessible and readable memoir. the numerous original Dynamics which have been published by various investigators I have moreover added some historical since the first edition appeared. It is not necessary to specify these but perhaps I may mention that the new explanation of the : 125 sprang from a desire to do justice to the earliest great work of Hamilton s genius that the changes in 69 (the motion of a body about a rixed point under no forces) arose from transformationtheory of Dynamics in my in opinion that the Jacobian functions are preferable to the Weierstrassian the numerical computations : and that ( I should have liked it to give a fuller proof of Sundman s theorem 181). WHITTAKER. and rewritten in detail.PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION TN revising this book for a second edition. record I wish again to my obligations to the staff of the Cambridge University Press. many sections. I have endeavoured to givereferences to. EDINBURGH.
... and of the symmetrical parameters Timeflux of a vector whose components relative to moving axes are given Special resolutions of the velocity and acceleration . .. ... 1 2 3 4. . Euler s parametric specification of rotations round a point The Eulerian angles Connexion of the Eulerian angles with the parameters ?. 9. 6.. The composition and opposite rotations about parallel axes Chasles theorem on the most general displacement of a rigid body Halphen s theorem on the composition of two general displacements of equal 3 4 5 ... KINEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. . 10 11 13 14 Velocity and acceleration . 7. . 14.. 7 8 9 . .. 3. 16. 19. THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION. I. 15 16 17 18 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 22 CHAPTER II. Angular velocity its vectorial character Determination of the components of angular velocity of a system in terms of the Eulerian angles. .. 11. ^ The connexion of rotations with homographies the CayleyKlein parameters Vectors . 13. 5.CONTENTS CHAPTER SECTION 1. Analytic representation of a displacement The composition of small rotations 6 10. . . 8. : . their vectorial character 15. ... 12. PAGE of rigid bodies Euler s theorem on rotations about a point The theorem of Rodrigues and Hamilton The displacements 2. 18. 17.
.. 39 40 41 .Contents SECTION 26. 54 58 61 Special cases of ignoration . . 45.... . .... PRINCIPLES AVAILABLE FOR THE INTEGRATION.. .. 56.. 39.. 34 38 27.. Motion under the Newtonian law The mutual transformation of fields of central force and "... 55. 32. 28.. .. 52 . . Motion on a surface Motion on a surface of revolution elliptic functions 99 .. . cases soluble in terms of circular and 103 109 111 . THE SOLUBLE PROBLEMS OF PARTICLE DYNAMICS.. The integrable cases of central forces and elliptic functions 49. . : .... . . ... vii PAGE . MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 69 CHAPTER IV. . 71 74 76 77 48. Bonnet s theorem ... .. 44 45 47 47 ...... . 36. . 42. 38. .... force 51... . by means of the energy equation Separation of the variables dynamical systems of Liouville s type . angular . . ... Problems which are soluble by quadratures Systems with ignorable coordinates .. 52. 64 67 . The problem of two centres of gravitation 54. momentum 62 43. the kinetic potential The 29.. . .. Impulsive motion The Lagrangian equations MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES of impulsive motion . 46. 41.... . The general theorem The energy equation of angular momentum and momentum . . integrals of 40. The particle with one degree of freedom the pendulum Motion in a moving tube Motion of two interacting free particles Central forces in general Hamilton s theorem .. .. 44. problems soluble in terms of circular 80 86 93 94 95 97 fields of parallel Determination of the most general field of force under which a given curve or family of curves can be described 53. Reduction of a dynamical problem to a problem with fewer degrees of freedom. Lagrange s form of the equations of motion of a holonomic system Conservative forces . . 30. explicit form of Lagrange s equations Motion of a system which is constrained to rotate uniformly round an axis The Lagrangian equations for quasicoordinates Forces derivable from a potentialfunction which involves the velocities Initial motions . 33.. 48 50 51 CHAPTER 37..... Similarity in dynamical systems Motion with reversed forces 35. ... Joukovsky s theorem MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES .. .. III. 34....... 47. 50. 31.
&. 83.. 82.... 117 58. and of the CayleyKlein parameters the spherical top Motion of a top on a perfectly smooth plane .. . . .. . Independence of the motion of the centre of gravity and the motion relative to it MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 129 CHAPTER 65. ... new .. . Sylvester s theorem on the reality of the roots of the determinantal equation Solution of the differential equations the periods stability . The principal axes of inertia Cauchy s momenta! ellipsoid Calculation of the angular momentum of a moving rigid body Calculation of the kinetic energy of a moving rigid body .. Kowalevski s top . 122 . THEORY OF VIBRATIONS. The 85. . .. . motion round a fixed 131 axis.. .. VII.. two degrees of freedom 137 motions of systems with three degrees of freedom of a body about a fixed point under no forces The motion Motion Poinsot s ... . The moments Derivation of inertia some simple bodies the moment of inertia about any of inertia of . . .. PAGK . VI. 84. integration of the equations Examples of vibrations about steady motion .. Examples of vibrations about equilibrium constraint on the periods of a vibrating system The stationary character of normal vibrations Vibrations about steady motion Effect of a .. Definitions . V. 126 127 64. kinematical herpolhode 71. 203 07 Vibrations of systems involving moving constraints MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 208 . about a parallel axis through the centre of gravity is known Connexion between moments of inertia with respect to different sets of axes through the same origin 61..". . . 86. 74.. . .. .. . The motion The motion Initial of systems with one degree of freedom of systems with . .. . 59. 118 121 axis when the moment of 60... 81. 62. 80.  177 178 79. etc. ..i Contents CHAPTER SECTION 57. 78. 75..gt. 66... ..... ... .. 73. 70.. 67. . Determination of the remaining Eulerian angles. .. . .... . ... THE DYNAMICAL SPECIFICATION OF BODIES. Motion of a top on a perfectly rough plane angle 6 72... 124 124 . the polhode and . THE SOLUBLE PROBLEMS OF RIGID DYNAMICS.... .. . . 141 143 144 152 155 159 69. ....... Vibrations about equilibrium Normal coordinates . 169 CHAPTER 76. 192 193 19.vii. 63.... 183 185 187 191 .... determination of the Eulerian 163 164 167 Impulsive motion MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES . . . . ... .. 77. representation of the motion ... . 68..
. 110... . 117. . .... . . PAGE s equations with undetermined multipliers manner Equations of motion referred to axes moving in any Application to special nonholonomic problems Vibrations of nonholonomic systems Lagrange 88. THE PRINCIPLES OF LEAST ACTION AND LEAST CURVATURE. ... Rayleigh s dissipationfunction Vibrations of dissipative systems 95. 89. HAMILTONIAN SYSTEMS AND THEIR INTEGRALINVARIANTS... 91. 272 272 On systems which possess the relative integralinvariant in . 254 256 258 260 261 106. 263 265 112.. CHAPTER IX.lt.. 98. Expression of the curvature of a path in terms of generalised coordinates 108.Content* ix CHAPTER SECTION 87.. 97. 96. 119. 2pS&. .. 104.. 111. 118... 116.. Integralinvariants The variational equations 267 114... 274 275 276 . 250 253 .. ....... 93. DISSIPATIVE SYSTEMS.. 102. . 217 90. Integralinvariants of order one Relative integralinvariants . 113. 107. VIII.. 94.. Impact Loss of kinetic energy in impact Examples of impact MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES . is 268 269 271 A relative integralinvariant which possessed by all Hamiltonian systems ./ The expression of integralinvariants The theorem of Lie and Koenigs The last multiplier terms of integrals .. . 115. . 92. .. 99. The 100.. Appell s equations Bertrand s theorem MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES CHAPTER Hamilton X.. NONHOLONOMIC SYSTEMS. . 109... frictional forces Dissipative systems Resisting forces which depend on the velocity . s form of the equations of motion Equations arising from the Calculus of Variations .. dynamical system conservative holonomic systems The principle of Least Action for conservative holonomic systems Extension of Hamilton s principle to nonconservative dynamical systems Extension of Hamilton s principle and the principle of Least Action to trajectories of a Hamilton s principle for . 245 245 247 248 249 nonholonomic systems 103. 105. . 101. Kinetic foci integrals actual minima? Representation of the motion of dynamical systems by means of geodesies The leastcurvature principle of Gauss and Hertz Are the stationary . ....
..... 128........se in which the kinetic energy .. The conditions The conditions for a contacttransformation expressed by means s of the bilinear covariant 129. .. .. The subgroups tions 133. . . . 143..... 136.. 147.. use of a 122... ... 288 292 296 297 126. . ... ..... 140.. ( a.. . .. for a contacttransformation in terms of Lagrange bracket 298 299 means of Poisson s 300 301 of Mathieu transformations and extended pointtransforma 302 new view of 304 304 305 307 Representation of a dynamical problem by a differential form The Harniltonian function of the transformed equations .... 138...Content* 120. The resulting dynamics Helmholtz s reciprocal theorem Jacobi s theorem on the transformation of a given dynamical system into another dynamical system 137. 309 139. PROPERTIES OF THE INTEGRALS OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS.. .. Hamilton s partial differential equation Hamilton s integral as a solution of Hamilton 144... . Contacttransformations in space of any number of dimensions The bilinear covariant of a general differential form . Infinitesimal contacttransformations 134... is changed . is quadratic in the velocities MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES ... . Hamilton s Characteristic Function and contacttransformations ...... 310 310 311 CHAPTER XII.. 130..... Poisson s theorem .. single known integral Integralinvariants whose order is equal to the order of the system Reduction of differential equations to the Lagrangian form .. Transformations in which the independent variable New formulation of the integrationproblem MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES .. 286 CHAPTER XL THE TRANSFORMATIONTHEORY OF DYNAMICS.... .... 280 . The connexion the system 145.. of Lagrange s bracketexpressions s partial differential equation of integrals with infinitesimal transformations admitted by 318 320 321 146..... 123... 131. 141.... .... . 124..... The constancy Involutionsystems 322 .. 127...... 121.. Application of the last multiplier to Derivation of an integral from two multipliers Hainiltonian systems 279 . 283 284 285 .............. .... 125. .... ... . Reduction of the order of a Harniltonian system by use of the energy integral 142. 135.. expressions Poisson s bracketexpressions The conditions for a contacttransformation expressed by bracketexpressions 132. .....
(vii) (viii) Proof that Proof that ( &.. Bruns theorem Statement of the theorem (i) (ii) Expression of an integral the problem (iii) 358 in terms of the essential coordinates of An integral must involve the momenta (iv) Only one irrationality can occur in the integral ... is . 149... problem .. .. 374 (x) (xi) Deduction of Brims theorem.. THE THEOREMS OF BRUNS AND POINCARE. . 340 342 343 momentum 344 347 .lt.. CHAPTER XIII. ... known . for integrals which do not involve Extension of Brims result to integrals which involve the time 376 378 . 157. 332 335 336 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES . 323 325 328 331 known 152.. 161.. a function of 7".. 159.lt. xi PAGE Solution of a dynamical problem when half the integrals are .. 162. does not involve the irrationality is a function only of the momenta and the integrals . Systems which possess integrals linear in the momenta Determination of the forces acting on a system for which an integral . . 353 356 356 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES CHAPTER XIV. Application to the case of a particle whose equations of motion possess an integral quadratic in the velocities General dynamical systems possessing integrals quadratic in the velocities ..Contents SECTION 148. Alternative reduction of the problem from the 18th to the 6th order The problem of three bodies in a plane 348 351 The restricted problem of three bodies 163.. J/.... Z... by use of the integrals of motion of the centre of gravity 158.... Extension to the problem of n bodies .. 362 366 371 of angular (ix) momentum is Proof that &. .. 153. Introduction 339 The differential equations of the 156... 164.. . 155.. 358 359 360 361 (v) (vi) Expression of the integral as a quotient of two real polynomials Derivation of integrals from the numerator and denominator of the quotient .... by use of the integrals of angular and elimination of the nodes Reduction to the 6th order .. 151.. THE REDUCTION OF THE PROBLEM OF THREE BODIES... Jacobi s equation Reduction to the 12th order.. Reduction to the 8th order. 160..... N t . 154. LeviCivita s theorem 150...
. 394 395 397 398 400 401 403 . first degree from the energy function Determination of the normal coordinates by a contacttransformation Transformation to the trigonometric form of If . 170. INTEGRATION EY TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.. . . Application of the energy integral to the problem of stability Application of integralinvariants to investigations of stability 406 407 107 179.. . . 380 381 is not a function of Iff. . Trigonometric series Removal of terms of the 412 .. 182... .....gt... which converge for all values of the time .xii Contents 165. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES . 188.. . ... The need series for series . . Poincare s normal variables 387 .. (vii) Deduction of Poincare s theorem CHAPTER XV. ORBITS. Poincare". Characteristic exponents Properties of the characteristic exponents Attractive and repellent regions of a field of force .. .. Introduction Periodic solutions 386 for a periodic orbit .. .. .. .. Poincare s 410 411 181.. 177. Other types of motion which lead to equations of the same form Removal of a periodic term from Removal of further periodic terms from // H . 381 q% is . ... cannot involve the variables q.. The regularisation of the problem of three bodies ... . Reversion to the original coordinates 423 424 4^5 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES . 167.. . .. three particles of Lagrange s particles Stability The differential equation of the Lagrange 390 : 173. ..... 2 . 169.. 388 171. 386 THE GENERAL THEORY OF 166... 168. Poincare (i) (ii) (iii) s theorem of motion of the restricted problem of three bodies : The equations Statement of Proof that 4&.. .. .gt. 183.. 176.gt.. Korteweg s theorem The index of stability 175...... . 172. CHAPTER XVI.. . . 186.. 413 414 417 419 420 422 . . .. A criterion for the discovery of periodic orbits s .. inconsistent with (vi) Removal of the restrictions on the coefficients t .. (iv) Proof that 4&. 185. 189. . . 428 . periodic orbits in the vicinity normal displacement from an orbit ... . 180. ... 174. B m&. INDEX OF AUTHORS QUOTED INDEX OF TERMS EMPLOYED . 382 383 384 385 (v) Proof that the existence of a onevalued integral the result of (iii) in the general case .. . s theorem . 178. 184. 187..
Analytical Dynamics is given to that branch of knowledge in which the motions of material bodies. It is natural to begin this discussion by considering the various possible types of motion in themselves. the change of Certain special kinds of position is called a displacement of the body. constitutes the science of Kinematics. e. the displacement is called a rotation about the line L. I. although it may change its We position with reference to surrounding objects. are discussed The name by the aid of mathematical analysis. thus. and if the lines joining the initial and final of each of the of the are a set of parallel positions lines points body straight of length P the position in unaltered. Kinematics is in itself an extensive subject. to establish a number object of the present chapter is of kinematical theorems which will be required in the The rest of the work. of the body is unchanged.CHAPTER I KINEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES 1. The displacements of rigid bodies. of every point of the if the position in space line if body which lies on some straight L is unchanged. for a complete account of which the student is referred to treatises what follows we In dealing exclusively with it. so that the body does not expand or contract or change its shape in any way. so that the orientation of the body in space is w. that of Koenigs (Paris.g. 1897). considered as due to the mutual interactions of the bodies. . displacement have received specific names. the displacement is called space of some point a rotation about the point P. leaving out of account for a time the causes to which the initiation of motion may be ascribed this preliminary enquiry . D. through a distance I. shall say that a material body is rigid when the mutual distance of every pair of specified points in it is invariable. If a rigid body is moved from one position to another. shall confine our attention to theorems which are of utility in the appli cations of Kinematics to Dynamics. the displacement is called a translation parallel to the direction of the lines.
and let any two possible configurations of the body be taken for . is therefore the theorem. then It follows that if the system respectively equal to the angles in such a is rotated about A OG and way OABC that the lines OA and OB come its into the positions OA and The line position unchanged. simply rotating it about some definite line that a rotation about a point is always equivalent a rotation about a line through the point. . : convenience we shall We shall now and the configuration Q. by Euler s theorem. the displacement from one position to the other can be * Novi Comment. indefinitely diminished. When time t a body is continuously moving round one of its t fixed in space. Shew that the actual motion of the body can be obtained by making the former of these cones (supposed to be rigidly connected with the body) be fixed in space). when the interval Atf is limiting position of this called the instantaneous When a body is of the instantaneous axis in the continuously moving round one of its points. . we planes. Petrop. in exactly the same way as and say. (1776).e. the angles related to the lines OA and OB .ACM/: and draw also the plane which is perpendicular to the plane BOB the plane which is AOA and bisects the angle BOB. and so the displacement can be represented by a rotation through some angle round 06 which proves will OG retain OB OC . roll on the latter cone (supposed to (Poiusot. which is fixed.2 2. was first given by Euler). the fixed which are fixed in the body and move with it let through point OA OB be the positions of the same lines in the configuration Q. xx. Let 00 be the line of intersection of these two if they are coincident. that is to AGO BOG are B OG. Kinematical Preliminaries Elder s theorem on rotations about a point*. axis of rotation of the body at the time t. Then clearly in either case the line it is 00 is related to the lines OA OB . [CH. which is to its position at + At. . these the configuration shew that it is possible to bring the body from the configuration call P P to to the configuration through the fixed point. 189. can. unaffected by the displacement in question. the displacement from its position at time points. 25. i Consider a rigid body. is some definite line The line. p. in the configuration P. of two lines point by 0. Draw establish this result (which let To OA OB . be obtained by rotating the body about through the fixed point. Q by i. and bisects the angle perpendicular to the plane . . one of whose points is made immoveable by some attachment suppose that the body is free to turn about this point in any manner. denote the fixed be the positions.) A same plane similar proof shews that if any two positions of a plane figure in the are given. the locus body is a cone. whose vertex is at the fixed point: the locus of the instantaneous axis in space is also a cone whose vertex is at the fixed point. respectively. supposing them to be not coincident denote by 00 the line of intersection of the planes OAB and OA B .
The theorem of Rodrigues and Hamilton*. Oq. p. and if 3 be the position to which D 2 is brought by A A D D body half the second displacement. * 344 . Draw. Any two successive rotations about a fixed point can be compounded into a single rotation by means of a theorem. Oq. Op. Or. the position of OP is on the whole unaffected. Or. 380. Op. 12 . instant of points which are at inflexions of their paths is a circle. (1840). if any line be taken in the body in a plane perpendicular to the 0.gt. Or per QOR. 4. Exam. de Math. The composition of equal and opposite rotations about parallel axes. Moreover. ROP. xxv. (1902). by rotation through half the angle). and if displacements in its plane. If D 2 be the line joining the centres of displacement. 3. Acta Math. and this is therefore true of the total displacement. Prove that the locus at any Example 1. the theorem. DI be the line which is brought into the position 2 by half the first displacement (i. but the latter rotations will clearly on the whole produce no displacement. which may be stated as follows : the angles Successive rotations about three concurrent lines fixed in space. POQ respectively. which we may call the angle RPQ. Then if a body is rotated through two right angles about Oq. Exam. In neither displacement is any point of the body displaced in a direction parallel to the axes. which establishes RPQ. Rodrigues. OQ.) rigid body in two dimensions is subjected successively to two finite Example 2. Journ. v. the small displace position to the position which succeeds it after an infinitesimal interval of time can therefore be accomplished by a rotation round a point When the body ment from one .24] Kinematical Preliminaries This point is 3 called regarded as a rotation about some point in the plane. pendicular to the planes follows that successive rotations round OP. this point is called the instantaneous centre of rotation. (Coll.e. QRP. OR. OQ. lamina moves in any manner in its plane. the effect is therefore the same as that of a rotation round OP through twice the angle between the planes PR and PQ.) Z&. through twice of the planes formed by them. OR through twice the angles respectively. PQR. . and afterwards through two right angles about Or. the proof here given is due to Burnside. Lectures on Quaternions. Op. shew that the centre of the total displacement of the rigid is the intersection of DI and 3 (Coll. is regarded as continuously moving. restore a body to its original position. which touches the loci in the lamina and in space of the centre of instantaneous rotation. are equivalent to successive rotations through two right angles about the lines Oq. while Oq is moved to the position occupied by its image in the line Or. Hamilton. A case of special interest is that in which a body is subjected in turn to two rotations of equal amount in opposite senses about two parallel axes. the centre of rotation. It For let the lines be denoted by OP.
Naples. 1763. n. preceded or followed by a translation in a direction perpendicular to the axis. 1420. this latter operation can be performed by simply rotating the body about a line through the point so We the body from configuration Q. Oeuvres. this line in the first displacement will be turned through an angle equal to the angle of rotation. * Mozzi. translation. will for be parallel to its every line without exception. 94. shall now. . Cauchy. the first of which is a translation parallel to the line about which the rotation takes place. p. 87. Exercices de Hath. namely the theorem that a rotation of a rigid about body any axis. consider displacements of a more general character. in other words. Bulletin Unit: des Sciences (Ferussac). Chasles theorem on the most general displacement of a rigid body*. only when the total displacement is equivalent to a simple It follows that two successive equal and opposite rotations about parallel axes are equivalent to a translation in a direction perpendicular to the axes. 321 . together with of this.4 Kinematical Preliminaries [CH. xiv. 5. that any displacement in a plane can be regarded as a rotation round some point in the plane. are together equivalent to a rotation of the body about a parallel axis. see that the most general displacement of a rigid body can be obtained by first translating the body. that the We shall now shew AK K translation can evidently be accomplished in two stages. Comptes Rendus de VAcad. (2) vn. (1843). being essentially the same as the result The converse stated in 2. 1827). Chasles. (1830). p. and then rotating it about a line. For let A be the initial position of any point of the body. By considering the angle between the initial and final positions of any line which is perpendicular to the axis and moves with the body. By Euler s theorem. It is evident that a free rigid body can be moved from any one selected con figuration P in space to any other Q by first moving some selected point of its position in the configuration P to its position in the each of the other points of the body being moved by a simple translation parallel to this (so that the body is oriented in the same way after the operation as before). Let be the line A to the line round which the rotation takes parallel through place. Discorso matematico sopra ilrotamento momentaneo del corpi. p. . is also true. which evidently can be the case . Then the motion of be so chosen. i axes. and let be the foot of the perpendicular from B on AK. a rotation about any axis is equivalent to a rotation through the same angle about any axis parallel to a simple translation in a direction perpendicular to the axis. p. it. we see that the angles of rotation round the two axes are equal. or. (Paris. and secondly rotating the body about this point into the configuration Q. xvi. and in the second displacement will be turned back through the same angle so its final position original position. and B the position to which this point is brought by the motion of translation. we that the line about which the rotation takes place can motion of translation is parallel to this line.
Angle between the planes Angle between the planes Angle between B 1 and B 2 It follows that the AiB B C= Angle A 2 B2 B2 C= Angle 1 . to the position B. t . the whole displacement can be accomplished by a translation of the body parallel to a certain line through this point. . : it through two Intercept Intercept Intercept made on B by A { and C= Intercept made on made on B2 by A 2 and C= Intercept made on made on C by BI and B2 = Intercept made on 1 Z&. Let BI be the line which (i. The figure thus obtained. and therefore . Let A v and A 2 denote the axes of the two screws. and is 4 ]2 their common perpendicular. xix. Halphen has shewn* how to determine geometrically the resultant of any two screwdisplacements as a screwdisplacement. p. and 2 screw. D 2 . this establishes the theorem. the inter being brought to the position of the intersection of D^ and C .e.gt. It is translation to the angle of rotation is called the pitch of the screw. of Math. bringing the point with the rotation which follows it. the order in which the translation and rotation take place 6. by AI and by A 2 and C by DI and D 2 .. For position DI to DI and DI and D2 be lines such that half the given displacements will bring A 12 to the and D2 to the position A 12 respectively. are together together equivalent to K a simple rotation about a new axis parallel to the first one. and let B2 be the line to whose position A^ is brought by half the second displacement. . between the planes AI D lt between the planes A 2 D2 DiC . the intersection of so C is the axis of the resultant 2 and C being brought to the intersection of B 2 and C C". clear that in a screw displacement. .46] Kinematical Preliminaries 5 bringing the point A to the position K. 104 (1889). (3) i.gt. which by the first screw is brought to the position is by the second brought to a position making the same angle with B2 that B 2 makes with B l . ^ B * Nouvelles Annales de Math. D . Z&. brought to the position A 12 by half the first displacement and rotation through half the angle). and the second of which is a translation perpendicular to the line about which the rotation takes place.j. the direction of translation This combination of a translation and a rotation round a line parallel to is called a screw the ratio of the distance of . and let be the common perpendicular C". evidently coincide whence we have the relations . = Angle between D l and D 2 . screwdisplacement position is C. and the displacement is twice that which brings the line 1 to the B2 let . is indifferent. section of B 1 and C C". Halphen s theorem on the composition of two general displacements. and the amount of the translation is twice the intercept made on C by Also the line BI. p. Mesa. DC 2 . If therefore any point on this axis be taken as basepoint. together with a rotation about this line. and then the screw about A 2 brings to the position of C produced. and that which is obtained from it by rotating right angles about A i2 . t D 2 C". C". . the second translation. 298 (1882). But by 4. let C denote the common Halphen s result is that the axis of the resultant perpendicular to the lines BI and B2 half the translation. screw about A 1 brings C to the position of produced. The proof given here is due to Burnside.
a) cos a + (17 . and its directioncosines are therefore proportional to the quantities ( c) cos /3 (77 6) cos 7.(1 . z) . and let the point P be brought by the translation alone to the position of the point R (.a) cos a + (T? .e. it follows that the projection of RL on the Ox .gt. 7. I the rotation of the resultant screw twice the angle between Bz and B. LQ is normal to the plane RKA. and that one of these lines can be arbitrarily chosen. Let rectangular axes Oxyz be taken. Y. This establishes Halphen s theorem. is (XB Now or the projection of f KR on the axis Ox is a (projection of A K on the axis Ox) /3 .a . ( c) cos a. 7). so that the XA ). Analytic representation of a displacement.gt.a . about a line whose directionangles are (a.b) cos  + (f . b.b) cos @ + Moreover. y. Example.c) cos 7]. K be the foot of the perpendicular from R (or Q) on the axis of and let L be the foot of the perpendicular from Q on KR. Let the displacement considered be equivalent to a : to rotation through an angle &&. 77 = y + d cos ft. ) then we have evidently horizon the northern coordinates are (x. and which passes through a point whose coordinates are (a. /3. i.6 Kinematical Preliminaries is [CH. b) cos a ( .c) cos 7}]. Then we have X g= projection of it the broken line RLQ on the axis Ox. if the axes are so placed that Oz is directed vertically upwards and Oy is directed to the northern horizon. Z). not (XA XB ).cos tu) [f . then Ox will be directed to the east. together with a translation through a distance d parallel to this line. fixed in space these will be supposed form a righthanded system. (?? ( a) cos 7 a) cos /3. projection of a line AB on the axis of a. /3. Let rotation. the rotation from the southern to is round by the east. the sign being positive when the line &&. A (a. %=z + d cos 7. c). 77. 7) being directed vertically upwards. shall We now see how any displacement of a rigid body can be represented analytically.cos a {( . Let the point P whose be brought by the displacement to the position of the point Q (X. The angle must be taken with its appropriate sign. = x + d cos a. Shew by the composition of that any infinitesimal displacement of a rigid body can be obtained two infinitesimal rotations round lines. and as axis RL = is (1  cos co) KR. the line ( f . being understood that projections have their appropriate signs.cos a {( .
(1 .) .(z and Z= z + d cos 7 .= .(1 + cos w) {(z cos 7 cos sin &) a.cos &)) 4 {(y  2 6) sin /3 . Y. tion Sty about a line OK is equivalent to successive small rotations Sty cos . But these . any order) subjected the body to infinitesimal rotations cos It follows that any small rota cos /3 8^r about Oy. the Z . (1 we have X = x + d cos a we have . z. . is On considering a special case. sin {cos /3 ( c) 7 (77.cos /3 cos y(z sin ft) c) cos /3 cos a (x c)} a)} [cos 7 (# a) sin 2 cos a. e. the axis of rotation passing through the origin and there being for co.cos w) {(x 2 a) sin a cos a cos (3(y b) c) cos a cos y(z cos c)} + sin to Similarly (cos /3(z y(y &)}.68] Kinematical Preliminaries 7 and since the sum of the squares of these three quantities. supposing that the axis of rotation axis Oz. Z in terms of the position of the point and the quantities The composition of small rotations.) {(. follows that the sum of the three squares is equal to are the projections on the axes of a length + quantities themselves sin w. We shall now apply the last result to the case in which the rotation is infinitesimal. the projection of LQ measured along the line LQ.gt. y. represents 1 and the three . 8&. now become = x + (z cos /3 y cos 7) 8v/r. expression {(a) + 0?. Since 2 2 2 it KR KR LQ= KR (r) on the axis Ox is therefore + sin &) {( c) cos ft b) cos 7}.cos to 2 a b) (. where Sv/r no motion of translation. 8. F = y + d cos /3 .(y cos ft(x These equations give the new coordinates X. are the equations which we should obtain if we successively (in a ty about Ox. divided by the the quantity sirfRAK. x cos /3) 8^.r is a small last article X  F = y + (x cos Z z + (y cos 7 a z cos a) S^r.cos &&. c)} + Substituting for rj. we see that the upper sign is correct and thus we have . . . b}} (cos a. and cos 7 8^ about Oz. We shall write The equations of the quantity whose square can be neglected. coordinates x.g.(1 .&) + (c) }. z of the original which define the displacement. y. their values in terms of x. KOx .c) 7 cos (x a) b) 7 cos /3(y a)}.gt.a) cos a cos cos cos a cos /3(r) 7( 6)j.
F= y =z 2 sin a) (y sin 2 2 ft z cos cos 7 x cos ft cos a) + 2 sin 2 G) ( 2 sin i&) cos ^o) (x cos 7 z cos a). but the expressions for the rotational part are not so simple.. as we have seen.. Oy.gt. . Y. (y cos a x cos /3). [CH. defined by the equations &&.gt.8 Kinematical Preliminaries . extremely simple. and these will now be further considered. these parameters evidently satisfy the identical relation +r+ % =i.gt. and if moveable axes which originally coincide with these are brought into the position Oxyz by the given rotation. 77 . Now introduce parameters =cosasina&. Suppose then that a rigid body is rotated about a line through through an angle the origin. OK of points. 77. 7.gt. The analytic expressions for the translational part of a displacement are. and &$ cos KOz about Oz. whose are a. 9.. Z) of the new position of a point whose original coordinates were &&. = cos /3 sin  r+7? 2 = cos 7 sin 2 i&&. z) are given by the equations (X = x 2 sin a \w 2 (x sin a y cos a cos ft z cos a cos 7) + i 2 sin iw cos ft \w {z cos ft y cos 7). (x. 7.gt. 0. i about Ox. ^.gt. the directioncosines of the two sets of axes with reference to each other are given by the following scheme : X e^^+x* Y Z . Si/r cos KOy about Oy. where Ox. sin 2 y x cos 7 cos a y cos 7 cos /3) + 2 sin ^co cos ^&&. ft. Enters parametric specification of rotations round a point*. y. Oz are any three mutually perpendicular lines which intersect in one its .. x= cos&&. and the above equations can be written in the form If therefore the coordinate axes are denoted by OXYZ. the coordinates directionangles By (X.
In order to find the directioncosines of Ox.lt. k where + i. &". . YOK. ij=ji=k. . with respect to OX. xx.lt. The most be the fixed point round which the rotation takes place. respectively. 9 It is readily seen that the f".gt. jk=kj = all i. Petrop. where OL is the intersection of the and sin cos $ along OL along OK. Rodrigues. .8rlO] Kinematical Preliminaries parameters ( . 189. &.k = X+&+W + M + & + JJ + . various methods of parametrically practically useful of the round a fixed a of the rigid body due to a rotation displacement representing is likewise due to Eulerf: it has the disadvantage of being unsympoint metrical. satisfy the equations j. 77. a length cos $ cos 6 cos AT along Ox and sin cos i/r Ox and sin sin&.. known by 6. comprehended ( in the single equation (X + Z i + jj + t". Oy. *) The reader who is acquainted with quaternions will observe that the effect of the 1 where q denotes the rotation on any vector p is to convert it into the vector qpq quaternion x + &+n} + 10. The Eulerian angles. Hamilton. ) i* =j* = k*=\. the quaternion itself is not the rotational operator. and the above formulae are then X". to OZ is directed to the south. Oy. Now this unit length has projections of a unit length measured along OX. Let Oxyz be rectangular axes fixed relatively to the body and moving with it.lt.f&.lt. x". and Cayley) really constitute the theorem for the multiplication of For ^. but is otherwise very simple and convenient.sim/r along along OK has projections &. respectively: these are as the three Eulerian angles defining the position of the axes Oxyz yOK &. ki=ik=j. we observe &. are given by the equations x". ) and (..lt.gt. two successive displacements r. and a length cos cos cos 6 sin fy along Oy also. and let be a righthanded system of rectangular axes _fixed in space. and Oxyz and such that before the displacement the two sets of axes Let OXYZ OXYZ be perpendicular to the plane zOZ. ^r. X+i +y .lt.). f. has projections cos sin 6 is the intersection of the &.. where OM cos along OM has projections planes xOy and ZOz. f * . (". may be regarded as the components of a quaternion* quaternions. t Novi Comment. that these are equal to the projections on Ox. * This quaternion will have its tensor equal to unity.= xx ^fw f These formulae (which were discovered independently at different times by Gauss. Oz. along OL along Oz and cos $ cos 6 along OM. Oz.lt. Let are coincident in position. corresponding to the resultant of x ). then perpendicular OK OK Denote the angles zOZ.gt. (1776). planes XOY and Z0z\ but a length cos&. ?. drawn so that if OZ is directed to the vertical and the projection of Oz is directed to the east..&. (f&. 17".. with reference to the axes OXYZ. p.
gt.lt.lt.p cos a sin ysin 6 sin $ cos ty along Oy.f) Y .gt. cos 6 cos & . sin d&. \ cos (/&.sin $ sin \/ Z cos 6 cos \lr .gt. Oz respectively of the are cos cos d&.10 along Oy. sin vjr alonsf Ox r I \ &. along Oz. we obtain for the directioncosines of the two sets of axes OX YZ and Oxyz with respect to each other the following scheme : X cos &. Oy. Kinemat ical Preliminaries Hence finally the projections [CH. I unit length measured on I OX a on Ox. Proceeding in this way.
). drawn.gt.lt.1012] Kinematical Preliminaries 11 a. we know that the corresponding figure S . 0. 7%e connexion of rotations with homographies . since by stereographic projection a circle is changed S must also be a circle. we have (TT cos a = sin 7 sin \ v^ $). must be a Thus we sphere. 7. circle traced into a circle: therefore on the sphere. which correspond to rotations of the be such as to change any circle in the plane into another circle in the plane.). .gt. 0). ^TT. If one of the figures P is a circle in the plane.). which changes the : S . we shall call 8} are Let these figures be stereographically projected on a plane (e. since in the spherical triangle angle at RZX (v/r the sides are and the Z is TT v or + $). 77.g.gt.. sides are 7. Substituting for sin 7 from the equation already found. 12. &./&.. ^ are Aus expressed in terms of the Eulerian angles 6. and let . = + 7 cos ^0 sin % (v/r &. by taking the highest point of the sphere as vertex of projection and the tangentplane at the lowest Now let the point of the sphere as the plane) we shall call the projected figures P. and hence P must also be a circle. ty by the relations f ( = sin 1 sin i(^ &. the relations COS i ft) and or sin &&. 77 = sin ^0 cos (ir sin (i^ + cos Y (^ + ^&.f&. this gives cos a sin or \w = sin sin ^6 \Q sin (^ (i/r $).j the Cayley. 0).). = sin cos (ir = sini#cosi(^ &.).gt. .  1 1 f = cos = ^ cos ^ (/&. since we have shewn that in the spherical triangle RZz the and the angles are (rr ^r we have (?r i/r &. 7.lt. cos (\/r sin l (v/r + + 0). &.).lt. so that the let the figures in their new be figures on its surface are shifted to new positions any figures (which : Consider now a sphere. Moreover. = sin 7 cos ft and again eliminating sin 7.lt.Klein parameters. on the surface of which called positions the stereographic projections of the figures 8 (with the same vertex and Then corresponding to the rotation of the plane of projection as before) be called P sphere.lt. Hence.lt.). must see that the transformations of the plane.gt. = cos sin  Similarly from the spherical triangle RZY (i/r we have 0).gt. which changes 8 to S we have a transformation in the plane. figures P into the figures P We shall now examine this transformation more closely. cos = COSi0COSJ(V/r + 0). x = cos 1 = cos ^ The four parameters g. we have cos or ft sin ^tu ?. sphere be rotated through a definite angle about some axis through its centre.). &&. 0).lt. &.
CayleyKlein parameters clearly satisfy the relation aS /3y= 1 . = x + i/ \/ . 8 the following scheme X Y Z * Cf. _a + 8 X~~a Z so that they are connected with the Eulerian angles . in such a way that if two homographies correspond respectively to two rotations. J Klein. 8. xv. the homography compounded of these corresponds to the rotation compounded of the two rotations J.12 It Kinematical Preliminaries may be shewn* way : [CH. It appears therefore that homo graphies in a plane correspond to rotations of a solid body about a fixed point. represented analytically. y. y.e 2 These ". 1915). I that any transformation of this kind may be represented analytically in the following Let plane . p. : ^ we have . or homography. straight line is to be regarded as a particular kind of circle. ^ by new parameters /3.gt. 238. p. cz is called +d a homographic transformation. a transformation of this latter kind combined with a reflexion in one of the axes of coordinates. changed by the transformation. We shall now see how the connexion between rotations and homographies may be a. c. &. defined by the equations *". f. Then any onetoone transformation of the plane. y.gt. Math. 8. ". an equation of the type _ = or else by where a. An introduction to the theory of automorphic functions (London. circles into circles^. K. f A Ford. d are (real or complex} constants. A transformation represented by an equation of the type _ az + b . where x and y refer to the point into which the point (x. (1879).~ /3y 9 4 r l~ _/3 + y 9. 183.e = cos. z=x+y J so that to this point there corresponds a definite value of the Similarly let z is where x and y are the rectangular coordinates of any point in the complex variable z.. y=ism. /3. 6. and replacing the quantities their values in terms of a. . which changes all may be defined by .1. Ann. ix. ^ by the equations . Math. /3. Z* ~ q92* d. y) 1. Let us replace the parameters . Ann. (j&. Cayley. . (1875). 77. 77. L. in the scheme of directioncosines given in 9 by for the values of the directioncosines in terms of a.
f. 1. a t z + ft *. x).) It may readily be shewn that the parameters resultant of two successive displacements (a /3 y . and (di. az  + ft ^j is yz+8 and the connexion between rotations and homographic transformations analytically.** ! 008*0. . t3. thus evident One advantage (.. y +ix.fj e^s If from the equations 2 the quantities Xp. j.. i. ft. is of the CayleyKlein parameters.. ft". ) and that these are the three equations connecting the coordinates (X. y + ix. f ( ( these quantities are regarded as umbral 2 x 2 2 x l x 2 are replaced by Y+iX. Denoting e 1 ^ tan d  t 1 by f1} and tan \6{ by shew that ^=f Example 2. %i . y. X X Y+iX.y + ix] + 2apz + /3 2 (y + ix\ Y+ iX = y 2 (y + ix] + 2y8z + 8 2 (y + ix). 1 . while 1 using the *J of ordinary algebra instead of the &. : z=\\ l :1 : :  Y+iX Y+iX Z=\ : : \1 1 : i and \^= Vectors.. ". z.=yft + 88 . These equations shew that the transformation a". corresponding to the 8) are given by the equations a".Example 3. k of Hamilton s quaternions. is the result of performing in succession the two substitutions J= . 8".Y+ iX= a 2 . = aft +ft8 . referred to the axes OXYZ with its coordinates (x.12.sin $ 6 ". y". (a. y. 13] Kinematical Preliminaries (a". 8 ) and . and 2 and the symbols 2 quantities X^.z+ff y". r). Z. of translation in itself. z) Y. Z) of a point referred to the axes Oxyz. Suppose that a point in space carried about with the axes Oxyz has the vectorial angles (0 lt to the t ) (referred fixed axes OXYZ) ** before the motion.. =a a+y = ya +8y . We now proceed to consider the essential features involved in the displacement by simple translation of a rigid body. . evidently possesses the following properties . . 13 8". fa /. The operation considered apart from the body : translated. shew that the equations obtained are respectively. Z = ay (y + ix + (a8 + py)z + p8(y + w). \^) denote the Eulerian angles. yz + 8 an d z= . Xi 2 are formed. ) after the motion. . as compared with the parameters that they retain some of the simplicity of the quaternion calculus. If y + ix: y + ix and shew that y 13.lt. if XX . . ft". X^.z + 8". y". Example which is Let (6.
a vector AB is equivalent A to the sum of three vectors A K. then the operation represented by of the operations represented by C. the vector which represents the translation (or velocity. z (two dots indicating second derivatives with respect this vector is called the acceleration of the body. AB is . KL. These three vectors are called the com line joining the points ponents of the vector AB along the given axes. i.. ponents of the velocity referred to these axes are the rates of change of x. of the vector with respect to the parameter. since such a line the data which describe the operation. i. z (where dots denote differentiations with respect to the time t}. is also a vector quantity. ft. . to the time) . .e. y. A is equivalent to any number of given vectors is is conceived as varying in dependence on a parameter (e. y. z. being in fact the projections of A B on the axes.14 1. respectively parallel to three given rectangular axes. its timeflux. Its total translation to any time t is a vector quantity. y. 7) cos a. or acceleration. Consider now a body which being continuously translated (though not necessarily always in the same direction) without any change of orientation. single vector which called their resultant. the between the vectors difference the to time). if x. CD. or acceleration) of Q is the sum of the vector which represents the translation (or velocity. whose components are the This is rates of change of the corresponding components. the directionangles of (I If I be the length and (a. Kinematical Preliminaries It can be specified completely [OH. DE. 2. . y. and hence the rate at which this changes with the time. i lines of space by any one of the equal and parallel which have a given length (viz. AB. and ACDE. is their vectorial character. equivalent A These properties 1 and 2 are possessed by a large KB. By 2. and hence the rate of change of the vector If a vector with respect to the parameter is also a vector. whose components are x. z are the coordinates referred is called the velocity of the body to fixed axes of any point fixed in the body and moving with it. as the and the vector which represents the translation (or velocity.KB be a broken line joining to the sum extremities. LB. and forming a broken and B. the distance of the translation) (viz. i.g. then the com which . are x. It is clear that if P and Q are two moving points. Zcos/3. operations and quantities other than the operation of translation an operation or quantity which possesses them is called a vector quantity. case may be) of P or acceleration) of Q relative to P. Similarly the rate of change of the velocity is again a vector. corresponding any two values of the parameter is also a vector. 14.e.. number of . and given direction furnishes all the direction of the translation) . called the flux Velocity and acceleration . If its AB be one of these lines.e. and whose directions are invariable. I the lengths of the component vectors are clearly cosy). of Q referred to axes whose origin moves with P.
velocity plane. fi. Example. by points experiences a small rotation Sty round any line OK. Let 6 denote the angle turned through at any time t then Q represents the speed of turning at the time t.gt. A right circular cone of semivertical angle $ rolls without sliding on a plane. . From this it is clear that we can regard an OK angular velocity represented by a length ty measured on to OK angular represented by lengths ty cos a. Oz. Since all points of the generator which is is in at rest (for there no sliding). for an angular velocity about one line is not equivalent to an angular velocity of the same magnitude about a parallel line. the required relation between o&. is directed vertically to the northern is round by An and angular velocity is therefore represented if by a line of definite length is fixed 8. namely that when the segment upwards the rotation from the southern horizon the east. 7) are the directionangles perpendicular lines passing through of with reference to Oxyz. Sty cos ft round direction. To find its instantaneous axis of rotation. where Ox. this displacement is equivalent to successive small rotations Sty cos a round Ox. and the whole motion of the cone round the axis of the cone. measured along Ox. Angular velocity must therefore be regarded as a vector which is localised along a definite line. Consider next a body which is rotating continuously about a line. But this is essentially the fundamental property of vectors. The direction in which the segment is measured from the basepoint is to be connected with the sense of rotation by the usual convention. expressed by the statement that angular velocities can be resolved and compounded according to the vectorial law. which is wsin/3. this generator contact with the plane are instantaneously is the instantaneous axis of rotation of the cone. and Sty cos 7 round Oz. and 6. Let denote the angular velocity of the cone about this generator. and to determine its about this angular velocity axis in terms of the angular velocity of the line of contact in the plane. axis of the cone can be represented 6 round the normal to the by an angular o&. compounded of this together with a rotation that the component of angular velocity of the cone is therefore w=6 which is cot /3. and can be velocities as equivalent ty cos j3. It must be observed however that an angular velocity does not fulfil all the conditions which enter into the definition of a vector. We have . or (as it is generally expressed) of : the angular velocity of the body. If from any point on the line round which the rotation takes place a segment whose length represents 6 is measured along the line. Now a body one of whose Oy. Oy. Oy.gt. respectively. Oz are any three mutually and (a.1315] 15. It follows about a line through the vertex of the cone perpendicular to the axis is 6 cos /3 but this must equal the resolved part of co in this direction. ty cos 7. Kinematical Preliminaries Angular velocity : 15 its vectorial character. this segment will evidently furnish a complete specification of the nature of the rotation at the instant t. and let 6 denote the angular velocity of the line of contact in the Then the motion of the plane.
lt. we have The values principle of and can be at once obtained from this by the 2 and thus we have the components of angular velocity symmetry of o^ &. we have I} eo 2 .gt. terms of the Eulerian angles.lt. of which one set the other set Oxyz are fixed relatively to the body. angular velocity of the system is evidently compounded of angular velocities about OZ. for we have d Similarly we have == ".j&. .w . o&. Oy.gt. given by the equations . Of these. a . position .gt. sin fy and the second can be resolved into cos 6 about Oz. . &&. and &.lt. We shall now determine the components.gt.lt.gt. about Oy. and move with it then the three Eulerian of the ^. ft) 3  c7. Let OK denote the line of intersection of the planes XOY and xOy the . respectively.16 Kinematical Preliminaries [CH. o&. I Determination of the components of angular velocity of a system in 16.lt.gt. . along the moving axes. and ^r about Oz. twj.4? ^.lt. the first can be 6 about OK.6 t&. sin 6 cos finally \r So if denote the components of angular velocity of the body about the axes Ox. 2 &. o&. Ox. From these expressions we can at once deduce the values of . law by angular velocities 6 sin i/r about Ox replaced according to the vectorial &. 3 in terms of the symmetrical parameters cf&. The position at any time of a rigid body which is continuously moving about a fixed point is most conveniently described by taking two sets are fixed in space.lt.= ??. &. .gt. &. 2 .gt.f&.gt.j&. 3 = 6 sin Jr sin 6 cos a =v cos y sm a sin y. and of the symmetrical parameters. i a 1a) = y (p COS l ilr. OXYZ which define the position of the axes Oxyz relatively to the axes OXYZ./&. &.gt.lt. while the of rectangular axes. and we have cos d = 2 v2 +  +% &&. %.j&.gt. and 6 cos about G&. specified by body being angles 0. of 9 . Oz.gt. of the angular velocity of the body at any instant. Substituting these values in the equation 3 = ty + cos #.gt. ~H $^.. ty about Oy sin &. &.gt.
&&. 3 ).gt. &&. y.gt. any instant t with reference to the instantaneous position of a righthanded system of axes Oxyz which are themselves in motion and let it be required to find the vector which represents the rate of change of the given vector. The timeflux of the given vector is the (vector) sum of the timefluxes of the components taken separately. Let &&. .gt. and are respectively &&. .gt. Oy.16.gt.gt. the axes themselves at time t are 1 . y zo&. so that (owing to .gt. we have finally the components of the timeflux of the given vector in the form This result can be immediately applied to find acceleration of a point whose coordinates reference to axes moving with an (x. the angular velocity round Oy) it is displaced through an angle co 2 dt from its position in the original plane zOx. But if we consider the vector ?/. 17] 17. &. referred to the positions of the axes at the commencement of the interval dt.!. 2 . along themselves.! + xa) 3 . . are therefore (neglecting infinitesimals of order higher than the first) and so the components of the vector which represents the timeflux of . z) at time the velocity and t are given with angular velocity whose components along (a&. Kinematical Preliminaries Timeflux of a vector whose components relative to 17 moving axes are given.lt. and at the same time is turned by the motion of the axes.". it is increased in length to g + %dt in the infinitesimal interval of time dt. in the direction away from Oz. at : &) 3 denote the 2 components of the angular velocity of the resolved the instantaneous position of the axes Ox. &&. 77. yws + zw z . z . 2  Similarly the components of the vectors which represent the timefluxes of the vectors ?. 3 ?7. are 3 . For substituting in the above formulae. towards Oy. Oz system Oxyz. and also (owing to the angular velocity round Oz) it is displaced through an angle (o s dt from its position in the original plane xOy. we see that the components of the velocity are x w. Suppose now that a vector quantity is specified by its components f. and o&.gt. The coordinates of its extremity at the end of the interval of time dt. D. Adding these.
its Let the position of a point be defined by polar coordinates r. ya&. 6 increasing. I applying the same formulae to the case in which the vector whose timeflux is sought is the velocity. The in the last article enable us to obtain formulae. Example. Z) of the point referred to fixed rectangular axes OXYZ by the equations X = r sin 6 cos Y = r sin 6 sin Z = r cos 6 and .i). velocity are therefore (putting z. y}. yCtt (^ #o&. and in the direction . Y. connected with the coordinates (X. and increasing.i) 2 (# 2/ In the case in which the motion takes place in a plane. which are frequently of acceleration of a (i) use. and only one component of angular velocity.2y6 yO. 0. (j).. namely 6.gt.gt. which we may take as the plane Oxy. relating to the components of the velocity moving point in various special directions. we have the components of the accelera tion of the point in the form Now  (x yco 3 + za} 2) (t&. .gt.gt. (f&.lt. in direction. provided the axis of the body s screwing motion be not instantaneously stationary 18. 6.x6 2 and y + 2x6 yfc. in the direction which is perpendicular to r and lies in the plane containing r and OZ (this plane is generally called the meridian plane). where 6 is the angle made by the moving axes with their positions at some fixed epoch the components of . perpendicular to the meridian plane these three directions are frequently described as the directions of r increasing. (Coll. Exam.) Special resolutions of the velocity results obtained and acceleration. w l . let it be required to determine the components of velocity and acceleration of the point in the direction of the radius vector r. &. Prove that in the general case of motion of a rigid body there is at each instant one definite point at a finite distance which regarded as invariably connected with the body has no acceleration at the instant. and Velocity and acceleration in polar coordinates.18 Kinematical Preliminaries [CH. there will be only two coordinates (x.gt. 2 I ft&. 3 (y ZWL + xo) ) + o) s 2 (z xw z + 2/&&. + x 0 and the components of acceleration are x . 2 each equal to zero in the above expressions) x y6 and y + xO.gt.
lt. of 17) are increasing. rd) 2 sin 6.gt. 2 = 0. we can take the initial line in this in these formulae and the quantities denoted by r and . parallel to the increasing. increasing. and the coordinate &. r0 + 2f 0). the called direction increasing.w 3 = (p cos 6. The coordinates and so of the moving point. a point whose position is defined by its cylindrical coordinates z. and r increasing (again using the formulae 2 T (r0) r&. &. JO. a r ] ! dt (rd) sin 0) + fcf&. Oy. of generally and the direction of of the point. Z) of the point referred to fixed rectangular axes by the equations Consider now OXYZ X = p cos and let it d). rd). connected with the coordinates (X. sin 6 cos . the components of velocity and acceleration in the directions of r increasing and increasing are (r. &. 2  d j r sin Q at 2 2 (r sin 6d&. &. + or 2r0 l = rd] sin 2 cos 0.gt.lt. 18] Kinematical Preliminaries 19 Take a line through the origin 0. parallel to the direction of respectively. r).). &&. z the direction of p increasing.lt. or r0 . are 17 the components of velocity of the point resolved by (0. and These three directions are in the direction perpendicular to these two lines. 0). &. ./&. p.17.lt.p are reference to the fixed axes position of the moving axes Oxyz with of angular velocity of the system Oxyz.gt. d). to the moving axes are parallel rd. Velocity and acceleration in cylindrical coordinates. become ordinary polar coordinates in the plane since (p is now zero.gt. perpendicular to the axis of z. r. in the direction of the line drawn from the axis of z to the point. and (ii) (r r0 2 . .gt. and the components of acceleration in the directions of 6 increasing. referred to the moving axes. Oz themselves.j&.lt. so ( 16) the components the axes Ox. motion of the point is in a plane.lt.p increasing .lt. are resolved OXYZ along eoj = sin 6. 6. (6. a line through 0. $. as the determine which The three Eulerian angles increasing as axis Oz. sin r&* + r66 cos 0. Y. as a moving axis Ox and take of r line and a axis direction of parallel to the direction Oy.p is called the azimuth and In this case we take moving axes Ox. 22 .gt. sin r&. Oz passing through the origin increasing. + r0. . Z = z\ be required to find the components of the velocity and acceleration of the point in the direction parallel to the axis of z. Oy. ^p si n $&. I and r If the plane as axis Oz. and z parallel respectively to the directions of p increasing.
} pJ . If v denotes the velocity of fixed line in the plane. at and p the radius of the of described time arc the path the point. == d&. are clearly == 0. are It follows by 17 that the components of velocity of the point in (p. 2). s t. and the coordinates of the moving point. and the angular velocity of the axes can therefore be written in the form (v. and the acceleration is therefore determined by the knowledge of three consecutive positions so even if the path of the point is not plane. these directions are and the components of acceleration are (iii) Velocity and acceleration in arccoordinates. referred to the moving axes. it follows from / the same axes are (v. acceleration at any instant be regarded as moving in the osculating plane of . point parallel respectively through tangent and inward normal to the path. 61)3 ^ (D. Kinematical Preliminaries The components COj [CH.2 0. as moving axes Ox and Oy. v V v\ .gt. Since the components of the velocity parallel to the moving axes are 17 that the components of the acceleration parallel to 0). These axes are rotating is the angle made by the round with angular velocity (ft. resolved along the tangent. curvature of the path at the point. _dv dt ds dv dt ds dv ds in the direction of the it follows that the acceleration of the moving point dv tangent to its path ia v j . resolved themselves. i along the axes Oxyz of angular velocity of the system Oxyz. first the case of a particle moving in a plane and take lines to a fixed the 0. and the acceleration in the direction of the inward normal is . Another application of the formulae of 17 is to the determination of the components of velocity and acceleration of a point which is moving in any way in space. we have to the path with some ds v dt p = ds dtp v/p. P Now the velocity of a moving point is determined by the knowledge of two consecutive positions of the moving point. principal normal. and binormal to its path. it can for the purpose of determining its .20 increasing.lt. Since . where tangent Consider : &. 0.
$) .lt.along the tangent. $). and rv 2 . 2 rv 2 dr rv T. di Torino. sin 6 along the normal. Atti della R. since this plane Hence the components of acceleration of the point. 0. principal normal. 2 c&. are p (iv) Acceleration along the radius and tangent. and * c0 cos 6 along the meridian. in the directions of the tangent. on ds ds pp . Let of the meridian crosssection are (c. P be the centre of the anchorring and C the centre and let on which P lies. 2 Dae to Siacci.18] its Kinematical Preliminaries 21 contains three consecutive positions of the point. p the radius of curvature of described of the arc s the path path. so the components of acceleration of ctj) C 2 relative to are transverse and c&.inwards along the radius vector.e. Determine the meridian. and v or s the velocity of the point at time t and let the The path h denote the product pv. p the perpendicular at time t. s result. z For the acceleration can be resolved into components vdv/ds along the now a vector F directed outwards along tangent and v jp along the normal into vectors be resolved can vector radius the Fp/r along the inward normal 2 a v so vector the and Fdr/ds along /p along the inward normal can be tangent. into components . &. and the former can be written pp dp ds v2 Id (v p*) z h dh 2 ds p 2p 2 ds p 2 ds which establishes Siacci Example tion of 1. acceleration of a point which is in motion in a plane may be expressed in the following form*. normal. and transverse components of the accelera the surface of the anchorring a point moving on be the point (6.along the tangent. and binormal dv ds v2 to its path. path. i. . Then the acceleration of the point to the can be resolved ~r along the radius vector origin and along the tangent to the path.lt. let r be the radius vector to the point from a fixed from the origin on the tangent to the origin in the plane. XIY. pp The latter component 1 dv 2 is . The polar coordinates of C relative to and the polar coordinates of P relative to C are (a. inwards along the radius vector and resolved into pp ds pp The acceleration is therefore equivalent to components rv 2 dr dv v p H r. p. 750.p). Ace.p outwards from the axis.lt. . at the point.
gt.lt. the angle made by the tangent with a fixed line.j) of acceleration of 6} 2 P in space are (c + a sin 2 cos 6 2 along the meridian. Also P so s = c. and cd) . &. where A and B 3. shew that it is also fixed in space. + sm 6 .r p =5 2 ds along the tangent: but the constant angular velocity. . 2 sin Q cos 6 2 along the meridian. . a constant. A = and p 2o) 2 3 r dr j.j&.j&. where c is a constant. Thus finally the components ad a6 2 a&. In this case v r=a. y dt 2 (sin 6 .f&. where a ds so i) is a constant. the components of acceleration are if to is PP 53 along the radius vector 2 u&. of amount ?i shew that the path relative to the axes can be constructed by taking (i) a point &.gt.o . 1. we have h =  so the components of acceleration are co 2 ?".lt. where Integrating this equation. is (f&. If the instantaneous axis of rotation of a in the body. transverse.) Example 2. body moveable about a fixed point is the motion is a rotation round a fixed fixed A point is referred to rectangular axes Ox. P relative to C are fad a&. are constants : Example To find the acceleration of a point which describes a logarithmic spiral with constant angular velocity about the pole. normal. . 2 =as.gt. If the tangential and normal components of the acceleration of a point moving in a plane are constant.e. we have and this is the intrinsic equation of the logarithmic spiral.lt. y = 0. where C is or s=Cjr. . sin 6 dt j (sin 2 t&.gt. sin 6 2 sin 6 c&.22 The components Kinematical Preliminaries of acceleration of [CH.lt. = Cp.lt. p Since 7".) sin 2 normal. By and Siacci s theorem. we see that each of these components of acceleration varies directly as the radius vector. and CiT 5 are constant in the spin spiral. transverse. if there be an acceleration to x=a. 2 2 x (distance).gt. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.lt. 5 jr as 7* . shew that the point describes a logarithmic spiral. axis. d&. Oy revolving about the origin with 2.gt. i. angular velocity to.
Exam. . A point is moving in a parabola of latus rectum 4. v in directions tion of the point will be given by f= u u6 cot x~ v $ cosec x. the product of the that the places in the two descriptions is constant. N=^. with a fixed components making angles Prove that the components /. . A point is moving in a plane Q is the logarithm of the ratio of its distances from also 2k is the distance is the angle between them two fixed points in the plane. o&. in velocities. where focus R R=v ^ dr 8.gt. (ii) a uniform circular motion with angular velocity (nl)co about this. 1) cosec of \f + (yw2 + 2?/o&. (Coll. Exam. about (Coll. \/ (?/o&.coi + is 2. The velocity of a point moving in a plane is the resultant of a velocity v along the Prove that the radius vector to a fixed point and a velocity v parallel to a fixed line. . Exam. 2 yyo&. the component accelerations of the point ^ to the axes are cosec \^. 2 respectively.) and &. (Coll. Shew that the velocity of the point is &. Shew cosec that the com ponent velocities of the point are x . and dv  s+ vv  t 6 being the angle that the radius vector 4. point moves a fixed line in the plane. is r. % dr v (Coll. Exam.) and obtain expressions component : accelerations. (Coll.cos . Exam. and when its distance from the the velocity is v shew that its acceleration is compounded of accelerations and N. corresponding accelerations are dv ^ + cos0. y) parallel and is (x. X being the inclination of the two directions. x xo)i 2 (x&i + 2# 1 ) cot + 2) Shew o&.) sense.}&. (f).von Vieth. shew accelerations at corresponding places in the two descriptions are as the squares of the the normal to the curve.o&.) 2r that if the axes of x and y rotate with angular velocities coi.) (f) two different descriptions of a curve by a moving point. vv .) opposite senses.a) . of the point in terms of the rates of increase of 0. . Exam.gt. but in the opposite and (iii) a uniform circular motion with angular velocity (n + this last.gt.) a.2) cot \/r. along the radius vector and normal respectively.gt.2 2/o&. l)a&. v&.gt. and that their directions make equal angles with (J.. determine the acceleration 6.gt. s in length in inclination to the line joining the two fixed points.2 + (. and 9. : cosh 6 6. the angle between them. /3 A in a plane.a) + xd (/3 . f = v + ud cosec x + cot x.p .gt.lt. /3 are given functions of the time. .gt. (Coll. If in velocities at corresponding 7. 0.) The velocity of a point line.lt. 3. where makes with the fixed direction. (Coll.y$ cosec for the (/3 .lt. / in these directions of the accelera made up u.a).gt. and is referred to Cartesian axes making angles with a. Exam.(v*r). .a). and between the fixed points. 5.i] Kinematical Preliminaries 23 x = ri2a/(n 2 l). Being given that the lines joining a moving point to two fixed points are r. y +y$ cot .xd cot (/3 . %.
which are at any point inversely as the radii vectores r. Shew that when a point describes a spacecurve. Shew that the equations a&. and two similar expressions. one being the locus of those points which are passing cusps on their curve loci in space and the other being the locus of the centres of curvature of the envelopes in space of all straight lines of the lamina. Shew that the accelerations are A 4a4 F 2 4a4 72 where a is the radius of the circle and V the velocity of the point parallel to the diameter.) is A circle. r and p are the distances of this projection from the moving point and the tangent. v are the velocities in the directions of r .) 11. . B of & fixed chord. point describes a semicircle under accelerations directed to the extremities of a diameter. Exam. v in the and if directions of these lengths will their mutual inclination be v+uv/t. where v. its acceleration can be resolved into two components. of which one acts along the radius vector from the projection of a fixed point on the osculating plane. B. T tan . Exam. (Siacci. and the component velocities of a moving point the directions PA. (Coll. shew that the accelerations along AP. and ivrf rH x dt r. be u uvcosd/t. )= o&. and the position of the point 13. and the other along the tangent and that these are . dv vv rr . The movement of a plane lamina is given by the angular velocity and the com resolved along axes Ox. Exam. 6. and a point lie in one plane.gt. . and a is the angle APB. Exam. v.) . PC be u.gt.H vv rr dt cos a). ponent velocities u. (r ^ r cos a). y] of the lamina. C be three fixed points. . 1 ( at . PB. and w shew that the accelerations in the same along . Oy traced on the lamina. r are the distances of the particle at P 14. (Coll.24 10. BP are respectively dv j. P directions are / 1 cosAPB 1 cosAPC\ (Coll. r to the extremities of the diameter. the component accelerations (Coll. T is an arbitrary function (equal to the product of p and the velocity) and s is the arc. determined by the lengths t of its tangent to the circle and p of its perpendicular to the line.) A particle moves in a circular arc.) represent circular loci on the lamina 12. . from the extremities A. v of the origin Find the component velocities of any point (x.  ". Kinematical Preliminaries _ CIL If A. respectively L P3 fi~ds ^ P p* TdT + T*qdq ~d7 J where p is the radius of curvature. Prove that. a straight line. If r. if the velocity of the point is made up of components u. q the distance of the fixed point from its projection on the osculating plane.
of contact. and at any instant its angular 2 along the tangent to the lines of curvature at the point velocity has components coj.) 18. Shew the same time turning round a fixed axis perpendicular to it with angular velocity that the path of the point is given by the equation o&.lt. the plane at 16.. Prove that the a fixed point and a describes uniformly a circle whose centre is is a fixed point and p describes velocity of Q at any instant is represented by Op. o&. Exam. from the axis of rotation.) 19.) &.*~~ ".) A point on a plane is moving with constant velocity V relative to it.gt. Kinematical Preliminaries The motion its 25 (u. A its velocit y at the P oint where the curve meets the hyperboloid of two sheets .o. A point moves along the curve of intersection of the ellipsoid ~g A the hyperboloid of one sheet ^ d 222 +O ?/ +W+. Exam. R% are the principal of contact. Math.gt.i] 15. where . radii of curvature of the surface of the body at the point (Coll.2^T =1 and &. and shew that the direction of motion of any other point perpendicular to PI.) . /ri n . (Camb. is defined by the velocity one of Determine the coordinates relative to angular velocity points the point 7 of zero velocity. and determine the path described by Q. P in terms of its coordinates relative to J. : where RI. v} of of a rigid its body in two dimensions &.gt. 1902. and 3 along the normal shew that the point of the body which is at the point of contact has component accelerations o&.oa. and a being the shortest distance of the point (Coll. +C . A &. a circle uniformly . Part I. C and C of is P Find the coordinates of the point J of zero acceleration. Exam. Tripos.= 1 an d ~". Prove that the resolved part of the acceleration of the point along is the normal to the ellipsoid h 2 abc (n X) 7=.. (Coll.lt.. Exam.gt. and express the acceleration of (Coll. is where The acceleration of a moving point Q is represented at any instant by 17. J1 a 2 /i + b T21 l~ p ~~? 2 = /i 1 *s c where h is constant. A rigid body is rolling without sliding on a plane.gt. r and 6 being referred to fixed axes.
terrestrial to denote invariable objects position relative to the surface of the earth at of bodies as due no longer be disregarded. 1910) . Relativity (London. When however we come to consider the motion to specific But the earth is rotating on its axis. so far as with respect to the systems which are called question of what is ". kinematical considerations. it is significance of these words. that we consider the it So long as we displacement of the moving systems. In popular language the word is generally used of meant by absolute fixity. Whittaker s or Conway History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity.". anything which can be really considered to be ". leaving on one side the causes. to with reference to which the motion considering .". was supposed that the aether of space (the and magnetic actions) was (apart from small vibratory motions) stagnant. It seems hopeless therefore to attempt to find rest.fixed". 1915). affects their configuration ". this question can ". (London. ". ". or frame ".fixed. that there is some set of axes. although when we speak is of the motion of bodies we always imply be called. s xii. fixed and moving as applied to systems.CHAPTER II THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION The ideas of rest and motion. Accordingly in dynamics. domain of electromagnetic it In the nineteenth century vehicle of light and of electric phenomena it is translatory motion impossible to distinguish absolute rest from a state of uniform common to all the members of a system.". Cf. it must not be yet supposed that absolute fixity has thereby been discovered. are occupied with purely to enter into the ultimate unnecessary that is meant is. while the Sun in turn. In the previous chapter we have frequently used the terms 19.". When we are regarded as taking place. and so was capable of providing a basis for absolute fixity. ". ch. ". ". and at the same time revolving round the Sun. is moving with a large velocity along some not very accurately known direction in space. But this doctrine has been subverted by the modern Principle which asserts that even in the of Relativity*. all ". of reference as it may and which we apply the conventional word fixed. accompanied by all the planets.at the place considered.
is of constant amount. This and is generally denoted by the letter g its in Great Britain. and which is sufficient for our present purpose. happen : be converted into the ordinary measure in terms of mean solar hours. or particle as we shall call it. and the methods of the preceding chapter enable us. This angular measure can different points of space ". The paths described by such a particle under various circumstances of projection may be observed. we shall take the frame of reference to be fixed with reference to the earth. the earth s motion does not exercise a sufficient disturbing influence to make it necessary to allow for its effects in the majority of cases of the motion of .".". terrestrial bodies. it is natural to begin by investigating the motion of a very small material body. i. and seconds at the rate of 360 degrees to 24 x 365/366 hours. and taking the earth as the frame of reference. about 981 centimetres per second per second. minutes. measures the time elapsed between the events in question. The knowledge of this experimental fact is theoretically sufficient to enable us to calculate the path of any free terrestrial particle in vacuo. and it is then found that the laws which will presently be given are sufficient to explain the phenomena with a sufficient degree of accuracy in other words. and is known as gravity. 1687). to calculate the acceleration of the particle at any point of any It is found that for all the paths the acceleration particular observed path. as The case of belongs more properly to a later chapter. when moving in vacuo and entirely unconnected with surrounding objects. and * The laws of motion are due to Newton : Principia. from the knowledge thus acquired. meaning to be attached to the word which in the previous chapter stood merely for any parameter time. in the interval between two events. Considering now the motion of terrestrial objects. .19. 12 (ed. whose small motions we can for this purpose neglect). . to explain what is meant by saying that two events at : at the same time. p. a system of timemeasurement which is intelligible from the point of view of ordinary instrumental work. The laws which determine motion*. varying continuously with the configuration of the systems considered. it is by no means easy to define simultaneity. is the following we suppose that the angle through which the earth has rotated on its axis (measured with reference to the fixed stars.e. when the circumstances of its projection are known the actual calculation will not : be given here. It is also necessary to consider the ". However. The Principle of Relativity reveals the great difficulties that attend any attempt to elucidate the idea of time in particular. 20. always directed vertically downwards. 20] The Equations of Motion 27 the motion of terrestrial bodies at some place on the earth s surface. is acceleration amount is. motion which is next in simplicity is that of two it particles which are connected together by an extremely light inextensible thread.
Denoting the particles by A and B. the masses of the other particles . . . is a perfectly definite quantity. .. equal to the ratio of the weight of B to the weight of A the ratio of the weights of two terrestrial bodies.. This generalised statement is as follows: If any set of mutually connected particles are in motion. and then to call the numbers B me. each particle were not present. whether terrestrial or cosmic. We thereby arrive at the experimental fact. B.gt. AB . m^jm^. m$.. . particles. the two particles influence each other s motion. The ratios of these due to numbers the influence mA mB of . [OH.^8 are free to The Equations of Motion move in vacuo at the earth s surface. we are led to the conclusion that this ratio is an invariable physical constant of the pair of bodies A and B*. of which one represents the acceleration g and the other along the instantaneous position of the thread. just as if the other But when the thread is taut. are invariable physical constants of the particles. On the motions which result from various modes of investigating projection. me. the acceleration with which any one particle moves is the resultant of the acceleration with which it would move if perfectly free... Moreover. n slack. at various temperatures etc.gt. We can now as before observe the path of one of the and hence calculate the acceleration by which at any instant its motion is this acceleration being modified. and does not vary with the place of observation. The ratio is in i act. The evidence for the truth of this statement it. and accelerations directed along the lines joining it to the other particles which constrain its motion. the magnitudes of the accelerations/! and/2 thus exerted by B on A and by A on B respectively and this calculation immediately yields .. from the observed paths. a standard. such that the acceleration along m m n&.. m . which acts along the line joining the particles and which is compounded The with gravity according to the vectorial law of composition of accelerations.. It will such as those given later in this determined by the law be noticed that only the ratios of the numbers m^. calling it the unit of mass. we can at any instant calculate. numbers can be due to the f^A) assigned.m^. that can be represented at any instant by the resultant of two is directed vectors. So long as the thread is moves with the acceleration gravity. as observed at the same place on the earth s surface.. are it is convenient to take some definite particle A as . is to be found in the universal agreement of the calculations based on book. it is On consideration of the motion of more complex systems found that the experimental laws just stated can be generalised so as to form a complete basis for all dynamics. c&. influence of one particle on the motion of the other consists there fore in superposing on the acceleration due to gravity another acceleration. the result that the ratio of f\ to /2 does not vary throughout the motion.. to the several particles A. with the results of observation. * . ?7ic/m A . C. influence of in the ratio on B on A is to the acceleration along BA A B m^.
Two at this point. is induced in In general. i. m and the resultant of this acceleration and the acceleration which the free (due to such causes as gravitation) is particle A would have if entirely the actual acceleration with which the particle A moves. . equal particles by every pair of called the Law of Action and Reaction. 8. mass of any other body to this unit mass representing the ratio of the called the mass of the body in grammes. particles . . we can speak of the to take as our unit of body of any size or shape and it will be convenient known as the mass the mass of the part of a certain piece of platinum this unit will be called a gramme. if an acceleration represented by a vector due to called vector the a particle of mass the/orce* mfis by any agency. With this terminology. def. the resultant force gives the total influence exerted by them on the particle A this force divided by A is the acceleration induced in A by the other . is Force. . instant. these accelerations being along We and being inversely proportional to the masses m A and m B It follows that the vector quantity m A fA is equal to the vector quantity m s fB but has The vector m A fA is called the force exerted by the the reverse direction. then we have the equations mx = X. Y. z) any instant. other terms which are frequently used may conveniently be defined Force is the vis matrix of Newton s Principia. particle at that described is which its being path ponents of the acceleration with / m . is found to be equal to the mass of a finite Owing to this additive property of mass. the law of the : mutual action of a connected on each other system of particles can be stated in the form the forces exerted This is often and are connected opposite. . 21] The Equations of Motion of the 29 or The mass compound particle formed by uniting two more particles of the masses of the separate particles. 21. fii have seen that in every case of the interaction of two particles A and acceleration B. * my = Y.20. sum y^th kilogramme. the mutual influence consists of an acceleration fA on A and an BA respec and AB directed vectors on B. this cause acting on the particle and the resultant of all the forces due to It follows various agencies is called the total force acting on the particle. A and similarly the vector m B fB is called the force particle B on the particle exerted by the particle A on the particle B. and the number standard . tively. y. Z) are the com and at the on total force acting (x. axes of the fixed to the are if that rectangular components parallel (X. mz = Z. If the various forces which act on a particle A as a result of its connexion with other particles are compounded according to the vectorial law.
or constraints due to other particles which are not regarded as forming part of the system. along the direction of motion p. Work. z) and let (X. y. z) to the position in the (x + Bx. the particle first m gradually displaced from any position (which we can to some other position at a finite distance from the call its initial position) its final position). whose coordinates referred to fixed rectangular axes in any selected configuration of the system are (x. whose motion is either quite free or by given connexions between the particles. * The work done on the particle by the forces (which we can call which act on Newton defined the Actio Agentis . y. i. the two on the surface). Suppose now is that in the course of a motion of the system. z). Principia. 1687). Y. y + By. if any m m move on a given surface. 22. Z} be the components.30 The product The Equations of Motion [OH. This expression can evidently be interpreted physically as being the product of the distance through which the particle is displaced and the com ponent of the force (X. z + 8z). they are said to define & field offorce. of the total force . Z) of the force acting on a single free particle are given functions of the coordinates (x. the sum of the com ponents in a given direction of any number of forces acting together on a particle is equal to the component in this direction of their resultant and hence the work done by a force which acts on a particle in a given displace ment is equal to the sum of the quantities of work done in the same displacement : by any set offorces into which this force can be resolved. Consider restricted now any system of particles. n of the number which represents the magnitude of the com of a ponent given force perpendicular to a given line L and the number which represents the perpendicular distance of the line of action of the force from the line L is called the moment of the force about the line L. it is as the product of the velocity into the component of force evidently the timeflux of the work done. y+ Sy. y. Then the quantity constrained to points must both be situated X&K + is 1% + ZSz m it called the work* done on the particle by the forces acting on infinitesimal displacement from the position (x. Cf. Let m be the mass of any one of the particles. Let (x + Sx. Since forces obey the vectorial law of composition. y. Y. If the three components (X. acting on the particle in this configuration. 25 (ed. Y. z + 8z) be the coordinates of any point very near to the point (x. such that the displacement of the particle from one to the other does not violate of the constraints is point (for instance. parallel to the axes. . z) of the particle. Z) along the direction of this displacement.
consider any mode of displacing the various particles of the system which is not inconsistent with the connexions and constraints. \2\ we have j/ /.2123] it The Equations of Motion 31 during this finite displacement is defined to be the sum of the quantities work done in the successive infinitesimal displacements by which we can regard the finite displacement as achieved. and therefore displacement the point of application of the reaction is displaced in a direction perpendicular to the reaction. 23. Z) are the components of the force exerted by the first particle on the second. The reaction is (to the first order of small infinitesimal displacement. the total work done by these forces in an arbitrary displacement X (8x But since the distance Cj 2 Sx. These definitions can now be extended to the whole set of particles which form the system considered the system being initially in any given con . and which are characterised by the feature that during the motion they do no work on the system. reactions of fixed perfectly rough surfaces: the term perfectly rough implies that the motion of any body in contact with the surface is one of pure rolling without sliding. Among 1. The mutual lt . where the integration the arc s is taken between the initial and final positions along described in space by the particle during displacement. . the sum of the quantities of work performed on all the particles of the system in we the displacement is called the total work done on the system in the displace ment by the forces which act on it. so that Y. Y. Forces which do no work. \2 _]_ / A . and therefore the point of application of the 2. There are certain classes of forces which frequently occur in dynamical systems. (X. The work done in a finite dis of placement is therefore represented by the integral dx as v dy (LS dz\ (is / . by the second particle on the is first. Z) are the components of the force exerted 3. these may is be mentioned the term smooth implies in each infinitesimal The reactions of fixed smooth surfaces: that the reaction normal to the surface. together: for if (x1} reaction of two particles which are rigidly connected y z^) and (#2 y2 z2 ) are the coordinates of the particles. so that no work quantities) not displaced in each is done. and (X. so that no work is done. figuration.) + Y (Sy \ v I 2 Si/i) 3 */ + Z (8z \ 2 &2A / * between the particles \2 is invariable.
and mass of the various parts of which it is composed. n we force acts in the direction of the line joining the particles. the position of a number coordinates single free particle in space is completely defined by its three rectangular the position of (x. &. z) with reference to some fixed set of axes . The coordinates of a dynamical system. number particles. its configuration at any time can be specified in terms of a of quantities which vary when the configuration is altered. the constitution of such a system (i. is completely determined by three co of whose one points body. 24. in the aggregate.2 . Combining the last two equations. a single particle which is constrained to move in a fixed narrow tube. and the constraints which act on When is them) and certain given. we have 2 X (8x the particles. 5. no work in any displacement of the body. namely the three Eulerian angles 6. we can therefore neglect all forces of the abovementioned types.lt. y.SyJ + Z (8z . two particles which are connected by a taut inextensible string can be defined by five coordinates. namely the three rectangular coordinates of one of the .) : (y. and therefore no work done in the aggregate by the mutual forces between rigid body is regarded from the dynamical point of view as an of particles.32 and since the have The Equations of Motion [CH.) : (z2 .. In estimating the total work done by the forces acting on a dynamical system in any displacement of the system.y. or at a joint between two bodies of the system. are similarly seen to belong to the category of forces which do no work. namely the distance s measured along the arc of the tube to the particle from the position of a rigid fixed point in the tube which is taken as origin is fixed. of 10 the position of ordinates. X:Y:Z=(x 2 a?. v/r some . material system is Any regarded from the dynamical point of view as constituted of a of particles. size. so connected together that their mutual distances are aggregate invariable.e. which has the form of a twisted curve in space. . to distinguish them from external forces such as gravity) do. is &O + F(S//2 . which will be called the coordinates of the system. The reactions at a fixed pivot about which a body of the system can turn.) = 2 0.z. It follows from 3 that the reactions between the particles which 4. thus. which are kept at invariable distances from each other by means of suitable internal reactions. the shape. or at a fixed hinge. A are called into play in order that this condition may be satisfied (or molecular forces as they are called.). subject to interconnexions and con a rigid body being regarded as a collection of kinds of various straints . is completely specified by one coordinate.82.
rigid of independent coordinates required to specify the body which is constrained to move in contact with shall generally denote by n the number of coordinates required to the configuration of a system. B&. which is of great importance in the analytical discussion of their motion this distinction may be illustrated a by simple example.gt. this is no longer the case when 8x. defined by the 9 + 4+ B0. which we can take as the plane If five coordinates.. now the plane is by the coordinates (x. i. flexible string.lt. 8^ are arbitrary independent infinitesimal quantities.gt. The sphere can take specify the orientation of the sphere about its centre.. 6. 10. o . But if the plane is perfectly rough. position. 80. but are mutually connected (in fact. is a possible displacement. $. By. D. which fy of &. may be &. to we consider the motion of a sphere of given radius. 86. . &. By. qn . 8$. the sphere can perform it without violating the constraints of the system. 8^r are arbitrary. the displacement from any position. they w. .lt. the configuration of the sphere at by any instant is completely specified namely the two rectangular coordinates (x. it &.. 6. y) of the centre of the sphere and the three Eulerian angles 0. which is constrained move in contact with a given fixed plane.2 to the coordinates q l} q2 .lt.f&. if it consists of a particle which is constrained to be in contact with a surface which in turn is made to rotate with constant angular velocity round a fixed axis). qn &. ... smooth. free to move in space. B&. so long as it is in contact with the the five coordinates If (x.. y. .f&.lt. .g. .. the position of the second particle is uniquely deter mined) and so on.gt.?i&. coordinates (x + 8x.. . where Bac. for the configuration of the string cannot be expressed in terms of a finite number of parameters.gt. a given fixed State the number configuration at any instant of a smooth surface.lt. q n (e. A heavy is which 25.e.2325] particles The Equations of Motion 33 and two of the directioncosines of the string (since when these five quantities are known. The quantities q 1} g. necessary to specify the time t in addition to the coordinates in order to define completely a configuration of the system. B^r). of xy. By. 80. and this implies that the quantities 8x. 8^ are no must be such longer independent.gt.gt. up any position whatever. Holonomic and nonholonomic systems.lt. y+ By. It is now necessary : to call attention to a distinction between two kinds of dynamical systems. defined to any adjacent i/r).f&. ". is an example of a dynamical system excluded by the limitation that n is to be finite. . q n are frequently called the velocities corresponding .f&.gt. y.f B&. Example.?2.lt. for now the condition that the displacement of the point of contact is zero (to the first order of small quantities) must be satisfied. v/r) plane can therefore have any arbitrary values. and shall suppose the systems con specify sidered to be such that n is finite..f&. The coordinates will generally be denoted We by q l} q 2 If the system contains moving constraints .
and let typify the mass of one of the particles its coordinates. n. Zi) be the components of the total force (external and then the equations of motion of this t molecular) acting on the particle are particle m  . n as to satisfy two nonintegrable linear equations) so that in the case of the sphere on the perfectly rough plane. when on the rough fyn) are arbitrary infinitesimal increments of the coordinates in a dynamical system. [CH.34 The Equations of Motion . (1760). . mi ar. 2/t. &/ 2 . and possibly of known t functions of the coordinates q 1} q2 let this also . Mecanique Analytique (1788). referred to some fixed set of rectangular axes. q n ) be the coordinates which specify the con at the time t. These coordinates of individual particles are (from our knowledge of the constitution of the system) the system. Seconde Partie. these will define a possible displacement if the system is holonomic. while for nonholonomic systems a certain number. Taurin.. The equations were . Lagrange s form of the equations of motion of a holonomic system*. Holonomic systems are therefore charac of the system.. Let (q lt q 2 . dynamical system for which a displacement represented by arbitrary infinitesimal changes in the coordinates is in general a possible displacement (as in the case of the sphere on the smooth plane) is said to be holonomic this condition is not satisfied (as in the case of the sphere plane) the system is said to be nonholonomic. Yi.. equations Let (Xi. a displacement represented by arbitrary infinitesimal changes in the coordinates is not necessarily a possible dis placement. Miscell. . figuration of the system 26.i = X it niiyi =Y i} m^ = Z { . dq r * first dg r Lagrange. Let (xi. equations must be satisfied between them in order that they may correspond The number (n m) is called the number of to a possible displacement. q n of be dependence expressed by the .gt. say m.. degrees of freedom terised by the fact that the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent coordinates required to specify the configuration of the system. We shall now consider the motion of a holonomic system with n degrees of freedom. Section suggested in one of his earlier papers. nii Zi) be of the system. of If (&7i&. Multiply these equations by 8 /i ?fc *b dq r iv. A .
this can where the symbol S denotes summation over all the particles of the system be either an integration (if the particles are united into rigid bodies) or a summation over a discrete aggregate of particles.lt. The Equations of Motion add them. Since The mass of a particle multiplied by the square of its velocity was called the vis viva by Leibnitz (Acta erud. &. suppose that I 7 is a known function of its arguments.. and sum f 35 for all the particles of the system.25. qn .t.... 26] respectively. A 7 t ^ dq r J .lt. Xi i _ dqj \d qi dqr dq 2 dqr and therefore we have Now the quantity i2*n(#+#+#) represents the masses of the particles of the system. Vi 5 g + a d y h Zi ^ . ^T".. We thus have 5 2. a*A Xi i 3jci\_ _d_(. sum system.lt. qn. . Xi . * 32 .Wi d fi xi & 4. But we have a 7i ^J^fZL^^^ / &.lt.&. qn . 1695). qn q lt . q\. each this is called the Kinetic half the multiplied by square of its velocity of the constitution of the of the From our Energy knowledge system*. .~r r . ]**2. t The methods of performing this calculation for rigid bodies are given in Chapter V.2 .. *f ^r (. Xi ^/a dt\d / 1 . 9 /i T^ 8&. SO Xi ^ _ Xi ..?a. t). we shall denote it by T(q lt and shall q2 .[JLf \ i dqr J dqr ^\ ?(y .lt. dq r dq r ~dt( dqJ dq _ d ~ dt i.lt.?i. the kinetic energy can be calculated f as a function of &. &.J 2 .. q. . I if l 5 dqr ^ 4. of the .
discriminant are positive.lt.gt. (so far as this is required for the specification of the system) are Since the system is holonomic. do no work. 2&./&. except in so far as they contribute to the kinetic energy T... z are homogeneous linear functions of q l} q2 . consider that displacement of the system in which the coordinate q r is changed to q r + Sq r while the coordinates . +i\ 9g J and the expression on the lefthand side of this equation does not involve the individual particles of the system.. 09V ogv Now 1..q. it follows that the kinetic energy of a system is essentially therefore a positive definite quadratic form in glt q 2 . T is a homogeneous quadratic function of q lt q 2 . . there are several kinds which Among these are.gt. and the tensions of taut inextensible strings : reactions of any fixed smooth surfaces or curves with which bodies of the system are constrained to remain in contact or of perfectly rough surfaces. [CH. For this purpose.!..2.qn and the time unaltered.. particle m. &. this can be effected without In this displacement. The pressures of connectingrods of invariable length.gt. of the forces which act on the system. .. qn .. *\ d&. n and so satisfies the conditions that its discriminant and the principal minors of every order of its From the definition is positive.lt. . the quantities x. ^ time explicitly (as is generally the case if there are no moving constraints in the system). forces The molecular which act between the particles of the rigid : bodies contained in the system 2.36 and iji The Equations of Motion and Z{ . so far as these can enter into holonomic systems 3.qr+i. q n and then &. the righthand side of the equation can also be brought to a form in which the individuality of the separate if We have now to see particles is lost. We have thus derived from the equations of motion the equation ftT\ dt(dqj d dqr~i( dr_y( Y dA+V ^+7 +i d i d dqr dq ^ &... q n if the functions /...gt. T . q n we see that T is a do not involve the . u quadratic function of q ly q are likewise linear functions of q l} q 2 . q 1 . are changed to and therefore the total work done in the displacement is by all the forces which act on the particles of the system 1 * *~\ I * 1 f~\ I ". y..i. the coordinates of the violating the constraints. the reactions at fixed pivots.lt. .j .q. ". as was seen in 23. The . &. : ..
. constitution of the system. p. work done by 8q n ).. and of the forces at work) is a known function of q lt q.. ... external forces an arbitrary displacement the . of the system are constrained to remain in contact. called the external forces. q n then the equations which determine the motion of the system may be written t. q2 .lt. from our knowledge of . Heun.g.. of the problem are altogether eliminated. so far as it is required for the specification of the system. we shall denote 2&.. r V = JL i 4p ZAI d ^* = dq is r dqr oq r to a the work done by the external forces in the displacement which corresponds change of q r to qr + $qr the other coordinates being unaltered.. The forces acting on the system. the equations are theoretically sufficient to determine the motion when the circumstances are given. when these surfaces or curves are forced to move in some prescribed manner for the displacement supposition that t.q2 . Ver. This equation is true for all values of r from 1 to n inclusive we thus have n ordinary differential equations of the second order. qn t.e. let Qi&?i + Qz$qa + lt + Qn $q n in denote the (&?!. . 1. d dT\ dT These are known as Lagranges equations of motion. of the constraints) do not enter into these equations. made on the preceding.re. and . it by Qr (qi. be thus stated initial : We have now arrived at a result which may Let T denote the kinetic energy of a dynamical system. Q Q 2 . are It follows that the quantity 9 ^ /&. (Heft 2) (1900). 37 The reactions of any smooth surfaces or curves with which bodies . q n q lt q2 . i 8(k 4.. Deutsche Math. .. that such surfaces or curves so that this case reduces to the are not moved during the displacement considered above is . It will be observed that the unknown reactions (e. are the dependent variables and t is the independent variable . Q n o. We have therefore fdT\ _3T__ ~n dt(dqj dq r d ^". other than these which do no work. This is . a quantity which (from our knowledge of the constitution of the system.gt. is not varied. ix. mechanics.. . known functions of q lt q2 . as the number of differential equations is equal to the number of dependent variables..26] The Equations of Motion 4. qn t)8q r . so that the T. .... 8q 2 . in which qi. which * The determination of these reactions forms a separate branch of * so we can is known as Kinetostatics say that in Lagranges : equations the kinetostatical relations Cf. .q n . i.. .
q n Choose some configuration of the system. n). .. a conspicuous example of a field of force of this character the work done motion of a particle of mass m from one position at a height h to another position at a height k above the earth s surface is mg(kk). n the Kinetic Potential. 2. Fields of force of this type are said to be conservative.. q n ). .lt.. . Lagrange s equations of motion therefore take the form ____ dt \dqr ) 3q r dqr . (%.. The Equations of Motion Conservative forces fields of force : [CH. The name due to Green (1828)... evidently equal to the infinitesimal decrease in the function V. and this does not depend in any way on the path by which the particle is moved from one position to the Gravity is . In this case the work done by the external forces in an arbitrary displacement .. 5 dq 2 dq n oq n . .. q n ). s~~ #2 8F. q n q lt . (r= 1.. qn .. q.lt. Bqn ) to the displacement. 335). q n .. p. defined by the equation L = TV. If we introduce a new function L of the variables q lt q 2 . . .. ... corresponding i.. Let the configuration of any dynamical system be specified by n coordinates q l} q 2 . is Sq 2 . .7i dV. say that for which . vi. d /dL\ UT then Lagrange s equations can be written 7i 1 dt \dq r j dL = 5 dqr 0. &. 2. (r= 1. . is equal to the quantity ~~ 9F dql 5~ ~~ &.38 27. t. not depending on the mode of displacement. .. configurations Certain being the same whatever be the sequence of infinitesimal displacements by which the finite displacement is effected.. n)... . * The Potentialfunction was introduced by Lagrange Potential is in 1773 (Oeuvres.? Energy* of the system in the configuration (q lt q2 . by gravity in the other. the work done by these forces in a displacement of the system from the configuration (q 1} q2 . q n ) to the standard configuration is a definite function of q lt q^.. Let this function be denoted by V(q } 2 .e. it is called the Potential . have the property that the work done by the forces of the field in a displacement of a dynamical system from one configuration to another depends only on the initial and final of the system. as a standard configuration then if the external forces acting on the system are conservative.=a r .
. The shall explicit We form of Lagranges now shew how the second equations.qn constraints are independent of the time.". 1 * or \ \ s=i .. I where the symbol expression 1. being linear in the accelerations. LXX. or completely specifies. Suppose then that the kinetic energy n is T=  where a H n 2 k=n=i 2. / (r = 1. . 28. *vJi^V..27.. q n we shall suppose that the configuration can be of these coordinates alone.. can be solved In fact. i o \ 2. denotes the 1 /8$. .*i?iika w n ^vj~l v c* c m ZOnqt+2./ ".". a holonomic system for which the forces are conservative.. Ull $12 $22 $32 $13 $23 $21 $31 * It was introduced by Christoffel. 2.. constraints have forced motions (as for instance in the case of a particle constrained to move on a wire which is made to rotate in a given way).. Let the configuration of the dynamical system considered be specified by coordinates q1} q 2 . are known functions of The Lagrangian equations dt or of motion for the system are (r = l.. The function L this single function called the Kinetic Potential. without t..r 9$mr _ 5$. &.a k iqk qi. 2. dq dq (r=l.m \ 9g r / dq for the 2 V3gm \dqm 9^ dq l quantities qs These equations.. . let D denote the determinant . and is of importance in the theory of quadratic differential forms. .% = a {k and where the coefficients .=im=i is rt = Qr. . this is always the case when the qlt q2 . 2. derivatives of the coordinates with respect to the time can be found explicitly from Lagrange s equations. Journal filr Math.w). (1869). n).lt. which called a Christoffel s symbol*. the kinetic energy of the system is a homogeneous quadratic function of As was seen in 26. 28] The Equations of Motion is 39 Lagrangian function . but not in general when the . so that in terms completely specified . r \qiq I". so far as dynamical investigations are concerned.n).
Suppose that. qn . n&. so that if the given axis is taken as axis of z. 2?wr2 will be a function of q lt q 2 . . as we have seen. independently of the prescribed motion round the axis.. provided the system often more convenient to use a theorem which we shall to and which reduces the consideration of systems of this kind that of systems in which no forced rotation about the given axis takes obtain. particle . respectively. n re A rs be the minor of a rs in this determinant.. some part of the system is compelled by an external agency to revolve with constant angular velocity w round a given fixed axis the motion of a bead on a wire which is made to rotate in this . . and add them: from v..gt. and any plane through this axis and turning with the prescribed angular is measured. . .40 and let The Equations of Motion [CH. q of motion.. way is is a simple example. axis. + QSq.. cylindrical coordinates of terms of n coordinates q lt any q2 . A 2v w . . q 2 . in the actual motion be T.. q l} q2 . .... n are q given explicitly as functions of . in which q\.. ni q q q the quantity ./&.. and if the arbitrary infinitesimal displacement .gt. . A nv is . : Now . where Q lt Q 2 .. the velocity is taken as the plane from which the azimuth &... Motion of a system which is constrained to rotate uniformly round an In many dynamical systems. . Multiply the n equations of the above system by A lv . . + Qn &qn . Then if the kinetic energy of the system work done by the external forces in an be Qi&qi q n these expressions not involving the time t... Qn will be supposed to depend only on the coordinates q lt q2 . q n and if the kinetic energy of the system when the forced angular velocity is replaced by zero be denoted T we have lt by .. q lt q 2 .. membering that the quantity 2 has the value A rv ar8 v.+ .. it is There s is. can be regarded as replacing Lagrange s equations 29. the system has n degrees of freedom. The quantity 2rar2 will also be a known function of 1} 2 . and these n equations. but equations to such cases. now place. no objection to the direct application of Lagrange holonomic.. zero when s is different and D when s is equal to n we have ~ n n ^~ n This equation is true for all values of v from 1 to n inclusive.lt. q n which is determined by our knowledge of the constitution of the system denote it by W... m of the system can be expressed in .
so that there is only one coordinate q.2830] ./&. the knowledge of these quantities. angular velocity were zero. by modifying the potential energy. .. qn it will be zero if...lt.. subject to the motion is the same as if were to the potential energy assumption already mentioned. dY . Phys. u. We have therefore and the Lagrangian equations d /dT\ can be written in the form dT d dt dT..... is sufficient to determine the position of any particle in any configuration of the system. together with a knowledge of the constitution of the system. : these are the two them both by as is of the form TCLT&.. . . In the form of Lagrange s equations given in 26. the variables are n coordinates q 1} q2 . Sitzungsbcrichte. &.. the qi.\ d dY\ dT. . way.2 . when co is zero.gt.. . sometimes used of the imaginary forces introduced in this way to represent which the effect of the enforced rotation.. q n are true coordinates of the system.. The Lagrangian equations for quasicoordinates. which may be expressed by saying that q 1} q... We shall now find the form which is taken by the equations when the variables used are no longer restricted to be true coordinates of the system*.lt. 41 linear in q 1} q2 . and 2 2 contain an additional term a) In this the prescribed ^mr . qn being motion of every particle has no component in the direction of increasing while if n is equal to unity. . The Equations of Motion .. . and we shall include 2 suming that ^m?^ &. .. 1902) and Hamel Math.. d dY\ dW ( r rj ^ .gt. . 1904). qn . q n and the time t.. it will be . 30. dqr dqr These equations shew the that. q n the T and the work done by the external forces in a . the perfect differential with respect to t of a function of q cases of most frequent occurrence. kinetic energy being * Consider a system denned by n true coordinates q lt q2 . we are enabled to pass from a system which is constrained to rotate about the given axis to a system for this rotation does not take The term centrifugal forces is place. Particular cases of the theorem of this article were is general form of the equations (Zcitschrift fiir known to Lagrange and Euler: the due to Boltzmann (Wien. where Y is a given function of the coordinates q lt q2 . ....
Multiplying the Lagrangian equations (1) by and adding. . . .... function T. . when solved for q l} /3 Kn q.gt. and in that case variables . so in which 2 /3 Kr Q K S7rr l is the work done in a displacement . 3T\ d Now ^Q K SqK is the work done by the external forces on the system in an arbitrary displacement.(3). ... . . 2..(2). w).. d 2/3 K ".. . O/TT Then we have  =2r rl^P CL*.. \  (dt =n ~ f^_^l \dqj dq K) By means of equations (3) we can eliminate q1} q2 l .. 2. r =a lr q j + a 2r q2 + ..gt.... the relations C^ = V^ were satisfied ^~ oqm oq K and m. so that the Let &. .. . n + Q2 8q. except S?rr done by the external forces on the system in an arbitrary infinitesimal dis placement (Swx.... . .. being Lagrangian equations of motion of the system are %) &% + . where or 21 .... 2.n). . ...coordinates...).. ir r would exist which would be true coordinates we shall not however suppose the equations to be necessarily integrable....gt.. d7rr = a lr dq l + 2rd&.2 . w ni . qn (we not contained explicitly in T) let this form .. + U n 87Tn W6 have .i. so that T becomes a function of w t suppose for simplicity that of T be denoted by T.. + Q n fy n&.. equations would be immediately integrable for all values of K.. respectively. The Equations of Motion [OH. . ir n we shall call the quantities d^. (2).. + anr q n .......gt. where the These C$ coefficients a are the last same as in the previous set of equations. .. drr n differentials of quasi.gt.. q ly q2 . Suppose that the relations equations q&. = I.lt. is 2 . . (r=l... + wn (r r . + ct nr dq n (r = if 1.? 2 + ... d7r n be n linear combinations of the differentials dq lt dq2 .. qn defined by the relations a&. dq n defined the relations by ..... dir^. /8 Br . . so that dir^. .. cfor 2 .. qn . S?r2 . dir^ . &&.. .lt..?i&.. . . S7r n ) is n^TTj + II 2 S7r2 + ... o) 2 .... all the If therefore the work quantities STT are zero. q n from the .lt. we obtain the equation (d & @ 2i . &&. d7r n will not necessarily be the differentials of coordinates 7r a 7r2 ... r. qn and let dir^. to n be ?i independent linear combinations of the velocities fy...42 displacement (8ql} 8q2 . . give the = /3Kl w + l /3 K2 &) 2 + . ann are given functions of q lt qz . .
we shall it by the symbol = OTT. whether TT. and oq K the equations reduce to the ordinary Lagrangian equations d dT\ dT Example.gt.gt. o&. are satisfied. so that the coordinates of the body can be taken to be the three Eulerian angles 6. since the conditions 5^ oqm = . 3 be the components about the axes Oxyz of the angular velocity of the body . : let 0)1. 8$. and is independent of the nature or motion of the dynamical system considered we shall denote this expression : by 7rz We have therefore at 5 \0r/ rg ii = . Oy. g oqK dw s dq K o _ af ". quasicoordinates These n equations are the equations of motion expressed in terms of the when the quasicoordinates are true coordinates. 8^) of the body be equivalent to the resultant of small rotations ST^.gt. so that diri..lt. o&.25". Let an arbitrary displacement (80. ^.. fixed in the body and moving with it. which ( 10) specify the position of axes Oxyz.ft Kr a KS is zero or unity according as r K so we have d dt (fo r ) /^UXS* + 7.30] and therefore The Equations of Motion d /df sj 43 s dco s dT ^ dT jda KS at is dq K different from. d * sdT Sfl . 2. STT.r^^ s ^ v af m d(o s 8ams dq K . Also the expression depends only on the connexion between the true coordinates and the dif ferentials of the quasicoordinates. Oz.= C7Tr = Ur s i Od) s (r = 1. aT 5 ". . which is fixed. . ri). s : *5&. A rigid body is free to turn about one of its points 0.lt.2 o?7r 3 can be taken as the differentials of quasicoordinates &.. . 5i TT We also have a dT__dT v 8f ~r ** o o oq K s a&&.. 2 . OXYZ . with reference to axes fixed in space. would represent 5 ^ if ?r r were a true is coordinate . or 2= denote s* .i ". Qmy dq K * Now Sy8 Kr ^ . . the . or equal But to. dir. respectively. a true coordinate or not. ^ ^ quantities 7^ are all zero. 8*3 round Ox.
.lt. Forces derivable from a potentialfunction which involves the velocities.gt. 0. r It will appear later that T depends only on a 1} o) 2 . ar OTT..ai/ I d /dT\ ffl a&./&..dt qn q lt .. U.3 sponding respectively to the velocities the body are i.dt \dq r j )a=0 dq r dL The function. .gt. In certain cases the conception of a potentialenergy function can be extended to dynamical systems in which the acting forces depend not only on the position but on the velocities and accelerations of the bodies.. af J21 a&. the Lagrangian equa tions of motion are _ dt(dqj and if ~ dqr dqr _ dt(dqr ) a kinetic potential L be defined by the equation L = TV. moments about the axes Ox.. n\ where V is a given function of q lt q2 . OTs a&.oay = H 2 3.. .lt. .  j. &&. *//. dir 2 . .gt. a&. of the external forces .gt. of d& stands for ^.lt. ..p VTr r af a^ + i i 07r dy 3 . o&. [CH. ((}dt I dT ~ 1&.gt. acting on the body . ot OTT. . 2. function V An example can be regarded as a generalised potential energy of such a system is furnished by the motion of a .BO dT ^ ^r dT = IIi.gt. uir r 31. and . Oz.. coordinates q 1} q2 For consider a dynamical system whose configuration is specified by . 0&... \o&. so that diri. 8qn ) is . .. qn . 7* is 3 n n n 2.lt.3/ 2 3 ar  a?7 i h 00)! 3 OQ) . where : . Oy.gt. q n and suppose that the work done by the external forces in an arbitrary displacement (Bq lt 8q 2 . respectively. are the differentials of quasicoordinates corre Shew that the equations of motion of 2 3 &&. (r = 1. . expressed in terms of 1? 2 3 6. n dn. 87^ so the terms = are zero.. Then if Qr can be expressed in the form dv jr d /dv r^. . .44 at The Equations of Motion any instant.. . are the the kinetic energy of the body. dq r \dq r j . the equations take the customary form d fdL\ T..^ .
Journal fiir Math. .. Qn of a dynamical system which is specified by coordinates q ly q 2 .. b. (1896). (1898).e. q n satisfying the n(2n . 231.. Q lt ^2 . q n expressions of the type */2 2 J 2 I 2 2 ? the coefficients a. Berickte. . (1848). 32. general ever always possible (except in the vicinity of certain singularities which need not be considered here) to solve a set of differential equations by power The series. . and equating to zero the coefficients of the various * W. L. p. Leipzig.. 226 . shew that Q l} Q2 relations . i. On the general may be made to conditions for the existence of a kinetic potential of forces. Whittaker s History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity. If the forces . Hirsch. Vol. so that _oq r dt q2 . Math. 193.. Initial motions. c.. Helmholtz. Weber. r2 \ c the distance of the particle from the centre of force is defined by the equation the function where r is : in this case V Example.... .. Vol. Vol. Annalen....gt. pp. Cf. XLVIII. LXXIII. differential equations of motion of a dynamical system cannot in It is how be solved in a finite form in terms of known functions. can in fact be obtained by substituting these series in the differential equations. to obtain for the dependent variables q lf q 2 .q n are derivable from a generalised potentialfunction F.. Phys. 1 / f 2 __ 2r 2 f&. Mayer..3032] The Equations of Motion 45 to a fixed law of attraction* particle subject to Weber s electrodynamic mass on the unit the force acting particle being per point. (1886).. Annalen d... reference . . QH must be linear functions of q\.
the radius of curvature at the point u known to be so the radius of curvature corresponding to the zero value of u. which is free to move in a rest. we find. and substitute in these differential equations. to the initial point (. T) may be regarded as small quantities then the equations of motion are . and let it be required to y + *i) be the coordinates any point adjacent .(x *+ Y ^\ Y dy ) \ ctx dy ) and this is the required radius of curvature of the path of the particle at the initial point. Example. . is (x ~ + V ox r) x. required about the within plain that these series will give any information which may be initial character of the motion (t being measured from the i commencement initial of the motion). 3Y(x.y} 8y If therefore we assume for and 77 the expansions to include terms of lower order than t 2 since the quantities T) (it is not necessary TJ. plane and initially at Consider the motion of a particle of unit mass.z. 6 = 0.#) . the relations . initial any point (x. y} are (X. on comparing the coefficients of various powers of t. of a system is illustrated by the following example. . Y) radius of curvature of the path. are initially zero). of . and which is acted on by a field of force whose components parallel to fixed rectangular axes at determine the Let (# + so that . since is the initial value of q lt 6 X is the This method of discussing the initial motion value of q l9 and so on. . for the curve given by the above expressions.46 powers of It is t . c  The path of the particle near the point (X y) is therefore given by the series where denotes the quantity \&. The Equations of Motion t [OH. if Now the coordinates  and 77 of any curve are expressed is in terms of a parameter u. y). y). . n the expansions will converge in general for values of some definite circle of convergence in the tfplane.
Principia. x is altered in the we must have : 1. and this is the required relation between the numbers x. and conse Example.. by the equation where i = V to r. We have seen that the motion of any dynamical system which is subjected to constraints independent of the time. A special case of similarity is that in which the ratio w has the value 1. q2 . so that the times elapsed between corresponding phases are in the : : : z. y. The Equations of Motion Similarity in dynamical systems*. is expressed the by which depend only on Lagrangian equations d /8T\ where the kinetic energy I velocities q\. we have w=y. ratio xz* : 1. z. 32. If To find the relation between the various ratios involved. w.. m is altered in the ratio y altered in the ratio w : I. is . let the rates of working be in the ratio z 1... every particle attracting every other particle with a force proportional to the product of the masses and 2 2 the inverse square of the distance. bear certain ratios to each other. though possibly at speeds which are not the same but bear a constant ratio to each other. but on a different If now the masses and forces in the two systems. the pattern and model respectively. working the ratio y\ : x%. q n only. 2 quently xy = I.. Then since Newton. 34. the workings of the two systems will be similar. and to forces the positions of the particles. we have are in /x so that the rates of If the forces acting are those w=y . .\. which we can call scale. variable defined Introduce a new independent T = it. have an equation of motion of the form ratio 1 : Then for each particle we mx = X so if . . and let accents denote * differentiations with regard 7. 47 any system of connected particles and rigid bodies is given. . let the masses of corresponding particles be in the ratio y 1.. qn in any way. and let the forces be in the ratio w. and X is w = xyz*. q n a function of q l . it is possible to construct another system exactly similar to it. Book n.. let the linear dimensions of the model and pattern be in the ratio x 1..3234] 33. Prop. a homogeneous quadratic function of the involving the coordinates q lt q 2 . Sect.. 1. so that the rates of working are inversely as the square roots of the linear dimensions. . Motion with reversed forces. j a 7 dT and Q is . . due to gravity. If the forces acting are the mutual gravitations of the particles.
qi.. where 3i. mz).. /32 . q n&.g. n are the initial values of q lt q.lt. . qn } q lt . Book i. q respectively.. n&.. .gt.. But ft. in the collision of rigid bodies) the velocities of the particles in a dynamical system are changed so rapidly that the time occupied in the process may... We if t be replaced by .. in any particular case of the motion of the original system. if a 1} a2 . : The laws which govern the impulsive motion The number which represents the mass of a particle. 43. any dynamical system subjected to constraints independent of the time and to forces which depend only on the position of the particles.. in dt.V &. . . Moreover. for analytical purposes. No. pp... q. &. q n that T is of qn.. the integrals of the equations of motion are still real . multiplied by the vector which represents its velocity at any instant.). .gt..48 d /dT\ dt . If any number of particles form a dynamical system.2.. The impulsive changes component in that direction of the momentum of the The * effect of an agency which causes impulsive motion in the system in the discovery of the laws of impact in 1668 by Wallis They were involved and Wren. be altogether neglected.gt.. these last are the of motion of the same system when equations equations subjected to the same forces reversed in direction. 35. 864. the sum of the components in any given direction of the momenta of the particles is called the system.r= 1. drdq.gt. z) therefore (mx... t Momentum is the quantitas motus of traced back to Descartes.. . idea can be Phil. is a vector quantity (localised in a line through the particle) which is called the momentum of axes Oxyz of the the particle at that instantf. n  T (instead of t) be now interpreted as denoting the time. an if ..V by .. /3 n .V^l&.. The . are m y. Def. *J It and the initial velocities l/32 . Trans. conditions.T [CH. the three components parallel to rectangularmomentum of a particle of mass at the point (x. then a l} a 2 ... it were acted on by the same forces reversed in direction. a n ifr. . 2.. of velocity in the various particles of a connected system can be regarded as the result of sudden communications of momentum to the particles. . Impulsive motion... qz . Newton s Principia.gt.... &&.lt. the above equations beC me is ... . n \M ) r hom g eneous d fc^\ of degree d 2 &... l{j n respectively. iftn will be the corresponding quantities in the transformed i/3 thus have the theorem that in problem. .. and the expressions thus obtained repre sent the motion which the same with the same initial system would have if.gt.. 867... The Equations of Motion dT are a&. q*. . of a system bear a close analogy to those which apply in the case of motion under finite forces they can be formulated in the following way*. q lt q 2&. In certain cases (e.)^ =$ the same function of . my. 2&..
Change of kinetic energy due The change in kinetic energy of a dynamical system whose particles are acted on by a given set of impulses may be determined in the following way. before and after the impulse. to v. The equations NO). m (w w ) represents the impulse acting on the particle. communication of the impulse. and summing. the law just stated agrees with the law of Action and Reaction for finite forces. $(vM+v M ). v. If therefore v . referred to fixed axes in space. measured by the momentum which the particle would acquire if free) together with impulses directed along the lines which join this particle to the other particles which system is equal to the resultant constrain its motion. w) are the com be measured by the free particle. JV). For the discussion of the impulsive motion of a connected system of particles. w) ponents of velocity of the particle after the impulse. before the impulsive communication of momentum to the particle. we have ). J/. M whose Multiplying these equations respectively by $(vL + vQ L and adding. to which given impulses are communicated applying this result to each particle of the system. j/). W. in a direction whose direction cosines are (Z directioncosines are (L. each multiplied by the mean of the components. . of the velocity of its point of application in the direction of the In this result we can clearly neglect the impulse. and the mutually induced impulses between two connected particles are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign. ^. m (v v ). of the external impulse on the particle (i. then the vector quantity (localised in a line through the particle) whose components are m (u w ).e. Now consider any dynamical system of connected particles and rigid bodies. and if (u. changing its velocity from v . to impulses. /. directed along a line whose directioncosines referred to fixed axes of be communicated to a particle of mass m. it is clearly necessary to have some experimental law analogous to the law of Action and Reaction of finite forces such a law is contained in the statement that the total impulse acting on a particle of a connected . the impulse communicated by agencies external to the system. 35] will The Equations of Motion momentum which (?/ 0) 49 it would communicate to a single are the components of velocity of a particle of mass m. of the velocity of the particle in the direction of the impulse. and The change in kinetic energy of the particle is therefore equal to the product of the impulse and the mean of the components. in a direction of impulsive motion are . impulsive forces between the molecules of any rigid body of the system. we see that the change in the kinetic energy of the system is equal to the sum of the impulses applied to it. If we regard the components of an impulse as the timeintegrals of the components of an ordinary finite force which is very large but acts only for a very short time. D.34. before and after the . . Let an impulse reference are (A.
^) dq r ) = Qr . and similarly . of [CH.) vst ^.4o) oq r + (y t 2/ io ) + oq r (*t . Anal.. 183.".bxi_ Vi dqr dxi _ d ( dq r . The Equations of Motion The Lagrangian equations of impulsive motion.?!.asfe) = \ ". Zi) be the components of the total impulse (external and molecular) applied to a particle m.). system can be Lagrangian equations of motion for a dynamical Let (X i} Yi. _ _9^ . where (x^.+ .~dq r .50 36. yi. p. cq r oq r cqr/ where the summation is extended over all the particles of the system.I . y io z^) and (x i} y i} z^ denote the components of velocity of the particle before and after the application of the impulse. situated at the point The equations of impulsive motion of the particle are (#. m { (an . of the system.. Thus if * Due to Lagrange.". in the following way. Mec.lt. x )=X io iy m t (y t y io ) =T i} m { (z { .. .z^) = Z { . / (&i z e it} Yv ) 5 9gv ??/ * (JiXj i ^ T * t ^ T ^f ^ OZ .gt. But as in 26 we have da^_dxi dq. 1 / s (x t .. / h (yi  \ y*&. we have therefore &. ". u The equations impulsive motion of expressed in a form* analogous to the finite forces. qn denote the n independent coordinates in terms of which the configuration of the system can be expressed. . ^ 2 m.. z^. * . . . 26 that the molecular impulses between particles of the : system can be omitted the quantity l ^ dqr dqr dq r can therefore readily be found when the external impulses are known: we shall denote it by the symbol Qr We have consequently . 2m. *dqr~dqU where q ro and q r denote the velocities of the coordinate q r before and after the impulse respectively. Now it is in seen as in forming the summation on the righthand side of this equation. t (& t ( . If ^ 2 . e (2 ed. n.
. p. . Z= dx2 + cubic and higher terms in x. Two rigid bodies moving in space are constrained only by a taut inextensible string joining a given point of one body to a given point of the other. in x. .. qnl fdT\ which are known as the Lagrangian equations of impulsive motion. y. are given by three equations of the type d_ 3. the above equation can be written in the form dqr /rl \dq r /Q /} Y 7 \ T1 where (~ ) \oqr/ o denotes the quantity corresponding to ^. Find the radii of curvature and torsion of the orbit at the origin. z . for the determination of q lt q2 . 42 .36] The Equations of Motion 51 denotes the kinetic energy of the system after the impulse. qm they are not differential equations like the Lagrangian of motion for finite forces.gt. and is in of force whose components (X. and one of the bodies is constrained to roll without sliding on a given fixed surface. y. z. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. z. Exam. b. . and the square of its velocity is 2 T= A a? + Bb 2 + Cc2 + 2Fbc + 2Gcd + 2Hdb.. 1. These are algebraical equations terms of q w qw . ) dt (d \dd oaj da p JA + . r. F.gt.. and thus we obtain the Similar equations can be found for the rest of the coordinates q 1} g 2 set of n equations &... r. How many degrees of freedom has the system. q. but relating to the oc[r instant before the impulse. ? A point is referred to curvilinear coordinates a. . _ q 2 + T. ) v/6 3. Z) at any point (x.= j coordinate lines. Shew that the component accelerations in the directions of the tangents to the f F\ dT fiT\ . a field particle which is free to move in space is initially at rest at the origin. z) are given by the expansions A JT= a +bx+ quadratic and higher terms Y= cx+ quadratic and higher terms in x. and how many independent coordinates are required to specify its con figuration 2.  . y. c. y. . &. qn in equations coordinates with respect to the time do not enter. since the second derivates of the . TT H (~* JB (Coll.
are known functions of their arguments. . 2.. k\ X X l} 2 ..q n as dependent variables and t as independent variable. X k . by taking as new variables (x1 x2 . a finite The determination of the motion of a holonomic dynamical system with number of degrees of freedom has in the preceding chapter been shewn to depend on the solution of a set of ordinary differential equations. with q lt q 2 . x ^3&. \< MS* &4/I ~~JT dx4 _ ^ ^2 / \< %2&. integration in the general solution of a holonomic dynamical problem with n degrees of freedom.. Problems which are soluble by quadratures. (r = 1.. the set of equations the original set of equations. .. This set of equations is said to be of order 2n. It is a wellknown result of the theory of ordinary differential equations that the number of arbitrary constants of integration in the solution of a set of differential equations is equal to the order of the system whence it follows that there are 2n constants of . and (q 1} q2 .gt. t}... each of the second order.. fiat ^4)5 . dx2 _ ~~rr ^4&.. Q and Q2 l are any functions of the arguments indicated) which is of can be reduced to the set dx l ~T7 _ ^3&. the order being defined to . . be the sum of the orders of the highest derivates of the dependent vari ables occurring in the equations. coordinates specifying the configuration of the system at the time t.gt.g. dx3 ~jT _ f) ^Jl . then the set of equations consists of n differential equations.gt. Now any given set of differential equations of order k can be reduced to the form ^ where = X r (ae 1} x2 ...CHAPTER III 37. xk . (where order 4. xk ) the original dependent variables together with their derivates up to (but not including) the highest derivates occurring in Thus e.. . . q n ) are the .. ..gt.. . If n denotes the number of degrees of freedom.
. . #. .. The 2w integrals of a set of differential equations of order 2n. 2.2 o j 8 8 ^Y ^ = ^. . ^4 = 02 The form = Xr (x x2 as the .gt. . .lt. / = gives ^oxi *. . # fc&. x2 . provided these integrals are distinct. . Sometimes the function integral of the system. a! k .... &.. k}. xk ) are any particular set of functions of t which satisfy the differential equations..gt. xk ) will be included x2 . x2 ... (rl... .. + ~. a... . a. 2.e.lt. .. where a lt a z . (r = 1. x2 .. . t) = Constant is called may dfldt an integral of the system.... then if (aj. 2.(!. t) = ar . t) = ar ..! x r = &. (r=l.. it follows from what has been said above that by giving to the arbitrary constants a r suitable constant values we can make the equations /r = (ar. .. a k be t. #3 = 0i. On 2.. or o d^j V Y + ^ ^2+ T 1 4 oa... . . .. ak are arbitrary constants. . . no one of them is algebraically deducible from the others. For let the values of as1} xz . may typical form rlf set of differential If a function f{x l ... . .. ..xk + dxk L.. The condition that a given function furnish an integral of the system is easily found for the equation . #*) are any functions of t whatever which satisfy these differential equations. . &) therefore be regarded equations of order k. equation .* .. f(x oc 2 . xk )... ^ a* =&..lt. t) is such that ~ttt is zero when (#.. k). aek ..gt..4 + 4 + cx 2 &. . ak t).37] Principles available for the integration 53 by taking #1 = 01. &.. (r for a = l. afc.. k) true for this particular set of functions (xl} of functions (x ly xZ) .. .gt..j&... #2 &. 57 dt = 0... . xk obtained from these equations as functions of a 2 ...xk . 2. the /(#i. i. / itself (as distinct from the equation /= constant) is called an The complete solution of the set of differential equations of order k is furnished by k integrals fr . . 1 . x2 . + 57 + 5 / ^A dt dx k and this relation must be identically satisfied in order that the equation i . and therefore this set the functions defined by among the equations x r of freedom may solution of a dynamical problem with n degrees therefore be regarded as equivalent to the determination of r . t) = Constant may be an integral of the system of differential equations.
. is occupied with the dis cussion of those dynamical problems which can be solved completely in The more elementary terms of the known elementary functions or the indefinite integrals of such functions. for which the coordinates are . These are generally referred to as problems soluble by quadratures. We . say q ly q z . is The object of the present to discuss those peculiarities of the kinetic potential which are chapter most frequently found in problems soluble by quadratures. [OH..= a ? solving these equations for q I tan. . those cases in which a solution by quadratures can be effected. 38. although the corresponding velocities contained explicitly q q%. q k are not in L. dqr (r = 1. with which this and the immediately succeeding chapters are concerned. there must always be some special reason for it. ?_.. in of the second order. On and q.54 Thus the which is Principles available for the integration differential equation ?=?&.?!... . Coordinates of this kind are said to be ignorable or cyclic may happen . l . is determined by the differential 22 &. and which in fact are the ultimate explanation of the solubility. ^roq r is generally called the momentum corresponding to the that some of the coordinates. possesses the f two integrals ? 2 + ? 2 =.gt. in fact the kinetic potential of the problem must have some special character.lt. .. q n and the kinetic potential is L. appear in the following chapters that the presence of ignorable coordinates is the most frequentlyoccurring reason for the solubility of it will particular problems by quadratures.2 are arbitrary constants. of motion which correspond to the k ignorable The Lagrangian equations coordinates are . Systems with ignorable coordinates.. n).1 I where ! and a. . The problems of dynamics are not in general soluble by quadratures and in . have seen ( 27) that the motion of a conservative holonomic dynamical system with n degrees of freedom. d fdL\ UT dL 5 = 0. qk are so contained. equations ) at \dqr J T. . division of dynamics. . . 2... 7)T The quantity coordinate qr It . we have and these equations constitute the solution of the differential equation..
..... . 2. &. qn . which discussed in Chapter X.. $*.j (r1. ..ln..gt.. qk. these can be written where /3j. qk+2&.. fr. /3 2 ....lt.. Sqn in its arguments. and somewhat by Helmholtz. Qn. r =\ ar = b(L by the definition of R. qk+2.. These last equations are evidently k integrals of the system. q2 qk+1 . Now tities let . .gt. Then we have v 2... &...gt. ... &. &.. . k Let / R denote the function L S r=\ dL qr ~r..37.. . 2 . * later . 3L\ qr oqr/ ) . it was however first separately given by Eouth in 1876. the equation is equivalent to the / is The transformation which follows is really a case of the Hamiltonian transformation... .. velocities cor responding to the ignorable coordinates. Sf denote the increment produced in any function / of the quan . k+2&.*). which are the 2. By means of the k equations v$r fA. in terms of qk+i&. qk+l qk+2 .gt.lt.lt. qn . But and since We have therefore J r=k + ivqr J r=k+lOqr r=\ and since the infinitesimal quantities occurring on the righthand side of this equation are arbitrary and independent. ftk\ we shall suppose that in this way the function R is expressed in terms of the latter set of quantities. /3& are constants of integration. 38] Principles available for the integration 55 and on integration. We shall now shew how these k integrals can be utilised to reduce the order of the set of Lagrangian differential equations of motion*.gt. &. we can express the k quantities q ly &... qn . Bqn Bq 1} . @i. . . $0 qn (or of the quantities q k+1) qk+2 by arbitrary infinitesimal changes Bqt+1 Sq . . ... .ik+i.
. = dq r . k&. qk+z. This process called the ignoration of coordinates. the quadratic of q lt . qn . the remainder of the original coordinates. The essential basis of the ignoration of coordinates is in the theorem that when the kinetic potential does not contain one of the coordinates q r explicitly.. together part (the potential energy with sign reversed) which involves qk+1 qk+2 .. and the constants &..gt. .q n ... . more generally when (as happens very frequently in the more advanced parts of Dynamics) the solution of one set of Lagrangian differential equations is made to depend kinetic potential cannot be divided into two parts in this will in general contain terms linear in the velocities.. can be reduced to a ignoralle k) dynamical problem which has only (n is degrees of freedom. 7fc ).. . to the effect that be given If the original problem relates to the motion of a conservative dynamical system in which the constraints are independent of the time.. which we can regard as defining a new dynamical problem with only (n k) degrees of freedom..q n qk+l .. .. (r = k+l.be immediately obtained. we have ^L 7 ac \oqr / m I &. q n with a qk+i. Now E is a function only of the variables qk+l q k+2 . .. But in the new dynamical system which is obtained after the ignoration of coordinates. the new coordinates being q k+1 qk+2 .. When the variables k+l k+2 . R .\ f^\ _ O ".. a homogeneous . dq r .. This is much more general theorem which when a dynamical system admits a known infinitesimal contacttransformation.  . function q n in .. oqr .. and the new kinetic potential being R..". although it involves the corresponding velocity q. we have seen that its kinetic potential L consists of a part (the kinetic energy) which is and which involves q.~~ I ^ n ^ J ft \ *V l". . any way. an integral of the system can . y32 so this is a new Lagrangian ftk system of equations. .lt.. Hence a dynamical problem with n degrees of freedom. n). n q q q have been obtained in terms of t by solving this new dynamical problem..... . namely q l} 2 . dL dR Substituting these results in the Lagrangian equations of motion.. q n only. k + 2. . .... q q can be obtained from the equations . J J A/ ~ . later.. in system of equations . an integral of the motion can be at once written down. a particular case of a namely will ^ = constant..56 Principles available for the integration [CH. And R way : in fact. which has k coordinates.
is d are given constants. for which the kinetic energy is and the potential energy where a.lt. shall sometimes use the word natural to denote those of systems Lagrangian equations for which the kinetic potential contains We in the velocities. whose value is determined by the initial circumstances of the motion. The kinetic potential of the system is and the integral corresponding to the ignorable coordinate is where ft is a constant. to be determined by the initial circumstances This equation gives the required expression of the coordinate 2 terms &.38] Principles available for the integration 57 on that of another set of Lagrangian differential equations with a smaller number of coordinates. . the kinetic potential of this new system is not necessarily divisible into two groups of terms corresponding to a kinetic and a potential energy. since it does not appear explicitly in T or V. consider a dynamical system with two degrees of freedom. 6.? m the value of qi in terms of t can then be deduced from the equation which gives 8i n 2 and so completes the solution of the system. As an example of the ignoration of coordinates. and nonnatural to denote only terms of degrees 2 and those systems for which this condition is not satisfied. its solution : can be immediately written down it is where A and : e of the motion. c. of the time are constants of integration. It is evident that q^ is an ignorable coordinate. The kinetic potential of the new dynamical system obtained by ignoring the coordinate and the problem is now reduced to the solution of the single equation (3R dt\dq or d As this is a linear differential equation with constant coefficients.
58 39. system are d (dT\ dT dV ~~~ _ Suppose that one of the coordinates. l oqi dq 1 ^= 0.. q n being unaltered. and moreover is such that an alteration of the value of q 1 by a quantity I. dq ^= 9^j 0. q n and V the system. so ... since in this case ^ i = 1. + v^ + zy&.gt. say q l} is ignorable. Now the physical momentum axis of Smgfej represents ( 35) the component parallel to the of the system of particles m^. We (i) now consider specially the two commonest types coordinates in dynamical problems.. 0Ji The can integral ^ = Constant : 9g. we have the integral O/TT zr = Constant. integrals of shall [CH.. Principles available for the integration Special cases of ignoration. dT r $M^T* ^ f . so that the equations of motion of the . Since qi is an ignorable coordinate. and the potential energy is thereby unaltered (the way in which the kinetic therefore be energy depends on the velocities is obviously unaltered by this translation. and consequently this is the r ri r in the present case. When a dynamical system can be interpreted thus translated as if rigid in a given direction without violating the constraints.gt. dAi difi . i meaning of the quantity ~\m . in space we shall take this to be the direction of the #axis in a system of fixed rectangular axes of coordinates. potential energy. We have O ab*Sb* where the summation is miW + *f + if all &. corresponds to a simple translation of the whole system through a distance I parallel to a certain fixed direction . 2&. Let the coordinates of a conservative holonomic dynamical system with n degrees of freedom be q l} q and let T be the kinetic energy of the . Systems possessing an integral of momentum. *^/ ^} bv y 9#o 8 ^ 26 9vi ^ = Zmtiki. dq l and we shall now discuss the physical O/TT meaning of this equation. &. 3ft . the remaining coordinates qz qs .. d as. the particles of the system. .lt. . extended over . .lt. in momentum and angular of ignorable momentum.
XL. q n and kinetic and potential energies T and V respectively.lt....lt. Book i. and particle.... and therefore 3r = 2m f ( dayt + yiXi) . riSm&.... . if Now m straight line at &. we have d%i ~ yi l = rism&..= Constant 9?i and we have to determine the physical interpretation of this equation. or move uniformly in a straight line. ^ dqi r L + Zi = ... and moreover is such that an alteration of q by l l a quantity a... (2).. We have as before dT where the summation if is / [ j V =.... to Sect.. and systems applies are said to possess an integral of momentum.. their common centre of gravity will either be at rest.....rr. the product mr*to is called the angular momentum of the particle about the line. P moving * of time be two consecutive positions of the between them being dt..... we write Xi^ncosfa.. let us now suppose that the coordinate q is ignorable. . that .yt dyi ^.. 9?i all dqj But extended over the particles of the system. This result to which (ii) it law of conservation of momentum*...i.a Let be any point. corresponds to a simple rotation of the whole system through an angle a round a given fixed line in space we shall take this line as the axis of z in a system of fixed rectangular axes of coordinates......gt. the interval let P.. particle about the line.f&.... if any number of bodies are acted on only by their mutual attractions. dzA .gt......i=: ~ i . (1)..... iutrod... the other coordinates remaining unchanged. oq l r denote the distance of any particle of mass from a given and if denote the angular velocity of the any instant.. . dfa = dq = dxi ~ .. Again taking a system with coordinates q 1} q2 . Principia.. . Then the This has been evolved gradually from the observation of Newton. then the component parallel to this of the system is constant. called the Systems possessing an integral of angular momentum.... we have the integral r ?i r .39] Principles available for the integration is 59 the corresponding coordinate direction of the momentum is ignorable). : Since q l is an ignorable coordinate.
then the angular momentum that the angular mp + nv) into the OPP . yiy Zi}. about this axis the is constant. law. from this the general to all cases of motion under a central force : theorem of conservation of angular momentum has gradually developed.60 Principles available for the integration [CH. The angular momentum defined to be the of a dynamical system about a given axis is of the angular momenta of the separate particles of the system about the given axis in particular. is (1) implies therefore that the angular momentum of the system about the axis of z is constant and we have the following result When a dynamical system can be rotated as if rigid round a given axis with : The equation : out violating the constraints. the angular momentum of a system of particles typified by a particle of mass m. and the summation expression for is extended over the angular momentum i 2m* (ijiXi and on comparing this with equation (2) x^i). m angular momentum about any line value of the ratio ??z OK through is clearly the limiting 7 x Twice the area of the projection of the triangle a plane perpendicular to OPP on OK. so if OK and OPP .. p. result that the angular rlT ~r d^i we have the of momentum of the system considered. if (X. are the direction we see momentum about OK is angular momentum about equal to the product of (l\ + the normal to the plane It is evident from this that if the angular momenta of a about particle any three rectangular axes Oxyz at any time are A. m. v) m. whose coordinates are . these forces being derived from a kinetic potential V. _ar d /3F\ e * Kepler s was extended by Newton law. so that the equations of motion of the particles are mrXr ~ . that the radius from the sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times.. A2 A 3 respectively. and the potential energy is thereby unaltered. theorem of conservation of angular Example. n} 2 + s momenta about axes through a point are compounded according to the vectorial . about the axis z. about the axis of z is Sm^r^. . sum (xi. about any line through whose directioncosines referred to these axes are is mh nh we may express this by saying that angular Ihi + (I. A system of n free particles is in motion urider the influence of their mutual forces of attraction. n) are the directioncosines of cosines of the normal to the triangle (I. where all the particles of the system this of a system can be written in the form . the angular momentum of the system This result is known as momentum*. which contains the coordinates and components of velocity of the particles. .
9 F\ / 2 2 ( yr + Ki 9F\ r \ yJ Constant.x.e. Consider a dynamical system formed of any number of free or connected and interacting particles if they are subjected to any constraints other than the mutual reactions of the particles. : Take any line fixed in space.J = Constant. 2 \m r (yr zr .. momentum is a special case of a more general which may be obtained in the following way. (Levy.. 40.39. a small rotation of the system about the given line through an angle 8q from which 1 .= Constant. cz r /) . \ (^ m r (zr xr . and QiS^j is the work done on the system by the external forces in a small displacement 8q 1} i.) The general theorem of angular momentum. The Lagrangian equation for l is dtdq and this reduces to since the value of q : (as distinguished from a/77 q^ cannot have any zero.z r yj 2 r ( +y r 3F  ? zr 9F) ^. we shall suppose the forces due to these constraints to be counted among the external forces. r V ( m r z r + ^r.Constant. integral of angular The result. and choose one of the coordinates which to be such that a change in specify the configuration of the system (say q^ in the other coordinates. 40] Principles available for the integration 61 shew that these equations possess the integrals 2 / ( m r xr +^. cz r \ ) 2 \m r (x r y r y r x r ) + x r ( which may be regarded as 9 F! F = C~yrgj}. and therefore j must be Now T^T is ^r the angular momentum of the system about the given line. implies a simple q 1} unaccompanied by any change rotation of the system as if rigid round the given line.j = Constant. zr + zr ) 9 F JTTox r xr 3 an = Constant. m . effect on the kinetic energy. We of the external forces about the given Q have therefore the result that the rate of change of the angular seen that t is the moment . momentum and generalisations of the integrals of 3 angular momentum. through an angle equal to the change in q lf We suppose the constraints to be such that this the coordinate q is a possible displacement of the system. it is easily line.
as well as are independent of the time. Galileo was acquainted with the fact that the velocity of a particle sliding down an inclined plane from rest depends only on the vertical height through which it has descended.rr 2. it is For impulsive motion results : easy to establish the following analogous The impulsive increment of the component of momentum of a system in any fixed direction is equal to the component in this direction of the total external impulses applied to the system. uq r . q\. q? D^~ i r=i r =i .r r =\ ".. of a dynamical system about any fixed line is equal to the moment The law of conservation of angular when the moment of the external Similarly we can shew that to line. r= l v&. and indeed in all physical questions. so that &. L further so that the discussion will apply restrict conditions. &. From this elementary particular case the principle was gradually evolved by Huygens. Or o dqr . qn. &. in of the external forces about this line. dynamical system parallel parallel to this the rate of change of the momentum of a any fixed direction is equal to the component. The Energy equation. of the total external forces acting on the system.gt. by any to the nonnatural systems obtained after ignoration of coordinates. we have n *q. We have dL = ~T~ at . at \oqr J by the Lagrangian equations d Integrating. q2. . first.lt. and Lagrange. John and Daniel Bernoulli. qr / + 2 dL^ qr r Urr  r =i vqr . dL d idL\ . is This equation energy or * an integral of the system. momentum obviously follows from this forces is zero.jn to natural systems. . involving t explicitly.. We shall and In a conservative dynamical system let q i} q2 .Jr where h is a constant. 9Z "..62 momentum Principles available for the integration [CH..gt. : L is a given function of the variables not We shall not. The impulsive increment of the angular momentum of a system round any axis is equal to the moment round that axis of the external impulses applied to the system. 41. #2. at only. now introduce an integral which plays a great part in dynamical investigations. = dL .lt.. qn be the coordinates we shall suppose that the constraints let L be the kinetic potential . and is called the integral of law of conservation of energy*. Newton. qi.
m ^ = Z{ { . This latter result can also be obtained directly from the elementary equations of motion. since T is homogeneous of degree 2 in qlt It follows that in conservative natural systems. or d S I m t (x? i + y? + zf) = 2 (Xdx + Ydy + Zdz}. y. . the integral of energy becomes ^ h=Zq r=i . in any infinitesimal path. and therefore is equal to the decrease in the potential of the energy of the system. the constant components of velocity of the origin Then the result already proved is that of the moving axes. The sum of the kinetic and potential system is therefore constant. of energy The equation d . where a. is equal to the work done by the forces acting on the system energies in this part of the path. in which the constraints do not involve the time. For let (. the sum of the kinetic and potential energies is constant. 41] Principles available for the integration 63 have seen that in natural systems. This constant value h is called the total energy of the system. n r 2 r Olj ^ T L oqr = 2T T +V. For from the equations of motion of a single particle. + + (aX+bY+cZ)dt. y = T)bt. where T (the kinetic energy of the system) is homogeneous and of degree 2 in the velocities. we have Em* (xi xi is + yiiji + Zi Zi) = 2 (XiXi + Yiiji + Z^t). d . f ) denote the coordinates of the particle referred to axes and parallel to the moving axes Oxyz. z) denote coordinates referred to any fixed axes.. the particles of the system. m yi = Y t t . $ m & + f + p) = Xdx + Ydy + Zdz ( (where for simplicity we suppose the system to consist of a single particle) is true not only when (#. b. so that fixed in space x=at. c are z = ct. extended over all where the summation . therefore. while We V is a function of the coordinates only.4 m (e + ^ + C 2 ) = Xd + Yd?. i so that the part of its increment of the kinetic energy of the system. .40. the kinetic potential L can be written in the form T V. In this case. namely m x = Xi i i . . but also when they denote coordinates referred to axes which are moving with any motion of translation in a fixed direction with constant velocity.
. When the system has more than one degree of freedom. (3)... .. . by means of the energyequation. dL TT. . q n by ftq2 ftq^.. n(&.lt. Mess. by taking x = coordinates (#... where qr denotes qn. . a conservative dynamical system has only one degree of freedom. y. Whittaker.^rr + constant. qn ) = &(ft.. q3 wehave dL an aii (1^. i } which establishes the theorem.. by qs . ). can be used for the same purpose as the integrals corresponding to ignorable coordinates were used.. xxx. which constitutes the solution of the problem. It may be noted that from this result the three equations of motion of the particle at etc. from this equation.. namely to reduce the system to another dynamical it system with a smaller number of degrees of freedom*. q*.. In the function L. replace the quantities q. m m ( = m (at. of Math..?i. &.. q2 ..2.. + bij + c dt = (aX+bY+cZ)dt.. .//.2 q 3 . .. &. 42...64 Now we Principles available for the integration have d. : and denote the resulting function differentiating the equation . and subtracting the equation of energy in the can be derived.3. the integral of energy . 2) from the equation of energy in the coordinates (. (1900). respectively. we can integrate again and obtain the equation t = .. qn ) Then q2 r q... . qn ft..lt. 77.) * .if therefore q be found explicitly in terms of q takes the form 9 =/(?). so that . q is L=h dq a relation between q and q it . ft q^.. When if For q be the coordinate.. the integral of energy is not in itself sufficient for the solution but we shall now shew that . the integral of energy is alone sufficient to give the solution by quadratures.j. . . ... Reduction of a dynamical problem to a problem with fewer degrees of freedom..im(x*+y2 + z = Xdx+ Ydy + Zdz.lt. ) and therefore d. [OH..
qn) and by using this expression for ql} express the function . Differentiating the equation of energy. ^ as a function of (&. and then from this equation obtain ^ as a function of the quantities (q2 q3 ... .. . \^) ^1 oqi 0$ ...... . . = an 8^ .q n qi.?/. we have But differentiating the equation r.. Comparing equations (5) and we have i az/ 8 = ao ^8". I ir ^ . qn ).. q 1} q 2 . &..=2 ^i oq r Now in the integral of energy n dL 2 r=l qr ~]rL Off = h.41. qn ). .... . may be written in an  ...?2&. qn .. q3 ..lt... qz . D.. and comparing equations (6) and we have 1 dL = 30 Wr W... 42] Principles available for the integration **. but differently expressed. we have 9X _j^ (7).. ... (ft 1 r li=h.....gt. (8). . regarded as an identity in the variables (g/... &.gt. a^na^ ". qi. ^Wr . fyi and regarding the variables it as a relation which implicitly determines q.. qn .* ~i~ ^TT~ 65 Equations (1) and (2) give 80 _ *A + I ~ o ... replace gv by^gv for all values of r from 2 to w inclusive. q n ).... q lt q 2 ...  in dL g. which by (4) the form ..... ^3 .. . Let the function thus obtained be denoted by L then from (4) we see that L r)O is the same as ^r 5^i .q n .lt. r=l 9^r ?i terms of (^2 . &.gt. .
like the The new system part of obtained of coordinates. then q l will not occur explicitly in L . . . Now l #zese system in which may L be regarded as the equations of motion of a new dynamical q3 . . 3. independent q l occurs explicitly in the new kinetic L if But an is potential ql ignorable coordinate in the original system. velocities (q 2 q3 .. . The new dynamical system any stage of the above process. . dt\dqr j or finally  .gt. L will in the not consist solely of terms of degrees 2 and nonnatural. . (qz . = 3. L = constant.. is the kinetic potential. obtaining . . qn ) are the coordinates. then use the integral of energy of the new system to lower the number of degrees of freedom again by unity. in Combining these with equations and (3). manner indicated first finally a system with one degree of freedom which again can be solved in the manner indicated. will not in general possess an integral of since the variable energy. n). obtain the system d (dL \ T. and q plays will. f .. anQ dL _ _ dq r dL . (5.66 Principles available for the integration (2) [CH. which possesses an integral of energy and can therefore be . .e. namely 2 r=2 qr 3 Oqr . be in general systems by ignoration i. . The preceding theorems shew n degrees of freedom that any conservative dynamical system with 1) ignorable coordinates can be completely integrated by quadratures we can proceed either (a) by first performing the process of ignoration of the coordinates.. .. it. dqr dq r ?i dqr we Substituting from these equations in the Lagrangian equations of motion. qn ) but on account of its possession of the Lagrangian form. and there fore will not occur explicitly in From this it follows that the new system will also possess an integral of energy. dL ~ q *l = 0. dL^_dL *\ / i &. and so on. TO). . (r = 2. and this can in its turn be used to reduce further the number of degrees of freedom of the system. and (n solved in the (@) we can at the beginning of the present article or use the integral of energy to lower the number of degrees of freedom by unity. The integral of energy thus enables us to reduce a given dynamical system with n degrees of freedom to another dynamical system with only (n 1) to degrees offreedom. we have 1 . . most of the theorems relating to dynamical systems will be applicable the the time as the independent variable. so arriving at a system with only one degree of freedom. .. dq r \ d L dL (r 2.
(r!.. p.. For in this case the up of their.)..i 2 . ). 43. are constants of integration. V= w w lt u&. ). . Separation of the variables . * Journal de Math. 257.. each Lagrangian equations of motion are qr ] ^ K (qr) or .. important extension of this class of dynamical systems was made by who shewed that all dynamical problems for which the kinetic and potential energies can respectively be put in the forms Liouville*. 43] Example. . . 2.... these equations can be further integrated.respective into a sum of parts.. + W (q ) + + wn (q n w n are arbitrary functions 2 2 .. vn . (1849). .. (r = 1 . 52 .. These 2. . +Vn (qn ) j n*} } can be solved by quadratures. . dynamical systems of Liouville s type..yn are new constants of integration.) + Ui (q ) + .. since the variables r and t are q separable.+ wn (qn ) 2 \ Vl (ft) ^+v 2 (q2 ) qs*+. n).? v r (q r ) q r vr (qr ) qr2 = . and where Z is denned by the equation Shew that the nonnatural dynamical system represented by the last differential equation possesses an integral of energy. . c n ^. . .gt. . and give %vr (q r ) qr . These equations can be immediately integrated. .. . 2.. where ylt y a . . Principles available for the integration The kinetic potential of a dynamical system is 67 Shew equation that the relation between the variables l and z q q is given by the differential __ 5ft \3$iY __ ~ 9? 2 where Jj =^. An T= K Wl V= ^ ^ * (?. .+* (qn )} w + + ..42. fs is dynamical equations which are obviously soluble by quadratures constituted by the equations of those systems for which the kinetic energy of the form class of A and the potential energy where is of the form (?i) vlt v2 . . . n)..w/ (qr \ i . 2. . last equations constitute the solution of the problem. 2 + wr (q r ) = c r = 1. xiv. = 1.\ vr +% (q r) q. . and we thus obtain c2 . where d. (r ^/ (r .. arguments so that the kinetic potential breaks of which involves only one of the variables. and hence solve the system by quadratures. n). .ff [ (qr = .
(ft) . The Lagrangian equation d for the coordinate q 1 is ar = _ fdr\ _ 3^ dt \9ft / Multiplying this equation throughout by 2uqlt we have ~ (%&. ft . . the expression i (ft) + u 2 (ft) + . n (ft. .) =  2 * g q^ . we have V. we can replace all the functions V2 kinetic by unity (ft). But from the integral of energy of the system. in J r (q r ) dq r = qr .2 .Jv [CH. (r = 1. ft . where a constant of integration. and potential energies take the form v n (qn) we shall suppose this done. j.: + . 2.Wj (ft) + 7j. in virtue of the integral of energy of the system.+ .w.)} Integrating..68 Principles available for the integration For by taking &. V = .  *g w+ ^+ 2 1 q&... yn ) must satisfy the relation 71 is of the coordinates . . ... . . %u(q + .K (ft) + w where u stands for * (ft) + + wn (q n }}. +un (qn dv dql ).. (q.gt.gt..gt. We obtain similar equations for each the . so that the 2 T= ^(ft + 2 2 ft +... we have 2 ^u q^ = AM. q ) corresponding constants (7!.gt. &. . w)... + qn*) = h where h is a constant. . where vi (ft)&.gt. 7i + 72 + + 7 = 0.+ft&. The equation be written in the form for the coordinate can therefore = 2 ft  {h^ (?j) ...... ft.gt. ). qn are new variables.
an equation of the form where 4. down ? In a dynamical system with two degrees of freedom the kinetic energy is and the potential energy is where a. If the (#. p. d are constants. des and Burgatti. In the case where there are three coordinates x. c. components (X. (5) xx. e is an arbitrary constant and $&. Bull. investigate the equations of motion of the type &. is unaltered when the system at once be written 3.?i) + * 71} dq l = [hu 2 (g. Y} of the force acting on a particle of unit mass at the a in plane do not involve the time t. and t are constants.2 ) w 2 (q 2 ) + *)%}". Sc. For further investigations on this subject cf. Rend. shew that by elimination of t from the y) point differential equations the solution of the problem is made to depend on the differential 1. What integrals of the motion can free particles is in motion.lt.43] Principles available for the integration These equations give {hut 69 (qj .". = and . (1911). L. which can be immediately integrated since the variables are separated. k..lt. denotes a Weierstrassian elliptic function. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. Math.. xxxv.Wt (&. Shew that the value of q 2 in terms of the time is given by h. Rom. and one coordinate $ is ignored 8 /30\) ~ oy \dxjl . b. Ace. Prove that in a system with ignorable coordinates the kinetic energy is the sum of a quadratic function T of the velocities of the nonignored coordinates and a quadratic function K of the cyclic momenta. c are given constants : shew that q^ is given in terms of t by the equation where 5. Hadamard.wn (qn ) + yn {hu n (q n ) ~% ] dq n . equation of the third order dx I &y dx* )  2. y. 108. this set of equations. b.gt. as if rigid and their potential energy. which depends in any configuration is translated through any distance in any direction. (1911). 106.* dq2 = . furnishes the solution of the system. p. The kinetic potential of a dynamical system is where a. A system of only on their coordinates.
0).) of &. Tripos.?1 + ?22 )&.gt.gt. Shew that when the quantities J(V + /) and \(rrf } are taken as new variables.72 ) (&. are the distances of the particle from the points whose coordinates are (c. and the differential coefficients with respect to x. Comptes Rendus.) . Math. Painleve. and hence obtain its solution. and P denotes the Weierstrassian elliptic function./&. whose state at any instant its of each element.70 Principles available for the integration [CH. The observation that A system. if Shew that is which : (Of.lt. the system is of Liouville s type. (Camb. Jc is the cyclic momentum. The kinetic energy of a dynamical system is 2 T= and the potential energy is 2 ri (qi + 2 &. where c is a constant. shew that the relation between and e are constants of integration.lt. A 5. . r". . and $ are calculated from the Jinear equation by which k is expressed in terms of x. 7. p. 2 2 y) is ^ (x +^ ). or if the forces are derived from a potential not onevalued. b. (1904). shew that the solution depends on the solution of the problem for which the kinetic potential is and by using the integral of energy of qi and q 2 is of the form where c this latter system. of Liouville s theorem. The kinetic energy of a particle whose rectangular coordinates are (x. and its potential energy is where (A. B C~) are constants and where (r. the reply is affirmative but if the system is conservative with a onevalued potential. 1904. The kinetic potential of a dynamical system with two degrees of freedom is By using the integral of energy.lt. or otherwise) that the relation between q l is a 2 qi 2 + b 2 q%2 + 2abq l q 2 cos y = sin 2 y.) 9. is instant resume suggested the problem completely specified by the position and velocity Can it at a subsequent initially without velocity in free space in vacua. 6. F=J Shew (by use and q2 where 8. a cat always is falls on its feet ". 0. i/. a. the system is not conservative. 0) and (c. 1170. the reply is negative. initial configuration but with a different orientation in space ? : ". y are constants of integration. cxxxix. in where Fis the potential energy.
The tube can in the most general case be supposed to have the form of a twisted curve in space. in the foregoing chapters. measured along the arc of the curve formed by the tube: and let f(s) be the component of the external forces acting on the particle. where s is a constant. The kinetic energy of the particle is and its potential energy is evidently f f(s)d. I where is involving two constants of integration. . we shall single particle which can be solved motion of a particle of mass m. Integrating this equation. which is free to move in the interior of a given fixed smooth tube of small bore. since it is an integral relation between s and t. The equation rs 2 of energy is therefore ms = J So f(s)ds + c. where c is a constant. Let s be the distance of the particle at time t from some fixed point of the tube. As examples of the methods described now discuss those cases of the motion of a by quadratures. we have another constant of integration. This equation represents the solution of the problem. The particle with one degree offreedom : the pendulum. under the action of forces which depend only on the position of the particle in the shall consider first the We tube.CHAPTER IV THE SOLUBLE PROBLEMS OF PARTICLE DYNAMICS 44. in the direction of the tangent to the tube.
u. We .". shall consider these cases separately. the tube is centre of the circle. particle is large that it enough to carry it over the highest point of the circle. in which the velocity of the in the ".". we have whose plane s = ad is and f(s) = mg sin 4# sin 2 9 . at the lowest point of the circle. namely the oscillatory. and therefore h/2a must be less than unity. Using 9 to denote the angle made with the downward vertical by the radius vector from the centre of the circle to the particle. always in the same sense. Oscillations of finite amplitude were first studied by Euler in 1736. is vertical. the Then this last equation can be written Taking sin ^9 = y . this becomes pendulumproblem there are two distinct types of motion. where k is a new positive constant less than unity. so the equation of energy a$ 2 = 2$r cos 9 + constant = is \Q + constant. y must be zero for some value of y less than unity. Now ". in which the particle swings to and fro about the lowest point of the circle. Suppose that when the particle a 2 /9 2 quantity = has the value h. iv and I initial time t circumstances of the particle s motion = t from the point s = s with velocity . In the oscillatory type of motion. can be physically interpreted in terms of the thus if the particle starts at . since the particle comes to rest (i) before attaining the highest point of the circle. then on substituting these values in the equation of energy. arid the circulating. Writing h = 2ak2 . and the formula for the period was given by Huygens in 1673. which serves the the circle.72 The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics The two constants c [OH. same purpose of constraining the replaced by a rigid bar connecting the particle to the particle to describe The isochronism of small oscillations of the pendulum was discovered by Galileo in 1632. . The most famous problem in this case the tube is of this type is that of the simple pendulum supposed to be in the form of a circle of radius a . we have l t^. the equation becomes * In actual pendulums. and the only external force acting on the particle is gravity*. so moves round and round the circle. we have and on substituting the same values in the final equation connecting s and t.
: Whittaker and Watson. so that the particle just reaches the circle. (iii) Lastly. This equation represents the solution of the pendulumproblem in the the two arbitrary constants of the solution are t and k. z . we see that the motion on which occasions two consecutive of time between the interval period (i. } is in the same configuration with the same velocity) being . t Comptes Rendiis.e. vertex of the The equation now becomes the solution of which is was remarked by Appellf that an insight into the meaning of the imaginary period which occur in the solution of the pendulumproblem is afforded For we have seen that if the particle is set free with no initial velocity at a point of the circle which is at a vertical height h above the lowest point. the pendulum . suppose that the motion is of the circulating type 2 = k will be less A& 2a the if we write than so 2a. let h be equal to 2a. From the known is periodic.kH y% dt. where 9 K=\ (ii) (1  t 2 )~? (1 . its properties of the elliptic function sn. Modern Analysis. 2211. where & 2 = * Cf. . quantity greater . LXXXVII.44] The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics 73 the solution of this is* where t is an arbitrary constant. the motion is given by It of the elliptic functions by the theorem of 34.(O^jr 4 K. than unity. (1878). and oscillatory case : these must be determined from the initial conditions. case h is in this Next. The differential equation now becomes the solution of which is and in this t and k are the two constants which must be determined in accordance with the initial conditions.
(i) Tube rotating uniformly. where 2 =1 .). The particle is acted on by a repulsive force pr directed from the centre of the fixed circle. and so can be expressed in terms of the cylindrical coordinates z and r. The thus inferred from dynamical considerations. V\ . where r is the distance from this centre. . where z is measured parallel to the fixed shall is We from the fixed axis for a particle perpendicular in the tube. \t// double periodicity of the elliptic function sn is ) must have a period 4*/f.] 45. We to now discuss move in a given some cases of the motion of a particle which is free smooth tube. We constrained to rotate with uniform velocity shall suppose that the particle is of unit mass. when the tube is itself constrained to move in a given manner. and therefore the function must have a period so the function sn(w.74 The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics [OH. Shew that the motion is periodic. iv and therefore by 34. traced by a point on the circumference of a circle of radius b which rolls on a fixed circle of radius a.A). A. Example. and the equation of the tube will be is axis and r the distance . motion has a real period 4 (\t7 j / K . with the same initial conditions. : written in the form r = g(s). But the period (2a of this motion is the . if. its period being [This result the form is most easily obtained when the equation of the epicycloid is taken in s being the arc measured from the vertex of the epicycloid. gravity acting downwards : same as if the initial position were at a height and the solution of this is (r y = V sn { A/1 The latter . as this involves no real loss of generality.energy function which is symmetrical particle with respect to the fixed axis. 4^j/r. Motion in a moving shall tube. A particle of unit mass moves on an epicycloid. gravity were supposed to act upwards. moreover suppose that the field of external force acting on the derivable from a potential.TO ).k2 . this potential can therefore be expressed in terms of energy the arc s we shall denote it by F(s). is at Suppose first that the tube about a fixed axis in space. the motion would be given by (rr.
a constant. Consider now the motion of a particle in a straight tube. motion of the particle is the same as zero. 75 By velocity were 2 &&.gt.) c. = ^ [2c + t 2 [g (s)} . shew that the tube must be in the form of a parabola with its axis vertical and vertex downwards. T=i(ycota+/0 + = ly cosec a + y cot a . aw 2 cos a * a 2 cos a ty and t(] Off ~3g~&. and the field of force is that due to gravity. and the particle can describe it with constant velocity when the fixed axis is vertical and in the plane of the tube. fa cos 2a is formed with the roots aco 2 cos a &. with the we have for the kinetic energy ri(?+A where so x = y cot a + ^ft 2 2 .gt. and the potential energy is r=w. which is constrained to plane with constant horizontal acceleration/. Integrating again. (ii) Tube moving with constant acceleration parallel to a fixed direction. and this relation between and s represents the solution of Example 1.gt. particle moves under gravity in a circular tube of radius a which rotates uniformly about a fixed vertical axis inclined at an angle a to its plane . shew that A V where the function jf&.gt. the o&. Example 2. Taking the axis of x horizontal and that of y vertically upwards. move in its own vertical origin at the initial position of the particle. If the rotating tube is plane. is a constant. The equation of motion d_ (dT_\ = dt (dy )~ _ dV_ dy . Hence we can at once write down the equation ^ where c is 2 ia&. and the potential energy were if the prescribed angular to contain an additional of energy in term 2 ^r the form .2 V(s)Y^ds + constant.gt. 2 2 {#(s)} + = F(&.gt. the problem. 45] The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics 29.ft + %f*t 2 2 2 ^ 2 .44. inclined at an angle a to the horizontal. t we have 2 &&.gt. if 6 be the angular distance of the particle from the lowest point of the circle.gt.
Y. + m. so can be expressed in terms of (x. acting in the line joining the particles and dependent on their distance from each other. potential energy of the system depends only on the position of the //. and therefore x = \V ( g cos a +/sin a) sin a. so no of exists. iv gives therefore . which are free to move in space under the influence of mutual forces of attraction or repulsion. referred to the fixed axes. referred to any fixed axes. are Z and those of TWj ^ + TO2 w 2 . Z} of the centre of gravity of the particles.. supposing the particle to be initially at rest. [CH. since the three rectangular coordi nates of either particle can have any values whatever. are (x The /T7 + m +m 1 Z+2V 2 kinetic energy of the system 1 is therefore / TT m. Motion of two interacting free particles.to at the particle m moving axes whose origin is l and which are of the fixed axes. z}. The coordinates m 1} referred to the fixed axes.J *\ 2 m 1 + m 2 \ m + mj l raj + mj J^L L 771 \ m^ m 2 or T= The  (wj + w ) (X. or y Integrating.2 referred to parallel . shall next consider the motion of two particles. of masses m^ and ra 2 respectively. We The system has six degrees of freedom.+ Y + 2 2 Z". we have. integral energy : 46. These equations constitute the solution of the problem it will be observed that in this system the kinetic energy involves the time explicitly. + m. y. particles relative to each other.) + ^+ ^+ ^ .2 / m. .76 The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics d ". = ( gfcota) sin a. We shall take. the coordinates (X.T. y. (y coseca +jt cot a) = 2 g. let be V(x. as the six coordinates defining the position of the system. and the coordinates (x. z) of the particle m. it z) .
2 ). * Newton. (Mehmke. If two free particles move in space under any law of mutual attraction.. The kinetic energy of the particle is 2 T=^(r + r*6 and the work done by the (o&. .. Principia.. There is clearly no loss of generality if we suppose the mass of the particle to be unity. 11. The latter equation gives on integration r2 6 = h. This is known as the problem of central forces. We can : The therefore define the position of the particle by polar coordinates (r. is We shall not suppose for the present that P necessarily a function of r alone. Example.gt. _ _ m^m^ mL 4 . force in an arbitrary infinitesimal displacement BO) is PSr. shews that the problem of two interacting free particles is reducible to the problem of the motion of a single free particle acted on by a force directed towards or from a fixed centre. m +m l i l . where h is a constant . and the other three equations shew that m^ is the same as if m l luere fixed and m 2 2 were attracted to m^ with the force derived from the potential energy lit/] V*. the line joining which passes through a fixed point.P.) 47. Book i. Central forces in general last article : Hamilton s theorem. m +m l _ dV dz 2 The first a straight line with uniform the motion of m relative to three of these equations shew that the centre of gravity moves in velocity. The Lagrangian equations of motion (r rfc of the particle are therefore =. dV ".by m m. z m J z _ mjn^ . shew that the tangents to their paths meet an arbitrary fixed plane in two points. P directed to the centre of force. 8F dx Z = Q.4547] The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics of motion of the system are 77 The Lagrangian equations l = 0. the centre of force being the origin. and can be physically interpreted as the integral of angular momentum of the particle about the centre of force. this is the integral corresponding to the ignorable coordinate 6. 6) in this Let denote the acceleration plane. it will always remain in the plane which passes through the centre of force and the initial direction of projec tion for at no time does any force act to remove it from this plane. If the particle be projected in any way. r=0.. Sect.
dp P . is often of ( The use : it is 18). We if the equation of the curve is tion given in (r. p) coordinates. (where p denotes the perpendicular from the centre of force on the tangent to the differential orbit). . in polar coordinates its integration will introduce two new arbitrary constants in addition to the constant h. is given in polar coordinates while if the equa p) coordinates. 2 and 3. fh2 dr\ ~ h2 r* _ ~ ". r which may is be written in the form ". dh* P h*u2 . the force is given by the equation 2 p h dp .78 To The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics find the differential equation of the [OH. writing u for 1/r. which (since h may be obtained directly from now constant) gives at once h?r Siacci s theorem PY or D = . frequently require to know the law of force which must act towards a given point in order that a given curve may be described this is given at once by the equation .iPfr where q the chord of curvature of the orbit through the centre of force. i. v* we have from this equation =P p P. is Since h = vp. and a fourth arbitrary constant will occur in the determination of is t This by the equation t = 2 T Ir d0 + constant.f dr ft 2 p 3 . which is the differential equation of the orbit. the relation we eliminate dt from the equation by using d _ h d ~dt~~r2 d0 we thus obtain the equation h d 2 r dd (r d~6) or. and in Clairaut s Dynamics (1823). the differential equation of the orbit *. p dr * 3 This is Theorie de la Lune substantially given in Newton s Principia. where v the velocity in the orbit. Book and in the above form in Whewell s (1765) . fi J equation of the orbit in (r. iv generally path described (which first is called the orbit or trajectory}.
gt. fx stands for ~ooo . dx y = dy hfy xfx + yfy (_hfy\ ___ hfx ~+yfy) _8 f__hfy_ x ". fx we have where +fy y = 0. . +a x^cx yf_.dx\xf xfx + yfy dy \xfx + yfy Performing the differentiations. for points on the conic. we have d_ = &. for the force polar of the origin with respect to the conic. y) = be the equation of the given curve. and so is a constant multiple of the perpendicular from the point (x.+ Wixy + by. . ~ tfxyjxjy +fyyjx 2 2 has. the constant value .? (fy fxx + tfxfyfxy ~ fxfyy) 2 force is P. namely that the force acting on the particle in the position (x.dx j. 9/ dy has the value (gv+fy + c}. From these two equations we obtain _ ~ Differentiating again. we pro Take the centre of force as origin. The most important f(x. this gives _ But the required ". Roy. Irish Acad.of . We under which a given conic can be described. In this case 2/O. 2/) case of this result is that in which the curve = is a conic. The equation of angular momentum is xyyx = h. y) * Proc.M&. 1846.lt.(abc + 2fgh .ch while the quantity ). y) = ax. Differentiating the equation of the curve.bg* . where x = Pr oc : and therefore we have _ n?T {jiffxx ^J^Jy this equation gives the required central force.+ 2gx +2fy we find at once that the expression Jxxjy + c = 0. y} on the thus obtain.47] The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics is 79 If the equation of the curve ceed as follows : given in rectangular coordinates. and let f(x. an elegant expression due to Hamilton*.
problems soluble in terms of The most important case of motion under central forces r. (ii) If a particle moves under the action of a force directed to the origin. shew that the periodic time is ~ pj?. y} on the polar of the centre of force. Example 1. varying directly as the distance from the fixed point and inversely as the cube of the distance from a given straight line. The two following theorems. force. p. y} are rectangular coordinates and p. may together be If a particle moves under the action of a force directed to a fixed (i) point. Ann. which involve the components of velocity of the particle.gt.80 The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics [CH. . 936) has shewn that these two laws of force are the only laws for which the orbits are always conies. /3.lt.) the conic on the polar of the centre of force.gt. if the force depends only on the Suchar (Nouv.) 48. _f(r) ~ hW we have du where c is a constant : integrating this equation again. Shew that if the force be a particle will describe a conic having 2 its asymptotes parallel to the lines Ax + 2Hxy + By* = 0. If a conic be described under the force ^ given by Hamilton s theorem.V&. (Glaisher. is left to the student. Example 2. the proof of which regarded as the converse of Hamilton s theorem. Darboux (Comptes Rendus. the differential equation of the orbit is &.. circular The and integrable cases of central forces elliptic functions.(. y\ and inversely as the cube of the perpendicular from (a. a. if properly projected. we have ~ J ~ V h2 ] fy* r ~r*\ r* . 532) has found other laws of position of the particle. &. is that in which the magnitude of the force depends only on the distance force by f(r). p.$&. of magnitude where (x. LXXXIV.lt. y are constants. 1 vi.. the orbit is always a conic. where p is the perpendicular from the centre of (Glaisher. the orbits are conies which touch the lines ax 2 + Zftxy + yy~ = 0. Denoting the d& + Integrating. iv varies directly as the radius from the centre of force to the point (x.
47, 48]
The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics
81
and
When r has been this is the equation of the orbit in polar coordinates. found from this equation in terms of 8, the time is given by the integral
t
=T
r2 dO
hj
+ constant.
The problem of motion under central forces is therefore always soluble by quadratures when the force is a function of the distance only. Example. Shew that the differential equations of motion of a point P are always integrable by a simple quadrature when the central force F is of the form
F=
where
is
a function of 6 only, while a and b are arbitrary constants.
(Armellini.)
We shall now discuss the cases in which the quadrature can be effected terms of known functions, the central force being supposed to vary as some positive or negative integral power, say the nth, of the distance.
in
Let us
first find
in terms of circular functions.
those problems for which the integration can be effected The above integral for the determination of
can be written in the form 8
=
;
I
(a
+ bu* + 0M?
1
)"*
d
where
a, b, c
are constants
~1
.
except when n
=
1,
when a logarithm
replaces
the term in u~ n
If the profolem is to be soluble in terms of circular func tions, the polynomial under the radical in the integrand must be at most of the
second degree
;
this gives
wl=0,
and consequently
n
I,
or
2,
= l, 2,
or
3.
The
case n
=
2
1 is
the case n
quadratic
=
1 is to
is
when w
let
however excluded by what has already been said, and be added, since in this case the irrationality becomes taken as a new variable.
Next,
us find the cases in which the integration can be effected by the
aid of elliptic functions*. For this it is necessary that the irrationality to be should be of the third or fourth degree f in the variable with integrated
respect to which the integration
is
taken.
But
this condition is fulfilled if
;
n
= 0,
3,
4, or
5,
5, 7,
when u
n =
or
taken as the independent variable when w is taken as the independent variable.
is
2
It follows that the
the
problem of motion under a central force which varies as
is soluble
nth power of the distance
by circular or
4,
elliptic
functions in the
cases
n=
*
o, 3, 1, 0,

2,
 3, 
 5,  7.
These cases were first investigated by Legendre, Theorie des Fonctions Elliptiques (1825) and afterwards by J. F. Stader, Crelle s Journal, XLVI. (1853), p. 262. t Whittaker and Watson, Modern Analysis, 227.
W. D.
6
82
Example.
The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics
Shew
that the problem
:
[CH. iv
is
soluble by elliptic functions
when n has the
following fractional values
=_n 2
_A 2
_i 3
is
_s S)
_T
The general
(1908), p. 313.
case of fractional values of n
discussed by Nobile, Giornale di Mat. XLVI.
The
the distance
cases in which motion under a central force varying as a power of is soluble by means of circular functions are of special interest.
as
They correspond,
n=
shewn above,
to the values
:
1,

2,

3 of n
;
the case n
2 will be considered in the next article
the cases n
= 1 and
=
3
can be treated in the following way.
(i)
tt1.
is
In this case the attractive force
so the equation of the orbit
becomes
f*Y
I
(
cv
M  \~^ ~ tf dv,
fl
/
J
\
J
where
u?
=
v,
so
_
or
c
2 (6

j)
=
arccos
/
,
2
\2
where 7
is
a constant of integration,
=
This
is
referred to its centre.
the centre of force*.
(ii)
the equation of an ellipse (when fi 0) or hyperbola (when The orbits are therefore conies whose centre
&gt;
p&lt;
is
0) at
n
=
3.
is
In this case the attractive force
so the equation of the orbit
becomes
*
Newton found that
if
a body
is
move
in
an ellipse under the action of a force directed to the
:
centre of the ellipse, the force
directly proportional to the distance
Principia,
Book
i.
2,
Prop. x.
48]
The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics
we have
83
Integrating,
(u
=A = J.
cos (kd
+ e), where
k2 =
1

^ h
,
when
//,
&lt;
h2
2
,
u

cosh (kd
e,
+ e), where
&2
=^
1,
when when
p&gt;h
,
\u
= A6 +
/A
=h
2
,
where in each case
A
and
e
are constants of integration.
spirals;
These curves are sometimes known as Cotes
reciprocal spiral*.
the last
is
the
In connexion with forces varying as the inverse cube of the distance,
that
if
it
may
be observed
be an orbit described under a central force
P (r)
to the origin, then the orbit
where k
is
any constant, can be described under a central
force P(r)
+T =, 3
where
c is
the intervals of time between corresponding points, i.e. points for which the radius vector has the same value, in the two orbits being the same.
a constant
:
For,
if
accented letters refer to the second orbit,
we have
If therefore
we choose the new constant of momentum h so that
K = hk
this equation implies that the intervals of
time between corresponding points in the two

orbits are the same, since
it
can be written
=
i
r
),
we have
I* /
which establishes the
orbits.
result.
This
is
sometimes known as Newton s theorem of revolving
types of central motion corresponding to
kThe
lead, as
n=5,
3,
0,

4,
:
5,

7
has been shewn, to elliptic integrals
obtain the solution in terms of elliptic functions. take the case of n = 5.
*
on inverting the integrals, we As an example we shall
Newton, Principia, Book
i.
2,
Prop.
ix.
;
R. Cotes,
Harmonia Mensurarum,
pp. 31, 98.
62
84
Let
fj,u
The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics
6
;
[OH. iv
be the force towards the centre of attraction we shall suppose the particle initially projected with a velocity less than that which would be acquired by a fall from rest at an infinite distance to the point of projection,
so that the total energy
is
negative
:
call this
quantity
^7.
Then the equation
of energy
together with the equation
2
&lt;y
,
sdr\
it
Introducing in place of r a new variable p defined by the equation
r
= (^ v*
1
the differential equation becomes
{^
The
^
roots of the quadratic
are real
when 7 is positive their sum is and the smaller [of them is less Hence if the greater and less of the roots be denoted by e and e3 we have the relations respectively, and if e2 denotes
;
,
than
i.
t
,
&lt;?i
+e +
z
&gt;
es
=
,
0,
61
62
&gt;
63
so
p
e is
BI,
where
roots
a constant of integration, and the function
gj
is
formed with the
e z , e$.
Thus we have
Now
r
is
real
and
positive, and, as
we
(6
e2
see from the equation of energy,
e)
cannot be greater than
has a
finite
V
.
At
/&lt;.
So
e1
&gt;
+
is
real
and positive and
lower limit
;
but when
&gt;
&gt;
es ,
the function
p (#
e) is real
48J
and has a
take
e
The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics
finite
85
e is
lower limit for
all
real values of
only
when
real
;
so e is purely real,
to
be
zero.
and by measuring d from a suitable We have therefore
initial line
we can
and
this is the
equation of the orbit in polar coordinates*.
The time can now be determined from the equation
h.
u,
f
or
dd
Performing the integration, we have
where
(6) is the Weierstrassian zetafunctionf.
1.
This equation determines
t.
Example
Shew
influence of a central attractive force
that the equation of the orbit of a particle which 5 ^./r can be written in the form
r = asn
(
moves under the
K
v K
=
or else in the form
a =
r
&gt; &gt;
7
snf
I
l
=z
4 is the provided A 0, where h is the angular momentum round the origin and 4p,E excess of the total energy over the potential at energy infinity. (Cambridge Math. Tripos, Part I, 1894.)
E
shew particle is attracted to the origin with constant acceleration p. Example 2. that the radius vector, vectorial angle, and time, are given in terms of a real auxiliary angle u by equations of the type
;
A
o) 2
 a)
^o(&lt;D!
+
a&gt;
2
+ a)
_
(Schoute .)
Among the points of special interest on an orbit are the points at which the radius vector, after having increased for some time, begins to decrease or after having decreased for some time, to increase. begins point belonging to the former of these classes is called an apocentre, while points
:
A
of the latter class are called pericentres
*
;
both classes are included under the
The
orbits are discussed
and
classified
by W. D. MacMillan, Amer. Journ. Math. xxx.
204.
(1908), p. 282.
t Cf. Whittaker and Watson, Modern Analysis,
86
The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics
At an
a cusp), we have
[CH. iv
general term apse.
(e.g.
apse, if the apse is not a singularity of the orbit
which implies that the tangent to the orbit
vector.
is
perpendicular to the radius
The words aphelion and perihelion are generally used instead of apocentre and pericentre when the centre of force is supposed to be the Sun.
Example.
A
particle
moves under an attraction r
r2
+ r3
at the centre of force
*
to a fixed centre
;
shew that the angle subtended
by two consecutive
apses
is
where h
49.
is
the constant of angular
momentum.
Motion under the Newtonian law*.
case in which motion under a central force varying as an of the distance can be solved in terms of circular functions is
The remaining
integral power This that in which the force varies as the inverse square of the distance. case is of great importance in Celestial Mechanics, since the mutual attractions
of the heavenly bodies vary as the inverse squares of their distances apart, in accordance with the Newtonian law of universal gravitation.
(i)
The
orbits.
magnitude Let the particle be projected from the point whose polar coordinates are with velocity v in a direction making an angle 7 with c so that the (c, a)
;
Consider then the motion of a particle which is acted on by a force directed to a fixed point (which we can take as the origin of coordinates), of from the fixed point. pu?, where u is the reciprocal of the distance
angular
momentum
is
h
= CV
Q
sin 7.
The
differential equation of the orbit is
dhi
P
equation with
a
this
is
a linear differential
is
constant coefficients, and
its
integral
v 2 c 2 sin 2
*
,.
7
i.
Newton, Principia, Book
3,
Props. XL, xn.,
xm.
48, 49]
The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics
and
CT
87
where
e
coordinates, of a conic
are constants of integration. This is the equation, in polar whose focus is at the origin, whose eccentricity is e,
I
and whose semilatus rectum
is
given by the equation
,
I
_
v 2c2 sin 2
7
;
the constant
CT
determines the position of the apseline, and
is
called the
perihelionconstant.
The circumstance that the focus
;
of the conic
is
at the centre of force
is
in accord with
Hamilton s theorem for if the centre of force is at the focus of the conic the perpen dicular on the polar of the centre of force is the perpendicular on the directrix, which is proportional to r, as by Hamilton s theorem the force must be proportional to 1/r2
.
To determine the constants we observe that initially
e
and
1
or in
terms of the
1
initial
data
c, a,
7, v
,
#=a,
w
=
c
du = 775 dO
cot
c
7
;
substituting these values in the equation of the orbit and the equation obtained by differentiating it with respect to 6, we. have
v c sin
2
2
2
7=
/ti
+
/j.e
cos (a
or).
or),
\v
c sin 7 cos 7 = pe sin (a e
Solving these equations for
6
2
and
CT,
we obtain
7
2v
2
_
=
,
v 4 c 2 sin 2
c sin
2
7
~~u?
cot (a
I
CT)
cv
sin
.
\
tan
7 cos 7
7.
The semimajor axis, when the conic is an ellipse, is generally mean distance of the particle denoting it by a, we have
;
called the
1e
and substituting the values of
I
2
and
e
2
already found,
we have
v.c
a/
initial data.
this equation
determines a in terms of the
The time occupied
which
is
in describing the whole circumference of the ellipse,
is
generally called the periodic time,
T x area of
ellipse,
88
The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics
is
[CH. iv
since h represents twice the rate at which the area
swept out by the radius
b is the
vector
;
the periodic time
is
therefore
7
,
where
semiminor
axis.
But we have
h
=
v c sin
I
fi S
.
7 = V pi
b
\/
V
Cl
,
1
so the periodic time is 2?r
~
.3
*/ V
p
It is usual to denote the quantity
n?a~
2
by n
;
the periodic time can then be written
n
is
called the
mean motion, being the mean value
of 8 for a complete period.
It
force at
has been shewn by Bertrand and Koenigs that of all laws of force which give a zero an infinite distance, the Newtonian law is the only one for which all the orbits are
algebraic curves, and also the only one for which all the orbits are closed curves.
Example.
Shew
that
if
inverse square of the distance, the orbit outer focus.
(ii)
a centre of force repels a particle with a force varying as the is a branch of a hyperbola, described about its
The
velocity.
Consider
now
the case in which the orbit
is
an
ellipse
;
the equation
establishes a connexion
between the mean distance a and the velocity
v
and
radius vector c at the initial point of the path. Since any point of the orbit can be taken as initial point, we can write this equation
2
r
is r.
where
v is the velocity of
if
the particle at the point whose radius vector
a hyperbola, whose semimajor axis
is a,
Similarly
the orbit
is
we
find
and
if
the orbit
is
a parabola, the relation becomes
It is clear
from this that the orbit
2
is
an
ellipse,
parabola, or hyperbola,
is
according as v
less
= 2a
,
i.e.
according as the initial velocity of the particle
than, equal to, or greater than, the velocity which the particle would acquire in falling from a position of rest at an infinite distance from the
centre of force to the initial position.
49]
The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics
be shewn that the
to the
89
It can further
velocity at
any point can
be resolved into
a component j perpendicular
dicular to the axis of the conic
radius vector and a component ^r perpen
;
each of these components being constant.
For
if
S be
the centre of force,
G
the intersection of the normal at
the perpendicular
P the position of the moving particle, P to the conic with the major axis, GL on SP from G, and SY the perpendicular on the tangent at
SPG
are respectively sides of the triangle of the velocity in the perpendicular to the velocity and to the components
S, it is
P
from
known that the
two specified directions; and therefore we have
Component perpendicular
to the radius vector
SP = h.SP = h = v p~ ~y p~ ^j
.
=
and Component perpendicular
to the axis
h
l
_fji =
h
= ~p
_ =
Bfl
Sfit
x Component perpendicular
to the radius vector
T
which establishes the result stated.
Example 1. Shew that in elliptic motion under Newton s law, the projections, on the external bisector of two radii, of the velocities corresponding to these radii, are equal. Shew also that the sum of the projections on the inner bisector is equal to the projection of a line constant in magnitude and direction.
(Cailler.)
Example
where
the
2.
Shew
that in elliptic motion under
Newton s
law, the quantity
I
Tdt,
T
mean
denotes the kinetic energy, integrated over a complete period, depends only on distance and not on the eccentricity. (Grinwis.)
3.
Example
constant p
is
At a
certain point in an elliptic orbit described under a force
2
/i/r
,
the
suddenly changed by a small amount. If the eccentricities of the former and new orbits are equal, shew that the point is an extremity of the minor axis.
(iii)
The anomalies in
elliptic motion.
If a particle is describing an ellipse under a centre of force in the focus S, the vectorial angle of the point P at which the particle is situated on the ellipse, measured from the apse A which is nearer to the focus, is called
ASP
the true anomaly of the particle and will be denoted by Q\ the eccentric to the is called the eccentric anomaly of the angle corresponding point
P
and the quantity nt, where n is the particle, and will be denoted by u mean motion and t is the time of describing the arc AP, is called the mean anomaly of the particle. We shall now find the connexion between the three
:
anomalies.
analytical expansion has been discussed by being that by LeviCivita. Chretien. Assoc. Keims for the solution of this equation is described The solution (1907). by H. this Replacing u by nt value in terms of . the relation between and nt can be found nt as follows : We have its = ue sin u. or r= a(lecosu). was found among True Anomaly from the Mean Anomaly. where C ellipse the centre of the 80 w wa 2 fjr (2 nt= u e sin This is 2 a2 a 2e x 2 w. where x is the rectangular coordinate of P referred to the centre of the ellipse as origin. known as Kepler s equation. Rendiconti. (1904). p. A many iiomogram Congres. A solution of the problem of calculating the based on a geometrical deduction. by writers. the unpublished papers of Newton. iv and u is found thus : We have  = 1 r + e cos 6.90 The The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics relation between [CH. p.e^ sin 1 + e cos time in terms of the which is the required relation this equation gives the vectorial angle of the moving particle. 83. 260. becomes = arcsm . 0} j e(l. Hence (1 ecosu) (1 + e cos 6) = 1 e\ an equation which can also be written in the forms M /le\4 and sin*. (5) xin. .Area SGQ}. + 1 e cos The relation between u and nt can be obtained in the following way : We have ft a X rea circle ^^ where Q is the P oint on tne auxiliary corresponding to the point is P on the ellipse = I\J\A/ 2 [Area ACQ . Lastly. Franf. . 0.e^ sin (1 1 + e cos . an important recent memoir del Lincei. Atti delta R. sm wV j . an d r =a ex. Ace.
shew that the sum of the four times (counted from perihelion) to the intersections of a circle with the ellipse is the same for all concentric circles. Shew that 2 ^e sin 2n + .j du 2 + ~ r=i TT [2* &. / cos r (w . 559). the time occupied in describing any arc depends only on the major axis. r=l T where the symbols J denote Bessel coefficients*. . In hyperbolic motion under the Newtonian law.lt.S7r_/o jo . 91 Shew that * 7". we have the required result. Whittaker and Watson. ix.lt. Chapter xvn. = 1 f 2jr cosrnt . For we have 1 du dt 1 n \e cos u &. Example 3.49] Example The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics 1. whatever be the form : of the ellipse * . jo . p.e cos u . shew that where p is the distance from the focus to the vertex. the sum of the distances from the centre of force to the initial and final points. three and the length of the chord joining these points so that if these elements are given. analytically Lambert s original demonstration was geometrical and synthetic the theorem was proved and generalised by Lagrange in 1778 (Oeuvres de Lagrange. t Of. Modern Analysis. . The name of Bessel is commonly connected with this expansion : but it is really due to Lagrange. Chapter Ibid.. 130. p. the time is determinate.e sin u)} aw T = 1 + 22 Jr (re) cos r?z^ J r=l Integrating. d(nt} 1 . .. Oeuvres. 2 . : . shew that and in parabolic motion.. in. .) (iv) Lambert s theorem. 4. in Lambert 1731 shewed that in elliptic motion under the Newtonian law. by Fourier s theorem t ^ . =1 TT cos rnt f 27r cos rnt I .. Example In elliptic motion under Newton s law. and remains constant when the centre of the circle moves parallel to the major axis. d (nt)  . 1 ecosu Y.. iv. Example 2. (Oekinghaus.
from ambiguity be noticed that owing to the presence of the radicals.sin ~ 2 sin . (u  . .a = lfr + r +c\$ 1 /r +r  the last equations give a O=u p f 0. ". r +r = c 2 1 e cos u + 1 e cos u . The reader will be able to determine without difficulty the interpretation of sign corresponding to any given position of the initial and final points.^ and arcsm 51(r Z \ +r fl c\% = I u / /3 + arccos ^~ 2 u ( \ [e cos u+u\ 2 J . u) Ze sm . sm . u. 2\ \ [ + r + c\ = u .2 Now we have if c be the length of the chord. and = a 2 (cos u cos u) 2 + 2 b 2 (sin 2 %  sin u} 2 4a2 sin 2 i = 2 sin U a . c +r + +c =2 a f 2 cos (u fw j u w. 1.u a J 1 arccos V e cos 2 v. = 2 2e cos u+ u  u cos u . [CH. so that the orbit * It will is rectilinear. Example Examine the limiting case when the minor axis of the ellipse vanishes. iv be the eccentric anomalies of the points then we have n x the required time = u e sin u e sin u) (u = / . Lambert s theorem is not free of sign. Thus if quantities a and are denned by the equations . 2 J _ Hence we have r .92 The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics Let u and iif .sin a) (/3 /3). and r and r be the radii vectores.= (1 e cos 2 2 so ^ 2V . / f ( u e cos ^ H arccos + u and i r + r c = 2 r f 2 cos { I u u 2 f h arccos V e cos .+ u \] U2 yj and therefore* 2 arcsin 5 o 2 . (l e cos 2 ^Y. u 2 u cos u +u . This is Lambert s theorem. and cos +  = e cos Thus finally we have n x the required time =a= (a j3 2 cos =.
49, 50]
The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics
2.
93
Example
If
To obtain
the
form of Lambert s theorem applicable
to
parabolic motion.
/3
we suppose the mean distance a to become large, the angles a and small, so Lambert s theorem can be written in the approximate form a3  83 Required
tirne
become very
=
=
and this
is
1
6M * the required form*.
r
{(?
+ + c) *
?
3
(?
+  c) *
?
3
},
Example 3. Establish Lambert s theorem for parabolic motion directly from the formulae
of parabolic motion.
50.
The mutual transformation of
fields of central force
and
fields of
parallel force.
If in the general problem of central forces we suppose the centre of force to be at a very great distance from the part of the field considered, the lines of action of the force in different positions of the particle will be almost parallel to each other; and on passing to the limiting case in which the
is regarded as being at an infinite distance, we arrive at the of the motion of a problem particle under the influence of a force which is to a fixed direction. always parallel given
centre of force
this problem, take rectangular axes Ox, Oy in the plane of the motion, Ox being parallel to the direction of the force and let (x) be the magnitude of the force, which will be to be
For the discussion of
X
;
supposed
independent
of the coordinate y.
The equations
,
of motion are
x
= X(x\
y
=
0,
and the motion
is
therefore represented by the equations
x)
dx
+
c }~4
dx
+
I,
where
a,
b,
c,
I
are the constants of integration;
i.e.
the values of these are
determined by the circumstances of projection,
x, y, x, y.
by the
initial
values of
of the
While the problem of motion in a parallel field of force is a limiting case problem of motion under central forces, it is not difficult to reduce the latter more general problem to the former more one.
special
For
*
if
a particle
is
in
motion under a force of magnitude
P
directed to
(1743), before
This result was given by Euler in his Determinate Orbitae Cometae Anni 1742 Lambert published the general theorem.
94
The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics
we may take
[CH. iv
a fixed centre (which of motion are
as origin of coordinates), the equations
y 
The angular momentum
:
stant) is xy yx defined by the homographic transformation
of the particle round the origin (which is con let this be denoted by A. Introduce new coordinates X, Y,
X?,
y
Fi,
y
and
let
T
be a new variable defined by the equation
.
V
Then we have
W/^A.
*/?
_
T
W
I

**s
\
1
VUV
d2
dt\y)
f ,
dT
T^i
^
I /
U/
_
U*JU
7
\
I
_
7
f&gt;
\y
7^
tx
f)
y
2
^.2 y
dF_^/l\ ** ^^ jx rfT
tx
dt^_ _y_
/
~
_
.
^
/"*
C}/\
feU
1/Tfc
_

Vi
3/T
^
_ V J/7/ V
^
*
if
T were
These equations shew that a particle whose coordinates are (X, Y) would, interpreted as the time, move as if acted on by a force parallel to
the axis of
F
and of magnitude
P*
^.
As the
solution of this transformed
problem
will yield the solution of the original
problem,
is
it
follows that the
general problem of motion under central forces motion in a parallel field of force.
reducible to the problem of
Example 1.
alone
is
Shew
Shew
a parabola with
2.
that the path of a free particle moving under the influence of gravity its axis vertical and vertex upwards. that the magnitude of the force parallel to the axis of is a constant multiple of
Example
x under which
the curve /(a?, y) =
can be described
/a/\
3
r
_ ay /a/y
dx* \dy)
"
\dxj
(
y v _ ay /8/yi j / dx
2
84%
ty
dy*
\dx}
J
If a parallel field of force is such that the path described by a free particle is a conic whatever be the initial conditions, shew that the force varies as the inverse cube
Example 3.
of the distance from
some
line perpendicular to the direction of the force.
51.
Bonnet s theorem.
We
cases
attracted
now proceed to discuss the motion of a particle which is simultaneously by more than one centre of force. An indefinite number of particular of motion of this kind can be obtained by means of a theorem due to
:
Bonnet*, which may be stated thus
*
Liouville
s
Journal,
ix. (1844), p.
113 and Note
p. 353).
iv.
of
t.
n. of the last edition of Lagrange
s
Mec. Anal. (Oeuvres de Lagrange, xn.
5052]
The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics
orbit
95
If a given
can be described in each of n given fields of force, taken
separately, the velocities at any point of the orbit being v 1} v2 ..., vn respectively, then the same orbit can be described in the field of force which is obtained by superposing all these fields, the velocity at the point being
, ,
P
P
Or + v +
2 2
.
.
.
+
n )4
2
For suppose that in the field of force which is obtained by superposing the original fields, an additional normal force R is required in order to make the particle move on the curve in question and let it be projected from
;
a point
A
so that the square of its velocity at
A
is
equal to the
sum
of the
in the original fields of force. Then on adding squares of its velocities at the equations of energy corresponding to the original motions, and comparing with the equation of energy for the motion in question, we see that the
A
kinetic energy of the motion in question is the sum of the kinetic energies of the original motions, i.e. that the velocity at any point is
P
Hence, resolving along the normal to the
.
orbit,
we have
.
P
where
m is
1
,
and
F
F?,
the mass of the particle, p the radius of curvature of the orbit, ..., n are the normal components of the original fields of force
F
at P.
P
P
;
P
field
and therefore
of force which
R
is
is
zero the given orbit is therefore a free path in the obtained by superposing the original fields.
that
Example.
Shew
an
ellipse
can be described if forces
respectively act in the directions of the foci.
This result follows at once from Bonnet
forces are equivalent to forces
s
theorem when
it is
observed that the given
~
and
~ acting
in the directions of the foci, together with
a force
^x distance
acting in the direction of the centre of the ellipse.
52. Determination of the most general field of force under which a given curve or family of curves can be described.
Let
(/&gt;
(x,
y)
=
c
c,
be the equation of a curve
;
on varying the constant
this equation will
shall now find an expression for the represent a family of curves. most general field of force (the force being supposed to depend only on the
We
96
The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics
which
it
[CH. iv
on position of the particle
acts) for
which
this family of curves is
a family of orbits of a particle.
Let
force per unit
v denote the velocity of the particle, and (X, mass parallel to the coordinate axes.
1 dv^
v^
Y} the components of The tangential and
normal components of acceleration being ^
yCtS
and
O respectively,
we have
Substituting for
its value,
namely
we have
Y
~
,
.
4&gt;y*&lt;l&gt;xx
~
~
v
Writing
=  u ($x +
*
&lt;/),
and replacing j by
2
((}&gt;
X
+
X
(/y)~
^
&lt;f&gt;

x
(
^
&lt;j&gt;
y
^}
,
this equation
becomes
X=U
Now
~
^&gt;yy
&lt;j&gt;y
(4&gt;
&lt;f)
X y)
+\$y jg
(&lt;j&gt;X
+
&lt;/&gt;/)
u is arbitrary, since it orbits are described; and as
the particle,
therefore
depends on the velocity with which the given and F are to be functions of the position, of we can take u to be an arbitrary function of x and y we have
X
;
X = U (QxQw ~
and similarly
where u
4&gt;y$xy)
+
~
^(f&gt;y
(&lt;f&gt;xUy
U&gt;
^y^x),
x U y ),
Y=
U
(4&gt;y&lt;j&gt;xx
&lt;t&gt;x&lt;l&gt;xy)
+ %$x
(&lt;&/
x
&lt;t&gt;
These expressions for the field is an arbitrary function of x and y. of force under which the curves of the given family are orbits were first given by Dainelli*.
Example
PI,
P
2
,
...
Shew that a particle can describe a given curve uy\der any arbitrary forces 1. directed to given fixed points, provided these forces satisfy the relations
k
Pk
97\ as \
2
rk
vohere r k is the radius
and pk
points,
and where
p
is the
the perpendicular on the tangent, from the kth of the given fixed radius of curvature of the given curve.
For the tangential and normal components of force on the particle are
T=?Pk ~
k
*
els
fc
and
N= SP &, r k
k
k
Giornale di Mat.
xvm.
(1880), p. 271.
52, 53]
so
The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics
97
from the equation
we have
can describe a given curve under the single action of any one Shew that the condition to acting in given (variable) directions. be satisfied in order that the same curve may be described under the joint action of forces respectively, is 2 ..., acting in the directions of $1, $ 2 F\,
Example
2.
A particle
2
,
of the forces
&lt;i,
...,
F
,
,
&gt;
u ^]0
j,
&gt;
where
ck is
the chord of curvature of the curve in the direction of
3.
;
$t
.
(Curtis.)
Example
function
is
A
V shew
point moves that an equipotential curve
in a field of force in
is
two dimensions of which the work
a possible path, provided
V satisfy
the
equation
r
53.
wn
The problem of two centres of gravitation. of motion of a particle moving in a plane under arbitrary The most forces cannot be integrated by quadratures in the general case. famous of the known soluble problems of this class, other than problems of
The equations
central motion, is the problem of two centres of gravitation, i.e. the problem of determining the motion of a free particle in a plane, attracted by two fixed Newtonian centres of force in the plane its integrability was discovered by
;
Euler*.
Let 2c denote the distance between the two centres of force
;
and take
the point midway between them as origin, and the line joining them as axis of x, so that their coordinates can be taken to be (c, 0) and ( The c, 0). of the is taken to be therefore mass is potential energy particle (whose unity)
F  p (0  cY +
where
yu,
2
2/
}~*

ft
{(x
+ cr + f\
~*
and
p,
are constants depending on the strength of the centres of
attraction.
Now
theorem
any
it
ellipse or
hyperbola with the two centres of force as
foci is
a
s
possible orbit
is
when
either centre of force acts alone,
and therefore by Bonnet
centres of force are acting. It is therefore natural, in the of to the particle, position replace the defining rectangular coordinates (x, y) by elliptic coordinates (, ?;), defined by the
a possible orbit
when both
equations
*
x=
c
cosh
cos
?;,
y
=
c
sinh
sin
77.
Euler, Mem. de Berlin, 1760, p. 228; Nov. Cornm. Pctrop. x. (1764), p. 207; p. 152 Lagrange, M4m. de Turin, iv. (17069), pp. 118, 215, or Oeuvres, n. p. 67.
:
xi.
(1765),
w. D.
7
98
The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics
The equations
[CH. iv
= Constant and
foci
ellipses
and hyperbolas whose
then represent respectively are at the centres of force; and these are
77
= Constant
a particular family of orbits.
The
potential energy,
when expressed
cos
77)
in terms of
and
77,
becomes
c
(cosh
c
(cosh f
+
cos
77)
and the kinetic energy
T is
given by the equations
This problem is evidently of Liouville s type ( 43), and can therefore be integrated by the method applicable to this class of questions. The
Lagrangian equation
J
c
2 2
for the coordinate
is
jCut
{(cosh
2 f cos 77)
}
c
2
cosh
sinh
2
(
+
2
i}
=)
2
^ T T
~
(jc
(
,
or
c
2
2
j {(cosh
1
 cos
2
2
2
}
r;)

2c 2 cosh
sinh
(cosh f
2
 cos
2
77)
+
2
r)
)
or,
using the equation of energy
c
2
2
T + V = h,
^ {(cosh
cos 2 77)2
2
2
}
=  2 (cosh =2 =
"2
 cos
2
77)
 +
 cos
77)
2
2 (A
 F)
^ (cosh
&gt;
2

cos 2
17)
Og
^
^
Og
j
(A
 F)
(cosh
2
77)}
j
(_
A (cosh 2 1
2
cos 2
+C
(cosh
+
00377)
+
C
(cosh
cos
77) [
= 2j(h cosh
Integrating,
c
2
+
cosh
j
.
we have
2
(cosh
 cos
2
2
2
77)
1
=
A cosh 2
+
tt
"
+ u! 
cosh f

7,
where 7
is
a constant of integration.
Subtracting this from the equation of energy, which can be written

(cosh
2
 cos
=
2
2
2
77)
(I
+ f)
cos 2
77)
h (cosh 2 f
H
(cosh
+ cos 77) +
(cosh
cos
77),
53, 54]
The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics
99
we have
Eliminating
_
p2
2
^
(cosh
cfa
cos 2
2 77 ) ?7
a
=
A cos 2
between these equations, we have
it
,
.
+
c
^
/U/
Aicoshff1
cosh
,,.
7
__
T;
c
_
cos
77
+ 7.
h cos 2
,
77
fJU
U,
cos
77
c
+7
Introducing an auxiliary variable
u,
we have
therefore
u
=
I
\
I
h cosh 2
+
 cosh
c
/i
7
[
c,
~^
7
J
]
w=N
./
f(
A,
(
~
c
cos 2 ?;
At

cos
77
+
)
7
&gt;
dtj.
j
These are
elliptic integrals,
and we can therefore express
and
77
as elliptic
functions of the parameter u, say
= % (M
(&gt;
),
17
=
&lt;t&gt;
O)elliptic coordinates
These equations determine the orbit of the particle, the 7 ?) being expressed in terms of the parameter u*.
54.
Motion on a surface
shall
f.
is free
next proceed to consider the motion of a particle which to move on a smooth surface, and is acted on by any forces.
We
Let (X, Y, Z) be the components, parallel to fixed rectangular axes, of the external force on the particle, not including the pressure of the surface let (x, y, z) be the coordinates and v the velocity of the particle, s the arc and
:
p the radius of curvature of its path, ^ the angle between the principal normal to the path and the normal to the surface, and (X, p, v) the directioncosines of the line
which
lies in
t
perpendicular to the path at time
;
the tangentplane to the surface and is the mass of the particle is taken as unity.
acceleration of the particle consists of components vdv/ds along the 2 tangent to the path and v /p along the principal normal the latter component 2 can be resolved into (v /p)sin^ along the line whose directioncosines are
;
The
(X,
p.,
v)
and
(v /p) cos
2
^ along the normal
dv r ds
to the surface.
We
have therefore
the equations of motion
=
dx dz dy Xr + Y ds f + z ds ds
, ,
.................. (A),
YfM
*
+ Zv ........................... (B),
generalisations of the problem of two fixed centres will be found in a paper by Amer. Journ. Math, xxxni. (1911), p. 337. t The earliest investigation of motion on a surface was Galileo s study of the motion of a heavy particle on an inclined plane (Discourses, Third Dialogue, 1638). The motion of a heavy particle moving in a horizontal circle on a sphere was examined by Huygens (Horolog. oscill.,
Hiltebeitel,
Some
1673).
72
100
and
The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics
[CH. iv
these, together with the equation of the surface, are sufficient to determine the motion for the equation of the surface may be regarded as giving z in
;
terms of x and
y,
and by using
this value for z
we can
express
all
the
:
quantities occurring in equations (A)
and (B)
equations (A) and (B) thus become a system fourth order for the determination of x and y
in terms of x, y, x, y, x, y of differential equations of the
t.
in terms of
If the forces are conservative, the expression
 Xdx  Ydy  Zdz
will be the differential of a potentialenergy function V(x, y, z); equation (A) can therefore be integrated, and gives on integration the equation of energy
$iP
+
V(ae
t
y, z}
=
c,
where
in (B),
c is
a constant.
2 Substituting the value of v given by this equation
we have
This
is
differential equation of the second order between differential equation of the orbits on the surface.
(on eliminating z by means of the equation to the surface) a x and y, and is in fact the
The differential equations of motion on a surface are not integrable by quadratures in the general case there are however two cases in which the problem can be formulated in such a way as to utilise results obtained in
:
other connexions.
(i)
Motion under no forces.
i
When
the orbit
no external forces act on the particle, equation (B) gives ^ = 0, so * the is a geodesic on the surface integral of energy shews that this
;
geodesic
is
described with constant velocity.
Example.
of striction
A
is the
particle moves under no forces on the fixed smooth ruled surface whose line axis of z, the directioncosines of the generator at the point z being
.
sin a cos
m
,
sin a sin
m
,
cos
a,
respectively.
To determine
the motion.
Let v denote the distance of the point on the surface whose coordinates are (x, y, z) from the line of striction, measured along the generator, arid let (0, 0, f) be the coordinates of the point in which this generator meets the line of striction. Then we have
x= v sin a cos
This theorem
is
,
y = vsinasin
to Euler,
,
2
= +v cos a.
due
Mechanica
(1736), n. cap. 4.
54]
The
The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics
kinetic energy of the particle is
101
We can take v and f as the two coordinates which define the position of the particle evident that the coordinate is ignorable, and the corresponding integral is
dT =
r
;
it is
k,
where k
is
a constant,
+ v cos a=k.
The
integral of energy
is
T=/i, Eliminating f between these two integrals, we have
v 2 (v 2 +
where h
is
a constant.
m = 2hv + (2h  F) m
2 2
)
2
cosec 2 a.
If v is initially sufficiently large
shall
compared with suppose this to be the case, and shall write
(2h
2
)
f,
the quantity (2A
F)
a
is
positive
;
m
2
cosec 2 a = 2AX 2
,
where X
is
new constant
;
the equation thus becomes
The
defined
integration of this equation can be effected by the equation
by introducing a
real auxiliary variable M,
Writing v = \m.v~^, this becomes
and this
is
equivalent to the equation
*f&gt;()ij
where the roots
ex
,
32
,
e 3 of
the function
e2 = X 2
,
p (M)
are real and are defined by the equations
,
!
ex
es
= m2
is
e1
+
e.,
+ e3 = 0.
The connexion between the variables
v
v
and u
therefore expressed by the equation
l
= \m{^&gt;(u)e
}~^.
t,
Substituting this value of v in the equation which connects v and
we have
=
Cf.
e%u
f (M +
!)
+ Constant.
2033.
Whittaker and Watson, Modern Analysis,
applied to the equations of motion given above. shew that if in the motion of a particle on a developable surface under any forces the surface is developed on a plane. and with the velocity compatible with We therefore have the integrals rest at the origin. 3 equivalent to the equation 3 r * sin %6 = a?. vertex upwards. and Example whose axis is 1. If in the motion of a point P on a developable surface the tangent IP to the edge of regression describes areas proportional to the times. provided the force acting in the planemotion is the same in amount direction relative to the curve as the component of force in the tangentplane to the surface in the surface. Example 2. the problem becomes the same as that of motion in a plane under a constant repulsive force from the origin. (Hazzidakis. These equations give 1 dr\* = g so if say. (Coll. traced out on the cone. where h a constant. r* + r2 2 = Cr. we can utilise the known theorems that the arc s and the quantity  % are unaltered by developing the surface on a plane: these results. Motion on a developable surface. where p is the radius of curvature of the edge of regression. we have r du\ 2 and therefore 1 a3 w3 *(* 0=1 J (la (l V2 )2 where v = ua?. iv and thus in This equation expresses the time conjunction with the equation gives the connexion between v (ii) in terms of the auxiliary variable u.) . and t. If the surface on which the particle moves is developable. u = .motion. Exam. when developed into a plane. icith the velocity due to the depth below the vertex. = which is sin . shew that the component of force perpendicular to IP and in the tangentplane is proportional to ^ . icill be of the form smooth particle and r% sin  6 = a*. ~1 v. r 2 = h. where a is a new constant.102 The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics t [CH. the particle will describe the plane curve thus derived from its orbit with the same velocity as before. ) For on developing the cone. Cr3 where C is is a constant. A vertical Prove that the path is projected along the surface of a right circular cone.
and the potential energy will be a function of z and r (it cannot involve since it is symmetrical with respect to the axis). is the r is the perpendicular distance of the point from this axis. h The motion i.gt.54. is evidently ignorable. &.lt. of a particle on a surface of revolution was investigated by Newton.lt. under forces derivable from a potentialenergy function which is symmetrical with respect to the axis of revolution of the surface. case of surfacemotion which is .f&. between t and z is thus given by a quadrature . the mass of the particle &. Let the position of a point in space be denned by cylindrical coordinates where z is a coordinate measured parallel to the axis of the surface.). and &.gt. 55] 55. for (j&. azimuthal angle made by r with a fixed plane through the axis. on replacing r by its value f(z\ be expressed as a function of z can be taken as unity. the values and are then obtained from the equation of the surface and the equation (/(*)}**. which for points on the surface can. momentum about The equation and substituting of energy is T + V = h. The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics Motion on a surface of revolution functions *. the corresponding integral is = or this equation k. where k is a constant. z and r. only. respectively./&.gt. we have i Constant. The coordinate &. say V(z).gt.lt. in this equation from the preceding. (z.lt.f&. by 18. 103 cases soluble in terms of circular and elliptic The most important tures is soluble by quadra the motion of a particle on a smooth surface of revolution. we have integrating this equation. r. The of r relation &. . The kinetic energy is. where A is a constant.. Jook Section 10.gt. can be interpreted as the integral of angular the axis of the surface. say equation of the surface will be a relation between The r /(*).f&.lt. Principia.
The complete solution in terms of (Jacobian) elliptic functions was obtained by A. (1852). Liouville s Journal.lt. have or z = ^g(t to y&.lt.gt. the above integral t = is and if the origin of coordinates * == so chosen that 2ha = k we 2 . in 1839. and can be realised by a supposing heavy particle attached to a fixed point by a light rigid wire of capable moving freely about the point. which we . surface is vertical (z being measured positively when the axis of the upwards) and gravity the only external force. (1) xvn. The equation then gives &.104 The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics shall [OH. 88 Jacobi s own solution of the problem of a rotating rigid body in terms of elliptic functions had been published The analysis connected with the spherical pendulum is essentially that for previously. #2 Z3 the roots of the cubic since the expression 2 * (/i . = 2 (t t ). p. iv We now discuss the motion on those surfaces for which this quad is rature can be effected by means of known functions.lt. where &. is a constant../&.gz) (I* . Tissot.z*)k* : Lagrange. . Lame s equation of order 2.o &.gt. The case in which the surface (ii) is the sphere problem of the spherical pendulum*. on the righthand side of this equation is an elliptic shall now reduce to Weierstrass canonical form. the surface is When becomes the circular cylinder r = a. is called the In this case the quadrature for t becomes ~ 2 or t=l The integral integral. so that (i) The circular cylinder. where t is a constant. Denote by *i. The sphere. Mecavique Analytiqve.
determine the azimuth For this we have the equation . es . Write = 6g H r where t is a new g ".. #&. .** This equation gives the connexion between z and t.gt.gt.&. is a constant of integration.lt.gt. *=^+7 &. the actual motion will lie between 2 and z3 since .j&. We have now to 7. .gt. we can take this real part of e to be zero.2..(t) . Now when e lt e2 e3 are real and in descending order of magnitude. a constant of integration and the function e3 . formed with the ei. &. 4 +e = s &. &.d *4 + f . .  and also satisfy the inequalities e l &. +&. &. of an imaginary part 3 and a real part depending on the instant from which time is measured by a suitable choice of the origin of time. lies between e2 and e 3 Since in the actual motion z lies between 2 and z3 it follows that f lies between 2 and e3 and therefore the constant e must con .? .gt. since the (which must necessarily lie between particle is on the we see that one of the roots (say z^ is greater than I and the other sphere) two (say z2 and z3 where z2 zs ) are between I and I.gt.55] is The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics 105 I of z.3) so that e 1} e2 e s are new 6j constants.. &&. is g&. e? &. Icclt dt where &.gt. ( 1./&. which satisfy the relation e. The relation between t and z now becomes or where roots e is e2 .. : h W ?&. and negative for the values I and positive for very large positive values of z and also for the values of z which occur in the problem considered I and + 1.gt. $(u) and @ (u) are both real when u is real. variable.lt. for them the cubic must be positive.lt.gt. in which case $(u) is greater than e lt and also when u is of the form + a real quantity. and we then have sist &&.lt. &&. where 3 is .gt.gt.gt. The values of z in . the halfperiod corresponding to the root es in this latter case.lt.lt. ".
is Consider next the problem of motion on the paraboloid. 1( fa increases by  2^ (X /*). In this case the quadrature r for i becomes A* 2 ~ \ /  t= (a+z)* (2hz2gz*^\ * Cf. The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics effect the integration. (1911). Ex. Example.106 To t 4&&. 3 X) so completes the as a function of and solution of the problem. and the point on the lower parallel at which the bob arrives after a halfperiod.lt.gt. now becomes . iv we take X and 3 are new I corresponding to the values I and constants defined by the equations to be the (imaginary) values of of z respectively so that X and /* /* . + 0. . R. Palermo Rend. + o&.t(\)\t a this equation expresses the angle &. Moulton.gt. (Puiseux and Halphen. have a difference of azimuth which always lies between one and two right angles. whose equation r = t 2a? z%. dz.3) ./&.9 00} dt ~ kg ( dt a(j $\t \ (X) dt %&.gt.gt. 21* 8 &.gt.(t t. 2.gt.338. W= &. h W these equations give The integral . _ % 2 [ 4J* J _ l . dt {$&. 00 dt But* we have (X) and therefore . Whittaker and Watson. % 2053. xxxn. (x) = f .) The problem periodic solutions (iii) of the spherical pendulum has been discussed from the standpoint of by F. [CH. . The paraboloid. Modern Analysis. shew that one of the points reached on the higher parallel. p.gt. We see that when t increases by 2a&. (t + o) 3 + /JL) a.gt. When the bob of the spherical pendulum is executing periodic oscillations between two parallels on the sphere. (t +w 3) ___ (t (X)} {&.gt. ~k .
As p (u + in the actual .gt. and ft. the relations +e + 2 es = 0.gt. = 4 2 )* } u. e. formed with the = 2a + a + ft 3~(a + o) _ ajf_a 2ft 3(a + a) . v.*+*)) and then the inversion of the integral gives = p (w + where e is . If a and $ (where a ^ ft) denote 2hz the roots of the quadratic 2gz*  ~= k 4a 0. defined by the equation we = ( \a + z) ~a (2hz  2gz* .lt.gt. The auxiliary quantity v can defined by the equation V now be replaced by an j auxiliary quantity u.gt. We have therefore ~ a. it follows that lies between es and e2 and therefore (as we wish u to be real) the e) imaginary part of the constant e must be the halfperiod 3 the real part can be taken to be zero. _ a2a + ft 3 (a + a) motion z evidently lies between a. a and it is easily proved that the quantities ely e2 e1 . since it depends merely on the lower limit of the &&. el &. roots e 1} e2 a constant of integration and the function e 3 which are given by the equations .2 e3 . we can write this integral in the form v= Define a (~f) /*{4(*+)(* by the equation new variable and let e lf e 2 . {ff (&. then the integrals become . e). integral for u.^} * dz. 6 9 since a + ft = 9 . e 3 satisfy &. is g&.55] The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics To obtain the 107 introduce an auxiliary quantity v solution of the problem in terms of elliptic functions. e 3 respectively of z be the values of corresponding to the values of a. ft.
terms of the auxiliary variable u. a the integral of to be a found (as in the problem of the spherical pendulum) which is i(0 ) =e &. and so completes (iv) The cone. "./&. whose equation r z tan o. in ^&.gt. so ) The equation can now be written . _ ku. (I) = 7  3( + .lt. Lastly.lt.gt. and therefore 4a 3 (a + a) k where &.gt. and I is an auxiliary constant denned by the equation j ft&.108 The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics to determine t is [CH. is a constant of integration. where a is the semivertical angle..T M + 0) 3 this equation expresses the solution.) e . TV The equation t = t I (a + z) dv and this equation gives in terms of the auxiliary variable u. . . 4a a+a+ du. is Consider next the cone. \ve have to determine the . azimuth (j) : for this we have kdt kdt k 2 la (a / v + o)J a fr ( M + a.
the surface must be such that r2 and z can be expressed as rational functions of a parameter. (Kobb. When the surface is a sphere. the 2 equation of the surface regarded as an equation between r and z is the equation of a unicursal curve are the cylindrical coordinates of a point oil the where z. (The trajectories are in this case spheroconics having one focus in the pole. and problem of motion on the cone. (1877). so that an element of arc ds on the surface is given in terms of the increments of u and v to which it corresponds by an equation of the form The three rectangular coordinates ds 2 = Edu + ZFdudv + 2 v. de France. Shew that is in the following cases of the : motion of a particle on a surface of revolution. in Bull. r. meridian and proportional to tan 6 sec 2 having the pole as centre*. * G are known functions of u and Darboux has examined the possibility of other cases. F.) 56. the same as the orbit of a particle of unit we mass in the plane under a force of constant magnitude g cos a acting towards a fixed centre of force (namely the point on the plane which corresponds to the vertex of the cone). of a point on the surface can be expressed two parameters. This ( 48) is one of the known cases in which the problem of central motion can be solved in terms of this solution furnishes at once the solution of the elliptic functions. Math. Since this a developable surface. where 6 is the angular distance from the particle to the pole. surface. Shew that if . given by any one of the following equations z(z 3a) 2 (r az a2 ) 2 = a 3z. and the force 6. when the cone is developed on a plane. We shall now shew how to determine the potentialenergy function under which a given family of curves on a surface can be described as the orbits of a particle constrained to in terms of move on the surface. v. the trajectories are all closed curves a sphere. Shew that the same problem can be solved when the surface is 2 3 2 6 (a* +3/ ) + 2a = 8a% (x* f y ). say u and v.55.e.) the surface When 2. 56] The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics is 109 54. Shew vertical can also be solved in that the motion of a particle under gravity on a surface of revolution terms of elliptic functions when the surface is 2 . directed along the tangent to the (The trajectories in this case are spheroconics is Joukovskys theorem. and the force is directed along the tangent to the meridian and proportional to cosec 2 #. de la Soc. Gdv*.) Example 2. Example whose axis is 1.) 4. we can apply the theorem of and see that the orbit of a particle on the cone under gravity becomes. elliptic functions (Salkowski. Example 3. ) an algebraic surface of revolution is such that the equations of its geodesies can be expressed in terms of elliptic functions of a parameter. where E. i. Example 1. . in (Kobb and terms of Stackel.
iv Let the family of curves which are to be the orbits under the required system of forces be defined by an equation q (u.110 The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics [OH. + V =f(q\ where f is an arbitrary function. ds* =E df+G dp : z . = Constant and let p (u. denote the family of curves which v) is orthogonal to these. v) = Constant.lt. because the curves p = Constant and and G being known functions of Constant cut at right angles E p and q. we have dq Integrating this equation..f + 8p ^ op p 2 ) = / ^ . These equations are to be satisfied by the value q = .. they then become 2 1 P= ~dq~ 85". The kinetic energy of a particle which moves on the surface is the Lagrangian equations of motion are therefore d . 9//v^ Eliminating 2 _p . the term in q = dqdp being absent. iT^cto (G p} [5 V &. which required to determine. op it is where V denotes the unknown potentialenergy function. dq . Then instead of u and v we can take p and q as the two parameters which define the position of a point on the surface let the lineelement in this system of parameters be expressed by the equation . we have .
i.e. v) is given by the formula The differential is parameter is variables formed in ( . The above equations give * ~ dq _ dq~ G is G and hence the equation of energy in the motion MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. Now ~~ i g AI (P\ the differential parameter* of the order of the function p. made from (u. v) to (u v ). then the curves Constant can be freely described by a particle under the influence of forces q derived from the potentialenergy function = V=* where l (p)g(p) + & l (p)ff(q)^\^ldq. A s particle moves under gravity on the smooth s cycloid whose equation is = 4a sin $. (u.f&. when a change of the differential parameter transforms into the expression variables (u v ) and the corresponding new coefficients . and thus we have a theorem enunciated by Joukovsky in 1890. the first differential parameter of a function &. that if q = Constant is the equation of a family of curves on a surface. particle moves in a smooth circular tube under the influence of a force directed to a fixed point and proportional to the distance from the point. and A! denotes parameter. a deformationcovariant of the surface. G ). Shew that the motion is of the same character as in the pendulumproblem. 2. the same way with the new .gt.f&.lt. / 1. made by the tangent to the curve with the where denotes the arc and &. the first differential f and g are arbitrary functions.gt. A * If the lineelement on a surface is given by the equation d2 = E du 2 + 2Fdu dv + G dv*. the period being 4v */ t/ .The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics or 111 ^ and therefore V 9 G ^ G first where g denotes an arbitrary function.lt. . F . the angle is horizontal : shew that the motion periodic. and p= Constant denotes the family of curves orthogonal to these.
lt. and the velocity at the node 2/^ /a. particle moves in a straight line under the action of two centres of repulsive Shew that. Shew that its velocity is inversely proportional to the distance of the particle from the line and to the cosine of the angle which the A plane through the particle and the line makes with the normal plane to the orbit. towards the two points on the initial line which are at a distance a from the pole. A r=+g the angle between the line and the axis of rotation.gt. downwards along the concave side of the curve y 3 + ax2 = with a velocity f (2#)2 from the origin. (Camb. Tripos. it will perform oscillations of period 2 Jo 4. B are constants. by the from a fixed point on the and A. the action of two attractive forces.. Tripos. shew that the tube has the form of a lemniscate.t in time t is 2 ^ cot a cosec a sinh (^ sin a).) particle describes a spacecurve under the influence of a force whose direction always intersects a given straight line. 1898. under 6. where a is the inclination of the tube to the vertical. Math. the axis of x being horizontal shew that the vertical component of the velocity is constant. 1899. Part 1899. and r the distance of the where a is particle from the intersection of this shortest distance with the moving line.112 The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics A [CH. Math. A particle is projected . the time of describing one loop (Camb. line. Prove that if the absolute force of is 2 p.) A particle under the action of gravity travels in a smooth curved tube. (Vollhering. I. Tripos. A : tube. a is the angle made (H.) . 5. which is made to rotate with constant angular velocity co round a fixed vertical axis at given distance from Shew that the motion is given by the equation it.) heavy particle is constrained to move on a straight line. force of equal strength p. (Nicomedi. from rest at a given point If the particle describes every arc OP in the same time that would be taken to slide down the corresponding chord OP. each varying as the inverse square of the distance. Math. Part I. am Ende. 7ra /2/ii. where k &. varying inversely as the cube of the distance. 1.. 6 the angle made with the vertical by the shortest distance a between the lines. A where r is the distance of the particle line with the horizontal. from the middle point of the IT line joining them.gt.) particle slides in a smooth straight tube which is made to rotate with uniform about a vertical axis shew that.) A particle moves in a smooth tube in the form of the curve r2 = 2a 2 cos 2$. [ (1 F sin 2 6^ dQ. which is made to rotate with given variable angular velocity round a fixed horizontal axis. if the centres of force are at a distance 2c apart and the particle starts from rest at a distance kc. starting of the tube. o&.) 9. Part I. 8. heavy particle is constrained to move on a straight line. (Camb. (Dainelli. if the particle starts from relative angular velocity rest from the point where the shortest distance between the axis and the tube meets the 10. Shew that the equation of motion is 2 2 sin a sin B r8 sin a + ad sin a. the distance through which the particle 2(7 moves along the tube u&. 3. thecurveis 7.
G the centre of gravity of the curve (C) on the supposition that the density at each point varies inversely as the velocity. the law of force the inverse power of the distance. of force is of the form its A where A and B are constants.) 16. or isin (f) = (bja) sn (modulus b/a) or according as a b. circumference.r 3 +^ 3 = a 3 2 can be described is proportional to xy (x 14. 18. of force is also of this form when the inverse of an ellipse with described under a centre of force in the focus. Shew that the curves where a. c are arbitrary constants and /is a given function. Shew that the law respect to a focus is w.7 = 3SO. A small bead is strung upon a smooth circular wire of radius o&. .lt. 1900. S (Laisant.lt. the centre of gravity of the curve (}. +y 2 }~ 3 . &. (Camb. The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics A is 113 particle is constrained to move under no external forces in a plane circular tube constrained to rotate uniformly about any point in its plane.) Shew that the force perpendicular to the asymptote under which the curve . Shew its that when a circle is described is under a central attraction directed to fifth a point in 19. Shew that the motion of a particle which is constrained to move in a plane. can be described under the same law of central force to the origin.gt. particle describes the pedal of a circle. The bead is initially at the extremity of the diameter through the centre of rotation. Tripos. which 12. Part 13. &. the centre of force. (Curtis. Math. a.gt. and is projected is with velocity 2& relative to the wire given by the equation sin : shew that the position of the bead at time t = sn &. Y} parallel to fixed axes Shew that the problem of its motion is (x. y). I. G are collinear and that 2&. 17. shew that the points S.iv] 11. can be expressed by means of elliptic functions.) . 15. D. If ((7) be a closed orbit described by a particle under the action of a central force.f) bu&.t\a (modulus a/b) cot.lt. by a force whose components (X. which is con strained to rotate with uniform angular velocity about a point on itself. Shew that the motion of the particle in the tube is similar to that in the pendulumproblem. $ being the angle which the radius vector to the bead makes with the diameter of the circle through the centre of rotation. taken with respect to any point in plane. under a constant force directed to a point out of the plane.gt. A particle is acted on are conjugate functions of the coordinates always soluble by quadratures. under the influence of a centre of force at this Shew that the law point. b. 0.
y) ration tending to the origin and varying with the distance alone. 1901. Proceed dimensions. Find a plane curve such that the curve and its pedal.gt.Pu P to the that. Tripos. &. Tripos. and u is the Two free particles p. origin A particle of unit mass describes an orbit under an attractive force and a transverse force T perpendicular to the radius vector.lt. particle. 6 = with a velocity V in a direction an making angle a with the radius vector the path of a particle be/(r. OP is the force per unit mass at P. Tripos. is f(r. Math. Math. where (Coll Exam. Exam. varying as the distance.) 22. to the discussion of the case wherein f(x. I. . to the semimajor axis.lt.114 20. at a point on the major axis of the nt shew that u.R. and M move in a plane under the influence of a central force to a fixed point 0. y) is homogeneous and of n (Coll. 25. acted on by a central force towards a point so as to pass through a point Q such that OP is equal to OQ projected from a point shew that the least possible velocity of projection is OP(^s. ratio of the velocity of the particle p at an arbitrary point TO of its path. 0. can be simultaneously described by particles under central forces to that point.. is that f be subject to a condition of the form = Hence shew that the only curves r (A of this class are necessarily included in the equation ff) + B sin 6 + C cos =1 . is equal to the constant ratio of the areas described in unit time by the radii 0/x.) 21. prove that ^. Shew that the M which expresses the OM.2860*03 and A = (^ sin sec2a . Om. then the necessary and l be capable of description under accele sufficient condition that the curve f(x. Part 24.nd. F. . if when projected from r=R. sina) = 0. y) be a homogeneous function of one dimension. (Camb. 1901. the differential equation of the orbit is given + ~~ P by T du dd&.M?_ _ 3 d6~ particle If the attractive force is always zero. e is the ratio of CO eccentric angle of the point reached by the particle in time 26.) is A P . Part I.) If /(#. (Camb.. 23. Part I. t from the vertex. the path with the same initial conditions but under the action of an additional central force ^. and the moves r in an equiangular spiral of angle a. Prove that. in such a manner that the moving particles are always at corresponding points of the curve and the pedal : and find the law of force for the pedal curve. u esin where %Tr/n is the periodic time. Prove &. The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics [en.) TO. 1897. Math. cosa)^ (Camb.) An ellipse of centre C is described under the influence of a centre of force ellipse . R. of a certain function / of the coordinates of (Dainelli. with regard to some point in the plane. to the velocity which is possessed at TO by the central projection of on the orbit of p.mPOQ}^ where p. multiplied by the square ratio of OM.
) Shew that a conical pendulum projection of the bob describes an ellipse with the angular velocity whose axes turn executing small oscillations. (Coll.) forces 2 .iv] 27. point of support. r. where /3 is the smaller of the values of ^. Exam. l that of least deviation. (Cayley.gt.9 + sin&. 30. a possible path is a circle with regard to which the two fixed centres are inverse points. (Resal.. ivXMi. points with the velocity due to a fall from rest at infinity. shew that at a time t after passing a point of greatest depth. at distance from the particle. to P through perihelion is equal to the time of falling towards the the time from sun from a distance 2a to a distance a (1+ cos a). if the radius of this circle is a. 1896.j 9 = nf V* sin* (cos x + cos a) 2ag 1 ^ OJ motion of a spherical pendulum of length a be wholly between the levels ia below the fa.) If POP is a focal chord of an elliptic path described round the sun. shew that 29. radii 3 moves in a plane under attractive ^/rV /z/rV along the if it is projected Shew 2d distance at two fixed that. Exam. the horizontal in the sense of the motion H where $ I i s the angle of greatest deviation from the vertical. and 6 the vertical angle of the particle measured from the apse line. The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics A 115 that.lt. 28. is determined a case of Lame s if equation.) A particle is projected horizontally with velocity V along the interior of a smooth 32. x given respectively by the equations 2= (3 cos ^2 cos a) # + F 0j . and that. Exam.lt. the length of the pendulum. Math. Hixam. where a = Zir . or &.) 3 2 .?)}. if under an attraction to the focus.u\ and u uis the P difference of the eccentric anomalies of the points P. and the rate of description of areas will be the same as in the parabola 4a is the latus rectum.(uf . A r drawn particle to the periodic time is  (Coll. a periodic comet receives a small increment 8v.lt. 3 { (le)//x(l +&. is (Coll. Shew particle is moving freely in a parabola at every instant a point be taken on the tangent through the particle. P . (Camb. apart. A heavy particle is projected horizontally with a velocity v inside a smooth sphere at an angular distance a from the vertical diameter drawn downwards shew that it will never fall below or never rise above its initial level according as : v2 &. Tripos. If the fca{4sn 2 V(130/14a)} (mod.) . Shew that the highest point of the spherical surface attained is at an angular distance /3 from the lowest point. this point will describe a central orbit about 4acos0/(&. V(?/65)) is and that a horizontal coordinate referred to the point of support as origin by the equation which 34. and g gravity.lt. (Coll. the depth of the bob is 33. When is Shew at its greatest distance from the sun.) 31.ag sin a tan a. its velocity that the comet s least distance from the sun will be increased by the quantity 48v. Part I. Exam. sphere of radius a from a point whose angular distance from the lowest point is a.9) where the focus.
Tripos. (C. A its about formed by rotating the catenary s = cta. Math. its Shew 2 that the equation of the projection of cos a) 1. projection of the path on a plane at right angles to the axis will have a polar equation csmh. where r is the distance from the axis shew that. p. The particle is projected along the surface perpendicularly to the generator at a point where the tangent plane velocity of projection being p*a. (Coll. if the particle is projected along the surface in a 38. Shew that the problem A particle (x. z=a(f&.) 39. is with M as pole. (Astor. whose generators cut the line of striction at a constant angle. if gravity be neglected. particle of semivertical angle is A mass m moves on the inner surface of a cone of revolution whose 3 from the axis the a.. Neumann. (Camb. z} move on the sphere x2 +y 2 + z 2 whose potential energy is (ax2 + by 2 + cz2 ) l.1 ifO (Coll. under the action of a force pr per unit mass directed at each point along the generator inwards.gt.) . 40. iv move on the surface of a sphere. angular is momentum of the particle about the axis being is m Jp tan a. under the influence of a force of attraction A 2 2 (r + 2a 2 )/r5 in the Shew that..gt. 1897.) motion of a particle under no forces on a ruled surface. its path on /r = sec 2 a cosh 2 ((f&. the direction of the perpendicular r to the axis.lt.116 35. Exam. shew that the path I. Determine the motion. and a particle is projected along its surface from a point smooth surface of revolution is distant b from that axis with velocity h (a 2 + 6 2 )^ /fe2 The direction of projection is such that the component velocity perpendicular to the axis is h/b and the particle moves in . Math. Tripos. and for which the ratio of the length of the common perpendicular to two adjacent generators to the angle between these generators is constant. shewing that the orbit is a spheroconic. The Soluble Problems of Particle Dynamics A particle is constrained to [CH. under the action of a repulsive force pr from the axis. rectum 4a. r (Coll.) A particle of unit mass moves on the inner surface of a paraboloid of revolution. r being the distance from the axis of z. Part 37.p axis of symmetry. Journal fur Math. * Exam.) A particle moves on a smooth helicoid. can be solved by quadratures. LVI. 36. y. is constrained to (1859).= a#.) of the 42. shew that the equations of motion furnish the differential equation b are constants . 1896. contact with the surface. latus . I. 46. (Camb. the plane of xy is 2 makes an angle a with the plane of xy. an arc of a hyperbola whose eccentricity sec a.) Shew that the necessary central force to the vertex of a circular cone in order is that the path on the cone may be a plane section 4^. under the action of a repulsive force mp/r . where a and and integrate this equation. Exam. Part 41. and 2 is 2 attracted to a r2 ) fixed point M on the surface of the sphere with a force that varies as r~ (o? % where d the diameter of the sphere and r is the rectilinear distance from the particle to M. direction perpendicular to the axis with velocity 2a/*2 ? it will describe a parabola. .n&. If the position of the particle on the sphere be defined by its colatitude 6 and longitude $.
Before proceeding to discuss those problems in the dynamics of rigid bodies which can be solved by quadratures. is the density. is called the moment of inertia of the body about the axis Ox*. where the symbol 2 denotes a summation extended over all the particles of the system. G = 2m (x + H = ILmxy 2 y 2 ). Let any rigid body be considered and let the particles of which (from the dynamical point of view) it is constituted be typified by a particle of calculate a : . oscill. 2 2 ). Definitions. of the body at the point y. B=Zm(z* + x G = ILmzx. . the case of ordinary rigid bodies equivalent to integrations f . the notation A=2m(y + z F = Zmyz. Huygens in his researches on the pendulum (Horolog. 2 ). axes are The quantity 2m (y + z 2 2 ). Oy and and ^nizx are the products of inertia about .. y. thus 2m (y + z ) 2 2 ff 2 I is equivalent to I (y + z2 ) pdxdydz. z). mass m situated at a point whose coordinates referred to fixed rectangular (x. Similarly the moment of inertia about any other line is defined to be the sum of the masses of the particles of the body. The quantity is ^mxy called the product of inertia of the similarly the quantities the other pairs of axes. it is convenient to introduce and number of constants which can be assigned to a rigid body. will be generally used. and which depend on its constitution it will be found that these constants determine the dynamical behaviour of the body. my body about the axes Ox.CHAPTER V THE DYNAMICAL SPECIFICATION OF BODIES 57. z). The name is due to Euler. each multiplied by the square of These summations are evidently in its perpendicular distance from the line. of inertia about every line in space are equal be equimomental. Moments of inertia were first introduced by 1673). It will be seen later that this involves also the equality of the products of inertia of the bodies with respect to each other are said to to Two bodies whose moments any pair of orthogonal * lines. For the moments and products of inertia with reference to the coordinate axes. where p (x. or mass per unit volume.
In the case of a plane body. the quantity k is called the radius of gyration of the body about the line. v mass of a body and if k is a quantity such that Mk 2 is equal to the moment of inertia of the body about a given line. p. p. . Phys. or J aJ b. about a line through its middle point perpendicular to the rod. we have for the required moment . Proc. Consider next a uniform rectangular block whose edges are of lengths 2a. The moment of inertia of a uniform rod. It follows that the moment of inertia in question is Mass of rod x 6 2 where 26 (ii) is . 648. or the ". rb I This moment of inertia is ra re n Zm(y + ^ 2 2 ).surfacedensity as it is evaluating the integral. 3 &. the required to the sides parallel through is moment of inertia or where cr is frequently called of inertia the mass per unit area of the plate. Let plate. other as axis Oy. Cassie. the dicular to its plane is M denotes the moment often spoken of as the of inertia about a line perpen moment of inertia about the point in which this line meets the plane. or Mass of rectangle x ^6 2 . v. 2 where p inertia is the density. . and by W. Mag. Phil. 497. c (fca Evaluating the integral. the length of the rod. passing through the centre and parallel to the edges of length 2a. let it be required to find the moment of inertia about an axis Ox 2c . about a line through it centre line and a parallel to the sides of length 2a. its be required to find the moment of inertia of a uniform rectangular whose sides are of lengths 2a and 26 respectively. The rectangular 26. (1903). Taking this line as axis Ox. Derriman. * For practical purposes the moments of inertia of a body are determined experimentally convenient apparatus is described by W. can be deduced from this result by regarding the rod as the limiting form of a rectangle in which the length of one pair of sides is indefinitely small.lt.118 If The dynamical specification of bodies [CH.c p(y + z }dzdydx. block.ra6 . xxi. The rectangle. H. (1909). 58. we have for the moment of ^L + c^ } or Mass of block x 1 2 (6 + c 2 ). (i) The moments of inertia of some simple bodies*. R. Soc.
Let plate it now be required is to find the moment of inertia of a uniform elliptic whose equation about the axis of ra I x. . we have for the required moment of inertia z or Mass of ellipse x 6 2 \7rab ar. 58] (iii) The dynamical The ellipse specification of bodies 119 and the circle. The moment of inertia of a circle of radius b about a diameter is therefore Mass of (iv) circle x \6 2 . It is . the required moment form or or 2 Trpabc (fe + c ) [ J i 2  (1 2 2 .f) 2 ^Trpabc (b + c 2 ). where cr is the surfacedensity. 77. The ellipsoid and the sphere. . To evaluate this integral. Evaluating the integral. ra I ay^dydx. and of inertia can be written in the are evidently equal. of inertia of a uniform solid ellipsoid of density The moment equation is T2 /T^ tv ift 71 ?% 2 p. are new pab variables 3 : the integral becomes c III 2 ? where the integration is now taken throughout a sphere whose equation is Since the integrals ^. integrated throughout the ellipsoid. whose = fc L/ r O about the axis of x \p(y* is similarly + z^dxdydz. write where . 2 or Mass of i ellipsoid x (6 +c 2 ).57.
and if denotes the length intercepted on the X between the vertex A and the foot of this perpendicular. be sin A dXdY= 2A . can be written in is 2A llydydz. have therefore dydz where = 387 ( 4. y. y. y. The it triangle.dXdY = d(X. the distance from this point to the given line is (ax + /3y + yz). triangular plate of surfacedensity a. y of the per pendiculars drawn to it from the vertices of the triangle. where the integration extended over : all positive values of y and z whose sum is less than unity this is equal to r r rr I I or A. where the integration the form extended over the area of the triangle. z} ax 4 fiy 4. ffxedS. and a similar calculation shews that the integrals ffyzdS. z) on the side b A. to be the areal coordinates of a point of the plate. Y) x . 2 where dS denotes an element of area of the plate. By symmetry. each have the value TV A. Let now be required to find the moment of inertia of a uniform . \\xydS . ^ dS. z) of the triangle. with respect to any line in its plane the position of the line can be specified by the lengths a. Now side c if Y denotes c on the side the length of the perpendicular from the point (x.120 Tlie dynamical specification of bodies [CH. ft.yz) dS. and perpendicular the required moment of inertia is therefore Taking (x. is Hence the integral \\ydS. the integrals I la^dS and zdS have the same value. v The moment is of inertia of a uniform sphere of radius a about a diameter therefore Mass (v) of sphere x ^a 2 . we have Y = zb sin A and X sin A We Fcos A = perpendicular = yc sin from (x. A denotes the area of the triangle.
x. y. z. I) denote the velocity and acceleration of a particle of mass m. x. four of which are each of mass and are situated at the vertices of the tetrahedron. Derivation of the moment of inertia about the centre any axis when is the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through of gravity known.58. in the function/.z 1 : these terms together evidently give f(x. y..+ f + / 7 + 7 + a/3). If now we we obtain the (1) substitute these values for x. x. line of three particles situated respectively at the is equimomental to a set Example. z) be any polynomial (not necessarily homo geneous) of the second degree in the coordinates and the components of Let (x. . y. 1 . z. x. y. while the fifth particle is at the centre of gravity of the tetrahedron M ^M and is of mass iM. (2) y. y. formed. when the expression ^mf(x. coordinates of the centre of gravity of a body which arid write is formed of such particles. Shew that a uniform solid tetrahedron of mass of five particles. S mz = t l 0. y. z. z. the summation being taken over all the particles of the body. But given this expression evidently represents the moment of inertia about the middle points of the mass of each particle being onethird the mass of the triangle. z). 59] The dynamical values in specification the of bodies cr 1 1 121 Substituting these integral (ax + /3y + yz^dS. Terms which do not involve x y l . by means of a theorem which will now be given. these terms will vanish in consequence of the relations y. z. y. (3) Terms which are linear in x lt y lt z lt x lt ly z lt x lt y y lt z l . the particles.lt. z 1} x lt y l} zlt x lt y l} z\). y. respectively. Terms which do not involve x. x. Sray! = 0. z. 59. Let f(x. following classes of terms : z. of inertia found in the preceding article were for the most taken with part respect to lines specially related to the bodies concerned these results can however be applied to determine the moments of inertia of : The moments the same bodies with respect to other lines. y. the moment of inertia of the triangle about the given line becomes 2 &. x.z: these terms give /(!. the triangle is therefore equimomental to this set of three sides of the triangle. 2/j.y.rA (a + @. i x Mass of triangle x + (??Y + f* J(*?Y 2 2 \ (\ \ / + *Yl 2 / j . z) is ^mx = l 0.
V&. with respect to a set of parallel axes through the centre of gravity of the body.gt. moments of inertia of a given body with respect to any set of axes. we see that the required moment of inertia is 60.122 The dynamical = specification of bodies [CH. The Let A. C. z. taken with respect to any system of coordinate axes. M and length I about a line through one extremity from the last article that the moment of inertia 2 . y. z. z. is equal to its value taken with respect to a parallel set of axes through the centre of gravity of the body. F. and hence. z lt x. of a particle of mass equal to that of the body and placed at the centre of gravity. taken with respect to the original system of axes. and . and consequently the value of the expression 2m/. H be the to a set of axes Oxyz.gt. y. z) ^mf(x. z&. z. applying the above result. We shall now shew how the moments of inertia of a body with respect to any set of rectangular axes can be found when the moments of inertia are known with respect to another set of rectangular axes having the same origin. B. when the moments of inertia are already known with respect to a set of axes parallel to these.gt. x. with respect to the original axes.gt.gt. together with the mass of the body multiplied by the value of the function f at the centre of gravity. (x lt y... let it be required to determine the moment of inertia of a straight uniform rod of mass It follows perpendicular to the rod.. Sw. Connexion between moments of inertia with respect result of the last article enables us to find the to different sets of axes through the same origin. y.} y&. let moments and products of inertia with respect Ox y z be another set of rectangular axes having the same origin respect to the other will the directioncosines of either set of axes with be supposed to be given by the scheme ^ li / * m l . From this it immediately follows that the moments and products of inertia. v We have therefore the equation y.. together with the corresponding moments and products of inertia. As an example of this result. y. z) . y. z lt +/(&. G. x&. of a body with respect to any axes are equal to the corresponding moments and products of inertia.. x. 5. x.
(y + n.. Exam. H have the sarue values as above and M is the mass of the (Coll.h.) F + (n. 2 ).l3 . 3 2) 3 2 + l. 2 s . 0". F .2Hl m 3 s ..zx . n + m n 2 2 3 3 s 12 1 3 2 2 2 . C . 3&. . 3 ) etc.H (l^t. 2 The quantities A B C F G are thus determined.2 + mn 3 3) = 2m = 2m 2 [x (m. + Bm m + Cn.xy 2 2 2 2 2 2 I. + m.2Gn 2 2 . . + (n 2 l3 + n 3 l2 ) 2 .2Fm n 3 3 2Gn.. 2 3 .? . i/ 3) are A + Jf^S + rf+vft etc.H (l^ni.gt. + Bm^n.n . A 3 } 3 ls 3 ).G (I n + n^ . 2 2 2 {I. combined with those of the last article. and F M (X  2 X 3 + M: . . Example.l.2 m. n. ". 2 2 2 2 2 2 ) r/ and similarly B = A1 + Bm. I.n + m^) . + Bm + 2 * s Cn. i&.? + 2 2 On? .G (Ln. C = Al. &. + m ) .7i ) .gt. 3 ( 2 i3 s 2 (A + B .Zm^yz . (1 2 .i).2Hl. + Cn. H of inertia with respect to the axes . n 2 X 2 ^. + l^) .Zljn. . 2mzx + s (I 2 m + m 3 I3 2 2) .i. 2mxy = ^ IJ. the summation extended over all the particles of the body. H rectangular axes when the moments and products of inertia with respect to any other set of rectangular axes are known. 2 s 3 2) . /x 3 .2 n2 . where A\ B . Mi.G (I n.M 3 ) .Zn^zx . %.n.59. . + I^m . 60] If the The dynamical moments and products .H(l. /X3 + 2J. (? 3 . specification of bodies 123 are denoted by A B A = 2m(y + z where 2 C".Zmj^yz .. Ox y z we have is 2 ).lt. . .gt. X3 . . that the If the origin of coordinates is at the centre of gravity of the body. l.F(m. n F(m. are sufficient to determine the moments and products of inertia of a given body with respect to any set of . ) + if (n + ) + z (I.B) + i n. ".C) n z l2 } 2 l3 + G + (I m + 3 F = Al. = 2m {(I x + m y + n z) + (I x + m y + n z) = 2m [x (l + } + y (m + w ) + z (n + n/) + 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 s } 2 2 I 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2yz (m 2 n. these results.) .L + Bm.in. . F G . m 3 2 and similarly G = Al. We have also F = 2my z = 2m (l^ + m y + n z] (I x + m y + n z) = 2mx + m m 2my + n n 2mz + (m.2Fm.F(m. + Cn. (B + GA) + or ^ &. n 2 l3 2 3 2 3 3 + m n . prove of inertia with respect to three mutually orthogonal lines moments and products r and intersecting (l\i whose coordinates are Xj. + l^n. n + (w + m n.Zl^ + z ) + m* (z + x + n (x + ) . 2 H = Al.).n 2 m C + A .ZnJ.
of its base. and (u. z) be its coordinates and (u. v. Exerc. z) the coordinates of M its centre of gravity G. de Berl. The height of a solid homogeneous Shew that its momental ellipsoid at right circular cone is half the radius the vertex is a sphere.2Hxy = are the moments and products of Cz* &. l . Specimen Th. 1755. of ellipsoid is also called the ellipsoid of inertia is The momental its centre another ellipsoid. 93. and therefore the products of inertia with respect the to them are zero : and moments moments regard to of inertia with respect to these axes are called the principal inertia of the body at the point 0*.lt. H 2Gzx . 1750. . . Cauchys momental If now we consider the quadric surface whose equation Axwhere A. (x. which is its polar reciprocal with sometimes called the ellipsoid of gyration. and consequently its equation referred to any other rectangular is axes Ox y z having the same origin where A a? + B f. w) its components of velocity at the instant t and write origin is fixed.lt. 0. We now shew how the angular momentum moving rigid body about any line. of inertia with respect to these axes. The momental ellipsoid was introduced by Cauchy in 1827. &&. The quadric is therefore the same whatever be the axes of reference provided the origin is unchanged.124 61. +V l . U + 11^ y = y V = V . i. resolved along axes Gx y z parallel to the axes Oxyz and passing through G. 62. Example. =z+z W=W+W z 1 . . velocity of the l l l . Segner. [OH.gt. . B. v The principal axes of inertia . y.+ C z* . + By + 2 G. F.ZF y z . is 1. at the instant t. Turbinum. &. J.IR x y = A B C F G H are the moments and products . and by A. y. p. The dynamical specification of bodies ellipsoid. Mem.ZG z x .u . . and let (x. + yi. x U * = x + xi. . This quadric its is called the momental ellipsoid of the body at the point \ principal axes are called the principal axes of inertia of the body at the equation of the quadric referred to these axes contains no productterms. v. can be determined. de math.LFyz inertia of a given body with respect to the axes of reference Oxyz. 2 be the components of the angular 3) body about G. w) the components of velocity of the point G. Let m denote a typical particle of the body.. resolved along any (fixed or moving) rectangular axes Oxyz whose and let (oj 1. . Let be the mass of the body. Calculation of the angular shall momentum of a moving of a rigid body. at any instant of its motion. 1758. . 1 . The existence of principal axes was discovered by Euler. it follows from the equation that the reciprocal of the square of any radius vector of the quadric is equal to the moment of inertia of the body about this radius.
which For is let (&&. 3 2 l &)j .gt. 125 so in virtue of the properties of the centre of gravity 0.61.gt. where A. 62] The dynamical 2m^j = s2)ecification of bodies we have . B. it is unnecessary to introduce the centre of gravity. we h3 = Sm (xv yu) = 2m {(x + #.(y + yj (u + u. mw = 0.!. Corollary. w) with respect to these axes of a particle in whose (x. Vl U it l =Z w l =X l o&. Sm^j = moreover since ( 17) z we have y^w^. C. respectively = M (yw h? = M (zu h 1 + Aw Ha) l Hw n _ xw} 1 + Bwo Fo) 3 . Hw z s and .)} = 2m (xv yu) + 2w (x^ y^iii) = M (xv yu) + 2m (X^W x z a) y^z^w* + y^w^) = M (xv yu) Gw Fw + C(D A l l 1 l z 3 . and the angular momentum about the axis of which is 2m (xv yu}. G. The angular momentum about any other line through the origin can be found ( 39) by resolving these angular momenta along the line in question.gt. y. Similarly the angular are the axes Ox and Oy Gco 3 . W =y l 1 (0 l follows that Sm^! = 0. H are the moments and products of inertia of momenta about zv} the body with respect to the axes Gx^y^.) (v + Wj) . z) are (17) v = z. G. and let A. If the body is constrained to turn round one of its points. fixed in space. F. about the fixed point with respect to any rectangular axes (fixed or moving) which have the fixed point as origin. can therefore be written in the form Sm or Similarly the angular respectively are momenta A(i) l of the body about the axes of x and y Gu&. l If A 3 denotes the angular have therefore momentum of the body about the axis Oz. denote the moments and products of inertia with respect to these axes. v. Sravj s= 0. ^myj = 0. B. &) 3 ) be the o) 2 components of the angular velocity of the body . F. C. The com H ponents of velocity coordinates are (u.
. v Calculation of the kinetic energy of a moving rigid body. y.? + + Co). are (17) (x. z) has the form (x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ). z) m to these axes. G.) 3 2&&. z} be the coordinates of a of the typical particle to referred these axes. let be the 1.gt. o&.gt. we immediately obtain the result that the kinetic is equal to the kinetic energy of a moving rigid body of mass energy of a mass which moves with the centre of gravity particle of of the body. B. along any rectangular axes (fixed or moving) Oxyz which have the point as origin.gt. the axes.gt. C.yo or (Aw. and let (x.gt. 3 &&. in the in The kinetic energy of a rigid body which is in motion can be calculated same way as the angular momenta. G. xais zw^ yw l xo) z . and therefore the kinetic energy of the motion relative gravity is to the centre of \ 2m \(za&. where A.gt.v&. . z . y.C. it is not For let (co 1} 2 necessary to introduce the centre of gravity. (a&. y. B. x.gt. . The dynamical specification of bodies [on.gt. If the.general theorem obtained 59 is applied to the case in which the polynomial f(x.). y. multiplied by the moment of inertia of the body about the instantaneous axis of rotation in this motion. H are the moments and products of inertia relative to This expression may (by use of 60) be interpreted as half the square of the resultant angular velocity of the body in the motion relative to the centre of gravity. y. + Bw.126 63. 3 ) denote the resolved components of angular velocity of the body about the fixed point Corollary. together with the kinetic energy of the motion of the body relative to its centre of M M gravity. If one of the points of the body is fixed in space. The of of the body components m velocity particle are ( 17) zo) 2 yo) 3 . in the motion relative to G./ 2 s} (.o . and let &&.. z. and so as before we see that the kinetic energy of the motion is where A. &&.lt. relative to these axes.gt.gt. To determine the kinetic energy of the motion of the body relative to its centre of gravity G. x. H denote the moments and products of inertia of the body with respect to the axes Oxyz. 1 2#&&. 2 3) components of the angular velocity of the body about 0. a&. z. &. denote the coordinates of a typical particle of the body referred The components of velocity of the particle parallel to these axes.zco^ + (y Wl xca^}. F. 2Fco 1& 2 3 2 (. F. take any rectangular axes (whose directions may be fixed or moving) having their origin at G.
(1749).63. ^). We shall now shew that these two parts of the motion of the body can be treated quite independently of each other*. and the inclination of the plane of the lamina to the vertical. shew that (f&. relative to axes fixed in space. .*L Y. lamina can turn freely about a horizontal axis in its own plane. (Coll. which is fixed. 0. the kinetic energy is ^Aa)^. 0. z) be in motion under the influence of any its position we can take the three rectangular coordinates of its centre of gravity G. result of the last article The Let a rigid body of mass forces M As coordinates defining (x. orthogonal intersecting in G. Mz = Z. which are fixed in the body and move with it. 128.gt. ^) denotes the kinetic energy of the motion relative Let denote the work done on the body by the external forces in an arbitrary dis placement (Bx. My = &. If be the azimuth of the horizontal axis. of any three lines. Independence of the motion of the centre of gravity and the motion it. of which one depends on the motion of the centre of gravity and the other is the kinetic energy of the motion relative to the centre of gravity. i/r) which specify the position. 0. to G. 80. The Lagrangian equations of motion are MX = X. Zf are the moments and product of inertia of the lamina about the horizontal and a perpendicular to it at the point of intersection with the vertical. the angular velocity of the body about this axis. B. 64] The dynamical specification of bodies 127 this it follows that if one of the coordinate axes say the axis of x the instantaneous axis of rotation of the body. and the three Eulerian angles (6.) 64. &. A ^ the kinetic energy is axis where A. is 2 ^/&) where / is the axis of rotation. 0. relative to axes fixed in direction. dt di 80 df d dt * Euler. relative to shews that the kinetic energy of a moving can be as body regarded consisting of two parts. e. axis turns about a fixed vertical line. +. The kinetic energy is therefore T= where f(0. Bz. B0. and the Example. which it intersects. 8^r) of the body.gt. 0. and From is . Exam. i M (x* + p + *) +/(B. i. since the directions of the axes can be arbitrarily chosen. and hence. moment is of inertia of the body about the instantaneous &&. y. Scientia navalis. the kinetic energy of any body moving about one of its points.lt. By. 0.
gt. 6.J&. and L is the moment about the origin of the external forces. v three of these equations shew that the motion of the centre of gravity of body is the same as that of a particle of mass equal to the whole mass of the body. Exam. 6 the angle made by a line fixed in the body with a line fixed in the plane. . 6 is the angle made by a line fixed in the body with a line fixed in its plane.+ k*fr\ 2 and the work done by the external forces in a displacement (Bx. and ^r.f&. Example.128 The first The dynamical specification of bodies [CH. and if (x.S + for impulsive motion. If a plane rigid body (e. My = Y. M&0 = L.lt. + These results are evidently true also Corollary. X The second three equations shew that . the kinetic energy of the body is f(6..) where M is . (Coll. &. 2 the moment of inertia of the body about its centre of gravity. i^). 86) is and therefore the equations of motion of the body are MX = X. $.gt. then the kinetic energy is \M (x + y. and if (A F) are the total components parallel to the axes of the external forces its plane. the form Obtain one of the equations of motion of a rigid body in two dimensions in the mass of the body. the motion of the body about its centre of gravity is the same as if the centre of gravity were fixed and the body subjected to the action of the same forces for in the motion relative to the centre of gravity.g. a disc of any shape) is in motion in its mass.lt. p is the perpendicular from the origin upon this vector. By. applied to the particle parallel to their actual directions since the work done on such a particle in an arbitrary displace ment would evidently be Bx + YBy + Z8z. the work done by the forces in an arbitrary displacement is &. and L the moment of the external forces about the centre of gravity. under the influence of forces equivalent to the total external the forces acting on the body. / is the acceleration of its centre of gravity. y) are the coordinates of its centre of gravity. M Mk . J/F is the moment of inertia about the origin. acting on the body.
moment an area about which that area has a and hyperbolas. 3. Shew that the moment of inertia of the area enclosed r2 by the two loops of the lemniscate = a2 2 cos20 about the axis of the curve is (37r  8)  x mass of area. of particles are in one plane. and a corner is cut off it by the line xja+y/b = 2. and the kinetic energy relative to the centre of inertia. Exam. distances apart o?12 i2.. 5.64] The dynamical specification of bodies 129 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. . if any.. box are supposed to be thin. D. and there what point. Hence find the (Coll.) Shew that the moment of inertia of an anchorring about its axis is where a is of the anchorring. a A uniform square lamina is bounded by the axes of x and y and the lines x=2c. Shew that the two principal axes at the centre of the square which are in given by its own plane are inclined to the axis of x at angle? ab tan 20 =  . prove that * .) Prove that the moment of inertia of a hollow cubical box about is an axis through the centre of gravity of the box and perpendicular to one of the faces where M is the mass of the box and 2a the length of an edge. its semivertical angle is /3.2c j(a v (a.6) 7.. m 2 . 1. a given straight line is a principal axis of such a point find the other two principal axes through it. (Coll. the angular momentum about the centre of inertia. is of mass M. +b . their and the relative velocities are respectively the moment of inertia about the centre of inertia. if the the relative descriptions of area A 12 . Exam.. 6..) 9 w.. A homogeneous right circular cone is I.. Exam. and the length of a slant side Shew that its moment of inertia about its axis is and that its moment of inertia about a line through its vertex perpendicular to its axis is f atid its M 2 (lf sin 2 /3).. . y = 2c. . the radius of the generating and p is the density. 4. c is the distance of its centre from the axis Shew how if body. masses are ....) 2c) Shew that the envelope of lines in the plane of constant of inertia is a set of confocal ellipses direction of the principal axes at any point.. The sides of the (Coll. moment of inertia about a generator is 2. Any number . Wj. to find at is circle. (Coll. Exam.
If three equal particles are formed by them centre of gravity. may be equimomental to a given plate.gt. . and therefore all principal axes of a given system belong to a quadratic complex. first . whose moments of inertia referred to these axes are (A B C ). G ) if a small mass. bounded by a line perpendicular to the axis at a distance h from the vertex. smoothly jointed framework is in the form of a parallelogram formed bv attaching the ends of a pair of rods of mass m and length 2a to those of a pair of rods of mass m and length 26. m. r) ~ 2 * (c ~ (y (x r) 2 ^} ^2 2 r) ] (Coll. Shew that the six quantities m 1 m 2 &\. y) of the centre of gravity and the between the two pairs of angles 6 and &. x 2 y^ y 2 can be eliminated from { . of the centre of gravity.. order of small quantities. + Cnv = 0. a + (a 2 . If (I. the centre being at a distance r from the origin prove that if one of the principal axes at the point (x. (Coll. v rectum Find the principal moments of inertia at the vertex of a parabolic lamina. 2. shew that the moments of inertia of the compound body about its new principal axes at its new centre of gravity are principal . where z =l. d) in it whose major axis lies in the line x=y.cd y*) + a &*] [2 ^~^ ^~ ^( ". latus 4a. then shew that .. . Express the 14. Write down the conditions that particles m^ at (x ?/. A M sides and the axis of x.. be added to the body. The dynamical specification of bodies [CH.) angular momentum of the system about the origin of coordinates. If a to they must be moved in order to bring them to their final positions after communicating them a displacement equal to the projection in the given direction of the displacement (Fouret. (Coll. in terms of the coordinates (A. y) makes an angle 6 with the axis of x. i/) be the six coordinates of a principal axis and the associated Cartesian system be the principal axes at the centre of gravity. Prove that.) that the principal axes of a given material system at any point are the normals to the three quadrics which pass through the point and belong to a certain confocal system. if 15A&.) Find how the principal axes of inertia are arranged in a plane body. (Coll. Exam. . X. moments of inertia of a body at its centre of gravity are (A. C+C .lt. Exam. then A aW . The A+A accurately to the 13.) system of bodies or particles is moved or deformed in any way. 10. Exam. (Hoppe.130 8.) . .. the area of the triangle 3 ^/3/2 times the product of the principal radii of gyration at the (Coll. Shew A l\ + Bmp. shew that the sum of the products of the mass of each particle into the square of its displacement is equal to the product of the mass of the system into the square of the projection in any given direction of the displacement of the centre of gravity. Exam. Masses are attached to each of the four corners. B. these conditions. . 12.4aA/5 +3A 2/7)i 9. Exam. /*. B+B .) . tan 26 = ab [4 Sabxy ~ d^ (x (x* 2 .). is two principal axes at the point on the parabola whose abscissa are the tangent and normal. is equimomental to a given plate. together with the sum of the products of the masses of the particles into the squares of the distances through which 11.28.) uniform lamina bounded by the ellipse b 2x2 + a 2y 2 = has an elliptic hole (semiaxes c.
before. Let 6 be the moment round the axis of all the external forces acting on the body.g. to apply the principles which have been developed in the foregoing chapters in order to determine the motion of holonomic systems of rigid bodies in those cases which admit of solution by quadratures. We have seen it ( systems which have only one degree of 42) that such a system is immediately soluble by quadratures when possesses an integral of energy: sufficient for the integration in we are dealing with systems in most cases. fixed in the body and in space. the axis and fixed in the body. The Lagrangian equation of motion d_ SVT\ _ dT_ IB = 0. The (i) following examples will illustrate the application of these principles. Motion of a rigid body round a fixed Consider the motion of a single rigid body which is free to turn about an axis.CHAPTER VI THE SOLUBLE PROBLEMS OF RIGID DYNAMICS 65. however (e. Let / be the moment of inertia of the body about the axis. so that $ is the work done by these forces in the infinitesimal displacement which changes 6 to 6 \fid. The motion of systems with one degree of freedom etc. axis. passing through its kinetic energy is . dt\ti) then gives dd~ which is a differential equation of the second order for the determination of G. : motion round a fixed axis. by the and this principle is Sometimes. which one of the surfaces or curves of con straint is forced to move in a given manner). with a plane passing through the axis and fixed in space.g. so that /0 2 where 6 is the angle made by a moveable plane. the problem can be integrated as . 92 . but can be reduced (e. when theorem of when this reduction has 29) to another problem for which the integral of energy holds been performed. the problem as originally formu lated does not possess an integral of energy. It is natural to consider first those We now proceed freedom.
this equation becomes 10= ^ 80 V(ff) which on integration gives the equation of energy $I6 Integrating again. vi If the forces are conservative. the solution being of the form . if A the centre of oscillation when is the centre of suspension. It is evident that the period of same about either of the points C and 0. Joscillation which establishes the result.  and of the form in the circulating case. we have by 59 of inertia of the Moment body about Moment of inertia about G + M. The quantity IjMh is called the length of the equivalent simple pendulum. the points and C are called curious result in this respectively the centre of oscillation and the centre of suspension. motion would still be Mqh sin = 0. is the mass of the body and 6 is the angle made by CG with the Mgh cos 0. where case is The most important axis is horizontal. the two constants of integration being determined by the initial conditions. we have t = I\ t f{2 (c  V}} ". and let CG = h. denotes the potential energy. 2 + = c.A) Distance of centre of gravity from IjMh . connexion is that the centre of oscillation and the centre of suspension are convertible.%dd and this relation between 9 and determines the motion. then C will be i. would be the . that in which gravity is the only external force. C the foot of The potential energy is the perpendicular drawn from G to the axis. To prove this result. 6 = A sn . + constant. the equation of .132 The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics and V (6} [CH.Mh + M (I/Mh . sin in the oscillatory case.h If therefore the body were suspended from 6+ v 0. If be a point on the line CG such that OC=IjMh. In this case M downward vertical : and the equation of motion is This is the same as the equation of motion of a simple pendulum of length J/Mh.e. is the centre of oscillation when C is the centre of suspension. where c is a constant. and the let G be the centre of gravity of the body. and the motion can therefore be expressed in terms of elliptic functions as in 44. GO 2 and therefore we have Moment of inertia of body about 2 2 _ I.
of mass and /3. or m (c 2 . the other two sides are a and the Then if side of a spherical triangle angle included by these sides being (TT .a 2 )^ 0} 2 + mv*t*0\ which is the only coordinate. whose extremities can slide on the circumference of a smooth fixed horizontal circle of radius c an insect of mass equal to that of the rod is supposed to crawl along the rod at . (t Since x=vt. and k are constants. we have T= \m (c The coordinate 6.(c 2 . and let in contact with the plane at time t and the line of greatest slope downwards in the plane. semivertical angle M ^ be the angle made by the axis of the cone with the upward vertical. or + t. ft cos x = cos a sin sin a cos cos . a plane on which only Let I be the rolling without sliding can take place) inclined at an angle a to the horizon. and we have therefore = constant.a 2 )^ 3 2 {v . . and the axis of the cone .2a2/3) now 6 2 + \m {v .e.65] (ii) The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics Motion of a rod on which an insect is crawling. 133 We shall next study the motion of a straight uniform rod. The kinetic 2 51 3 (2a / c2 \ #2 . we have arctan {vt (2c 2 2 #0 where a }.a 2 ) 2 0} along the rod and a component of velocity xB perpendicular to the rod. of mass m . and the potential energy of the cone is Mg x this height if therefore we denote by V the .(c 2 . and the kinetic energy of the insect is due to a component of velocity {x .0}. but the vertical height of the centre of gravity of the cone above its vertex is I cos ft cos ^. have therefore. ^ is one whose vertices represent respectively the normal to the plane. being measured from the epoch when x is zero). ~ ) Integrating this equation.a i! 2 )* 0} + mv2 t 2 = constant. a constant rate v relative to the rod. 2 2 ) = constant. is igriorable. we have (disregarding a constant term) cos 2 ft V=  ^Mgl sin a cos 0. This formula determines the position of the rod at any time. Let 6 be the angle made by the rod at time t with some fixed direction. (iii) Consider now the motion of a homogeneous solid right circular cone. and let x be the distance traversed by the insect from the middle point of the rod. ft We (?).and length 2a. which moves on a perfectly rough plane (i. potential energy of the cone.(c2 . 2 .) 0m (c 0(2c 2 2 . so the total kinetic energy of the system is there is no potential energy. be the angle between the generator which is length of a slant side of the cone. the upward vertical. Motion of a cone on a perfectly rough inclined plane.
cone about this generator. Now all points of that generator which in contact with the plane are instantaneously at rest. of which the axis of ft z is 2 the axis of the cone). Mga and the total potential energy cos V is therefore given by the equation V= . 0. This is the same as the equation of motion of a simple I pendulum of length cosec a (cos 2 ft + ) . [CH. Consider next the motion of a heavy uniform rod. and 6 its inclination to the vertical. whose ends are constrained to move in horizontal and vertical grooves respectively. the kinetic energy of the cone jj is therefore ( 63. we have 2 ft finally for the kinetic 2 energy T of the cone T=%MP cos The Lagrangian equation of motion (cos ( becomes therefore in this case 2 2  Ml* cos ft (cos ft + ) 6 + Mgl sin a cos2 ft sin 6 = 0. cos $ with respect ^MP to rectangular axes at the vertex. Let 2a be the length of the rod. The term in the potential energy due to gravity is 6. this term can be written . and therefore this generator is the If w denotes the angular velocity of the instantaneous axis of rotation of the cone.134 The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics . regarding the cone as inertia of the cone : We composed of sin 2 /3 and discs perpendicular to its axis) to be J/7 2 (cos 2 /3 + Jsin 2 /3) moment of inertia about a and so the theorem of 60 the is. ft MV or 2 2 1 (cos ft + sin ft) sin 2 + ^MP sin Jft 2 sin 2 0(cos 2 + i).% Jfo*a* sin 2 6. the integration can therefore be effected in terms of elliptic functions. may By a term M where p is the density of the rod and x denotes distance measured from the end of the rod which is in the vertical groove integrating. of the allowed for by adding to the potential energy the effect rotation be 29. vi have next to calculate the kinetic energy of the cone for this the moments of about its axis and about a line through the vertex perpendicular to the axis are required these are easily found (by direct integration. But ( 15) we have =6 cot ft. when the framework containing the grooves is made to rotate with constant angular velocity co about the line of the vertical groove.. and substituting the value this value for o&. by (since the directioncosines of the generator can be taken to be sin ft. since the motion is one of pure rolling.gt. its mass.Mga cos d . Motion of a rod on a rotating frame. . generator respectively. as in (iv) 44. Corollary) MP sin a) 2 ft (cos 2 ft + J) w2 . is cos 2 ft.
the imaginary part of the real part of y can then be taken as zero. the constant y must be the halfperiod (&. and (P (&. } .gt. We have therefore and hence this equation determines ^ in (v) terms of &.gt. Consider next the motion of a disc of mass M. * with uniform angular velocity o&. .gt. writing where is less are positive.lt. 2 + ^12 a new dependent we have variable. one of whose points is forced to move in a given manner. e^~&.lt.lt.gt. Cf.lt. 64 2 o&.. o&. is zero and that el &. centre of gravity is is is \Ma?6 z . . so the part of the kinetic energy due to the . ^8a where equation. The integral of energy is 2 therefore 62 Ma or. since it depends only on the choice of the origin of time. Motion of a disc. resting on a perfectly smooth horizontal when one of the points A of the disc is constrained to describe a circle of radius c in the horizontal plane..gt.gt.gt.gt. $&.65] The The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics 135 are a sin 6 6 and a cos 6 .o a 2 sin 2 6 = constant.+y) real values of t (since x lies between 3#/4co 2 and 3^/4aa) 2 + e/a)). e&. plane.e 3 . e/o&. To integrate this equation.7/4or e/&&. we write* #=!+.lt.gt. Whittaker and Watson. since x 2 and is not very large and that suppose for definiteness that than unity. A Course of Modern Analysis. Since e^. and since the moment of inertia of the rod about its its centre centre the part of the kinetic energy due to the rotation of the rod about It Ma?.e 2 &. is 18".{&. Substituting this value for x in the differential where the values correspond respectively to the values it is easily seen that ei+e 2 + e 3 jf&. We have therefore = + y). this constant must evidently be positive. Mga cos 6 f 2 M&.. % 20 6. . so that x oscillates between the values 3^/4aco 2 e denotes a constant : (1 x2 ) We shall 3&. horizontal and vertical components of velocity of the centre of gravity of the rod motion of the $.lt.gt.! . . 2 2 6 Ma we have therefore for the total kinetic energy T the equation J .gt. where the function is formed with the roots e e 2 es lies between e 2 and e3 for and where y denotes a constant.
of radius a and mass J/.lt. a sin (0 . The angular velocity of disc A 0. vi of the point if be the centre of gravity of the disc. Let 6 and be the angles made with a fixed direction in the plane by the line AG and the outward normal to the circle respectively then the work done by this force in a small .(2J/ + wi) ag Since d = a. T=M. it follows that the angular velocity of the disc B about its centre is 200.^V m and a *(2$eT. = a&. we have acco 2 ^+psm^ = 0. Since the moment of inertia of each disc about its centre is i Ma 2 the kinetic energy of the system is therefore each a@. inertia of the Mm = Macrf But since sin (0 . 2 . with edges perfectly rough.9) 8&..+ lM.ti\d&.(2a?&. is The potential energy of the system F=  (2M+m) ag cos 0. The acceleration A is of magnitude cw 2 and is directed along the inward normal to the circle therefore we impress an acceleration cw 2 directed along the outward normal to the .p) or j {(6Af+f m) a 0t Ma*0}= . The resultant force acting on the body in this motion relative to A is therefore 2 J/co&. &. circle. this equation gives (6 M+ 1 m) a 2 .lt.gt.lt. = c. we have = 0. displacement 86 is 2 Mca&. : . (vi) gjaca&.lt.~&o = at + f.136 Let The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics G [OH. &.gt. Consider the motion of two equal circular discs. . and the velocities of the points of the discs which are instantaneously in contact are Since the velocity of the centre of the disc B is 20.tf + iu m. Integrating.9. and let A G be of length a. acting at G in a direction parallel to the outward normal to the circle. .J/a 2a + (2 M+ m) ag sin J/u 2 n0 = 0. is and the Lagrangian equation of motion d (o_T\_ 2 dT__dV ~ 80 80 sin 0. This is the same as the equation of motion of a simple pendulum of length k2 the integration can therefore be performed by means of elliptic functions as in 44. which are kept in contact in a vertical plane by means of a link (in the form of a uniform bar of mass m) which joins their centres the centre of one disc is fixed. we shall obtain the motion relative to A. and Let be the angle turned through at time t by the disc A. + lM. it is required let 6 is be the angle which the link makes with the downward vertical at time t.6\ 0). : and constrained to rotate with uniform angular acceleration a to determine the motion of the other disc B and the link. we have 2 (3J/+ % m) a (fi (2J/+ m) ag cos . where f is a constant. Motion of a disc rolling on a constrained disc and linked to it.lt. this disc is A .gt. on all the particles of the body and suppose that A is at rest. and the kinetic energy of the body is i J/ 2# 2 where Mk2 is the moment of The Lagrangian equation of motion is therefore body about the point A .gt. so if ^ be written for (6 .
1 )} ~ 4 dr. the possibility of solving by quadratures a problem with two degrees of freedom The integral generally depends on the presence of an ignorable coordinate. vB or &. shew if that the bar will reach the horizontal position 66.lt. as a first example.202 ^ I lfri _ cons tant.2 __ . Dividing the second of these integrals by the square of the we have dry dft) 1 where C 1S a constant . as in the dynamics of a particle. being able to slide through the ring or turn in any way about it in the plane. are a constant depending on the initial conditions and as the variables t and by a quadrature: this final integral determines the motion. If the system is initially at rest with the bar vertically downwards. or B + constant 1 Writing cr = s.. Consider. 66] where c is The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics : 137 &. the motion of a uniform straight rod which passes through a small fixed ring on a horizontal plane.65. and mass. The motion of systems with two degrees of freedom. . B is The coordinate ignorable.2 (? + %l) 6 = constant./&. 6 + constant = I {4s (s + \ cP) ( + J cP . first. (i) Hod passing through ring. and the kinetic energy therefore is there no potential energy. and let the make an angle 6 with a fixed line in the plane let 21 be the length of the rod. In the dynamics of rigid bodies. separable.gt. rod its Let the distance from the ring to the middle point of the rod at time t be r.1 )} ~ * ^s. this becomes = j 2 {(r +} I ) 2 (cr* + J cl 2 . as an integral of momentum or angular solution of the differential equations is corresponding to the ignorable coordinate can often be interpreted physically momentum. and the corresponding integral is dT = r constant. this equation can again be integrated Example.. M The moment is of inertia of the rod about its middle point is \ MP. __ The integral of energy is . The formation and effected : principles developed in the preceding chapters by application of the this will be shewn by the following illustrative examples. .gt.
which in turn is free to turn about its axis (supposed horizontal). it is clearly ignorable the integral corresponding to constant. which rolls inside a hollow cylinder of mass and radius R.gt. is real. r) cos$. s=ft&. (0)&. F the same as the equation of energy of a simple pendulum of length (l the solution can be effected by (iii) means of elliptic functions as in 44. . Rod moving in a free circular frame.e 3 if ^ is sufficiently great initially. vi If therefore denotes the Weierstrassian elliptic function with the roots which satisfy the relation e } dr &. [CH. ) gj .gt. T+ or V=/i.gt.j) denote the angle which the plane through the axes of the cylinders at time t makes with the downward vertical. 2 tf&. the ring being free to turn about its vertical diameter. shall next consider the motion of a rod.gt.gt.BflY+m (R . We . we obtain the equation .r) 2  mg (R  r} cos = h.RQ} = k. and let 6 be the angle through which the cylinder of mass has turned since some fixed epoch. which is fixed.gt. we have 0&. Let it now be required to determine the motion of a perfectly rough heavy solid homogeneous cylinder of mass m and radius r.lt.e 2 &. M Let &. Eliminating 6 between the two integrals.138 The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics g&. energy T of the system is given by the equation i m (R . and consequently the constant $ The solution of the problem is therefore contained in the equation (ii) 0^e cylinder rolling on another under gravity.(00 ei for real values of 0. where is a constant of integration since s is positive.r? A* while the potential energy is given by the equation F= The coordinate 6 is mg (R . whose ends can slide freely on a smooth vertical circular ring. The integral of energy is where k is a constant. where h is a constant. \MRW + }m{(R .gt. dT = r 30 or MR^ \mR{(Rr)4&. The angular velocities of the cylinders about their axes are easily seen to be 6 and {(R r} R6}jr respectively and the moments of inertia of the cylinders about their axes are MB? and \ mr 2 respectively so the kinetic M .r) m (3J/+m) This is . we have .gt.
. next discuss the motion of a system consisting of a uniform smooth circular hoop of radius a. . Substituting the value of $ found from this equation in the integral of energy T+ we have lm 2 V=h. = the initial 80 or (2X + 1) a. while a small ring whose mass is 1/X that of the hoop slides on it. The coordinate &.lt.lt. )i cos 6./&.j) is evidently ignorable. which lies in a smooth horizontal plane. and is so constrained that it can only move by rolling on a fixed straight line in that plane. fixed line with velocity v..gt.  0+^a2 cos .lt. the moment of inertia of the hoop about its centre is Xa 2 and this moves with velocity 0. or I is Mr2 + (j&. .. k2 9 ^ .lt. Taking the ring to be of unit mass.gt. . and suppose that the diameter of the hoop which passes through the ring has then turned through an angle \^. is 2 2 (r . denote the angle turned through by the hoop after a time t from the commence ment of the motion.f a2) G 2 h + mg 2 (r a 2 ) a cos x. so that the hoop is X. 2 2 (r sin .a2 ) 2 + } Mr^ + lmty (r2 sin 2 6 .j) 2 (r sin 2 6 . The kinetic energy mass of the . whose directions are inclined to each other at an angle \^. m M its radius . at any time t.gt. and the corresponding integral is cT r = constant. (r . while the velocity of the ring is compounded of components a$ and a\^.lt.a 2 sin 2 6 + J a 2 cos 2 0). The hoop is initially at rest.^ + a 2 ^ cos \/^ value of this expression = av. V mg dT= d&.a 2 sin 2 6 + \a 2 cos 2 6) = k. and the moment of inertia of the rod about the The kinetic energy of the vertical diameter of the ring is r{(r 2 a 2 ) sin 2 5 + Ja 2 cos 2 0}. n 9  2~m 2 5) In this equation the variables 6 and t are separable a further integration will therefore give 6 in terms of t. The coordinate &. m&. 1  & \Mi + m . and $ the azimuth of the ring referred to some fixed vertical plane. where k a constant. system is therefore T=\m (r The potential energy 2 ..a 2 sin 2 . and so furnish the solution of the problem.j&.66] Let The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics 139 be the mass of the ring and r be the mass of the rod and 2a its length let let 6 be the inclination of the rod to the horizontal.p is evidently ignorable the corresponding integral is constant. and the ring is projected We shall from the point furthest from the Let &. centre of the system is therefore T= and the potential energy is zero. (iv) Hoop and ring. The moment of inertia of the rod about an axis through the centre of the ring 2 2 perpendicular to its plane is m(r fa ).
gt. $ its value (v/acos^ . we have j= v v2X J Writing o = sin\^ . In order to evaluate this integral. we introduce an auxiliary variable X I defined by the u= Write x2 = 2X/.r 2 .gt. vi Integrating this equation. (2X + 1) (f&. this becomes %= v v^2X equation J + P(2X o .gt.e 3 . = f ^2X + ^^.(w) real and greater than Now we or have dt = %=.a. ~ ) 4 dx. ) JVKvdt a Integrating. 1 vt This equation determines in is terms of \^. Thus finally the coordinate ^ and 2X the time t are expressed in terms of an auxiliary variable u by the equations . 2X ..2 ~ 4 dx. The equation and substituting of energy T for its initial value = 4*2 &.// initial value of this expression =0. (2X + # vv/2X 2 )4 ( 1 . + sin vt =the &.e 2 &. 6i&.gt. where  is (2X + .gt. new variable the last integral becomes which is equivalent to where the function $&.gt. 7 we have where (u) denotes the Weierstrassian Zetafunction.gt.r 2 ) Jo a 4(1. 4)/(2X + l) in this equation.140 The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics we have [CH. \du. so is $&.r. () is formed with the roots these roots are real and satisfy the inequality ei for real values of u.
4a 2 +. t substituting in the above differential equations. systems A particle hangs by a string of length b from a point in the circumference of a disc (i) The disc can turn about its axis.9=gr/2a are all zero : term so the expansion of 6 begins with a hiher suare of t. these equations therefore give initially term gt 2/4a and that of with a = C + Dt* + Et+Ff&. so the square of the particle s velocity is a2 2 +& z 2 2 .. . 6. To find the the diameter through the point of attachment of the string is initially horizontal.66.. we thus find 0^+0. x=a and (1 . and string to the vertical. 67] 67. Let 6 denote the angle through which the disc has turned. C. initial path of the particle.. Now if x and y are the vertical axes coordinates of the particle referred to horizontal and (downward) through its initial position.lt. V  mg (a sin 6 + b cos 0). at time t from the beginning of the motion particle. &. + 0)0 + #6sin0a6sin(0 + 0) 6 =0.. we can evaluate the coefficients A. + 0)02 #acos$ 2 Initially the quantities 6.lt. Assumin higher than the square Assuming . The Lagrangian equations of motion are dt\d0 d_ /dT\ _ dT_ _ 9 F c0 dt\d(p/ 2 30 J2 &. the inclination of the let : m be the mass of the horizontal and (downward) vertical coordinates of the particle with respect to the centre of the disc are The a cos 6 + b sin and a sin 6 + b cos 0. we have approximately. The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics Initial motions. . B.2ab sin 2 (6 + 0) 00.. and = 0.9a&cos (0 6 2 0a6cos(0 a& sin (0 + 0) = 0. and of twice its mass and of radius a.cos 6}  b sin = \ ad . 141 We have already explained in 32 the general principles used in finding the initial character of the motion of a system which starts from rest at a given time. (6 and the kinetic energy of the system  is 2 T= ma6 + m& while the potential energy is  mob sin + 0) #0.60 = E y = a sin 6 + b (cos 0l)=a0=~.. and equating powers of t.. approximately. 0. + .lt. *= ff 32a6 * ^ 1920a6 2 2 .. which is horizontal. for The following examples will serve to illustrate the procedure of rigid bodies. .
are The x = r cos 6 or approximately r r and y = r sin t*.2 and lengths a and b turn round the point A.) . referred to the fixed end of the rod and a horizontal initial line. AB EC path point BC f = 60 (1 + 2?n 2 /m 1) abx. For the kinetic and potential energies we have 4/7 2  M T=%m(r* + rW}+%M. the equation of Initially. of the form substituting these expansions in the differential equations. are freely hinged at B. with the ring at a distance ra from To find the initial curvature of the path of the ring in space._. neighbourhood of A ring of mass m can slide freely on a uniform rod of mass and length 2a. nearer to G can be put in the form of trisection of of the the initial Example. . we can assume expansions z = 0. and can respectively. Shew vertical.lt. 0. which (ii) can turn about one end. (Camb. Initially the rod is horizontal. SC. vi Eliminating between these equations.142 The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics t [CH. . referred to horizontal and vertical axes at position. x=( 4 b^} y=r 6 2 12 The curvature of the path is given  by the equation p y 62 r and on substituting the above values of 1 and (4a 4 5 we have () ~~ Ma 9r 2 3r ) p (Ma + mr ) This is the required initial curvature of the path of the ring. we have and this is the required approximate equation of the path of the particle in the its initial position. I. of masses mi and m. of motion are  ~dtdf . &. we find 2 _ ~ its initial coordinates of the particle. and equating coefficients of powers of t.9 Since r. 6.Mga cos 6 . if C be released. and is horizontal that. Math. W~ dr r r8 2 g sin 6 = 0. . which is fixed.mgr cos [f Ma*d + mr d + 2mrf0 and 6 are initially zero. 6 being measured downwards from the initial line.~6\ V= The Lagrangian equations mrg sin & Mag sin 6. Part 1896. the fixed end. 6) denote the polar coordinates of the ring at time t. Tripos. Let (r. Two uniform rods AB.
The first two equations give x + d. which is free to move on a smooth table.2 J a (y + rsm6} z dr. t. where c. $ be the angle through which the cylinder has turned at time of the system is energy The kinetic + A ma 2 sin 2 6 . (i) The following examples illustrate the procedure. next discuss the motion of a system consisting of a smooth solid homogeneous mass and radius c. when each element of the rod is attracted to a fixed line of the table m with a force proportional to Let (#. of mass and length 2a. d. Motion of a rod and cylinder on a plane. giving rise to integrals of momentum and angular momentum. in a vertical plane perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder and passing through the centre of gravity of the cylinder. which is moveable on a smooth horizontal plane. e are constants of integration the centre of the rod therefore describes a sine curve in the plane. We shall circular cylinder. integrated as in (ii) 44. are easily seen to be x Let ccot(\4 ) zj + asin$ and acosd. and can be . and with one extremity on the plane.  y ((20) w&. Consider the motion of a uniform rod. and x the distance traversed on the plane by the line of contact of the cylinder and plane. and 6 kinetic energy is inclination to the fixed line. y) its mass and its distance from the line. 143 The possibility of solving by quadratures the motion of a system of rigid bodies which has three degrees of freedom depends generally (as in the case of systems with two degrees of freedom) either on the occurrence of ignorable coordinates. The equation for 6 is of the pendulum type. rail of Let 6 be the inclination of the rail to the vertical. Motion of a rod in a given field of force. + fi sin ct 20 = 0. The and the potential energy is r= ~ or 11 m I ^ I 4&. V=pm(iy 2 + %a The Lagrangian equations $in 2 d). at any time t. or on a disjunction of the kinetic potential into parts which depend on the coordinates separately. 68] 68. The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics The motion of systems with three degrees of freedom. of motion are therefore #=0. d2 + MX . 2 where p is a constant. its be the coordinates of the middle point of the rod.gt. The coordinates of the centre of the rod referred to horizontal and vertical axes. the origin being the initial point of contact of the cylinder and plane. of M and a heavy straight mass m and length 2a.67. placed with its length in contact with the cylinder. /.lt.
since the variables t and 6 are form it gives the expression of 6 in terms of t the two integrals found above then give x and $ in terms of t. for if this were not the case the resultant of the angular momenta about OX..gt.lt.&. .lt. Motion of a body about a fixed point under no forces.lt. This problem is realised ( 64) in the motion of a rigid body relative to its centre of gravity. of any forces whose resultant passes momentum of the body about every line which the fixed passes through point and is fixed in space is constant ( 40). of the most important problems in the dynamics of systems with One three degrees of freedom is that of determining the motion of a rigid body. The coordinates x and &. Elliptic functions were applied to the : by Eueb. (1849)./&. 293. are evidently ignorable . OZ would give a line about which the angular momentum would be greater than the * first Euler. xxxix. f + Mx= constant. the corresponding integrals are ar = ox (which of x) constant may be interpreted as the integral of tiT momentum of the system parallel to the axis and ^ = constant (which axis). which is called the greatest value is fixed in space. and be two other axes tum. be taken as axis OZ. Annee 1758. B 2/ j + a cos 6 . the vahies obtained from these equations in the integral of energy T+ F= constant. J = constant.. when no external forces are supposed to act*. may be interpreted as the integral of angular momentum of the cylinder about its These integrals can be written x ic cosec 2 [ \4 . Specimen inaugurale. (Utrecht. and the line consequently through the fixed point for which this angular momen In this system the angular Let this line. The angular momenta about the axes OX and OF are zero.gt./TT kc cosec 2 . vi given by the equation V= mga cos 6. separable in its integrated : 69. we have the equation If ( 6 . OY. This equation is again integrable. Memoires de Berlin. where d a constant. under the action through the centre of gravity. is . 2 c. p. Substituting for x and &. and let invariable line.. &. problem and the solution was completed by Jacobi.has its OX Y through the fixed point which are perpendicular to OZ and to each other. one of whose points is fixed.144 The The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics potential energy is [CH. 1834) Journal fur Math.
let (A. namely d. 1( to 2 3) at 0.i. I//".gt.gt. B. and let (&&.gt. line 39) that the angular momentum about any 6. d sin 9 sin d cos 0.gt. ^D sin TJ Y = \n VO The (d d cos r J A D B sm . where c is a constant : replacing o&. These are really three integrals of the differential equations of motion of the system (only one arbitrary constant however occurs. our special set of axes being such as to make the other two constants of integration zero). C) be the principal moments of inertia of the body . \ Y+ . 10 . . through making an about OZ.gt. so that 10.gt. ty. a&.. 62) A &&.gt. q&. be the three components of angular velocity of the system ( about the axes Ox. . angle 6 with OZ is d cos where d denotes the angular momentum is sufficiently specified by the position of the body at any time t knowledge of the positions at that time of its three principal axes of inertia at the fixed point let these lines be taken as moving axes Oxyz let (6. D. may integral of energy (which is a consequence of these three equations) be written down at once by use of 63 it is . which is 145 It follows angular ( contrary to hypothesis.f&. or ( 16) / sin v/r sin 6 cos cj&.lt. Oz respectively. we have . Oy. ^= = v/r ". = d T A cos 2 Y+ d d &. 0.. we can ential equations of therefore take these instead of the usual Lagrangian differ motion in order to determine 6. Ca) s = = = d sin 6 cos ty. &.* rj v   (AB)d Cl j.lt. w s by their values in terms of 6 and this equation can be written in either of the forms w. 9 i cos = cos ".. . 1 jj T\ t/ if \_v*Jo Prid OL11 \lf Gl Tl olll lf/&. ty) The : .lt. Solving for 6. ty. 6 cos fy + (f) sin 6 sin ^ d TY sin 6 sin ty. \Lf A.\ r cos ] ".68. tj . 2. 69 J The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics momentum about OZ.gt.f&. &.gt.gt. &&.gt. denote the three Eulerian angles which specify the position of the axes Oxyz with reference to the axes OXYZ. \jr.! Bw&. j sin 6 cos ty. supposed arranged in descending order of magnitude. &.lt.
are then to be chosen so as to make the above equations coincide with the equations & cn 2 A? sn 2 = . be written BcdrBC Acd AdT 2 AG * This equation shews that cos 6 is a Jacobian elliptic function* of a linear and the two preceding equations shew that sin 6 cos ty and function of t sin 6 sin ty are the other two Jacobian functions. c s ". xxn.k + dn u.gt. the quantity or B (A B) (. cma = will be in Whittaker The theory of elliptic functions required in this and the succeeding problems and Watson s Modern Analysis. vi AB sm . by use of the last equations. A &.d?) we the 2 AG ^lcd  AC cos 2 2 &&. 1. and the modulus k of the elliptic functions. = Bcd* ~. u= u 2 2 2 du ~r dn u = k 2 sn u en u.+ BC Ad 2 c s &. 0.Be 2 + C (A 2 and (cC first d} 1 : is negative quantity shall d it ) may C) 3 is be either o&. f where P. are also evidently real. found .gt. cos 6 = R dn say \t u.gt.gt. Chs.gt. k2 shews that k and the equation 2 (AQ(Bc. Q. sin 6 sin is fy Q sn u. Q. Since positive. R are constants and u a linear function of t. that k&. xx. The d of the three differential equations may. or AB 6 sin sm ZQ . The quantities P. . .ffi) (BC)(Acd shews that (1 ) k2 ) is positive.e. ". Now equations a real quantity a may be defined by the mutually consistent sn la * =i  TTT: ^ t . X. the quantities P. A. M 2 2 v/r = (cA : ^. We therefore write sin 6 cos ir = P en u. i.lt. 2 positive or negative for definiteness suppose to be positive. R. B &. The comparison gives A(d*cC} d*(AC) B(d*cC) d*(BC) 2 C(cAffi) d*(AC} (B C)(cAd*) (AB)(d cC) (BC) (Ac d*) The equation for ABC is real. AB . C. e . 1 dn u.146 The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics [OH. R. Q.
we have 4 4 + 2g cosh 2 7 + 2g 1 2g cosh 2 7 +2^ 1 : cosh 4y + ...69] Since The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics _i (A) I 147 where the thetafunctions are defined by the expansions = 1 + 2q cos 2iri/ + 2g ^ (y) = 1 . % 0) = 2i Sn (v) and q = e~ 7&. . 102 . cos TTV sin ^TV + ~ 2q* cos Sirv 4 2? sin STTV + + cos 5? 2^". sin ..K/\ and thus the period of the inclinations of the axes Oxyz to the line OZ is determined. .*".gt. . we can therefore determine the parameter q of the thetafunctions by the equation or by the more rapidly convergent q series 10 = 2 $ tan /3 + TV tan + $fa tan 18 /3 + .. + . %&._i cosh 4 7 . .f 2g".~ where 7 stands for Tra/2K from this equation 7 (and consequently a) may readily be determined by successive approximation. where cos = (k y.lt. .. The Eulerian angles 6 and ^ at time t are now given by the equations sin 6 cos ^r = cnza sin 6 sin \r = = dn ia sn (\t + e) cnm sn la dn (\i + ^ : A cos 6 e)  i en la or (omitting the e) The modulus k of the elliptic functions is known.. /9 K may then be calculated from the series 4&. .2g cos 27Ti/ + 2q$ (y) 01 4 4 + 2g cos 47TZ/ 2g cos 4? 9 cos cos GTTV 9 + .lt. = . . .
.. 4/4 .) (fcosh 87 2q 2# .)(sin /4 o sin 3/4 + ..9 cosh 87 + .. p. &.gt. vi write (&. The three principal = 2.. we have 4 .760. W 3 =l..2a cosh 27 f 2o cosh47. =&*. and the constant of angular momentum is given by the equation so The modulus of the elliptic functions is given by the equation (45X^c)_ whence we have (.. K TT We have also so A =06045 and M = ^=05651..lt. = 10342.03 2= 13 3r. .. c = 3. . ) =1677.gt..)(!+ . #=168013. The constant of energy is c = A a)! 2 + 2 Ha&.. which has the value 11 11 8. 4 2 4&. . q..) (cosh 7 4.gt. .2 + f&.2g cos 2/j. .) + ..t + 2q* cos 4/u^ + . C0 2 =i. )"...t + .jra/2K) =7 and 4 (TrX/2 K} = /A. of the angles 6 The period and ^ is r or . initial velocities of rotation ft)! round the principal axes are = J..? 2&.)(cos u.. 7 may be regarded as the constants which specify the Suppose that the body is a homogeneous ellipsoid of unit density.) (cosh 7 + ) (1 2g cos 2 __ ~ (sinh 7 y sinh 87 + .lt..vj/".gcwrf 2 2=i_2 = 0.. (1 sin cos \f cos cos + + + + (1 (cosh 7 2yu.lt.148 If The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics now we i/ [CH.)(1 .. 2 4 . whose 6 three semiaxes are a=l. moments of inertia are 2 ^= Suppose that the ^ 7r a6c(6 + c 2 = 2087T. .) (1 + 2a cosh 27 + 2o cosh sin u sin cosh 87 + cos 2/4 + 2(? cos 4^ +.y ".. Example.? 2 2 The quantities motion.
y tanh x + a sin p sech ^. the body rotating also about its own axis of symmetry is Oz. coordinate Q becomes 1899. cos /j. sech ^. is The quantity a then given by the equation a= 2A".lt.gt. smha=\ cosh a = (C(Acd 2 )}% . A rigid body is 2 and 3 being initially Bc. so that and the elliptic functions degenerate into hyperbolic functions this is illustrated by the following examples. referred to the initial directions of positive.B) (B C)\% ) = (A(BC)\ \B(AC}\ y= (C(AB)}^ \B(AC]} I.lt. then a&.gt.cC) (A (d^ so the motion is cC)} a steady precession about the invariable line OZ.lt. are a tanh x y sin ((A /* sech ^.. we must determine y. Tripos. = be written n &.lt. Another limiting case that in which .gt. Math. (in the notation used above) d the directioncosines of the Baxis at time t. so that k reduces to In this case the solution may elliptic functions become circular functions. For this we have and therefore if ". = moving about a fixed point under no forces: shew that if&. (Camb.gt. and hence and 2y = 1568 y= 0784. \ (A (d . of where &. Part obtain this result. A zero and the limiting case of the general problem is that in which A B.b ^= ^~cosha cosX&.) we observe that when Bc=d 2 the .a a&.. .* be neglected we have 1 + 2? cosh 2y_ ~ 11094 09337 gi vi ng cosh 2y = 2 503. Example 1.\(AC)(Acd^ A 2C j \ sin An sm(9sm^ = cosh r&.69] The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics and 149 In order to express ^ as trigonometric series in terms of t.9 &. and 2 is zero when t is zero. 7T y = 08385. where fB To _dt X _dt B\~AC~ . differential equation for the dt \ BC ) \ Ad 2 AC ) the integral of which is cos 6 = y sech ^.i ij the principal axes. \ { \. d 2 = cB. 2 cos 0=tanha ~^ F=l ^J.
&. cos p. sin $ sin \^. 0)30. 0)30 denote the so that . W2o. can be written sin p sech ^. But if o) 10 . 0)20.5axis referred to the axes cos 6 sin \^ sin &.lt. ) 2 = y sin sin /*) These equations shew that the directioncosines of the OXYZ. = JD \//. referred to X y Y Z 0)20 0)30 . cos \f.lt.lt. and the equation gives d = 7 cos (&. cos \^.lt.lt. since d 2 = Be = B ( A on 2 + Ccos2 ). vi where y and x are the quantities above defined. Acd 0sm j^sm J. ^w = ao? and 1 3 yd.lt..B IO .o W + CW = = A initial directions of the principal axes.. sech ^..p cos $ sin ^ + cos tanh ^... which ( 10) are cos &.lt. sin &. we see that the directioncosines of are given by the scheme C&. &.D 2 2 \//= ^ 2 u4d AC cos J(7 2 then gives sin 6 sin ^ = tanh ^. AB .150 The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics The equation 2 [CH. .
we have &&. .lt.01 is . e AT iN ow S 01 2K/X &. we have . 2 sn ia en ia m A.. I e constant .69] The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics \t 151 Near the former of these points. 2 ia I ((B sn ia en ia 2id (A)\  G)(Ac. Srrq* sin kirv + . = ia + iK + e. = 2 dn2 ia/& 2 sn 2 m dn 2 ia dn k sn. of i.K. VD A] ) sin 2 \lr at this point (considered as a function of \t) is ABC and the residue when \t/2K is regarded as the variable is consequently i\/4&.e. the constant part of &.lt. / /\t\ia\ 1 .COS ^o/ (^) = 4?r^ sin ZTTV ^01 (* ) 27TI&..ia + e& 2 ..&)AB}* C j Therefore the residue of dlf.gt. is dn 2A. As we now know the zeros. or the precession. so the exponential on the righthand side gives the mean motion of the precessional motion of the system round the invariable We have = 1 25. and retaining l2 2 ". i.lt. . /\t  ia + 2 /X I m\ ~ ~9~V : (2id ~\~A .. S. writing only the lowest powers of e. 1 . since expression as a sum of logarithmic derivates of thetafunctions ^ 01 (i/) has a simple zero at v ^ = iK /2K. poles and residues of this function. /\t^ia\ ( I /./&.lt. 2 sn2 ia so the residue at this pole of sin 2 ty.. / ^ ^ MOl f**!2i ^ r I T &. + 4 2(? COS 4t7TV .j).e. .gt. which is may be written oI A in **.gt.v J 01 A and therefore 4A".lt. which form it may be calculated readily. we can write down its fact. .gt.. so the coefficient of in &.y .lt. considered as a function of \t.f\ \ ZtJ^L // V / j purely periodic with respect to the real period line.2q cosh 2 7 + 2^ q sinh 2y 4 + . .. ^. 2^ sinh 4 cosh 4 7 4&. : in . J 01 r:z= Mp^ I &.
7r. or Example 2. It] \. sinh2y = 2294.gt. Shew that X = 2 arcsin f LQ2 = where ^ planes is arccot LQ2 + 4% 2 the angle between (Oz. disc In this spherical triangle we have Zz = d. . is the angle between the (Coll. &. 0. we have therefore and hence sin v ^ = sin Z sin \Zz = Q and cot a&. 2y ^= =2 = 503. = cos Zf tan 1 ^= (Q tan 2 +4n 2 )* which are the required equations. A uniform circular disc has its centre fixed. In the = 3.gt.lt. Theorie nouvelle de hi rotation des corps. and coinciding with at any subsequent time disc is given initial angular velocities Q about a diameter n about its axis coinciding with Of in space. whose vertices are the intersections of the lines OZ. the polhode and of representing kinematically the motion of a body is the following. of an ellipsoid \vhose semiaxes are a = 2y=l so the 568. c The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics [CH.152 6 = 2. and consider the spherical triangle Z&. An elegant * method about a fixed point under no forces Poinsot. which when j 4 is neglected may be written d I is M q sinh 1 2y . 06956. Paris.lt. so Zz = (fr. which is due to Poinsot*. herpolhode. Poinsot s kinematical representation of the motion. = d/A In the spherical triangle Zz. mean motion of $. 70. and The equations of motion for 6 and therefore become &.) For let OZ denote as usual the invariable line.lt.2B=2A. Exam.gt. we have case previously discussed.gt.   4?l 2i sin {(Q 2 + 4 2 )^ * tan{(Q 2 + 4?i 2 )i. cosh .j&. 0=0. Moreover we have for the C=&. and the axis of the disc Oz and o&. Oz respectively with a sphere of 0% and centre 0. Example 1. The in space. 1834. and moves under the action of no external forces. vi 1.2q cosh 2y 05986 + 00970.f&. .
i= JVtsin 6 cos !//. I T . _. which is constant. Axx + Byy + rhp UPC. . system at time t is Nt about OZ. whence the result follows.gt. It follows that the body moves as if it were rigidly connected to its momental ellipsoid. _1 &&. C are the principal moments z components of angular velocity: hence we have l . 2 = Nt sin 6 sin \^. Bu&. where 6. C(o 3 where A. . Consider the tangentplane to the ellipsoid which is perpendicular to the If p denotes the perpendicular on this tangentplane from the origin. one of whose points is fixed. Since the perpendicular on the plane is constant in magnitude and direction.. so that the component of angular velocity about the invariable line is the constant. and the latter body were to roll about the fixed point on sliding . pd pd \/c . (&.3 T~ .!.gt. Example a hyperboloid be rigidly connected with the body. multiplied by t .2 .. under no forces. we have (since the directioncosines of p are Awjd. yc and hence the radius vector to the point (x y z ) is the instantaneous axis of rotation of the body.) i _U&. without angular velocity being proportional to the radius to the point of contact.11 i// m . 0. . Exam.gt. Aa&. Moreover. But these equations differ from those which occur in the will motion of a body under no forces only in the substitution of t dt for dt so the motion be the same as in the problem of motion under no forces. yc ?/ u Mo  G&. principal axes of inertia Oxyz are of inertia and 2 MS) are the o&. except that the velocities are . C(o 3 = Ntcosd. _ &&. we have on identifying the equations . Bw^d. shew that Poinsot s construction still holds good.a so that the resultant angular momentum of the the components of angular momentum about the . Ca) 3/d) = r d . let In the motion of a body.lt.gt. uiic vn vdiiico Czz l =1 / and A(o x + l Bw ? z 2 y + Cw s z = pd . is body at the fixed invariable line.) is For in any interval of time dt the addition of angular about the fixed axis momentum to the body +Ydt OZ of the couple .gt. referred to the The equation of the momental ellipsoid moving axes Oxyz. Now A&.gt. so as to have the principal axes of 2.gt. Bu&. 70] The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics of the 153 point. B. .69. If a body which is inoveable about a fixed point is initially at rest and acted on continually by a couple of constant magnitude and orientation.lt.gt. a fixed plane perpendicular to the invariable line.l  . ellipsoid if (x y z) are the coordinates of the point of contact of the and the plane. ^ are the Eulerian angles which fix the position of the axes Oxyz with reference to fixed axes OXYZ. 1. but that the component angular velocity about the Example is then invariable line is no longer constant but varies directly as the time. the plane is fixed in space: so the momental ellipsoid always touches a fixed plane. (Coll. pd .
Taking A consisting of curves which surround the axis Oz of the momental ellipsoid. and to have the squares of its axes respectively 2 2 Ac. __ y + z i square of radius from point of suspension to point of contact 2 ". c +# . point on the fixed plane of the same point referred to the moving axes Oxyz. ^B^ . we have . we have p = c = + d? d2 Ac . d2 = 0.gt. B. whose axis passes through the fixed point and is parallel to the axis of resultant angular momentum. i. y z } denote the coordinates is taken as pole. d sin B sin ty/B^c. and z cB and that the limiting case between these two kinds of polhodes correspond to cA cB&.e. one kind Example 2. &. Shew that the motion of this hyperboloid can be represented by causing it to roll without sliding on a circular cylinder. Example I. let p. they Ax* + By.+ Cz = 2 1.gt. Substituting for x y . d Bc. where A. Its equations. z their values as given eoj/Vc a).d &. C are the moments of inertia of the proportional to d the fixed at point. (Siacci. 3/2 ?. c Replacing B and ^r by their values in terms of t. c is twice its kinetic energy.) The curve which in Poinsot s construction is traced on the momental ellipsoid by the point of contact with the fixed plane is called the polkode. when the foot of the perpendicular from the fixed To If (x. and d is the resultant angular body momentum. the polhode is a circle.154 inertia of the The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics [CH. this becomes _ cd?A*B*G* ( _ 2 (BC)(A _ (cA  d*} (c? . are clearly the equation of the ellipsoid together with the equation are p= constant.cC) cd*AC . and consists of two ellipses which The curve which the moving ellipsoid is is traced on the fixed plane by the point of contact with called the herpolhode.gt. d cos 6/C\/c. is a singular polhode which corresponds to cB pass through the extremities of the mean axis. C. Shew that when A =B. shew that there are two kinds of polhodes. find the equation of the herpolhode.2 by the equations x = y { = = z &&.gt.gt.d".&. referred to the principal moments of inertia. % be the polar coordinates of the point of contact. cP Cc. sin 2 T/T + 2 T sin Bc d2 sin 2 \lr ~ +T G 2 d2 cos 2 #. vi body at the point as axes. and correspond to cC. while the other kind consists of curves which surround the axis Ox. 3 = = /\/c = /\/c cos 2 d sin 6 cos ty/A^/c.".
determination of the 6. or a point. y. a circle. and two consecutive positions of the point of contact. practically a fixed point. Acx \d\ A All . Eulerian angle A top is and terminates in a sharp point the axis. ^) of the Example 1. C are not restricted to be positive. Motion of a top on a perfectly rough plane . herpolhode are thus expressed as functions of t. w We observe have next to find the vectorial angle that 2 % in terms of t. however J. the coefficient of the highest . (p. d ~B + i $ (I + &)) 2 This equation can be integrated in the same way as the equation for the Eulerian angle and gives c/&. while the square of its velocity is A a quadratic function of the square of the radius vector. Jfxample 2. and that this is six times the volume of the tetrahedron whose quantity can also be expressed in the form x. we have of t : on AC which can be written in the form _ %~ . Ccz /d2 z A. the foot of the perpendicular from the fixed point on the fixed plane. For this we Vcp ^/c? vertices are the fixed point.70. in which secting on the mean axis Discuss the cases in which the polhode consists of (a) two ellipses inter of the momenta! ellipsoid. (y) two points . &. The We .gt. this equation expresses the radius vector of the herpolhode in terms of the time. power being negative shew that the path is the herpolhode of a Poinsot motion. except %. and reducing. z 2 . JB. shewing that in these cases the herpolhode becomes respectively a spiral curve (whose equation can be expressed in terms of elementary functions). divided by the interval of time elapsed between these positions. (/3) two parallel circles. Bey Id y . t x / B. 71] The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics 155 where denotes the halfperiod corresponding to the root e^. a where ^o ( I ta) is a constant of The current coordinates integration. are known functions substituting their values in terms of t. particle moves in such a way that its angular momentum round the origin is a linear function of the square of the radius vector.gt. the quantities involved. defined to be a material body which is symmetrical about an axis the (called apex or vertex) at one end of shall now study the motion of a top when spinning with its apex on a so that is placed perfectly rough plane. C t l y/y.. 71.
gt.j&. b\s The term b 2 /2C can be equation of motion is cos neglected. w 2 . xn. . co 2 &&. the origin being the be apex and the axis Oz being the axis of symmetry of the top let (6. the d /dR\ dR _ p.f&.gt. M The kinetic potential is therefore s L=Tintegrals are V=$A6* + 4 and &.gt.gt.+ ^Aft sin 6 + ^C (jr + &. G) denote the moments of inertia of the top about rectangular axes Oxyz. fixed relative to the top and moving with it. and the potential energy is V = Mgh cos 6. and dT .gt. the corresponding The coordinates ^ are evidently ignorable. the kinetic energy is therefore 2 T = \AB.s = 6 cos ty + sin =^ cos 6 t4&. sin2 + C (^ + C ty + : cos 0) cos fj) . &&. vi problem is essentially that of determining the motion of a solid of revolution under the influence of gravity.gt. so that denote the components relative to the moving axes of the ( 16) we have = &&.lt. . \Jr) the Eulerian angles defining the position of these axes with reference to fixed rectangular axes OXYZ.lt. cos 0?.9) where a and b are constants these may be interpreted as integrals of angular momentum about the axes OZ and Oz. . 251). constant.gt.lt. .lt. =b. Mec. dfr or A&.. dT = ^r d(f&.lt. of which OZ is directed vertically upwards. = constant. Anal.j 6 sin ^r $ sin 6 cos ty. space Let (A. when a point on its axis is fixed in *.gt.lt.156 The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics [OH. sin 2 + 4C (t + &.gt.j&. The modified kinetic potential ( R=L a(&. cos 0^Mghcoa B. 6 sin ty. * Lagrange. cos &. A. &. (Oeuvres. where is the mass of the top and h is the distance of its centre of gravity from the apex. 3 angular velocity of the top. The kinetic energy is ( 63) where w l . as it is merely a constant.a. and so are obvious a priori from 38) is general dynamical principles.
2A sin .gt. {4 (z ej (z e. e3 are all real and 2 satisfy the relations 0. and the remaining root is also real and is negative. when x = I. 2 t is therefore given by the integral of namely 2 2 (abcos0) Aa2 \AQ = .a?) + 2 Ac (1 . Let these roots be denoted by cos a.71] The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics same which the kinetic energy (a b cos 0) 2 157 so the variation of 6 is the as in a dynamical system with one degree is of freedom for ^A6 and 2 the potential energy is The connexion between d and energy of this reduced system. The righthand side when x = 1. ^ where c is a constant.cos a) (x  cos /3) (x  cosh 7 }}~*dx.e. The differential equation now becomes \Mghft A$ dt = If {4 (x .2AMgh (x .x 2 9 ).gt. /3.gt. now some real values of 6. greater than unity. &. so that a &. The cubic has therefore two real roots which lie between 1 and 1. since the lefthand side of the equation is positive. i. this equation becomes A*a? = .bx) . the cubic is again negative.Mgh cos 6 + c. the cubic must be positive..2 ) (z where the constants e 3 are given by the equations 2Ac + b2 _Mgh = so that ei. cosh 7. e.(a . where cos /3 &. cos a. we write we have therefore t + constant = el} e?. for some values of x between 1 and 1. ~~ 2Ac + b 3 2 e. el +e +e = el &. e3 . for . Writing cos = x. cos ft.gt. and when x = + oo the cubic is positive. the cubic of this equation is is a cubic polynomial in x .
cot 2 6. Example A is For proceeding as in the problem of the top on the perfectly rough plane.lt. &. Example 1. C.f&. ( 55) 0. i. the integral of energy of the reduced problem the equation (a ft. If the circumstances sheiv that the value of Q at any time t is given by the equation Mgk sec0=l+sech(^p/). fjL.w . b.lt. the quantities k.lt. and solid of revolution can turn freely about a fixed point in its axis of acted on by forces derived from a potentialenergy function p. b.gt. when P. cos 0. z/l. h. a constant of integration. symmetry.f&. be remarked that the present problem reduces to that of the spherical pendulum k are replaced respectively by M. we find for Writing cos 6 = x. @ is formed with the roots e 1} e2 and hence we have 2A for real values of t. it is evident that x must between cos a and cos fi.158 The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics z [CH. &. and so can be taken to be zero halfperiod &. I.. . 1. \.gt. 0. h. by suitably choosing this epoch. For in this case we readily find for the constants a.. since the lefthand side is positive for some real * It may I. $ (t + e) must lie between e2 and e3 for real values of t and therefore the imaginary part of the constant e must be the : Now in order that x may be real lie The real part of e depends on 3 corresponding to the root e s the epoch from which the time is measured. this becomes for The quadratic on the righthand side is negative when # = 1 and x= 1. 2. and the function fy . so that the axis of the top continually approaches the vertical. c the values so the differential equation to determine x is whence the result follows. where 6 is the angle between this axis and a fixed line . We have therefore finally ^ and this is the equation = which expresses the Eulerian angle 6 in terms of of projection of the top are such that initially the time*. but is positive some values of x between 1 and +1. vi The connexion between where and t is therefore e is . shew that the equations of motion can be integrated in terms of elementary functions. a. A.e. c.
a sin 2 (&.lt. ^ 1 I _ = = a b cos 6 ~Tsin2 b . the equations to determine and &.f) 2 A (cos 0+1) (cos a+b a b = + 1 2A 2X(cos + ) (coslT^Tj a 24 &. x = cos 72. the only difference in the motion of the two tops being that the auxiliary top has throughout the motion a constant extra spin b(C A)/AG about its axis of symmetry. the equation is of the form \x z = (cos a . whose moments of inertia are all equal. A) projected in such a way that its axis of symmetry always occupies the same position as the axis of symmetry .gt.lt. h) that C does not occur except in these equations and the equation for for and therefore an auxiliary top the constant term of the expression ty can be whose moments of inertia are (A.71.lt.M9h 2 A 12 A* ^ ~ Mgh 2 A . is called a spherical top. and of the Cayley Klein parameters .x] (x the solution of which is and cos /3). Calling the quadratic has therefore two real roots between these cos a and cos /3. (a b cos 0) cos 6 \^ If C~ Asin*0 as specified by the constants of the body of integration (a. It follows therefore that the motion of any top can be simply expressed in terms of the motion of a spherical top. Determination of the remaining Eulerian angles. 72] values of 6 : The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics 1 159 + 1. For this purpose we use the two integrals corresponding to the ignorable : coordinates these. it is evident from constants and the (M. it remains to determine the other Eulerian angles and &.9 Substituting for cos value from the equation 2A and writing O m. as in the last article. When the Eulerian angle 6 has been obtained in terms of the time. b. C./2X) + cos /3 cos2 (Z/2X).f&.gt. we regard the motion of the top considered. A top such as this auxiliary top. when ( solved for &. c).lt. \/.f&. i/r become _a b b cos A sin A _ ~ 2 a cos sin 2 its * ( = a b +b ~ . and that there is no real loss of generality in supposing any top under consideration to be spherical. A. the spherical top. If then we take = : G= A.lt. give .f) and \jr. A.
= iMgh (a + b)/ 2A. 3)  (k}dt v = .b)/2A and &. the argument of the ^function is k.+ Now the function is an elliptic function.lt. . $ (t + and therefore &&.a?) . it follows from the definition of k that 1 and so the last equation gives the corresponding value of x is if .gt. {2Ap (k)/Mgh\* = (a + (k) 2 6) . t 3 with + w = k and t + is and the function whose poles in any periodparallelogram are congruent = k. &&.w 3 A.160 so that t I The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics [CH./&. A or 2 . .T.. o&.gt.gt..gt.lt. the corresponding residues being 1 and 1 3 Hence we have zero when t + 3 = 0. $ can be at X= in the equation 2 2 A Wh ^} + 2Ac (1 . vi + o&. Similarly we have 2 .gt.gt. &&. (/) and therefore the equations for fy can be written in the form 2^=*. + constant.) y ~y^ + 2 ^ ^&.gt.lt. cr (  log & V  &.) /7x bv ( A.. 3 and k are known imaginary constants (being in fact the values of and TT of 6}.. . &. = iMgh (a .b) 1 6) 1 ^ %/i (a 6) 1 Now the connexion between the function once written down by substituting for and its derivate x from the equation %&. the differential equations corresponding to the values become = Mgh(a + b) 2 1 Mgh (a .gt. 7\ . .
5 ( 12).gt. a = cos 1 6 .lt.o 3) i( ^". fy can therefore be written in the form .lt. ^ 7.72] The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics integrals of the equations for 161 The and &.lt.gt. These equations lead to simple expressions for the CayleyKlein parameters 7.gt.lt.. 3 + /) where &.r (0 3 + k) a. ~ &.lt. i ~T~ ^3 v ) O~ 7\ /4 \v i ~T~ (J&v v 7\) i * I f and on combining these with the expressions we have _ for e 21 * and e 2i * already found.e^ ^^.(t + w3 ) 3 k) Mgli or a 2 (k) a&. D. tr (t + + &&. ~ *\ y = ism^e. t) o (0 o.gt.lt.gt. e* l {&. fi. a 2 (t~+ a cos \ =  A \l {a.lt./&. + .gt.?(&.(t 3 I) a (t o) 3 + o&. and i/r are constants of integration. 8 = cos^. &. 0o) 7 = ".t&. e$ *& + +\ 1 {3 = ism $6.(t + 3 + k) (t + a) 3  k)}$ Similarly we find ( sin 6 = I (T \ ft Tf . e But we have 2 cos 2 0=1 +cos0 2A ~ (t + &.lt.(t + a) + k) a.r(l)~ tr (t + e os ) These equations express the parameters time. W. which define the position of the moving axes Oxyz with reference to the fixed axes OXYZ: for by definition we have a. \M~gh &.( + ft&. a. 8 as functions of the 11 . 3 + k) a.
l/v/3)* ( .cos 6 + v/3). Part I. . ^= values give a = . ( b cos 6 Dividing this equation by the square root of the preceding equation. vertical.l/v/3) (cos ~ &.162 Example the The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics 1. we have = si I ( _ cos 6 .x) ~ ^ we have by differentiation We have therefore * or tan is 20 = 32 ". If the axis be now free to move about shew that it will describe the cone sin 2 6 sin sin 2 6 cos is the 20 = ( . = 0. (Camb.l/v/3)* ( v/3 + 2 cos 6) ". ". ( cos 6. Tripos. 6 = 0.r= cos we write u = (xl/ N/3) i (x + N/3) * (v 3/2 . where azimuthal angle and 6 the inclination of the axis to the upward vertical. its axis. = 3* Now if l(x 1/^/3)* (v/3 2a. left C The inertia about the axis of figure and a perpendicular to it through the fixed and A respectively.cos 6 + v /3) *.) initially For in this problem we have cos0= and these initial l/v/3.lt. where .) * (^ + v/3) ~* (1 ^)i ote. Math. vi symmetry : A gyrostat of mass M moves about a faced point in its axis of moments of point are point. 1894. Substituting in the general differential equation for namely we have A6 2 sin 2 while the equation 6. [OH.9) *. * (  ~ cos 6 + ^3) i cosec 6 dd.cos 3 6 . 6 = 4/3 jKAgh. which equivalent to the result given above. c= 6.Mgh (cos 6 + l/v/3) a ( N/3 + 2 cos 6) . and the centre of gravity is at a distance h from the fixed gyrostat is held so that its axis makes an angle arccos l/ v/3 with the downward is and given an angular velocity \jAJMgh */3/C about the fixed point. = 0. or 20 = (^3/2 + cos 0)^.jMAghltlZ.
72, 73]
The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics
2.
163
Example
Example
Shew that the logarithms
6,
of the CayleyKlein parameters, considered as
functions of cos
3.
are elliptic integrals of the third kind.
functions of the time
Obtain the expressions found above for the CayleyKlein parameters as t by shewing that they satisfy differential equations typified by
where I denotes a doublyperiodic function off, these equations being of the HermiteLame type which is soluble by doublyperiodic functions of the second kind.
7
"
simple type of motion of the top is that in which the axis of symmetry maintains a constant inclination to the vertical; in this case, which is generally known as the steady motion of the top, 6 and 6 are permanently
zero
;
A
since
we have
(a
b cos 0) 2 
it
follows that
d ((a = Ja\ n
b cos
,
QY
COS
/i
dd{
2A
sm ,a
2
A&lt;f&gt;sin0,
Performing the differentiation, and substituting we have
for (a
b cos 6) its value
=bcj&gt;
+ Aft cos 6 +
Mgh.
its axis) in
This equation gives the relation between the constants
depends on the rate of spinning of the top on
73.
and b (which (j), 0, steady motion.
We
shall
Motion of a top on a perfectly smooth plane. now consider the motion of a top which
in contact with a
vertical, so
is spinning with its apex smooth horizontal plane *. The reaction of the plane is now the horizontal component of the velocity of the centre of gravity,
;
G, of the top is constant we can therefore without loss of generality suppose that this component is zero, so that the point G moves vertically in a fixed two horizontal lines fixed in space and line, which we shall take as axis of Z
;
perpendicular to each other will
be taken as axes of
X and
Y.
the
(0,
&lt;/&gt;,
Let Gxyz be the principal axes of inertia of the top at G, and (A, A, C) moments of inertia about them, Gz being the axis of symmetry and let be the Eulerian angles defining their position with reference to the \/r)
:
axes of X, Y, Z.
of G above the plane is h cos 6, where h denotes the distance from the apex of the top the part of the kinetic energy due to the motion of G is therefore ^J/A2 sin 2 6 6 2 where is the mass of the top and
The height
of
G
;
.
,
M
;
so,
as in
71, the total kinetic
energy
is
cos
2
,
and the potential energy
*
is
= Mgh cos6.
Poisson, TraitS de Mtcanique (1811), n. p. 198.
112
164
The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics
71,
ty,
[OH. vi
Proceeding now exactly as in and to the ignorable coordinates
&lt;/&gt;
we have two
cos 6) cos 6
cos 0)
integrals corresponding
namely
&lt;
sin 2 6
\A&lt;j&gt;
+ G (^ +
= a,
= b,
C(^+(j)
where a and
coordinates
b are constants; for
and on performing the process of ignoration of
we obtain
i
the modified kinetic potential the expression
sin* 0)
(A + Mh*
P(
^~~?  Mgh
2
cos
0,
so the variation of 6
for
is the same as in the system with one degree of freedom which the kinetic energy is
(A
and the potential energy
is
+ Mh* sin
0)
fr,
^
(a
b cos
=
2 J. sin 2
BY ~ + Mqh
,
cos
0.
n
The connexion between
latter system,
and
t is
given by the integral of energy of this
"
namely
2
$(A+ Mh* sin
where
c is
0) ft
=  (a
6 C
/I
sin;
?
c/
)2

Jfyfe cos
+ c,
= x, this becomes A (A + Mh  Mtta?) x =(a bx}  ZAMgh (x  a?) + 2Ac (1  x
a constant.
2
Writing cos
2
2
2
).
are separated in this equation, so the solution can be expressed as a quadrature but the evaluation of the integral involved will require in general hyperelliptic functions, or automorphic functions of genus two.
The
variables
x and
t
;
74.
Kowalevski
s top.
of the motion under gravity of a body one of whose points is not in general soluble by quadratures and the cases considered in 69 (in which the fixed point is the centre of gravity of the body, so that 71 (in which the fixed point influence the motion), and in gravity does not of axis lie on an and the centre of gravity symmetry of the body), were for known to be integrable. In 1888 however Mme. S. long the only ones Kowalevski* shewed that the problem is also soluble when two of the
The problem
is
fixed
:
principal moments = third, so that
A
B
of inertia at the fixed point are equal and double the = 2C, and when further the centre of gravity is situated
in the plane of the equal
moments
of inertia.
and the centre of gravity be taken through the fixed point the fixed of centre let the and as the axis Ox, gravity be at a distance a from
Let the
line
* Acta
Math. xn. (1888),
p. 177.
73, 74]
point
The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics
&lt;f&gt;,
165
be the Eulerian angles which define the position of the principal axes of inertia Oxyz with reference to fixed rectangular axes OX YZ, co 3 ) be the of which the axis OZ is vertical; let 2 components along the
;
let (6,
i/r)
&&gt;
(&lt;uj,
,
be axes Oxyz of the angular velocity of the body, and let kinetic and potential energies are given by the equations
M
its
mass.
The
T = i (Aw* + Aw? + ) = C{fc + sin 6 + (^ +
2
Ca&gt;
3
2
2
&lt;j&gt;
&lt;/&gt;
cos 0) 2 },
V=
The coordinate
&lt;j&gt;
Mga
sin
cos
ty.
is
evidently ignorable, giving an integral
dT =
;rr
constant,
cos 0) cos
is
Off)
or
20
is
sin 2 9
+ (^ +
&lt;j&gt;
= k,
where k
a constant
:
and the integral of energy
T + V = constant,
or
2
+
2
&lt;
sin2
+
(^ +
&lt;j&gt;
cos 0) 2

^
sin 6 cos f
= A.
Mme. Kowalevski shewed
The
that another algebraic integral exists, which can
be found in the following way.
kinetic potential
is
L=C0* +
2
C&lt;j&gt;
sin2
+ ^C(^r +
&lt;j&gt;
cos 0)~
+ Mga
sin
cos
i/r,
and the equations of motion are
dt
^(?^_ W =
\M)
_
dt
d
dt
the
first
of these
is
20
=
(rf&gt;
cos d
 dr) 6 sin 6 +
(j
^
cos
cos
ty,
and on eliminating
2
fy
between the second and
third,
we obtain
cos
sin
^
rit
(4&gt;
sin 0)
=  (A cos
0&lt;dr)
0+^
a
^.
Adding the
2
=
((j&gt;
first
of these equations multiplied
cos
(&lt;
by
i
to the se.cond,
we have
sin0
+ t 0)=i
^)(&lt;f&gt;
sin0
+ i0)+i
.
^ cos 0e~^,
166
The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics
in the
[CH. vi
an equation which can be written
sin 6
form
+ i6)* + =i
(&lt;
sin
1
 ijr)
~"
(
.
]
cos
j
(4 sin
+
i6)
+

sn
or
~
=
l
cos ^
where
Similarly, if
7 = (i sin
+ i0) +
n ~
sin
F= (0 sin (9 i8? +
we have
"FT"
^
.,.
sin
=~
*
(0 cos ^
~
1
It follows that
J.
d7
1
tf dt
V
=
dt
or
UV = constant.
We
(&lt;j&gt;
have therefore the equation
sin
+ id)
L
2
H
7^sin 0ar~*K j(0 sin
i6)
2
+
sin $6**
"^~
[
=
constant,
or
2
($
+
2
&lt;/&gt;
sin 2 #) 2
+ (~^r
)
sin 2 #
l *l
^sin0{e
((j&gt;sm0
+ i0) +e~ ((j)sm0i0)
2
i *l
2]&gt;
= constant,
and
this is the
required third algebraic integral of the system.
The first integrals which have been found constitute a system of three differential equations, each of the first order, for the determination of 0, (j), ty,
and they can be regarded as replacing the original
motion.
differential equations of does not occur explicitly in them and we can there fore use one of the three equations in order to eliminate from the other two: we shall then have a system of two differential equations, each of the first
The
variable
&lt;f&gt;
&lt;
order, to
determine
and
fy.
It has
been shewn by Mme. Kowalevski that
:
these equations can be solved by means of hyperelliptic functions solution reference may be made to the memoir already referred to*.
*
;
for this
Cf. also Kotter, Acta Math. xvn. (1893), p. 209 Stekloff, Gorjatscheff, and Tcbapligine, Trav. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, x. (1899) and xn. (1904) G. Dumas, Nonv. Ann. (4) iv. (1904), p. 355; Husson, Toulouse Ann. (2) vm. (1906), p. 73; Husson, Acta Math. xxxi. (1907), p. 71;
;
N. Kowalevski, Math. Ann. LXV. (1908), p. 528; P. StackeJ, Math. Ann. LXV. (1908), p. 538; 0. Olsson, Arkiv for Mat. iv. Nr. 7 (1908); E. Marcolongo, Rom. Ace. Rend. (5) xvn. (1908), F. de Brun, Arkiv for Mat. vi. Nr. 9 (1910) P. Burgatti, Palermo Rend. xxix. (1910), p. 698 a p. 396; 0. Lazzarino, Rend. d. Soc. reale di Napoli, (3 ) xvn. (1911), p. 68.
; ;
74, 75]
Example.
The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics
, ,
167
let variables x, y, r
Let y 1 y 2 y3 denote the directioncosines of Ox, Oy, Qz referred to OZ, and be denned by the equations
2o&gt;
1
o&gt;
2
+
Mgay&gt; I
,
0)30)!
+

2a&gt;
3
w2
=
0,3(0!
+
^
+ a, 3 2 a, 2
/
Shew by use
momentum)
of Kowalevski s integral (without using the integrals of energy or angular that the equations of motion can be written in the form
where V is a function of x and y only, so that the problem motion of a particle in a plane conservative field of force.
is
transformed into that of the
(Kolosoff.)
E. Liouville* has stated that the only other general case in which the motion under gravity of a rigid body with one point fixed has a third algebraic integral is that in which
1.
2.
The momental The centre of
If
ellipsoid of the point of suspension is
an
ellipsoid of revolution.
gravity of the body
is
in the equatorial plane of the
momental
ellipsoid.
3.
ratio
(
J, A, C) are the principal
moments
of inertia at the point of suspension, the
2C/A
is
an integer
:
this integer can be arbitrarily chosen.
On
this, cf.
the memoirs cited in the footnote on the preceding page.
Example. A heavy body rotates about a fixed point 0, the principal moments of inertia at which satisfy the relation A = B = 4C and the centre of gravity of the body lies in the equatorial plane of the momental ellipsoid, at a distance h from 0. Shew that if the constant of angular momentum about the vertical through vanishes, there exists an integral
:
w3
where
coj,
&lt;u
2
(o&gt;!
+ co 22
) +gha&gt;i
cos 6 = constant,
are the components of angular velocity about the principal axes Oxyz, to the centre of gravity and hence that the problem can be Ox being the line from solved by quadratures, leading to hyperelliptic integrals. (Tchapligine.)
2,
o&gt;
3
;
75.
Impulsive motion.
in 36, the solution of problems in impulsive motion does not depend on the integration of differential equations, and can The following examples generally be effected by simple algebraic methods.
illustrate various types of impulsive systems.
As has been observed
Two uniform rods AB, BC, each of length 2a, are smoothly jointed at B horizontal table with their directions at right angles. An impulse is applied to the middle point of AB, and the rods start moving as a rigid body : determine the direction
Example and rest on a
1.
of the impulse that this
ratio
may
be the case,
and prove
that the velocities of A,
C will
be in the
V13
:
1.
(Coll.
Exam.)
We can without loss of generality suppose the mass of each rod to be unity. Let (x, y} be the component velocities of B referred to fixed axes Ox, Oy parallel to the undisturbed
*
Acta Math. xx. (1897),
p. 239.
168
position
The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics
&lt;
[CH. vi
be the angular velocities of BA and BC. The BA, BC of the rods, and let 6, components of velocity of the middle point of AB are (x, y + ad), and the components of y), so the kinetic energy of the system is velocity of the middle point of BC are (x given by the equation
a&lt;,
Let the components parallel to the axes of the impulse be
/, J.
The components
of
the displacement of the point of application of the impulse in a small displacement of the system are (bx, By + add) and hence the equations of 36 become
;
0= ax + ^a 2
while the condition that the system moves as
),
if rigid is
6
=
&lt;p.
These equations give
\x=y=lae =
Hence /=/, which shews that the and as the components of velocity
lai&gt;
= \I=lJ.
;
direction of the impulse makes an angle of 45 with BA of A are (x, y + 2a0), and the components of velocity of
C
are (x
2a&lt;,
y),
we have
for the velocities of
A
and of C the values \/65y and *Jby
is
respectively, so the velocity of
A
is
^/13 x the velocity of C: which
the required result.
Example
k,
2.
A framework in
is
the ends of tivo pairs of
the form of a parallelogram is made by smoothly jointing uniform bars of lengths 2a, 26, masses m, m and radii of gyration
,
moving without any rotation of its sides, and with velocity V, in the direction of one of its diagonals; it impinges on a smooth fixed wall with which the sides make angles 6, $ and the direction of the velocity V a right angle, the vertex which impinges being brought to rest by the impact. Shew that the impulse on the wall is
k
.
The parallelogram
(Coll.
Exam.)
Let x and y be the coordinates of the centre of the parallelogram, x being measured at right angles to the wall and towards it. The kinetic energy is
T= (m + m
)
(x
2
The ^coordinate of the point of the axis of point of contact parallel to
(&r, By,
B6,
+y 2 + (mk2 + m a2 2 + (mb 2 + m contact is # + asin# + &sin0, so
) }
2
k"
2
)
.
the displacement of the
80)
/,
is
x corresponding to an arbitrary displacement The equations of motion, denoting the S.r + acos#50 + &cos080.
impulse by
are therefore
fdT_ (dT\
dx
_ _
/^T\
= =
la cos
0,
,
 Ib cos
80/o
2
(mk
(mb
z
2
2
+ m a2 +m k 2
)
6
&lt;p
)
= la cos 6, =  Ib cos 0.
75]
The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics
final velocity of
169
Moreover since the
the point of contact
.
is zero,
we have
x + a cos 6 6 + b
Eliminating
x, 6,
&lt;
cos
&lt;j&gt;
.
&lt;f&gt;
= 0.
b 2 cos 2
from these equations, we have
_
[2
(m + mf)
_
which
is
the result stated.
The next example relates to a case of sudden fixture if one point (or line) of a freelymoving rigid body is suddenly seized and compelled to move in a given manner, there will be an impulsive change in the motion of the body,
;
which can be determined from the condition that the angular momentum of the body about any line through the point seized (or about the line seized) is unchanged by the seizure this follows from the fact that the impulse of
;
seizure has
no moment about the point (or
3.
line).
Example
A
diameter when a point
the centre is equal to
uniform circular disc is spinning with an angular velocity Q about a P on its rim is suddenly fixed. Prove that the subsequent velocity of J of the velocity of the point P immediately before the impact.
(Coll.
Exam.)
disc, and let a be the angle between the radius to P and the diameter about which the disc was originally spinning. The original velocity of P is Q.C sin a, where c is the radius of the disc. The original angular momentum about P is 2 about an axis through P parallel to the original axis of rotation, and of magnitude ^mc Q. and this is unchanged by the fixing of P, so when P has been fixed, the angular momentum
Let
m
be the mass of the
;
about the tangent at
tangent at
P
is
rac 2 I2 sin a.
But the moment
of inertia of the disc about its
so the angular velocity about the tangent at is ^ 12 sin a. The of the original velocity velocity of the centre of the disc is therefore Jflcsina, which is of P.
,
P is f me A
2
and
P
lamina in the form of a parallelogram whose mass is has a smooth Example 4. It is struck at an angular pivot at each of the middle points of two parallel sides. point which adheres to it after the blow. Shew that the impulsive by a particle of mass reaction at one of the pivots is zero.
m
m
(Coll.
Exam.)
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
1. Prove that for a disc free to turn about a horizontal axis perpendicular to its plane the locus on the disc of the centres of suspension for which the simple equivalent pendulum has a given length L consists of two circles and that, if A and B are two
;
points, one
on each
circle,
and
about
the centre of suspension is its centre of inertia is given by the equation
the length of the simple equivalent pendulum when the middle point of AB, the radius of gyration k of the disc
is
L
where 2c
2.
is
the length of AB.
(Coll.
Exam.)
heavy rigid body can turn about a fixed horizontal axis. If one point in the body is given through which the horizontal axis has to pass, discuss the problem of choosing the direction of the axis in the body in such a way that the simple equivalent pendulum shall have a given length shewing that the axes which satisfy this condition are
;
A
the generators of a quartic cone.
(Coll.
Exam.)
170
3.
The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics
A
sphere of radius b
rolls
[CH.
without slipping down the cycloid
x=a(0 + sin6),
It starts
y = a(l
by
costf).
from rest with
its
centre on the horizontal line
y = 2a.
Prove that the velocity
V
of its centre
when
at the lowest point is given
F 2 =W (2o 6).
4.
(Coll.
Exam.)
rests symmetrically on two shelves uniform smooth cube of edge 2a and mass each of breadth b and mass m and attached to walls at a distance 2c apart. Shew that, if one of the shelves gives w&y and begins to turn about the edge where it is attached to the wall, the initial angular acceleration of the cube will be
A
M
:& + a) 2
where Mb and / are respectively the of the shelf about its edge.
2
moments
of inertia of the cube about its centre
and
(Camb. Math. Tripos, Part
I,
1899.)
5. A homogeneous rod of mass and length 2a moves on a horizontal plane, one end being constrained to slide without friction in a fixed straight line. The rod is initially perpendicular to the line, and is struck at the free end by a blow / parallel to the line. Shew that after time t the perpendicular distance y of the middle point of the rod from
M
the line
is
given by the equation
(l$ xtf(lx )%dx=3lt/2Ma.
2
t
(Coll.
Exam.)
6. Four equal uniform rhombus ABCD. The joint
A
rods, of length 2a, are smoothly jointed so as to form a is fixed, whilst C is free to move on a smooth vertical rod
through A. Initially C coincides with A and the whole system is rotating about the Prove that, if in the subsequent motion 2a is the least vertical with angular velocity angle between the upper rods,
o&gt;.
w 2 cos a = 3g
sin 2 a.
(Camb. Math. Tripos, Part
7.
I,
1900.)
a smooth horizontal table, and a smooth circular groove A particle of of radius a is cut in it, passing through the centre of gravity of the disc. is started in the groove from the centre of gravity of the disc. mass Investigate the
A disc of mass M rests on
is
^M
Prove that if a$ round by the disc, then
motion.
the arc traversed by the particle and 6 the angle turned
Mk 2
8.
being the
moment
of inertia of the disc
about a vertical
line
through
(Coll.
its
centre
of gravity.
Exam.)
A
G&gt;
velocity
motion.
latus
body is moving freely under the action of gravity and rotating with angular about an axis through its centre of gravity perpendicular to the plane of its Shew that the axis of instantaneous rotation describes a parabolic cylinder of
rigid
2
rectum (^/4a+
*j2g/ca}
,
of the centre of gravity of the body described by the centre of gravity.
whose vertex is at a distance vS^a/w above that of the path where 4a is the latus rectum of the parabola
;
(Coll.
Exam.)
smooth uniform tube which can rotate in a A particle of mass m 9. The system starts from rest when the tube is vertical plane about its middle point. If 6 is the angle the tube makes with the vertical when its angular velocity is horizontal. a maximum and equal to prove that
is placed in a
o&gt;,
4 (mr* + J/F)
4
&&gt;
 Smgrco 2 cos 6 + mg 2 sin 2 6 = 0,
vi]
where
The
Mk z
is
Soluble Problems of Rigid
Dynamics
(Coll.
171
the
moment
of inertia of the tube about its centre and r the distance of the
particle
from the centre of the tube.
Exam.)
10. Four uniform rods, smoothly jointed at their ends, form a parallelogram which can move smoothly on a horizontal surface, one of the angular points being fixed. Initially the configuration is rectangular and the framework is set in motion in such a manner that the angular velocity of one pair of opposite sides is Q, that of the other pair
being zero. Shew that when the angle between the rods angular velocity of the system is Q.
is
a
maximum
or
minimum, the
Exam.)
(Coll.
11. Two homogeneous rough spheres of equal radii a and of masses m, m rest on a smooth horizontal plane with m at the highest point of m. If the system is disturbed, shew that the inclination of their common normal 6 to the vertical is given by the
equation
(lcos&lt;9).
(Coll.
Exam.)
12.
A
uniform rod
c.
AB
is
sible string of length
The other end
of length 2a and is attached at one end to a light inextenof this string is fixed at to a point in a smooth
Initially
horizontal plane on which the rod moves. projected without rotation with velocity
GAB
is
a straight line and the rod
is
V
in the direction perpendicular to its length.
is
Prove that the cosine of the greatest subsequent angle between the rod and string
l/6c.
13.
(Coll.
Exam.)
To a
them
slides,
fixed point arc smoothly jointed two uniform rods of length 2a, and upon by means of a smooth ring at each end, a third rod similar in all respects.
Initially the three rods are in a horizontal line
with the ends of the third rod at the middle points of the other two and, on the application of an impulse, the rods begin to rotate with angular velocity Q in a horizontal plane. Shew that the third rod will slide
right off the other
two unless
J3.
(Coll.
Exam.)
hollow thin cylinder of radius a and mass 14. is maintained at rest in a horizontal position on a rough plane whose inclination is a, and contains an insect of mass at rest on the line of contact with the plane. The cylinder is released as the insect starts off with velocity V: if this relative velocity be maintained and the cylinder roll up
A
M
m
shew that it will come to instantaneous makes an angle d with the vertical given by
hill,
rest
when the
radius through the insect
F 2 {1  cos (0a)}+ag (cos a cos
&lt;9)
= (1 +M/m) ag (da)
sin
a.
(Coll.
Exam.)
smooth plane tube can turn smoothly about a fixed axis of rotation and intersecting it the moment of inertia of the tube about the axis is 1. Initially the tube is rotating with angular velocity Q about the axis, and a particle of mass m is projected with velocity V within the tube from the point of intersection of the tube with the axis. The system then moves under no external forces. Prove that, when the particle is at a distance r from the axis, the square of its velocity relative to the
15.
A uniform
lying in its plane
:
tube
is
1
Q2
16.
.
(Coll.
Exam.)
A
that each of
mass
m
uniform straight rod of mass is laid across two smooth horizontal pegs so its ends projects beyond the corresponding peg. A second uniform rod of and length 21 is fastened to the first at some point between the pegs by a
M
the shortest length of the straight portion . Exam. and a second plane smooth straight groove in the first body. fixed then 3wH = 14m 2 . the distances of the centre (C) of the bob from the point of suspension (0) and from the Prove that if M.gt. A second to the lower end of the first and rests rod. and wheels. k and 1J their respective radii of gyration about and G. + 2mcZcos (6$) 6$. Exam. so that the string begins to wrap round the wheel prove that. which lies on a smooth horizontal plane.) . 6 and $ the angles which OC and CG make with the vertical. so as to oscillate in the vertical plane through the first rod. (Coll.j&. Exam. the particle. of the lower rod commence to move in a direction making an angle rr/G with the vertical. (Coll. 21. of mass m 2 and length 2a. and distance through which the first rod has moved from rest. m are the centre of gravity (G} of the lamina being I and c respectively. P and Q are respectively linear and quadratic functions of x 1 . its motion being in shew that the relation between the relative advance x along the groove is free to where 18. (P 20. the other end of the string being attached to a point in that circumference. a length I of the string being straight initially.) A plane body body is free to slide along a . the same plane and the angle of rotation & (no external forces being supposed to act on the system) is of the form rotate in its plane about a fixed point. : universal joint. Exam. slipping is the carriage is parallel to the plane and a perfectly rough ball that the acceleration of the carriage down the plane is placed freely on it.) M M A uniform rod of mass m t and length 2a is capable of rotating freely about its upper extremity and is initially inclined at an angle of Tr/6 to the vertical. This rod is initially held horizontal and in contact with the first rod and then let go. (Coll. . (t d \  m + M cos ^&. particle of mass the circumference of a wheel of mass M. Exam.J/F/m)*. is smoothly attached Shew that if the centre initially at an angle of 2/3 with it and in a horizontal position. then twice the work done by gravity on the system during its motion from rest is equal to inside the 2 ( A +c 2 2 ) &. and 17.) pendulum is formed of a straight rod and a hollow circular bob.) is attached to the end of a fine string which passes round 19.lt. (Coll. is projected at right angles to the string. and fitting bob is a smooth vertical lamina in the shape of a segment of a circle.gt. if the is string eventually unwinds from the wheel. and the wheel (radius a and radius of gyration k) being free to move about a fixed vertical axis through A m its centre. (Coll.172 The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics [CH. and the axes is neglected. ) A carriage is rolls straight down without any the horizon and placed on an inclined plane making an angle a with The floor of and the wheels the between plane. Shew where is the mass of the carriage excluding the wheels. x the (M+m) x + ml sin 6 = ml. 2 6\ / ifr = 2g cos 6. masses of the pendulum and lamina. The friction between the wheels which are uniform discs.a 2 . m the sum of the masses of the that of the ball. Prove that if 6 be the angle which the second rod makes with the vertical at any instant. Exam. (Coll.
) . 2 M 2 = 12a 2 c2 and n=W/W. (Coll. f ". each of length W AB . is free to turn in a vertical plane about its centre of gravity is c. where 23. oscillatory if c2 /P &.2a6c] ) . The system being in equilibrium. 1897. (Coll. on the side remote from the centre of gravity the plank being held horizontal. CB of equal length 2a are freely jointed at (7. a horizontal axis from which the distance of sphere . shew that the relative motion will be 26. 4 (Camb. One of the strings is cut prove that the initial curvature of the path of that end of the rod to which the cut string . Part 28. Exam. the string is cut Two AC . was attached 25. Math. The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics A uniform circular disc is 173 symmetrically suspended by two elastic strings of natural length c inclined at an angle a to the vertical. . straight (Coll. Math. . where d = (tnb 21&#/(5 the plank. where \ 2 = a rc ^c. A rough heavy placed on this plank at a distance b from the axis. Exam. (Camb. Exam. and the end B of the rod CB is attached to A by an inextensible string of length 4a/ x/3. the triangle. The system is now left free to move. A light stiff rod of length 2c carries .) 27. and the bar being in the vertical plane through the centre of the triangle the bar. b is the equilibrium length of each string. Prove that the inclination of the plane of the triangle to the horizon is the angle whose tangent is [abfj. prove that the initial curvature of the path of the centre of the disc is (c sin 4a b sin 2a)/6 (b c). 1896. is 27/25. is and very rough. moves so that the resolved velocity about one of the principal axes at the centre of gravity is angular velocity of the body must be constant.) A rod of length 2a is supported in a horizontal position by two light strings which pass over two smooth pegs in a horizontal line at a distance 2a apart and have at their other extremities weights each equal to one half that of the rod. shew that the radius of curvature of the _!_ initial path of B at B is 181V 24.) rods AC. being horizontal and in contact with the sphere. and find its resolved parts about the other two principal axes when the moments of inertia about these axes are equal. . + 2c\ 2 ] 2 T [np (a 2 + 1 c2 + A V . 1 + 2i/m c.) two equal particles of mass m at distances k from the centre on each side of it to each end of the rod is tied an end of an inextensible string of length 2a on which is a ring of mass m Initially the string and rod are in one straight line on a smooth horizontal table with the string taut and the ring at the loop the ring is then projected at right angles to the rod.) A body. Three equal uniform ABC of weight W. This system rests in equilibrium in contact with the surface of a fixed smooth sphere of radius a. . Exam. part of its angular constant shew that the (Coll Exam. I. and the centre of triangle are firmly joined to form an equilateral a uniform bar of length 26 and weight is freely jointed to rods.vi] 22.) A heavy plank. If one of the strings is cut. and Mob is the moment of inertia of the plank about the axis. Part I. the triangle at C. initial i Prove that the M (Coll. under the action of no forces. the rod being freely moveable about a fixed point A. Tripos. Tripos. radius of curvature of the path of the centre of the sphere is Mc )j(mb + Ma ) m and are the masses of the sphere and 110).gt. and attached to the highest point of the disc. . are on opposite sides of the vertical line through C.
motion of every quadric homocyclic with the momental ellipsoid relative to the fixed point.) In the motion under no forces of a body one of whose points is fixed. and rigidly connected with the body. so that the accelerations of their extremities are directed to the centre. describe areas proportional to the times. Part 34.) (A simple proof of xxxiv. (Gebbia. shew that the velocity of rotation is proportional to that radius vector of the momental ellipsoid which is in the direction of this axis. shew that the three diameters of the momental ellipsoid at the fixed point and the diameter of the ellipsoid reciprocal to the momental ellipsoid.) uniform solid of revolution moves about a point. round the instantaneous axis is always zero. the axis of the former being the axis of revolution. and whose axis is the invariable 31. except in one case. 1896. so that its motion may be represented by the uniform rolling of a cone of semivertical angle a fixed in the body upon an equal cone fixed in space. Bull. by Lecornu. determined respectively by the intersection of the invariable plane with the three principal planes and with the plane perpendicular to the instantaneous axis. Math. de la Soc. is moveable about a fixed point and (Flye St Marie. and the plane perpendicular to the axis of the body in the second case.174 29. which has its centre at the fixed point. the centre of gravity can never be vertically over the fixed point 35. (1906). the resultant angular velocity and A and C the principal moments of inertia at the point.lt. p. (Coll. Tripos. Shew that the couple necessary to maintain the motion is of magnitude A Q 2 tan where Q is a {C+ (C. (Hess. The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics Shew that a herpolhode cannot have a point of inflexion. plane in the former case. Shew that this also constrained to slide 33. is the same as if it were made to roll without sliding on a fixed quadric of revolution. Exam. and find the greatest height it attains. shew that (Camb. theorem is still true if the body on a fixed surface. 36.) A rigid body is point above its centre of gravity and kinetically symmetrical about an axis which passes through a fixed is set in motion in any manner shew that in the . .) set of axes In the motion of the top on the rough plane.) When a body moveable about a fixed point is acted on by forces whose moment 32. and has principal no angular velocity about the third principal axis express the angular velocities about these axes as elliptic functions of the time. subsequent motion. (Siacci. 40.) .A] cos 2a}. this result is given [CH. Exam. Math. A If 6 be the angle between the plane of the lamina and any fixed plane.\ .) plane lamina is initially moving with equal angular velocities Q about the axes of greatest and least moment of inertia at its centre of mass. (Coll.) In the motion of a body under no forces round a fixed point. supposing no forces to act on the lamina. I. shew that the 30. shew that there exists an auxiliary also with respect OTJ whose motion with respect to the fixed axes OXYZ the invariable planes being the horizontal to the moving axes Oxyz is a Poinsot motion &n&. and that the couple lies in the plane of the axes of the cones. (Jacobi. . line. de France.
1882. Exam. then ? i2. . (Coll. The centres of gravity of the flywheel and case are coincident. (Camb. (Camb. to the vertical. Prove that if the system start from rest inertia is : A with the plane of the disc inclined at an angle a to the vertical. Part 1896.. A rods. Shew that. 1900. the mass of the gyrostat. Math. and /3 and y be the extreme values of #. the through an angle first body will oscillate IF arctan I f^sinal  r } . Tripos. Tripos. i A?#\ 2 _  . a and b the coordinates of the point of attachment of the string with reference to axes coinciding with. (F + 2a) + (2a + &).. where 0=A and 42. (/3 /Q sin . shew that the opposite rod begins to move with T]o of the velocity of the rod struck. Math.. (Coll. Shew that. (Camb. \dt / sin 2 a (cos & . The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics A vertical plane is 175 made to rotate with uniform angular velocity about a vertical itself. and k I..) body can rotate freely about a fixed vertical axis for which its moment of / the body carries a second body in the form of a disc which can rotate about a horizontal axis. B. . and a perfectly rough cone of revolution has its vertex fixed at a point of that axis. fixed in the first body and intersecting the vertical axis.) 41. In the position of equilibrium the moments and product of inertia of the disc with regard to the vertical and horizontal axes respectively are A. Part I. Z are smoothly jointed to each other in succession and laid in a straight line on a smooth table. b. v. B. = B (a y + 22 = 0. if A the whole revolve in steady motion round the vertical with angular velocity and the axis of the gyrostat inclined at angles a. C. / the angular momentum of the flywheel about its axis and A the moment of is M inertia about a line perpendicular to its axis. u + 4. . . F.. the strin Q2 and whore (I sin a + /3 a sin /3 + b cos ) =g tan a.) . and a be the semivertical angle of the cone.. Shew that if u. w be the initial velocities of the middle points of any three consecutive 40.V + w = Q. 38. and the end Z are a.cos /3) (cos y cos a cos @ cosy . ) gyrostat consists of a heavy symmetrical flywheel freely mounted in a heavy case and is suspended from a fixed point by a string of length I fixed to a point spherical in the case. its radius of gyration about a generator.. Any number of uniform rods of masses A. the axis of the flywheel. axis in K2 . ] &Q n.. Tripos. if the line of contact make an angle 6 with the vertical. and at right angles to.vi] 37.) points : Six equal uniform rods form a regular hexagon loosely jointed at the angular a blow is given at right angles to one of them at its middle point. 39. Math. z. Exam. Exam.Afl 2 j3 sin cos /3= Mg sec a (a sin a) + b cos (/3 a)}.cos + where h is the distance of the centre of gravity of the cone from its vertex.) initially in system consisting of any number of equal uniform rods loosely jointed and the same straight line is struck at any point by a blow perpendicular to the rods. (Coll. If the end Z be free and the end A moved with velocity F in a direction perpendicular to the line of the rods. then the initial velocities of the joints (AB\ (BC).
y. act upon the octant. the string only touching the body at the point of attachment.) . A uniform cone is rotating with angular velocity is o&. 2 /{cos a/J 2 +sin 2 /{7}. plane. is struck body at rest. 2 . (Coll.) An ellipsoid is rotating about its centre with angular velocity 45. BC inclined at an angle a are smoothly jointed at B prove that the initial parallel to the external bisector of the angle A BC angular velocities of AB. this generator loosed and the diameter of the base which intersects the generator is Prove that the new angular velocity where h is the altitude. and a 1 ough If the disc be made to turn with angular velocity Q. z) on the surface is suddenly to its principal axes (Coll. made to move : 2 + 3 sin 2 5 2t : 2  15 sin  2* . shew that the cone takes an amount of kinetic energy equal to Q 49. &&. The Soluble Problems of Rigid Dynamics A : [OH. Shew that just after the string becomes tight the loss of kinetic energy dvie to the impact is where V is impact. A is equal rods AB. A. Find the impulsive reaction at that point. Shew that if an impulsive couple in the plane . a the semivertical angle. it will begin to revolve about the axis of (Coll. n. rotation of the The positive octant of the ellipsoid ^72 /a 2 +3/ 2 /62 + 22 /6 2 = l has the 44. the coordinates of the string at the instant it becomes tight. p. The body is allowed to fall freely under gravity without rotation. BC are in the ratio 46.) A rough disc can turn about an axis perpendicular to circular cone rests on the disc with its vertex just at the axis. and A. with one point diametral with to the momental ellipsoid at 0. Exam. (Coll. w s) referred the centre is free and a point (#. and k the radius of gyration about a (Coll.176 43. its diameter of the base.lt.  b a 2 \b a/ c z.gt. m. Exam.BI. respect body the plane of the impulsive couple acting on the body. (Coll. (&. vi shew that the initial axis of fixed.) 47. Exam. B. 48. . Exam.) One end in the surface of a of an inelastic string is attached to a fixed point and the other to a point body of mass M. origin fixed. of is the line. about a generator when suddenly is fixed. Exam. v) are C are the principal moments of inertia of the body with respect to its principal axes at its centre of inertia.) brought to rest.gt. Exam. Two . the resolved velocity of the body in the direction of the string just before (I.
i...CHAPTER VII THEORY OF VIBRATIONS 76.7./ 2 = or 2 . 2.. 2 . 520)..w) must be ji satisfied by the #n set of values = 0. the equations of motion d fdL\ ".2.. the particles always remaining in the vicinity of their original positions and never acquiring large velocities.. the configurations in which the bob is vertically over or vertically under the point of support are of this character. a configuration in which the system : can remain permanently at rest thus in the case of the spherical pendulum..e. gn = 0. if the system is initially placed near an equilibriumcon figuration. and Daniel Bernoulli. the divergence from the equilibriumconfiguration will never become very marked. equations = in . values of the coordinates in the various possible equilibriumcon figurations of a system are therefore obtained by solving for q lt qz . i.. qn = an .. q n ) are the coordinates . : of the present chapter may be regarded as a first approximation to that of Chapter XVI. Vibrations about equilibrium.. in this chapter the limiting form to which this type of divergence from a state of rest in the equilibriumconfigu ration tends to zero the study of the motions which differ by a finite. Euler. w. ql =a l . In many cases. and if ( 1? .. The general theory of the vibrations of a dynamical system with a number of degrees of freedom was given by Lagrange in 17625 (Oenvres. #2=0. shall now study motions of this type*.... . p.... = 0. (. exists In Dynamics we frequently have to deal with systems for which there an equilibriumconfiguration. D Alembert. though not large. its particles having very small initial velocities. the lastnamed of whom in 1753 enunciated the principle of the resolution of all compound types of vibration into inde pendent simple modes. In the first half of the eighteenth century the vibrations of a stretched cord were investigated by Brook Taylor. * More we study initial motion approximates when the .).... qn the ..lt. amount from a state of rest in the equilibriumconfiguration is given later in Chapter XVI the discussion strictly speaking.. t The theory of vibrations has developed from Galileo s study of the small oscillations of a pendulum. D. We they are called vibrations about an equilibriumconfiguration^. which q l} q 2 . If (q 1} q2 of a system and L its kinetic potential. q n are to be replaced by zero. .. #2 = 0. The .. 1... dL A (r=l.. finite 12 . &. n ) are the values of the coordinates in an equilibriumconfiguration.Upat \oqrj = 3oq r . . .. ^ = 0.
.9n The small..178 Theory of Vibrations [CH...2 .. lowest order in V .. qn can be omitted. There t^n. + a nn q n + 2a 2 l2 q. . the Thus 77. coefficients of the squares q.?i. with constant coefficients. the higher Neglecting we have therefore expressed as a homogeneous quadratic form in the variables q lt q.. and that the position of the system is specified by the coordinates (qlt q2 ... In order to solve the equations of motion of a vibrating system... .. The terms . 9i&. q n in T are all the coordinates and velocities are the motion retain only the terms of lowest . . will be found in treatises on the Analytical Theory of Sound. Normal coordinates... We we shall also suppose that no coordinates have been explicitly the kinetic energy T is therefore a homogeneous quadratic function ignored with of coefficients involving q lt q2 ..jn i2.. q n iq n ). coefficients. Moreover. &. q n are replaced by zero. . &.. 9 2&. so that T does not shall its .q n terms of the expansion in comparison with these. and so can replace &. qn .. &. ^2. vn In the present work we are of course concerned only with the vibrations of systems which have a finite number of degrees of freedom the study of the vibrations of systems which have an infinite number of degrees of freedom..gt. .?i* &. . qn the term independent of q ly q. which is here excluded. suppose that the system is defined by its kinetic energy T and potential energy F. q2 + 2a ls q q 3 +. is evidently no loss of generality in assuming that the equilibriumcon involve t : .qn so that are very small throughout the motion considered. since it exercises no influence on the equations of motion and there are no . V are therefore the terms quadratic in q l} q2 . all these coefficients by the constant values which they assume when q q.q n ) independently of the time. as they would not be zero in the equilibrium of must be. we write the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies in the form T =  (a n qf + a 22 .+ 2a n _ l 1&. order in T..gt.gt. .lt..lt.. qn : as however we can in approximating to and products of q 1} q 2 . . ??i with constant if . figuration corresponds to zero values of the coordinates q lt q.lt.gt. powers of q l q2 .?t&.lt. we expand the function V by Taylor s theorem in ascending . q n with constant coefficients. functions of qlt . &. 2&. .../ + .2 . terms linear in q 1} q z .gt. dV since if such terms existed the quantities dqr position...2 .... . The kinetic energy is therefore for our purposes a homogeneous quadratic function of l .lt..gt. q n in any way. .. &..gt... q..?*&.gt. problem of vibratory motions about a configuration of equilibrium depends on the solution of Lagrangian equations of motion in which the kinetic and potential energies are homogeneous quadratic forms in the velocities and coordinates respectively.
. a 22 X 6 22) . Gfi 2 X Oj2 flinA/ Om b.) f ^= "... 2 preceding equations a possible set of ratios for these ratios may. if X : is any root of m^ m ..lt. m n and added together. 2ri X b nl . such that the new variables new equations of motion will be (&.).. . respectively by undetermined constants m. 2. . + hn q n . . ) (]b I U J. m lt ra 2 . The resulting equation will be of the form where provided the constants Q=h 1 q1 . . .\ / A/t7j. . = o. . we can determine from the ...?/. n h l h 2 .... i / o 2. m n h l} h a ... .gt. q 2 .. ..q n ).2 .... \ if a change of variables is are linear functions of (q lt q a . and these equations are clearly linear combinations of the original equations.. + h^q + 2 . . depend motion are independent d /dT\ 8F oi. .. brri = O f / ~t Ck \ c \oqr j . least one function Q can be obtained in this way.\ ) ". . if X is a root of the determinantal equation . &. 77] Theory of Vibrations .\ ^/ \^m ^^i ~i ^/i2^^2 II *~ * ^nH*** \ n.. satisfying the equation + Now so let U&.. LXXIV. The equations of on less than n T will velocities). 1395. determined a linear change of variables be effected so that the quantity Q there will be no ambiguity in is one of the new variables : This method of proof is due to Jordan.21 X 62i . (1872) p. the . Comptes Rendus. . b this equation..gt. but in all cases at Moreover...). Suppose then* that the original equations of motion are multiplied m. h n X satisfy the equations .. 179 of these T is ( 26) a positive definite form and the determinant formed of the quantities a rs is not zero (since if this condition is not satisfied. oq r (r=l. 122 .2r i a. in certain cases.. J... These equations can coexist only ftji A/ ^ji&..76.h n .gt.q n made.. be partly indeterminate... m . 7 ~i~ tinn^^ii ^~ ".
q* + ^12 ft. do not involve q 2 or and a%. 6 M1 631 = 0.2 611 = Xiu. . It follows that the equation . . . . ...gt. =T .. dt \dqj 0. so that the above equations are satisfied by the values hL = \.. n 4 by the equations of q q3 q q2 of a vibrational problem with (n freedom. a 21 ... 1*33 ... a nl l 2 /i 3 = 0. we can isolate another coordinate q2 such that if T".. = 0... a m are zero. q n will not be zero: so instead q n we can again take new variables respectively equal to . .. : so we can assume change of variables the terms in q^.+ &m? ). V". V". m = 0. . Proceeding in this way...*. .. & + ... oq r have the form d /dT 3C \ =TV9^r/ = dV ^ 9^r (r = 2. o &. . .2 + **in . mn h lt h 2 ... has the form  cfia + \qi = d /dT\ ".. ). Pnn are constants. fea = = 0. . . vn denoting the new variables by q 1} q 2 . 2 2 2 . ra.. 3 .. then are determined coordinates the and . .lavtf. 33&. [OH. hn X. .. .. A2 = 0. m n = 0. 2 * z 2 where a n a^.. . q^q z that a 21 a 31 .. .... .. .F . . *). the coefficients \ . q^q n are removed from h n =0.faoKqf T".180 Theory of Vibrations . a nn of the squares of q z q 3) . where so that T = Ta n q*. 0.. . Since the form T is a positive definite form. corresponding to a vibrational problem with (n Treating them in the same manner. lt 2 . "..22. ". .. .gt. we shall finally have the variables chosen so that the kinetic and potential energies of the original system can be written in terms of the new variables in the form T = % (a n gi + 229 + + a nn q n V = i (&i 2i + /3*q + .. in which the kinetic 2) degrees and and potential energies are respectively (where X2 and . we obtain the values m = l/a n 1 . ^is ?i. . 3. .. = in the equations which determine m m . Ai.^a^q*. . q n we shall take q to be identical with Q. V". h = 0. while the equations ji ( o^~ ) dt \dq r J ~* dV 5~~ (**". . ^22. = 0. Now introducing the conditions h = \.. . ?i 1*22 Tin By this T .. . T". are certain constants). h n = 0. . T and V = V. and qlf F do not involve q^ This last system of equations may be regarded as the system of equations 1) degrees of freedom. of q 2 q3 . . .
^a instead of q l} q 2 . when expressed in terms of the new coordinates.l _ 1) n q n ^ q n \ 2 12 &. . . a nn A. have the form = \ /Mi + ^2 9V + 2 + Mn s .. . and T and V when 2 q n are any n independent linear functions of expressed in terms of q^.. 92.. . ...lt.. + .. .. o nn X 2 for which the expression 22 ) q&. Va^g.77] Theory of Vibrations 181 If finally we take as variables the quantities ^a n qi. less than n independent variables (which will be linear functions of q 1} q. where the quantities called the ^. /i.. . .. where pk stands for fikkl akkit is In this reduction its roots all distinct or has groups of repeated roots. invariantive.. 2b n i. . qn ......lt. q n take . 2 .7.2 . the form T=\ qi + a* q^ + + 2a 12 ?/ q.. + a nn q n + 2a ^ q + + b nn qn + 26 q + 2 12 2 .. These new coordinates are normal coordinates or principal coordinates of the vibrating system.. q n ). . + (a nn \ . .6 n ) q* + (a. are the values of o n i . immaterial whether the determinantal equation has The final result can be expressed by the statement that if the kinetic and potential energies of a vibrating system are given in the form . i.lt. . q2 ... we see that the determinantal equation through any change f is &.e..).. n are constants......b nn ) q n + 2 (a u \ 2 can be made to depend on .. Since this is a property which persists linear of variables. . =0 an i A. V =  (/ij^ + 2 fJ.. if g/.. .lt. V= it is .6 (a n \ + .2) . . . if q2 . 2 q&. always possible to find a linear transformation of the coordinates such that the kinetic and potential energies. X .? .. n qniqn).? + . + 4 2a.?i. qn the kinetic and potential energies take the form .. fjt Now it is a wellknown algebraical theorem that the roots of the determi nantal equation b ln 2 A.....
.182 Theory of Vibrations [OH./X &. vii then the roots of the new determinantal equation a. But when the kinetic and potential energies have been brought by the introduction of normal coordinates to the form the determinantal equation is Xji ../ same as the roots of the original determinantal equation a rg \ =0 b r^ are the = 0.
2 . equations possible exception of the roots Xj A.. and the simultaneous reduction to sums of squares is therefore possible this explains the circumstance that the reduction .gt. the elementary divisors are always linear. n whether m . . the coefficients h ly h 2 . t Cf.... it is always possible to reduce the kinetic and potential energies of a vibrating system to the form i q + Ma + i. of the determinantal equation.2n b ln b2n \ =0. 78. 78] are.. ttojA. . the elementary divisors (Elementartheiler) of the determinant a rs\ brs If however one of the two given forms is a definite form (as we saw was the case with the kinetic energy in the dynamical problem). \ a m^ it ~ b nl a n2 \ u nn \ b nn being known that the quantities a rs and 2 b rs are all real.e. that Theory of Vibrations j 183 \\ shall be linear*.. ..... Vol. 1907).. or Bocher s Introduction to Higher Algebra (New York. 59.. the trans formation are real or complex. of Math.. of motion. (1896). p.77.. The universal possibility of the reduction to normal coordinates for dynamical systems was established by Weierstrass in 1858 1 previous writers (following Lagrange) had supposed that in cases where the determinantal equation had repeated roots a set of normal coordinates would not exist. Mess. b.. 1 and that gn_1 g n Oii^i is + a^q + 2 2 .. denote the determinant obtained from it by striking out the first row and first column let A. amX a. denote the determinant obtained from A by striking out the first two * Cf. We have seen in the preceding article that by introducing new variables which are linear functions of the original variables.. are certainly real.+ a nn q n 2 + 2a w g ga + . .. 2l ^ b n2 . Sijice these coefficients are given by linear whose with the \n coefficients.n a positive definite form. _ l ]&. + 2a. The following proof is due to Nanson. can always be effected in the dynamical problem of vibrations.. and that terms involving the time otherwise than in trigonometric and exponential functions would occur in the final solution of the equations . . i. in fact. The question arises as to whether this transformation is real. 1899). 233. m . p. . . the question reduces to investigation of the reality or otherwise of the roots of the equation an au \b u a 12 X&i2 ooX . Muth s treatise on Elementartheiler (Leipzig. h n which occur in 1} m 2 . Weierstrass Collected Works.. Let A denote the determinant \\a rg \ b rs and let Aj. . . .. Sylvesters theorem on the reality of the roots of the determinantal equation. xxvi.
Then . minant. vii on. say where arg = agr .184 rows and first Theory of Vibrations two columns. in any symmetrical deter .i ot 19 [CH. and so a.
to be satisfied in order that all the roots of A may have at the same sign (. as at A. ... = oo .. 79] Theory of Vibrations .e. that each of the i. A n general the condition that the shall have a negative root is that each of the functions must have same sign shall at X= X= 6 12 b .78. Hence the condition be positive as is . A ls A 2 .. . none of the functions in the series A. determinants 6n b b ln b .l) n~r that each quantity A..
gt. increase so as to invalidate the assumption made at the outset of the work.q r +i.is said to be unstable. . i. But T is a positive definite form and definite form. This result might have been expected from a consideration of the integral of energy for this integral is T+ V=h.186 It Theory of Vibrations [CH. Moreover. This is usually that each expressed by saying of the normal coordinates corresponds to an system will repeat itself after independent mode of vibration of the system.X n ) are not all positive..Jn) will be permanently qr the coordinate zero. there will not be a vibration at all. where T and F are the quadratic forms which represent the kinetic and potential energies. and the period of this vibration is 2?r/Vx. &. and if the constant \. . say qr are initially zero. of vibration.e. that definite of the vibrating system shall be a positive form. will not oscillate about a zero value when the system is in its equilibrium position. This constant h will be small if the initial divergence from the 7 if V is also a positive equilibrium state is small. Histoire de V Academic de Berlin.. : configuration. vu appears from these equations that if all the normal coordinates except one. quite independently of each other thus every conceivable vibration of the system may be regarded as the superposition of n independent normal vibrations. This is generally known as Daniel Bernoulli s principle of the . is Xr libriumconfiguration the potential energy therefore. &... the system will perform vibrations in which the rest of the normal coordinates oscillate about zero values. The normal modes be stable. . but will slightly disturbed from a state of rest . provided the corresponding constant \r is positive. by the theorem of the last article. the equilibriumconfiguration The condition for stability of the equi said to be stable. such that these normal coordinates which correspond to nonpositive roots X r are not affected. and the system perform vibrations in which Moreover the configuration of the is alone affected. . are said to as a whole are all positive.. 147. then the coordinates (qi. so T and V will remain small throughout the motion the motion will therefore never differ greatly from the equilibrium. it appears from the above solution that those normal coordinates q r which correspond to the nonpositive roots X. anji the normal coordinates perform their vibrations .. annee 1753. coordinates for which the If the constants is corresponding root is positive. namely that the higher powers of the coordinates can be neglected. . if the system be referred to any other set of coordinates which are not normal coordinates. corresponding to the nonzero coordinate is positive.. these coordinates are linear functions of the normal coordinates . will an interval of time 2?r/Vx. In this case therefore. \ 2 . and the equilibrium If however the initial disturbance is configuration . p. superposition of vibrations*. If the quantities (Xj..lt. which correspond to those normal X. we must have T and V each less than h. and where h is a constant.. it will * be stable.q2 q r i.
and c the distance of the centre of gravity from the .   PP \ PP and the vibrations are therefore given by the equation where X is A and e are constants of integration to be determined ff PP r~ 5 {( COSa K + C 2 (p + p . and s/p + s/p is the angle made with the vertical by the line joining the lastnamed point to If a denotes the initial angle vertical. and given by the equation V9 X } C[ } . between the common normal to the cylinders and the the angle between the common normal at time t arid the vertical. initial position of the point of contact in the moving cylinder.... then a + s/p is the centre of gravity of the moving cylinder. s being measured from the equilibrium position let p and p be the radii of curvature of the crosssections of the fixed and moving cylinders respectively at the points which are in contact in the equilibrium position p and p being supposed positive when the cylinders are convex to each other let be the mass of the moving cylinder. Theory of Vibrations Examples of vibrations about equilibrium. 80] 80. The vibrationperiod (ii) is 27T/X. shall 187 We (i) now discuss a number of illustrative cases of vibration about equilibrium. tion of To find the periods of the normal modes of vibration about an equilibriumconfigura a particle moving on a fixed smooth surface under gravity. : M . by the initial conditions. to is The tangentplane equilibriumconfiguration the surface at the point occupied by the particle in the evidently horizontal take as axes of x and y the tangents to : . Mk* its moment of inertia about its centre of gravity. so its kinetic energy is . crosssection which can roll on the outside of Let s be the arc described on the fixed cylinder by the point of contact.+ P/ J + ccos [\P + p this gives PP \ PP The Lagrangian equation of motion. To find the vibrationperiod of a cylinder of any a perfectly rough fixed cylinder. \P P The V p p potential energy is Mg x height of the centre of gravity of the moving cylinder above some P fixed position = Mg \(p (p + p )cos (o+] p Neglecting s3 cos(a + . d fdT\ dT dt \di gives Jf (# + c 2) (1 P +P/ ( ... is The angular 1 velocity of the moving cylinder therefore I .79. a + s/p + s/p is the angle made with the vertical by the line joining the centre of curvature of the moving cylinder with the original point of contact in the moving cylinder.
as the 9 . & It is evident y* from these expressions that x and y are the normal coordinates : the equations of motion are P2 Pi and the periods of the normal modes of vibration are therefore 9^ZiTT fl \ 1 I clIlLl anH 9 . written C are the principal moments of inertia at the point of suspension. and the kinetic energy of the body. and . one of whose points is fixed. we regard ?. f ). x) of as fixed axes of reference inertia of the Take OXYZ the equilibrium . correctly to the first order of small quantities. let it be denoted by V (. and therefore of the parameters (. we have. . . can be The potential energy r.. vn the lines of curvature of the surface at this point. l kinetic energy and potential energy are approximately and T=\m(xi \i/2 V= mgz } (where in is the mass). at the fixed point . measured positively upwards. ij. 77. is some function of the position of the body. independent coordinates of the system. ) .. x being defined in terms of them by the equation The components of angular velocity of the body about the moving axes are (16) On the so first as small quantities of account of the smallness of the vibration. vibrating about a position of stable equilibrium under the action of any system of conservative forces. f order x therefore differs from unity by a small quantity of the second order. zAe normal modes of vibration of a rigid body. (iii) ^o ymc? is and which positions of the principal axes of will axes be taken as usual to be these the moving body We shall suppose the position of the body at any instant principal axes of inertia. which is given by the equation where A.188 Theory of Vibrations z [OH. B. and as axis of upwards so that the equation to the surface is approximately : a line drawn vertically where p The and p 2 denote the principal radii of curvature. 77. we shall regard defined by the symmetrical parameters (.
the quantities (. to the first order of small quantities. c. say that in which x alone varies. ellipsoid of equal potential energy ". : Y : Z=li : 1 /. . is The problem of reducing the of determining the normal coordinates two quadratic expressions therefore the same as that to the form where (#.e. of the momental ellipsoid in is its equi librium position consider in connexion with this the quadric whose equation is which we shall call the ". b. there will be : no terms linear in (. 77. are. z) are linear functions of (. 77. referred to the fixed axes. Y Z . z r =o. and consequently the normal mode of vibration of the rigid body consists of a small line oscillation about a line 2 : whose equation is X i. 77. y. g. . f) the lowest terms are therefore of the second order neglecting terms of higher order. of a point whose coordinates referred to the fixed axes are (X.80] Since zero values of (.. J 7 . 77. referred Let (X\ set of conjugate diameters of these quadrics. Now the equation. we can therefore . f. and determine the common be the coordinates. Theory of Vibrations 77. Z\ and let the equations connecting (X .. ) to these conjugate diameters. in the and therefore the transformation which gives the normal coordinates problem is dynamical It follows that in a normal mode of vibration. f) will be permanently in the ratio But from the definitions of 9 it is evident that . r. proportional to the directioncosines of the line about which the rotation of the rigid body takes place. Z) be By this transformation the equations of the quadrics are reduced to the form X ^+b^ + CjZ 2 =1. one of the common conjugate diameters of the two quadrics. Y. . ). Y Z } and (X. write V = a? + b^ + o? + 2fyC+ 2g& + Zhfa where a. 189 ) correspond to the equilibrium position. about the r which is =o. f) when F is expanded in ascending powers of (. h are constants.
gt. vn that the normal vibrations of the body are small oscillations about the and the ellipsoid of equal potential energy.190 Hence finally Theory of Vibrations we have the result common conjugate diameters of the momental ellipsoid [CH.f&. (Coll. Exam. z and suppose that k neglected. we write and then we have The variables ?/. = U. z = 0. the vibration in x will have temporarily ceased z 2 2 after a time irp (q jo )/a and that there will then be a vibration of the same amplitude in y as the original one was in x. Suppose that initially we have x = lc.  U cos [pt L (l jLJl I 2 t . &.^&. and to shew that if such a system be let go from rest with y and z initially zero. y = 0. The vibrations of the normal coordinates rj and are therefore given by the equations = k cos pt. I =1 COS The last equation can be written 4. or (f&.. 2 = 0. The kinetic variable 77 is therefore a normal coordinate : to reduce the remaining terms in the and potential energies to sums of squares. ^ are therefore the normal coordinates. &. To find the normal coordinates and the periods of normal vibration in the (iv) system of three degrees of freedom for which F= i where a is { small in comparison with p and q . The form which gives of the kinetic and potential energies suggests the transformation \ (f7= . = 0.lt. = M cos pt cos r a 7 i p(q p) + ~ k sin pt sin a t .) . ^ = 0.lt.lt. TJ f=0. jrWtfU r . &. = U.gt.gt. Then so small that its product with other small quantities can be to this degree of approximation we have initially is r.
As the equilibriumconfiguration is supposed to be compatible with the constraint. .. is specified in terms of its normal so that the kinetic and potential energies have and let the additional constraint be expressed by the equation powers of q l} we can expand the function / in ascending and retain . is 2 p 2 )/a?.. 81] Theory of Vibrations therefore be approximately represented initially by T) 191 The motion can or = k cos pt. q n q. q n ). 2.?n are small.gt... 2 * (r = = l.80. ..2 only the first terms of the expansion: we the constraint can thus express by the equation Since q l .. . where A...V + fore the (n 1) equations + ^ni /n! + (A .? 2 &.gt. qr + \ r *q r + f*A r = (r n 1) .k cos pt. Effect of a new constraint on a vibrating system. = ^k cos pt. x = k cos pt. or # which establishes the result stated. means of this equation we can eliminate q n we thus have : By V = \ X...lt. . . The Lagrangian equations of motion of the constrained system are there Ar I .. . After an interval of time Trp(q ?7 y = 0.. &. the form . shall now consider the effect produced on the periods of normal vibration of a dynamical system about a configuration of stable equilibrium when the number of degrees of freedom of the system is diminished by the introduction of an additional constraint We Suppose that the original system coordinates (q 1 q. there will be no constant term. .. An are constants.gt. y~ kcospt.lt. = &. I. 0. the motion approximately represented by = \k cos pt. 4&..lt. 2. &.f) l. the periods of 81.. +A _.. &. 9l + . n1). qn^y . .
.. ... .has (w tion are evidently interspaced which from the form of the equa . n). . q n } be the normal coordinates of the system. 2. 2&. Let the kinetic and potential energies of the original system be . (X. X  n ~ so the equations of motion of the constrained form of the n equations system can be written in the (r qr + Vgv + pA r = = 1. Substituting in the equations of motion.192 where Theory of Vibrations 1 [CH. (A & + ^l n i + 4 _!&.2 + . . vn P = T. . equation A^ + A \i&.. 2 a.i = p n q..gt.. .. form gi . be represented by linear equations between these coordinates. n are constants and q is a new variable which may be taken as defining the configuration of the constrained system at time t. V= . Now consider a normal mode of vibration of the modified system... qn = a. ar 2 we have (r=l. and can therefore be expressed in the . ^ A 22 .. We shall next consider the effect of adding constraints to a dynamical system to such an extent that only one degree of freedom is left to the Let (q 1} q 2 .. . fj. n). AJ_ ^n"... XH 2 : the quantities 2?r/X corresponding to these roots are the periods of the normal modes of vibration of the constrained system.. . This equation in \. + ^i^ni) d. + A n *n = we have A* V V _AJ_ V 1) roots. . The stationary character of normal vibrations..n cos \t.X ) + vA r = 2 . q.gt. Substituting the values of a 1 a.../_.) + jiCAtfi + . between the quantities Xf.. //. . qo = 2 cos \t. . = /*i?i & = Wl. 2. a n given by these equations in the 0. where /^ 1 /i2 . where //. as in the last article. is undetermined.lt.. and it therefore follows that the (n l) periods of normal vibration of the constrained system are spaced between the n periods of the original system.... original system the constraints may. 82. = v cos \t. defined by equations (/! = ! cos \t.
. .!. .. cases. motions of this kind. 2.. the period of the constrained system has a stationary value .. is also constant. since the radius vector is constant and the angular velocity corresponding to the ignorable coordinate 6 . W. if a system is initially in a state of motion differing only from a given form of steady motion. namely the steady motion. : f*&. there be k integrals dL * This definition is due to Klein and Sommerfeld.... Theory of Vibrations 193 so 27T/XJ.gt.8183] . this expression has a stationary value when n are zero this stationary value is one 1) of the quantities /i 1} /u 2 . n 2 ) f. . 27T/X 2 .gt. for such a particle. to be a normal vibration of the Vibrations about steady motion. D.. p k ) be the ignorable and coordinates of the system. . A One example of a steady motion is that of the top. type of motion which presents many analogies with the equilibriumconfiguration is that known as the steady motion of systems which possess ignorable coordinates: this is defined to be a motion in which the nonignorable coordinates of the system have constant values.. (n of the quantities X a 2 X 22 . X n 2 and thus we have the theorem that when constraints are put on the system so as to reduce its number of degrees of freedom to unity. j&. the slightly divergence from this form of motion will never subsequently become very marked we shall now consider In many .gt. while the velocities corresponding to the ignorable coordinates have also constant values. discussed in 72 as another example we may take the case of a particle which is free to move in a plane and is attracted by a fixed centre of force. Let will (&. . the potential energy depending only on the distance from the centre of force.. .gt. (q lt &. and this is a form of steady motion. q n ) be the nonignorable Corresponding to the ignorable coordinates. + xn &. 2TT/\ n are its periods of normal vibration: the kinetic and potential energies of the constrained system are then V = i (XV + V^ + 2 . 83. which are called vibrations about steady motion. given by the equation _ If the constraints are varied. The steady motion is said to be stable* if the vibratory motion tends to a certain limiting form. . a circular orbit described with constant velocity is always a possible orbit. : for those constraints which make the vibration unconstrained system. when the initial disturb ance from steady motion tends to zero. is The period where X is of a vibration of the constrained system therefore 2Tr/X.
2 . .f.. qn by Taylor s theorem.. . qn . Moreover.. We time . I Substituting for pi. qi. j s s Now perform the process of ignoration of coordinates. q l} q 2 . qz .. I. N 2. satisfied by permanent zero values of q^ q2 . 2 pr /3 r ls 2 (ay . . pz . qn .. terms of the second degree. vn We shall suppose that these constants where &.2 Cubabjg) qiqj + 2 Crs @ r b j I. and utilising we have T= i 2 i. R qz ... .... pt in the above expression for T. Theory of Vibrations [OH. (a*. Now . by. k).. .. suppose that the values of q lt q 2 . . qn disappear auto dt d fdR\ dR (^ )a r dq \dqj = A (r1. s l.194 .. the terms which are linear in and independent of q 1.. . in the value have the same vibratory motion as in the undisturbed steady motion of which it is regarded as the disturbed form.2. ... . /3 2 ftk are constants.. the properties of minors of determinants. The coordinates are integrals corresponding to the ignorable pi + 2b {j qi = fy (j = 1.. Cij be the minor of c y in  divided by this determinant. and these terms can therefore be omitted... . qi . in q l} qz . and all terms in the thus obtained which are above the second degree in the qi. with constraints independent of the let its kinetic energy be n n n k k k T=\ where the 2. the determinant formed of the coefficients then solving the last equations for the quantities p r we have ]j r = 2 Cm (Ps s 2 big qi). suppose the system conservative. q. q n it is evident . Let R be the modified kinetic potential... n).. q z . coefficients a#... . . Let Cy. . qn . q n from the equations of motion matically r. we linear q n are neglected in comparison with the an expression consisting of terms obtain for R and quadratic .. ... since the equations are that no terms .s V. .. cv are functions of q lt qz .gt. q 2 q^.. qn in the steady motion are If then the coefficients in R are expanded in ascending powers of expression of variables qi..$ 2 C&&& l. this of course only amounts to coordinating each vibratory motion to some particular steady motion.s We can without loss of generality all zero... qn . .... 2 ay fay + 2 2  byqipj +b 2 2 . ls b u bjs ) q iqj + ^ 2 Cufrfr. &.2C I. so R= = TV\ i.
namely that any vibration can be regarded as a superposition of n purely periodic vibrations. & ~ $^3 q. .y a 2 z 3 3 3. 195 It follows that the q n and independent of q l q 2 . ./i . problem of vibrations about steady motion depends on the in solution of Lagrangian equations of motion which the kinetic potential is a homogeneous coefficients. These are linear equations with constant impossible to transform the system to normal coordinates*..&1 qi + 12# + (72! . which involve the coefficients (7^. which vibration of the system.. quadratic function of the velocities and coordinates.. and this actually done in Chapter XVI. q + (y ...lt.e. s = 1.Tia) . 2. The equations of motion in the ql 2i&.. The presence of these terms makes it 7^). . &.... 84] linear in q 1} q2 .w). 84. 132 .. but as we shall next see. s (r. where R can be written in the form R=i2a r. and where $n = to /3 sr .s a. shall We now shew how the nature of the vibrations can be determined. we shall call (as before) the normal modes of The integration of the equations. which are of the same character as the general corresponding equations in the case of vibrations about equilibrium they differ only in the presence of the gyroscopic terms. . The equations of motion for the vibrating system are therefore nlordt \dq r j d fiR\ dR 5 = dq r (r=l. . q n can be present in R.s rf! q r qs + = 2 &./ + 2 jrsqr qs r. the main characteristic of vibrations about equilibrium is retained. by integration of the equations of motion.. is brought by ignoration of coordinates.83.j3vq + a. . coefficients. ri). zi ) /3&q3 etc. impossible to transform the system to it is possible to effect the transformation to is normal coordinates by a pointtrans normal coordinates by a contacttrans formation. with constant difference between vibrations about equilibrium and vibrations about motion consists in the possible presence in the latter case of terms of steady the type q r q s (i. 2. . The vibrations about steady motion of a system are in fact the same thing as the vibrations about equilibrium of the reduced or nonnatural ( 38) system to which the problem potential. Theory of Vibrations . products of a coordinate and a velocity) in the kinetic The These are called gyroscopic terms. but where y rs is not in general equal expanded form are (11 j  jsr .& 2 + J2 9 13& + (731 + (712 ~ 721) qi ~ 0*qi + && . That formation : is to say.lt.gt.. 7l3&. gr r.. .
.1.. q n q l q z .5~T~ Qn+T &. each of each of the second order.lt. qzn be denoted by H.qzn. Let R . and in the velocities. q n .gt.. qn and vice versa: the equations of motion can be written ^ n+r = dq r (r =l 2 n) Now if B denote q n +i..]&. H .^roqr) S^ \ / = Let the quantity n \ n S S \r=1 qn +rqr n S (q n+r &q r }+ r=l R. which has replaced of the sum the kinetic and of the function equations.. goqr (r. r =i \oqr * oq r ". dH oq n+r the independent variables being q l ..gt. which consisted originally of n equations can be replaced by a system of 2n equations. /no \ . ^ */&. a homogeneous quadratic . a known homogeneous quadratic function of the variables q 1} q . n ^ 2/ \qii\roqr ~T q n . so that z .. q 2n as the now shew that the function H. of the dynamical system potential energies shall We R For R contains terms of degrees 2. 1.. we have .. .V1 v 2 ".. qn . &&. so that in the vibratory problem Write function of q 1} q2 .. them into a system of equations denote the modified kinetic potential of the is R system.196 Theory of Vibrations [OH. &.. so that qn +i... . vn It will be convenient first to transform each of the first order. = . an increment of a function of the variables q lt q z due to small changes in these variables.  ^ R== &..... of motion. q r $q n +r) S q n+r qr when expressed as a function of q l} q2 .. q n +2.lt.. . and * This transformation is really a case of the Hamiltonian transformation given later in Chapter X. q2 .. is . &n are linear functions of q 1} q2 . . ..q2n the last equation can be written and therefore* the first order..). represents determining considered. ..lt. the equations namely 9 = dH ^ 0n+r .2. 8R = ] ( ^ Bq r  + .gt.
.. In the case of vibrations about an equilibriumconfiguration.2n of the form q?. namely that the . 1879. : T? will be equal to the terms of degree two in the velocities in R. .q2n ) \ ~yr (r. ..2n).. for * The method of integration which follows is due to Weierstrass... .q 2 . /* . Consider the set of linear equations in the variables q lt qz S qnjr .. total energy H is a positive definite form in the variables q 1} q 2 . so H is the total energy .... and the minor of the element in the Xth row and /ith column by f(s) (X.. we have seen that the condition for stability is that the potential as well as the kinetic energy shall be a positive definite form we shall now make a similar assumption for the case of vibrations about steady motion. by Euler s theorem it follows that H. .).. consider expressions . v 2 r=\ dR qr oqr ^R. . being defined as . expressed in terms of the variables q lt qz .Theory of Vibrations is 197 equivalent to twice the terms of degree two together with the terms of degree one.. and in fact dqr rr at = 5dff  . ym given by the equations and the degree of f(s) in than (2nl)..2. Berlin.1. is 2. while the degree of f(s)^ is not greater q\. ~ + dH( qi . q^ in terms of y lt y9 ... q^ n . Monatsberichte. it follows that H=T+V. the expression of q lt q2 . together with the terms of zero degree in R with their signs changed on comparing the expressions for T and R given on page 194. In order to solve the equations of motion.. if we denote the determinant of the system by/(s)... s is 2n.. of the dynamical system. q.q.. .... gwj n assumption we shall shew that the steady motion that the equations of motion this is stable. = !. M .. oqn+r dqn+r ^f^ dt = dH ^ ( dq r can be integrated in the following way*.
a2 .. we see that the quantities . vn is taken round a large circle C which encloses all the roots of the equation f(s) 0. .pzn must be a ~r set of solutions of the equations ..t] ) 7775 7v (p = 1. t 76id. these equations will since the integrands will then have no singularities within the ..? of motion are therefore satisfied by the values and nega M = coefficient tive powers of of 1/5 in the Laurent expansion .lt.gt. this condition is satisfied by the expressions P* (s) where a : . 2n).q2n will satisfy the equations of motion. ^ Now types on inspection of the determinant /(s) we see that minors of the (X&. A Course of Modern Analysis.gn o _ Pr when s is a root of the equation f(s) = . and the other minors are of degree (2n 2) in s. + + e s(tt t&. n) are satisfied.) are of degree (2?i 1) in s. .mf(*)m. .. . .in positive s of the expression {Oi/()m + Ot/(*). ... ttj OF2 . .. These values of q 1} q 2 . The equations &..198 where the integration Theory of Vibrations [CH. 2. = n + \. . provided the equations = .. * Whittaker and Watson. 52. = I/(*)I F +o 2 /(5) 2M + + a 2n f(s}... lie . 2.j}.l (^ = 1. ..gt. contour C*. 2?i)... and in the latter case it is 1. (r=l dp n+r If therefore p l9 p 2 .. in the former case it is 1. 2 . . . Hence on taking t = t . . ". 2. It follows that Pi.. .gt..&. . a^ are arbitrary constants.. p 2n are polynomials in 5 so the expressions in brackets under the integral sign vanish when one of the roots of the equation f(s) = 0.. or fj.. so the coefficient of 1/5 in the Laurent expansion of f(s)\n/f(s) is zero unless \ = n + p. .2 .. chosen that s is equal to be satisfied.. .H* (#*!.lt. dzn are respectively the values of at the time t . 56. 2n&.
a 2 (...^ n+ . .. 77.. 2 + M?2 &.. gz . Let a + T)..84] If therefore (f) Theory of Vibrations we write of l/s in the Laurent expansion of ft. .q2 o7 .lt. the 2n equations (ki n + .1. %zn . &. be any root equation.gt. )= 2 = A fxfl d!.. &n + ^2i . Then if we write dH(q we l&.lt. . .gt. W)... . &n) A ) (. 2.gt. 2 n X=l a=l 71 and similarly 2/1 . +a a 0 i = = (a =1 . But since H is homogeneous and of degree two . ??+ = l I i.ft are the values of t % .M H ^= 2 it is necessary to discuss the In order to evaluate the quantities let ki+l. = . q^ which . in its arguments. then &.. 22 respectively corresponding any definite value of t.gt. this gives &.MO. .. . . = 77^) A. on separating the last equations into their real and imaginary parts.. .gt.gt. 7i ..(t)^. Moreover on multiplying the first of the preceding equations by t) a and the second by r) n+a adding. J .. ". .lt. ?. a n+a ).) can be satisfied by values of q 1} system of such values be 1 q^. are not all zero..2.. ) = A S (A) Similarly 2H (77. . we have {ft. e*  and to if ft.. + + . ..gt...f&. &&.q 2n )_ Wi&. have. .gt. ^ 2 i are real quantities. . where % 1 . .+a&. 7\ I) q n+a 9j +. l f)A. 199 () A/x = coefficient &. rji. ^(?i&... . and using the first two of the preceding equations .^a + Atya = +. a ... &.. and summing for values of a from 1 to n.12n)n&. . we have 2tf(&..gt.. we have . where nature of the roots of the determinantal equation f(s) = of this k and I are real and i denotes \/l..
. and equating the coefficients H H (g TT /I (gi. ...2 . w* = o la =0 .2.200 Theory of Vibrations [CH.. . when m 1 when m 1 = [c n+a when m [0 &. quantities of (s c2 . and we can suppose the so chosen that the quantities g^ and AM are not zero.. 2&. h^. is and so the equation f(s) = has each of zero. g^. are finite for the value s^i of s.gt. .2n denote real constants..lt. q... g T ... and let m be the smallest m (s Sj i) f . sq a so that we have (/=!. . define quanti shall next .. its roots of the form ik. .gt. vn Since the lefthand sides of these equations are equal.. = gm ) n +a + sji* = gzn)a Sihn+a (C). We shew that in the case in l .. . c2n be a set of definite real quantities.. . g2 .. be any root of the equation f(s) positive integer for which all the functions sii 2.. we must have 2 But from equations (A) we n ( = 0. see that.. + ((// + hp i) (s + . h^. l .. we have &.. c: .. .lt.gt. (a = 1.. 2n).2.?2Tl)a = Ca (a=l. as H is a positive definite form.. q2n by the equations Sq n+a + H ((fr.. T \ /\ and on equating the coefficients of (s (0 s 1 t )~ m+1 . where k a real quantity different from which the equation f(s) = has a Jtuple root s each of the functions f(s)\n is divisible by (s s )i~ For let Cj. .7 M + h^i) (s . ties q 1} q 2 . . When 1 s is taken sufficiently near s i i)~ m+l s x i.. c. neither therefore have I k nor 2 (fa^n+a yaZn+a) can be zero. c 2 ...". Let = Q. . &. s^i)".n).. &.jr M . m we have Sii)~ . we must zero. . Substituting this value of q^ in equations (B). .lt.) (D). we can expand where q^ in a series of the form (&.
g^)\. 7*3.84] Theory of Vibrations 201 Now by Euler s theorem on homogeneous functions we have 1} 2 . by (C). . gzn )\ A 2n ) A = 2 #*# (A/.. (K) we have n 2 o=l (gji n+ ah a gn+a ) = n sl 2 &. two of equations (C) give g^ 2 A. (H). and from equations n (F)... . .gt. .. X=l 2n .. gm \ (L). g2n ) = s. .s 2 ) l (h a h n+a .h a g n+a .h a h n+a ) + s 2 l n f a=l a=l (g a g n +* ~ ga gn+*). But from the 2 first two of equations (D). .. .ha gn+a ) = (G). . From n equations (E). 2 a=l n n (ga h n+a .. . ..g2n )\s 2 l a=l (h a h n+aL h a hn+ai ).. H =l (h.gt... . +s 2 l a=l (g a g n+a 2 (g a hn+a .lt. when n m &.gt. \ve have n \=1 2 h . g2 . . the 2n two of equations (C) give w 2 hiH(gl) gi .2 a=l (g a h n+a . = 2 h^H (g.. . A. .g 2. . g A= l Zn z . =l (g a h n+a h a g n+a ) not zero. ^//)A I (K) and A=l 2 gJH Qh..x =l (h a.h a gn+a is ). n evident that first 2 o.ST is homogeneous of the second degree in its arguments.1 ) = 0.h n+a h ai h n+a )s l 2 a= l (ga g n+a . gm ) = 2 yJHfr.... . 1. V. (G).gm)i + 8i 2 (hji n+a a=l A=l and the last 2n h a hn+a ) =Q (E). Moreover. .. h2 . .H(g i 1 . A an ) A  n ! S a=l (g a g n + .. and from the Zn last two of equations (D) we have n 2 X=l gjl(&. h m ) = Si 2 = a (gji n +* l ). gs. (L) n we have 2 a=l (ga h n+a . g A=l ... &.g a g n+a ).. 2H(g g or . we have n 2 (ga hn+ai h a g n+&.h a gn+a = .h^} ).lt.g gn +) = (F). . . Also since 2n . Zn we have the identities A=l 2w 2 h^H (g. 2H from which it is (/*!.. %H (g and similarly l..h ga g n+a )+ a=l n a g n+a ) = (H).. Comparing these equations.k{&... f 2 .
(n + a. we have therefore = and so qn finally 2 S P=I {(X.) p . f fi) p sin sp (  )}. /*)/ are real. fj. The assumption that contrary to what has already been proved. (^ M)P=  x) P (X.. n)p + i(\ ssi + i (\ Spi M rip . s2 .f&.sp i) expansion of by (X. 1 then denoting the coefficient of (s in the Laurent Spi) /()W/(*) where in powers of (s .o)i ? is e~ ~ Sf&. . . and the steady motion is is 1} stable.gt. repeated roots or not. where . )l .lt. /x)p . function f(s)^/f(s) are the points s and observing that the only poles of the = sp i.2 ...AOP cos Sp a=l p=l p (i (a. . (X. s 2 i. M)P sin 5P sin sp (t ( .) 2 2 2 [&+.&. /i)p cos s T/it s  ) .(X.202 which is Theory of Vibrations [CH. by (s 1.lt.. sr be the moduli of the distinct roots of the equation/(s) = 0. /i)p cos sp (t  t ) . motion. and (X. /i) p + i (X. s r i. which was used in obtaining equation (G). so that the functions f(s)^/f(s) are infinite only for s= s^.lt. {(.. the vibratory motion can be expressed in terms of circular functions of t.. ^)p t and so in particular X) p = 0. 27r/s2 . formula constitutes the general solution of the differential equations of Hence finally we see that when the total energy of a system vibrating about a state of steady motion is a positive definite form. vn m m &. (\. whose order in s 2 f(s) to the number coordinates the equal of nonignorable of system.lt.. is are the roots of the determinantal equation = 0. . 2w). . p..&. (x.(t 8 (t ~^ coefficient of I/s in the Laurent sp i) is expansion of e f(s s{t t an(j t ^ e coefficient of in the Laurent of e l/s expansion /(s + sp i) ] ) t &. /x) p (p.gt. is. (t)^ &. .s^if.) is the coefficient of 1/5 in the Laurent expansion of (X? /*)P [ ( e f p =i (\ s rip s ~ i (\ + Spi AQp l j in powers of s. fi)p (X.gt. The above Between the investigation is valid whether the determinantal equation has there exist the relations . ..gt..^ )} .1 )}] O= 1. . . /i)p =(M&. 2. coefficients (X.} p .gt. But the &. and consequently when f(s) is divisible .gt.n and therefore &.f*)i\.lt. must therefore be false must therefore be unity. and that these are simple poles. = n r (**&. . each of the functions f (s)^ is divisible k by (ss^i) \ Now let Sj . the periods of the normal vibrations are ZTT/S!. .^ a {(n + a. we have (X.
= #2 4y 2 is If we write x=rcos8. if the ignorable coordinates are the angles through which certain flywheels have rotated. shew that when the ignorable velocities are large (e. Roy. where k The modified kinetic potential after ignoration of 6 is therefore constant.gt. /(*)*! namely /(*) /(). the velocity about its vertical diameter. It was pointed out by Poincare* that the discussion of stability by the method of small oscillations does not take account of some features which are Thusf. Examples of vibrations about steady motion. where r z in the cylindrical field of force in . p. after ignoration of the ignorable coordinates.VW * t This illustration Acta Math. 2). the particle will work its way outwards in a spiral path towards the position in which bob of a conical pendulum.g. half the periods of vibration are very long and the other half are very short. Example. LXXX. is due to Lamb. Soc. and if the angular velocity of the bowl exceeds a certain value. for the kinetic and potential energies of the whose mass will be denoted The integral corresponding to the ignorable coordinate 6 is mr 2 6 k. 259. z = particle is describing the circle r 2 is F=((r. we have by m. Proc. is even. (i) which the potential energy zero = a.84. 85J Theory of Vibrations Cin virtue of their definitions) are 203 true for These relations follow from equations which /()&. If the number of degrees of freedom of the system. (1885). p. = b. 168. To find the conditions it being given that clV/dz for stability of the motion. (1908). But if there be the slightest rotation of the bowl having no effect on it. . would imply that the flywheels are rotating very rapidly). b. the one set being proportional to the ignorable velocities and the other set being inversely proportional to these this velocities. it rotates with the bowl like the 85. = is a R=T. y = rsir\8. vn. A number will of illustrative cases of vibration about a state of steady motion now be A considered. friction between the particle and the bowl. consider a particle moveable which rotates with constant angular bowl on the inner surface of a spherical If the bowl be perfectly smooth. particle. the equilibrium of the particle in the lowest position is certainly stable. when r=a. likely to be present in actual problems.
i. P* &.204 Theory of Vibrations [CH. Let zf(r) be the equation of the surface. as this involves no loss of generality. so the condition for stability is &. Corollary.f&. Writing r and neglecting terms above the second degree in p and 0aa we have + 3  \ (Pa same as a problem of vibrations As no terms linear in p or f occur. . ff) are cylindrical coordinates with the axis of the surface as axis of z. r.Paa +a 3 &. and the former gives k = ma c(f&. this is essentially the is ( about equilibrium. The kinetic potential is The integral corresponding to the ignorable coordinate 6 is r2d kinetic potential of the system after ignoration of Q is therefore r}} = k. the potential energy being where r is the distance from the centre. We have therefore is 2 &.lt. r.lt. and the modified gf(r) .t&. These are the required conditions for stability of the steady motion.lt.F/2r2 . If the particle is projected along the horizontal tangent to the surface at any point with a suitable velocity.bb a +a 3 ~ &.e. it will describe a horizontal circle on the surface with constant velocity. and the condition for stability 79) that shall be a positive definite form./da.lt. 2 ab and (p bb / shall both be positive. If a particle of unit mass is describing a circular orbit of radius a in a &.p plane about a centre of force at the centre of the circle. z^. and the period of a vibration about the circular motion 3 is To find the period of the vibrations about steady circular motion of a particle (ii) moving under gravity on a surface of revolution whose axis is vertical. we shall take the mass of the particle to be unity. the modified kinetic potential is (r) (3 &.gt.gt.lt.aa +a \ / &. where r=a + p. that \ (f) a ) &.gt.lt.M.gt. f.lt. Let a be the radius of the circle .lt. where (z. vn For the steady motion we must have the latter condition is satisfied 2 3 by hypothesis.
steady motion.MghjA n) 2 }. and let 6 denote the angle made by the axis with the the mass of the top. If the surface is a paraboloid of revolution whose vertex downwards.lt.() + / ()] = 0.gt. M : then we have seen that after ignoring the Eulerian angles (p and ^. The condition for one degree of freedom for which R is the system with equilibrium d ( /) \or l r=a is = 0. so ( n be the values and &. and this gives R = ir* {1 +/ Writing (r)}gf(r) ga?f (a)/2r in r=a + p. the angle determined by solving the dynamical system defined by the kinetic potential (71) is where a and Let a. and expand R of the powers of x above the second and eliminating a and b by use we thus obtain for R the value last two equations . and h the distance of its centre of gravity from its apex vertical. Let A denote the moment of inertia of the top about a line through its apex perpen dicular to its axis of symmetry. Tg axis Example. 2 or V=ga\f (a\ 2 . . respectively in the 72) we have A n z cos a + Mgk = bn. where p small. is therefore p{l +/ 2 (a)}+0p{/".^/ _ dp dt\df&. we write in ascending powers of x. and expanding powers of p. and the condition for stability is r the period of a vibration being 27T &.lt. An sin 2 a = ab cos a. we have The equation of motion &.85] The problem is Theory of Vibrations 205 is thus reduced to that of finding the vibrations about equilibrium of the kinetic potential. b are constants depending on the of 6 initial circumstances of the motion. neglecting is a small quantity.gt. shew that the vibrationperiod is is vertical and where I is the semilatus rectum of the paraboloid. .lt. R^AJPlAx* {n 2 sin 2 a + (n cos a .j&. To e = a + x where x discuss the vibratory motion of the top about this form of steady motion. the vibrations about steady (iii) To determine motion of a top on a perfectly rough plane.
x is positive.& sin 6 + b$ cos 6 Mgh cos 6. since the terms b&.=0. The 6 M(/&. sin 2 &.6 2 X 2 = 0. If we consider that form of steady motion of the top in which a is zero.\2 A 2 or (X A + Mgh) 2 . 77. we take as coordinates in place of and &. 1). the state of steady motion is 27T stable .gt. and the period of a vibration {* . normal vibration. we have and so we have &lAt* The equations of motion are ".lt. 2 &.lt. In the two last terms we can replace cos 6 by (cos 6 thus added disappear from the equations of motion. vn As the coefficient of is x is therefore x + {n 2 sin 2 a + (n cos a .lt. the method of the preceding example must be modified.gt.lt.2Mgh cos a/ A + J*g i h*IA*n*}~t. the top rotating about this axis with a given angular velocity. and hence after ignoration of ^ we obtain for the kinetic potential of the system the value R=\Afr+%A&. .j&. _ _ dt bf. r) Ke K in these and eliminating J and K we obtain the equation ib\ .9).lt. (iv) The sleeping top.f) the quantities and 77. since now the form of steady motion in which a is a small constant : is to be regarded as a vibration about the type of motion in which a is zero so that we may now expect to have two independent periods of normal vibration. neglecting terms above the second degree in .9) .?+ tf(^ + cos &.Mg (ArjbMghr. on substituting differential equations =7 .Mgh/ A nf] x = 0. the kinetic and potential energies of the top are 2 2 4&. If STT/X is the period of a.Mgh ib\ = 0.lt.lt. the analogues of which in the previous example are the period of the steady motion and the period of vibration about it.j) and Mgh As 6 &. so that the axis of the top is permanently directed vertically upwards.lt. Mg. integral corresponding to the ignorable coordinate ^ is = ^(^ + 2 cos &.9 + T=\ V= Mgh cos 6.A 2 /I . is not a small quantity throughout the motion.206 The equation Theory of Vibrations of motion for [OH. .lt. where From these equations. The two roots of this quadratic in X2 give the values of X corresponding to the two normal vibrations we have therefore to determine the nature of these roots. : . rj. As in 71.
gt. is given by Klein.v.lt. referred to axes which revolve with the (. Math. To find the periods of the normal vibrations of a heavy particle about its position of equilibrium at the lowest point of a surface which is rotating with constant about a vertical axis through the point.85. is very small. Amer. i2 Let the equation of the surface be of higher order. Vibrations of systems involving moving constraints. motion to remain permanently close to the vertical but in this case the maximum divergence from the vertical cannot be made indefinitely small (for a given value of 6) by making the initial disturbance indefinitely small*.gt. 2 : 86. . The following example will illustrate this. of the particle. discussion of the stability of the sleeping top 129132.+ terms 2p 2 2 The kinetic and potential energies of the particle are V= mgz.unstable". tend to a limiting form coincident with the undisturbed motion.unstable". even when the vibration is about relative equilibrium the solution can be effected by the methods above developed for the problem of vibrations about steady motion.g. as the disturbance is indefinitely diminished. Ball. In the former case the steady spinning motion round the vertical is stable in the latter : case.. and the axis of z being vertical. necessarily departs very far from the vertical: all that is meant by the term is that when b 2 &. though negative. The kinetic potential of the vibrationproblem is therefore 5T(y& /Pi * + j y2\ ) ^Pz/ A (1897). unstable. that in the unstable case the axis of the top ". ?/. pp. however. if b 4AMgk. It must not be supposed. z) be the coordinates surface. The equations which determine the : vibrations of such a system will therefore in general include gyroscopic terms.i + ~. the axes of x and y being the tangents to the lines of curvature at the lowest Let point. in.4AMgh the disturbed motion does not. Example. Soc. it is possible for the axis of the top in its ". 292. 86] The Theory of Vibrations is 207 solution of the quadratic The values of X are therefore real or not according as b 2 is greater or less than 4AMgh. z= ~ %&. As a matter of fact. surface which made occur. If a dynamical system involves a constraint which varies with the time (e. the kinetic potential of the system is no longer necessarily composed of terms of degrees 2 and in the velocities terms which are linear in the velocities may also is . angular velocity u&. if one of the particles of the system is moveable on a smooth wire or to rotate uniformly about a given axis).
Shew that M perform small vertical vibrations. the the only on its position as defined by curve is dVd where r is the distance of the particle . the motion of supposed smooth. y = Be lX in 2wiX =0. Exam. Exam._ cy Pi = If the period of a the differential normal vibration is 27T/X. horizontal plane.gt. or (X 2 + 2 . is in contact with the inner surface of the bowl. 5.g/pi) 2 (X + 2 o&. ) % ma\g is (g (\g M= B 4. m (Coll.glp z } .4X2 2 = 0. . and is suspended from two points a cos a cos A and symmetrically. shewing that the length of b is the radius and J/the where is (b a) (3M+m)l(2M+m) simple equivalent pendulum the mass. where A t and X 2 are the roots of the equation . (Coll. The roots of this quadratic in X 2 determine the periods of the MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. Exam. A string of length 4a loaded at equal intervals with three weights m.0) 2 cos a + sin ft cos2 ft sin a ft pendulum where a and ft are the inclinations of the parts of the string to the vertical. and a is the radius and . : . 1. A uniform bar whose length is 2a is suspended by a short string whose length is I that the time of vibration is greater than if the bar were swinging about one prove (Coll. Determine the vibrations of a solid horizontal circular cylinder rolling inside a 2. (Coll. of the inner cylinder.) extremity in the ratio l+9/32a 1 nearly.) .208 The equations Theory of Vibrations of motion are [CH. _ ~ . mass. Exam. of the outer cylinder. we have (substituting equations. Shew that when the system performs the particle and the centre of gravity of the bowl being in one plane. M and m if is respectively. the periods of the is A M on a perfectly rough m normal vibrations are 2^/^X7 and 2^/^X3. A particle moves on a curve which potential energy V () of the particle depending Shew that the period of a vibration about a position of relative rest on the arc s. from the axis. rotates uniformly about a fixed axis. and eliminating A and B) XAe. normal vibrations.) and radius a thin hemispherical bowl of mass 3.aA) .. and a particle of mass small oscillations. the hollow horizontal circular cylinder whose axis is fixed.a A) 0. the length of the simple equivalent sin (a .ft} cos (a.
Shew that if the particle be slightly displaced from its equilibrium position in particle of is A mass m the plane of the polygon.) sphere of radius c is placed upon a horizontal perfectly rough wire in the form of an ellipse of axes 2a. (Camb. and deduce two first integrals of them be small. Shew that the period of the sphere of mass One end m M .M tan a = 0.) 11.6) 2 (a + 6). 2b. ) 9. Prove that the time of a vibration under gravity about the position of stable equilibrium is A that of a simple pendulum of length I where F=2c 2/5 and d 2 = c 2 6 2 given by . and that in the former case the length of the equivalent pendulum ab (a 2 is + 62 )/2 V2 (a . a and 7. b being the lengths of the semiaxes. and that for vibrations perpendicular to the plane of the polygon. where mk1 is moment of inertia of the cylinder about a horizontal (Coll. Tripos. The opposite corners are connected by similar elastic strings of natural lengths 2a cos a. ( m + M) tan . X being the modulus of each string. (Coll. Exam. Exam. Prove that if one string be slightly extended and the rhombus left free.a).h} 2 /k. If the system be disturbed in a plane perpendicular to the generators of the cylinder. An elliptic cylinder with plane ends at right angles to its axis rests upon two fixed smooth perpendicular planes which are each inclined at 45 to the horizon. the periods during which the strings are extended in the subsequent motion are in the ratio (cos a)$ 12.) gravity rough circular cylinder of radius a and mass m is loaded so that its centre of at a distance h from the axis. thin circular cylinder of mass and radius b rests on a perfectly rough horizontal plane. Shew that there are two stable configurations and one unstable.vn] Theory of Vibrations 209 6. 1899. Part 10. and inside it is placed a perfectly rough sphere of mass and radius a. Exam. it will execute harmonic vibrations in a straight line. A rhombus of four equal uniform rods of length a freely jointed together is laid on a smooth horizontal plane with one angle equal to 2a. Math. shew that the length of the simple equivalent pendulum is . 14 . the radius of whose circumscribing circle is c. 8. Tripos.) attached by n equal elastic strings of natural length a to the fixed angular points of a regular polygon of n sides. where  p 2 (sin a and /3 sin 2 (a .a). : (sin a)^.) of w. (Camb. and is placed on a board of equal mass which can move on a smooth horizontal planei If the system is disturbed slightly when in a is A position of stable equilibrium./3) + cos a sin (a /3) + f sin /3 cos 2 /3} = ? 2 (a sin a cos a + b sin /3 cos 2 /3). shew that the length of the simple equivalent pendulum the is k 2 lh+\ (a. Part I. being given by the equations a sin a + b sin /3a=0. Exam. ft (Coll. (Coll. find A M m the equations of finite motion. (Coll. Exam. Math. the corresponding length will be mgacjriX (c . 1900. vibrations about the position of equilibrium is ZTT/JO. 2a sin a. the length the simple equivalent pendulum being 2mgac/n\ (2c . D.).) is freely jointed to a point in a of a uniform rod of length b and mass smooth vertical wall the other end is freely jointed to a point in the surface of a uniform and radius a which rests against the wall. and if the motion l4M(ba)/(WM+7m. axis through its centre of gravity. I.
(Coll. Exam.3 2a6c/x gp? (66c + 19ca + 5a6) +g n (35a +156 + 2k ) g = 0. their period is of equal uniform rods each of length 2a are freely jointed at a common arranged at equal angular intervals like the ribs of an umbrella. If and a is a value of x for which (x~) is zero.210 13. &. the hinge performs vertical vibrations about the position of equilibrium. and the be shew that the length of the simple equivalent plane plane perfectly rough.gt.2a 2 /6) + 56 2 + i?} (xl) + 46 2 / = 0. there being in other If the cone oscillates on a horizontal respects the usual kinetic symmetry at the vertex. find the vertical. If vibrations in a vertical plane be performed. and shew that the 1 equation to determine the periods is 3 2 . 18.) 15.) where k is the radius of gyration about the centre of gravity.) of gravity at a distance c from its axis. This cone where sec 16. 1896. rests horizontal plane with its minor axis vertical and a particle of equal mass is a fine string of length I attached to the highest point.lt. Part I. which does not vanish for x=a.gt. each rod being in contact with the Shew that. (Coll. A heavy rectangular board ^WM) where c is the equilibrium distance of the board below the fixed point. sm a.$&.) heavy lamina hangs in equilibrium in a horizontal position suspended by three Shew that the normal vibrations are vertical inextensible strings of unequal lengths. a is the length of a semidiagonal. and rests in equilibrium.lt.gt. and X is the modulus. shew that the period &.) /ra 2p ) where h ] is h F (1/2/3+^) ( (a) 4/30( the value of (x. in the shape of an ellipse of semiaxes a.) f r (2/&. =( 2 + c2 )2. and (2) A a horizontal swing parallel to this plane. 3 a sin a = a/6. A cone has its centre pendulum whereas if is (cos a / Me) 2 (A sin a + C cos 2 a). (Coll.(x) of a vibration about the position a is 4 v 1 r (i/2/&. (Coll.. .j&. (Coll. Math.lt. 19. Theory of Vibrations The energy equation of a particle 2 f(x)x = [en. is 2&.lt. Tripos. (Elliott. this plane be perfectly smooth. if the system be slightly disturbed so that sphere. homogeneous sphere of radius motion of the system when If the masses of the rod slightly disturbed from the and sphere are equal. 6.lt.gt. A number extremity and of rods is put over a smooth fixed sphere of radius 6. (1) a rotation about either of two vertical lines in a plane through the centroid.f) (x) + constan t. prove that their periods will be those of pendulums whose lengths are the value of x given by the equation {x (36 Exam. Exam.) upon a rough suspended by . 17. 2p ) (x) is the first derivative of &. Exam. the length is (cos a/ Me) (sin a/A 2 + cos2 a/C). Exarn.&.a) corresponding to the extreme displacement.) symmetrically suspended in a horizontal position by four light elastic strings attached to the corners of the board and to a fixed point Shew that the period of the vertical vibrations is vertically above its centre. at the other end a string attached which is fastened at its further end to a point on the surface of a c. w 1+2 is / l+3sin 2 a\4 sin 2 a.) A uniform rod of is of length b length 2a is freely hinged at one end. (Camb. A uniform wire. 4.
A circular disc. /3X.) particle is describing a circle varying as the nth power of the distance. if the force vary as e is less 2 ". A m stretched length I. where p 2 and q 2 are the roots of the equation line yA _ X _ ^9 a 2 3 ff* a* = o.gt. A point 0. A of length b. mass M. (Coll.) and radius a is held in equilibrium on a smooth horizontal plane by three equal elastic strings of modulus X. p&. A under the influence of a force to the centre Shew that this state of motion is unstable if n be less than  3. is I .2mg] = 2m 2cap\ of the string OC and c the radius of the disc. or greater than a. 4 4 (ColL Exam . the motion is stable or unstable according as (Coll. Exam.) 23. where /i=2m^ 25. Theory of Vibrations 211 A fine inextensible string has its ends tied to two fixed pegs in a horizontal whose distance apart is threequarters of the length of the string./r . and Mcosh (qt + fi). J )} and (Camb. but this will be stable only provided the circle as viewed from the centre of force appears to lie on a right circular cone whose semivertical angle is greater than arccosj. the radius of the circle 26. ) heavy uniform rod of length 2a. suspended from a fixed point by a string Shew that the periods of the slightly disturbed from its vertical position. normal vibrations are 2nlp l and 27r/p2 where pi2 and 2 2 are the roots of the equation 21. natural length 1 and 24. and prove that if the system vibrates about the equilibrium the periods in these coordinates are given by the equation OC and CP position of where a is the length (M+ m) (p~a . (Coll. abp*(4a 22. in a horizontal position and receives a small disturbance in the vertical plane of the Shew that initially its normal coordinates in terms of the time are Lcos(pt+a) string. Find the particle of mass m P which equations of motion on a vertical plane in terms of the angles 6 and make with the vertical. equation 1566%2 .2606a^ + 75#2 = 0. The string also passes through two small smooth rings which are fixed to the ends of a uniform The rod hangs in equilibrium straight rod whose length is half that of the string.) 142 . : . Exam. r Shew that. 1898. Exam.g] {(M+ 2i) cp 2 . A slight displacement in a vertical plane con taining the centres of the sphere and the bowl is given prove that the periods of the consequent vibrations are 2ir/pi and 2ir/p z where p^ and p% 2 are the roots of the . The strings are attached to the disc at the extremities of three radii equally inclined to one another and their other ends are attached to points of the plane Shew that the periods of vibration of the disc are lying on the radii produced. A hemispherical bowl of radius 2b rests on a smooth table with the plane of its rim horizontal within it and in equilibrium lies a perfectly rough sphere of radius b. uniform circular disc of mass (Coll. is attached by a string from its centre C to a fixed is fixed to the disc at a point on the rim. Math. Exam. Part I.) A particle moves in free space under the action of a centre of force which varies : as the inverse square of the distance and a field of constant force shew that a circle described uniformly is a possible state of steady motion.vn] 20. Tripos. and mass onequarter of that of the bowl.
gt. Investigate the motion of a harmonic oscillation of the point of support.) on the interior of a smooth cone with heavy particle is projected horizontally from the apex is c and the its axis vertical and apex downwards. Tripos.gt. attached moments of inertia at its centre of gravity are and its the solid is of centre of gravity M. the period of the vibrations is the limiting value of that which corresponds to steady motion in an inclined position when the inclination is indefinitely diminished. Theory of Vibrations uniformly particle describes attract inversely as the square of the distance. its Exam. vertically through 30. Exam. Tripos. 27r/X 2 where X l5 X 2 are the periods of the normal vibrations (FX 2 sin a  2 a&. 28. principal (A. pendulum of length ^csec a. cone of the semivertical angle and shew that the time of a vibration about this steady motion is that A described.gt. (Camb. C}. string where p^ and p 22 are 2 shew that the periods of the normal vibrations are ^irlp l and If the solid is slightly disturbed 27r//&.) A circular disc has a thin rod pushed through its centre perpendicular to its to the radius of the disc prove that the system the length of the rod being equal plane.lt. 1889. [CH. in the upright position. Math. are the angles under the influence of two centres of force Prove that the motion is stable if which a radius of the circle subtends at the centres of force. differing slightly from the steady motion velocity for stability. The mass of length 2a. 4 X 2 sin 2 a cos 2 a. 1889. from the state of steady motion in which the .gt.1. (Coll. which are determined by simple harmonic and that are the limits of steady motions with the axis slightly inclined to the vertical. it its state of The middle point to the middle point of the opposite side of one side of a uniform rectangle is fixed and the line joining is constrained to describe a circular cone of semi angle find The rectangle being otherwise free. A a circle which 3 cos e cos where 6 and &. cannot spin with the rod vertical unless the velocity of a point on the circumference after falling from rest of the disc is greater than the velocity acquired by a body (Coll. the roots of the equation HaPgp* = (g. divided of revolution the to by period position of stable steady motion is equal (Coll. of a simple 29. Exam. the initial distance a horizontal circle should be that condition the Find is a.fy2 (Mag + Cnp . . Can the steady motion by a small vertical such a disturbance? (Coll. ) . end is k is compelled to describe a horizontal circle of radius c with uniform angular Prove that when the motion is steady the rod lies in the vertical plane velocity w.lt. A.) A solid of revolution.) One end of a uniform rod of length 2a whose radius of gyration about one 31. axis this the of axis of the being end one to solid. Part I. the functions of the time.) steady motion be rendered unstable by 33. (Coll.&. Exam. symmetrical about a plane through 34. . &2 sin 3 a) = 2 4a&.) conical pendulum when 32. (Camb. &. Part disturbed from I. b which is is suspended from a fixed point by a string of length perpendicular to its axis. Prove that for a symmetrical top spinning upright with sufficient angular two types of motion.gt. ac  2 a&. is spinning on its axis with angular velocity the and axis are and body vertical. an angle a with the vertical given by through the centre of the circle and makes w2 2 (k + ac cosec a) = ay sec a.gt. about the the positions of steady motion and prove that the time of a vibration sin a. a with uniform angular velocity. . 2 ac) ( X2 sin a  2 a&.f&. Exam.lt.Ap*}.) ten times the radius of the disc.212 27. Shew that the are 27r/\i. Math.
C their being the spins of the upper and lower tops respectively. is placed on the summit of the first. . 36. a fixed socket. the tip of the peg resting in 35. (Camb. 1898. Math.2 +p 2 . also spinning.) . Tripos. ii their masses. Shew 1 that the arrangement is stable provided the equation (Mcgx* + has CQx + A {(M c + MK) gx* + C Q x + (A + Mh?}} = J/ 2AV) ) . with angular velocity w about the vertical through the point of contact and the centre of The body is symmetrical about each of two perpendicular planes through the gravity. the distance between the pegs. Part I. M all its roots real fl. is a = a l + p l = a. moments of inertia about the axis of figure. c the distances of the centroids from the pegs. The principal radii of curvature at the vertex on which it rests are pi p 2 the of inertia about the principal axes through the centre of gravity (parallel to the lines of curvature) are respectively A and and that about the vertical is C. A.) A homogeneous body spins on a smooth horizontal plane in stable steady motion.Cf)Y JA [a. Tripos. Part I. . A second top.vn] Theory of Vibrations 213 A symmetrical top spins with its axis vertical.2 B 4. C. and Xw 2 is the Shew that the (i) (ii) (iii) following conditions must be satisfied : The value (A of X must not 2 lie between the two values + B . the tip of the peg resting in a small socket. Math.a (E v if the two radicals in the expression are both real. A about c.C] \JB {M + (A . and h (Camb. perpendiculars through the pegs. 1897. M. The vertical. moments . height of the centre of gravity about the vertex weight of the body.
the friction at the sharp edge preventing it from slipping : sideways.?2. and which are expressed by a number of nonintegrable* kinematical relations of the form A where q%. 87..p .CHAPTER NONHOLONOMIC SYSTEMS. m). Tm are 2 . for holonomic Consider then a nonholonomic instant is completely specified by kinetic energy be T.. being m. of given functions q 1} familiar example of such a system is that of a body which is constrained to without sliding on a given fixed surface the condition that no sliding takes place is expressed by two relations of the type given above. lk dq . m).lt. .lt. (&.. dx = 0. as was seen in 25. as in the integraph of AbdankAbakanowicz and the integrator of Pascal the wheel moves only in its own instantaneous plane. + A^dq + 2 .. and $ the azimuth of of condition If (x. . 1 n) would be possible to express some of the coordinates i Q terms of the others.. and let the kinematical conditions holonomic constraints be expressed by the relations system.. . and the n coordinates would therefore not be independent : which is contrary to our assumption.gt. the system will have not possible to apply Lagrange s equations m) (n of the Lagrangian equations will an extension a but to such system. . the number of independent coordinates &. We now &.?i&. 12 .gt.2. (k = l. whose configuration at any n coordinates q l} q 2 .?i&.a The most roll : vertical wheel with a sharp edge which rolls on a horizontal sheet of paper. Lagranges equations with undetermined proceed to the consideration of nonholonomic dynamical systems.. .lt. &. In) required in order to specify the configuration of the system at any time is greater than the number of degrees of freedom of the system. 7\.. + A nk dq n + Tk dt = it (k = 1...gt. directly to discuss the motion of nonholonomic enable us which will be now given of kinematical relations . In these systems. i ..lt. y} are the rectangular coordinates of its point of contact with the its plane. owing to the fact that the system is subject to constraints which will be supposed to do no work. An A Qn t. we have in this case the nonholonomic equation dy tan &. paper. . * If these relations were integrable.gt. (&. . 2.. + A nk dq n + Tk dt = T . A nm . The number degrees of freedom it is systems in a way analogous to that previously developed systems... A still simpler example is that of . VIII DISSIPATIVE SYSTEMS multipliers. 1 + A 2k dq + 2 .kdq. q n let the ... due to the non A.gt. 92 1 &.
The problem thus reduced to the solution The extension Monatshefte fur Journ. Neumann..+ \m A rm ... and let . Quart. they do no work. u.2.gt. Phys. in. Qn are unknown : but they are such that. 2... xn. p. The forces Q/&. XL.. we can apply the Lagrangian we have therefore equations .. satisfy the equations A*dql + A ti dqa + t + A nk dq n = hence we must have Qr = altogether the (n \A n + \a4 + . fc. + Qn *q* to kinematical conditions. (1892). &.. 31. where the quantities \ l} \2 . It follows that the quantity Qi is dq l + Q2 dq + 2 .. namely the forces which have it Now be exerted by the constraints in order to compel the system to fulfil the we shall for the present take the latter point of view. are . Leipzig Berichte. displacement (Sq^ 8q 2 .. . Math.1\.. : .+ A nk qn + the is 2^ (n = (k=l. . . (1871).. C. 22: and Vierkandt. sufficient )u&. these &. q n ^i. : dqn which 0. (r r. Since the substitution of additional forces for the kinematical relations has made the system holonomic. Let Qi 8qi+Q*Bqt +. 1 of Lagrange s equations to nonholonomic systems is due to Ferrers. m). (1888)... of this set of equations*. and &. p... Dissipative Systems 215 is open to us either simply to regard the system as subject to these kinematical conditions... = 1. Qz.gt... .. to determine + m) unknown quantities X. . + Qn Sq n be the work done on the system by the original external forces in this dis placement. or in place of these to regard the system as acted on by certain additional external forces. . Math.lt.87] Nonholonomic Systems. \ m are independent of We thus have + m) dT equations d dT\ ^ifcffi + A 2k q + 2 . .gt.. p. n).+ l Qn dq n : zero for all values of the ratios dq :dq 2 . Sq n ) (which kinematical conditions).gt. in any displacement consistent with the instantaneous constraints. d d as the equations of motion of the system.. be the work done on the system by these additional forces in an arbitrary is now not restricted to satisfy the Q l 8q 1 +Q 2 Sq 2 +.
vin axes moving in any manner. &. 0&. acted on by forces equal to the external forces which act on the body (including all forces of constraint. angular velocity of the system of axes Gxyz resolved along the axes them w 2 3 ) be the components of angular velocity of the selves. have therefore the equation which can be written where of T (u. of the body) let (X. v. It is moreover frequently advantageous to use axes of reference which are not fixed either in space or in the body. between the constituent particles Gxyz of ( The component of velocity of G parallel to Gx is u.\ B * 9 that the In the applications of this method. Equations of motion referred to Dissipative Systems [CH. increase of angular momentum about an axis fixed momentum of the so that the rate of in space and in stantaneously coinciding with Gx is A f^. v. 63. and consequently v0 + wQ2 we 17) the component of its acceleration in this direction is u 3 . resolved along the same axes. . expressed in terms of and similar equations can be obtained for the motion 3 ). further let &&.!. and let Gxyz be the moving (u. . Let . Z) be the components parallel to the axes these external forces. G parallel to the axes Gy and Gz. In practice.216 88. equal to that of the body. the axes are usually chosen subject to the condition moments and products of inertia of the body with respect to them do not vary but this . body about the axis Gx is dT/dwi. and we shall now find the equations of motion of a rigid body referred to axes which have their origin at the centre of gravity of the body. denotes the kinetic energy of the body. and let (0 l 2 #3) be the components of Let G axes. .lt.lt. w) be the components of velocity of the centre of gravity resolved parallel to these axes. except the molecular reactions .gt.gt. Y.j. a&. Consider next the motion of the body relative to G. Nonholonomic Systems. be the centre of gravity of the body. Then ( 64) the motion of G is the same as that of a particle of mass M. and are turning about it in any manner*. 2 &.gt. which ( 64) is 62. we see that the angular independent of the motion of G from . body.w &&. (&&. w.gt. The method given in the preceding article depends essentially on the reduction of the nonholonomic system to a holonomic system by introducing the forces due to the nonholonomic constraints. condition is not essential.gt. this is often most conveniently done by forming separately the equations of motion of each of the bodies of the system.
If the origin of the moving axes is not fixed in the body. v 2 v 3 ) be the components of situated at the origin of velocity of that point of the body which is instantaneously . dT 2 5 dT _ = **j Hence finally the motion of the body ff is determined by the six equations l*. o&. ^) are the reference to the moving axes. mass TO .!. 3) moving axes. Nonliolonomic Systems. . resolved along themselves. dT dT dT forces with components and moments of the external 89. resolved parallel to the of angular velocity instantaneous position of the axes. J/. N of the external forces about the axes d and two similar equations. be required to determine the motion of a perfectly rough sphere of radius a and which rolls on a fixed sphere of radius 6.dT dt . let (vi. 2 .gt.i dT where (JT. dt \c (VL\fi^J+eM= dT . also Shew that the equations of motion can be written in the form tfiJ^^W+e^X.3 0! + 3 JT dT = .7 dT ^ OV 5 00)2 . have therefore ( 40) we Gxyz.(W\aW dt\du) d.gt. Dissipative Systems 217 denote the moments M. (&&. let (0 l5 2 3 ) be the components of the system of axes.i 3h be observed that these are really Lagrangian equations of motion in terms of quasicoordinates. coordinates. We now consider some examples illustrative of the theory of non holonomic systems. Oo&. Example Let it 1.gt.88. and could have been derived by use of the theorem of 30. let (w 1} u 2 a) Example.gt. 89] If L. the only external force being gravity. 00)3 .gt. Sphere rolling on a fixed sphere. .dT r (W\ _ 2 dt\dw/ It will du l dv dt\dwj 2 9o&. be the components of velocity of the origin of coordinates. Z.gt. and let referred to the o&. F. be the components of angular velocity of the body. + u3 s dT OVi dT ^ Oo&. Z. d_T_ Y d_fdT^_. Application shall to special nonholonomic problems.
f an cos 2 (9) . where k the first is a constant. &. { 5 and and if F. this is really the equation of energy of the system. GC is the prolongation of the line joining the centres of the spheres.f&. L = F a. ( (a sin 0) + (a + 6) + b}r dt (0 d cos 0&. and Moreover. of these equations can be integrated at once after multiplying throughout 2 (a + 6)0 sin $ and gives + f cm cos 0=k. (a + b] 0(a + b)&.) 3 I f0i3=0. this equation becomes . be the polar coordinates of the point of contact. 0. M=Fa. for u. &. we have equation gives a&.lt.gt. GB of the velocity of the point of contact are u and consequently the kinematical equations which express 2 and v f ao) t the condition of no sliding at the point of contact are ao&. sin 2 &= . Eliminating (a + 2 fe) between these two integral equations. the components parallel to the axes GA. 03 = cos 0. we have X=F. v. 2. = 0. equation by sin 0. giving 2.lt. F . The former by sin 0. 1} 2 . referred to the centre of the fixed sphere. a^.lt.(k .j&. 0i= P. .gt. 3 = n.gt.gt.gt. 02= si". Moreover.p?cos0sin + %an&.lt.gt. in the direction of 6 increasing. where h is a constant . = 0.cos = h.2 3 i).sin0%gsiu = 0. 0. The equations Y=mgsm0 + F N=0. in the notation of the last article.gt.^g (a + b) sin 2 cos + h (a + 6) 2 sin 2 . vm Let (b. and and GC. 0)3 C/ 2 U I O) 2 w. GB is perpendicular to GA With these axes we have.gt.lt.) Dissipative Systems [CH. (o&. and on writing cos# = #.gt. 2 l w3 + a&. while substituting two equations their values in terms of 0. we have .  f anf&. F denote the components of the force at the point of contact parallel to GA GB respectively.gt.j 3 + 0201s). Eliminating F.*". o&. where G is the centre of the moving sphere. (/&. v+u0 3 f a02(&. 0. we have t70 3  &. . GA is horizontal and perpendicular to GC.gt. the polar axis being vertical. multiplying the second equation throughout by and adding. We take moving axes GABC.f&. g sin $ = 0. we obtain an equation which can be at once n2 ^ + integrated.lt. 3 J * 0) The last in the first where n is a constant. v0 3 ) = mgsin O)l ~~ F= =F = 1 fam gam (o&. of motion of the last article become therefore m (u in (v{u0s) ". 6.gt.218 NonJwlonomic Systems.
2 14 a+b 7A(a + 6) + ^a * + + i(coshy + cos/3 + cosa)= 3 + . and negative when #=1.e 3 . &.e2 ) are real quantities in descending order of magnitude.gt. . v(a 6) the equation becomes or 2= is where the function formed with the roots e2 ~14(a + 6){ C S/3 ". . cos a.B . Dissipative Systems 219 x= + oc The cubic polynomial in x on the righthand side of this equation is positive when some real values of 6. cos a and cos 3 (since x is real) lies between hence the imaginary part of the constant e in the we shall argument of the ^function is the halfperiod corresponding to the root e3 which denote by the real part of e may be taken to be zero by suitably choosing the origin of time and therefore we have finally Now a* is real for real values of t and .) where el . under gravity if z2 z3 be the greatest and least heights of its centre.gt. all real. . cos a.e. 30&. e2 . . A rough sphere rolls in contact with the outside of a fixed rough sphere.gt. where cos j3&. (*2 ~ z} [f&. for some values of x negative when #=1. (Coll.lt. and we then have t \7 a + b) where e is ( +f = ) j {(x J . .?i . positive for between 1 and 1. : 14 &.1 we shall denote these roots by unity. cos /3. it has therefore one root greater than . Writing . i.89] Nonholonomic Systems. cosh y.7(a+i) J these quantities e^ e2 e3 are . and z be the height at a time t from an instant when z was equal to 2 2 prove that . 2 &. . ~ (0 e 2] = (*2 23) (&. and two roots between 1 and .gt.gt.e 2 ).cosh y) (x . this integration can be effected by a procedure similar to that used ( 72) to obtain the Eulerian angles which define the position of a top spinning on a perfectly rough plane.lt.lt. e3 (=  el .cos 8) (x  cos a)} a constant of integration. so z is real and lies between ez and e3 . during the motion. Example 2.e ei + 62 + 63=0. and satisfy the relations el &. This equation gives the variable in terms of the time the other coordinate centre of the moving sphere is then obtained by integrating the equation : of the (/&. Exam.lt.
...gt... which is fixed..2 = bQ 2 ..lt. In order to solve this set of equations we multiply equations respectively. M and its equations of motion are 3) =F =0 ..... (1). Then...... To obtain the equations of motion of the sphei e m...... we take (as in the last example) moving axes O ABC of which GC is the prolongation of the line OGf joining the centres of the spheres.9 2 an + 0j 0)2 = . vm Sphere rolling on a moving sphere.. ...... o&. of no sliding at the point of contact are uaa&. F... of radius b and mass M.220 Example Consider Nonholonomic Systems. we have L^F a.gt... &.....a 3 + bQ 3 =an... (7).gt............. become (1)3 + ^3 Wi) .. the axis from which 6 is measured being vertical..... (6)..+ W2 + 2 ((Bj + (B 2 2 + 2 0&..... Integrating... we take moving axes parallel to the axes (JABC.. and GA is horizontal..... 3 ) ... (3) and (6) by a and b thus...... .. or ai&....... F be the components of the force acting on the sphere m at the point of contact parallel to OA and GB respectively. now the motion of a rough sphere of radius a and mass m which rolls under on another sphere.. 3 f &Q 3 = 0. To determine the motion of the sphere M.. N=Q........ and add .... as in the last example.....9iQ 2 ...... T= \ and if 111 U Z + V.... (2)... we have 1 ... the latter sphere being free to turn gravity about its centre 0... Let (0 $2 3 ) denote the components of angular velocity of the coordinatesystem resolved along its own axes...... ........... v+ aa&.. 3..lt.......... Dissipative Systems [CH. Let (6... we have a&.gt. (02 a) 3  + 62013) .. 2 ^3) denote the components of angular velocity of the sphere m along the same axes... using (7). where n is a constant..... let (Q 1? Q 2 Q 3 ) denote the components of angular we have Then for the sphere velocity of the sphere resolved along these axes.......... (5)... we have a w 3 + bQ s + u&i + v6% = 0..... l = bQ l ...... (3). so the equations of motion M=Fa. Q 3 (9 2 Qi + The conditions &........ but with their origin at 0.gt.... 0) be the polar coordinates of the point of contact referred to axes fixed in space with the fixed centre as origin.lt.. .. and let (wj.
. where b +a is the radius of the cylinder. from which 6 and are to be determined in terms of t. and F to be a homogeneous . Part 1895. LXX.gt. Let T be the kinetic and V the T will be supposed to be potential energy. rnr (7). I. from equations and (7) we have 3v . f. the axis of which is inclined to the vertical at an angle a. Now the equations (A) and (B)..i .# 3 co 2 between and equations .. cf.lt. Math. 1 .gt. Vibrations of nonholonomic systems. 2M an d (M+m}qsin * rr= r.6z aa&. we have (u 63 v) = . 2 + #30&.0% this &.lt. and if it be placed at rest with the axial plane through its centre making an angle /3 with the vertical axial plane. Form the equations of motion of a perfectly rough sphere rolling under gravity inside a fixed right circular cylinder. q n ). are of essentially the same character as the equations found for the determination of 6 in the previous example the former equations being in fact derivable from the and : present ones by making very large compared with m. p..sme . is {sin \6 arccosh (cos 6 sec i/3) + cos i(9 arccos (sin \d cosec A/3)}.. when this angle is 6. M0 3 ) L = and + b(M+ni) 9 sin 6. 2j/ 5 sin (9cos&. so that for the vibrational problem a homogeneous quadratic function of (q lt q.w M Eliminating v ( a&i 2 + b6 2 Q 3 = F ) . (1). Ann.. the velocity of the centre parallel to the axis. Shew that the motion of its centre the same as that of a particle acted on by the same forces reduced in the ratio 5 7. the radius of gyration about any diameter. if the sphere be such that &2 =^a 2 a being its radius and k . as in the former case. Woronetz.^ = F. . ...) For other examples 90. Example : Example 5. A uniform sphere rolls on a perfectly rough horizontal plane.4&.gt..(v + or 2 (9&. .. r . 410. Tripos.b6iQ 3 2 . under whose resultant passes through its centre. N Similarly from equations (5) and we have ud 3 + 0. F and ^ . shall : We system it will next consider the small vibratory motions of a nonholonomic appear that so far as vibrations about equilibrium are con cerned.gt..gt. in which the constraints are independent of the time.89.r r _ $  . the difference between holonomic and nonholonomic systems is unimportant.9 . (B).f M(u Eliminating ao&. . d . Math.i between this and equations .. proceeds exactly M The integration therefore forces is 4. and shew that.. (1911). (Camb. . For consider the vibrations about equilibrium of a nonholonomic system with n independent coordinates and (n m) degrees of freedom. we have . (4) Diasipative Systems 221 Moreover. ^and o&. 90] Nonholonomic Systems. z (2).lt.
we shall consider the following problem*. ... + A nk q n = l 2 Q (k = = I. +. Take as axes of reference Z&. . m).. Dissipatlve Systems [CH.. plane a perfectly rough plane face of the first.. motion of the given nonholonomic system is the same as that of the holonomic system for which the equations of con straint are expressible in the integrated form It follows that the vibratory A we can nate lk ql + A 2k q. n A 12 .. * Due to Madame KerkhovenWythoff. .. . Nieuw Archiefvoor Wiskunde. 2.. . A nm were constants independent of the coordinates but in this case the equations . the coefficients in both cases being equations of the type q. they give A lk ql + A^q.. A lk q + A sk q + . . . As an example.. m). we shall then have ..gt...i) can be integrated .. m) . = represent a possible position of the system.. \m are in general small quantities of the order of the coordinates and therefore for the vibrational From . (1899). the point of contact resting in the same way on The equilibrium being slightly disturbed. . horizontal heavy homogeneous hemisphere is resting in equilibrium on a perfectly rough second heavy homogeneous hemisphere is A itith its spherical surface downwards... ..2 .. to A find the vibrations of the system.. There are m A . + \ m A rm . . and potential and the corre m) coordinates energies being expressed in terms of (n the sponding velocities the vibrations of this system can be determined by a holonomic system with (n m) degrees of freedom. .gt. 2.gt.2. (r=l.. A nm need be considered. in fact.... problem only the constant parts of ^.q n ].. Deel iv. which express the nonholonomic constraints are ( and the equations of motion 87) d /?T\ } at (^\cq r j r. 2.&.. the origin being Z .. . the constants of integration being zero since the values qi q2 0.xyz its rectangular set of axes (1) centre of gravity 2 A fixed in the upper hemisphere. the kinetic : usual method described in the preceding chapter. + A nk q n = = 0.. vui quadratic function of (q l constants.. .. = qn (A 1. 2. lk q! + Aaq* + + A nk q n = : ( = 1... .. . +.. .. oq r these equations it is evident that \ l} X 2 .. The vibrational motion is therefore the same as if the coefficients A n A 12 .q n ) from T and V.&. it is required being in the centre of the face.222 Nonholonomic Systems. . m therefore determine the vibrations by using these equations to elimi of the coordinates (q l} q z .+A nk qn = 2 (k = 1. dV = ^+\jA n + \ A r2 + z .
Let . These and these express the condition of equations give as a first rolling of the upper on the lower hemisphere. an equation which expresses the condition of contact of the two hemispheres the first two of the equations give : while a at 0! R 2 y^ . while the axes z x. Dissipative Systems 223 its (2) rectangular set of axes centre of gravity Z\ . the remaining 6 are the conditions of R R2 l . and in the equilibrium position the axes therefore coincident. and /j. zz hRiyz t the conditions that this point shall be at rest relative to the lower hemisphere are = 0. Rl being therefore also parallel.lt. there must be 18 equations connecting these coefficients or their differentials. t Z^. the origin being A rectangular set of axes Rlmn fixed in space. = 0.iZ. the origin R being the equi (3) librium position of the point of contact of the lower hemisphere and the plane. A Z ^^ l fixed in the lower hemisphere.a z R^yi + a3 (^ 2  Rzy^ . ^2 = f #2coordinates of the point of contact of the upper hemisphere with the lower are The x 2 =li z yi. The last of these equations gives 7 + ^273 = 0.R 2 y3 = 0. the axes Zz y. As however the system has only six degrees of freedom.& RW + /3 3 (1 2 . 12 are the ordinary conditions of the types which express the orthogonal character of the axes contact and rolling. which is the differentiated form of the equation ^773^2= RZ. which we shall now find. Of these. Z^. be the radii of the lower and upper hemispheres respectively. 12 the distances of the centres of gravity from their plane faces. and Rn are vertical and are parallel. yi=  Rtf*. Z Rm Suppose that at time of axes are connected the coordinates of a point referred to these different sets by the equations = a+ n The 24 coefficients in these transformationformulae completely specify the position of the system at any instant. We further Z&. approximation . R ayi . so li = %Ri.90] Nonholonomic Systems. define these axes by supposing that Z\.
(iii) equations for 6 3 and Equations for the coordinates c 1 and y l these are exactly the same as the so we need consider only the latter.gt. potential energy of the system is F= J/j^c + M2 g (c + c ia + c2 /3 + c3 y). (ii) We either of the hemispheres is turned through can therefore neglect these equations. l . 3. =yi =1 n The .224 Nonholonomic Systems. m. retaining only small quantities of the second order. where M . + C! 2 {^ Wi + l/ Equations if 2 2 (1J7? 2 +f ^2 + ^ a2 b3 ^^^^ The equations (i) of motion evidently separate into three distinct sets. ) for each hemisphere.$ (a 22 + 713 )./sip. and solving for y\i a the other 18 coefficients in terms of these. and remembering that the principal moments of inertia of and radius R at its centre of gravity are %MR 2 a hemisphere of mass R*. If now we hemisphere and form the sum express the coordinates I. not disturbed revolution. we find for the kinetic energy of the system the value T.gt. . Dissipative Systems [CH. neglecting terms above the second order of small quantities. we find with the necessary approximation /3s? 2&. the equilibrium . n of any particle of the in terms of its coordinates relative to the axes 2 xyz and l Z Z i2m (P + m2 + h2 ^ upper or lower respectively. 2 U=ii(yi +33 2 ). any angle about its axis of Equations involving the coordinates and . We ^3&. vm and therefore on integration Similarly the condition of contact of the lower hemisphere and the horizontal plane is and the conditions of rolling are a 2) have thus now obtained the 18 equations connecting the 24 coefficients: taking c i as the 6 independent coordinates of the system. is and do not correspond to vibrations in the stricter sense these coordinates give rise to no terms in fact. consisting of for the coordinates a 2 and : in F. /33 . or.
gt. 18 therefore give.i0 3 + Ca s 6 Z =. The in 88. . In these equations. F F being in the plane . 2 . # 3 = $cos#. and let (u. aiAto&. Then we have di = o&. 3 .gt. sin 6. A) be its moments of inertia about the axis and about a line through G perpendicular to the axis. w2 co 3 ) being parallel to Gy. and is rolling round its axis in steady motion on a perfectly rough horizontal plane.F GK. and R being normal to the denote as usual the components of angular velocity of the axes and of the body respectively. ) RM ^ where The corresponding determinantal equation for X.lt. Let G be the centre of gravity of the solid. A with angular velocity n solid of revolution has an equatorial plane of symmetry. are most conveniently discussed vibrations of nonholonomic systems about a state of steady motion by use of the equations of motion given The method will be illustrated by the following example.gt.! =4&. N M (u .w9 3 + w6 2 } =Fuo6(R.! + co 2 ) 2 +\ 2 &. 2 . $ 2 =co 2 = #.3 &.GNR.90] Nonholonomic Systems.1^2^2/3 2 J/2 6 3 +g ( 3^3 + ^/33=0.gt. in extenso.7o&. PAT the perpendicular and G the perpendicular from G on the horizontal plane. F . parallel to the moving axes.lt. let p be the radius of curvature of the meridian of the solid at the equator. 6 the the angle between Gy and its undisturbed angle made by Gz with the vertical. Example. and the kinetic energy is T= $ M (u 2 + v 2 + 708) + 1 A The equations of 2 (a&. plane. and direction. #3) and (wj. if P is the point of contact. and Gx is normal to the plane Let F. D. where Gz is the axis of the solid. XP. for 6 3 Dissipative Systems 225 The equations and j33 are. the equatorial plane of the solid being vertical. STT/V/X is a period. Gy is perpendicular to the plane through Gz and the point of contact (so Gy is horizontal). to find the period of a vibration.PK.lt. =F . Gxz. 15 . (rA and j!\Tare measured positively parallel to the positive direction of the axis of z and the horizontal projection of this direction respectively. Further. . This motion being slightly disturbed. Let (6 l . R be the components of the force acting on the solid at the point Gt/z. v. from this point on the axis. w) be the components of the velocity of G. of contact. This is a quadratic equation in X : it is easily found that its roots are positive if and this is the condition for stability of the equilibrium. and let (C.Mg) sin 6. is =0.7co 3 6^+A^e^F. Take as moving axes of reference Gxyz. a the radius of its equatorial circle. w.
F u. o&.R + Mg. by their =0. . of these equations we The other three equations see that give. Dissipative systems . we have where x. .gt. o&. are small. # 2 . QI.O! o&. These equations determine the motion in the general case.226 Nonholonomic Systems. the equations become J Cw w =ax.a) x. the energy of the system being We now . =0.OK cos + PKsin 6). 3 . 62 .2 where Eliminating F. and F. values.gt. w and ) are zero. ". when the disturbance from When this latter assumption is made.gt.gt. and replacing 6 1 . R. 3) = . shews that the period of a vibration 2?r 2 2 (MgA (pa) + Cn (C+Ma )) 91.i =6 =^ QZ 1} = 2  F . proceed to the consideration of systems for which the principle of conservation of dynamical energy is not valid. o&. =o. frictional forces. and the condition of contact of the body and plane is w cos 6 11 sin 6 = ^ ( . $3 The equations is nearly are small. while therefore become R M (u + an6 Mr.gt. steady motion is not supposed to be small.gt.&. Moreover we have NP= (p . 2 = 0. =F =0. =aw. = 0. *) equal to Mg. wj.gt. w. 2 . From or the third and fifth and 77 are constants. and therefore on eliminating w. . W2=#2=x&. vm The conditions P are sin 6 GN. of no sliding at Dissipative Systems [CH. aa&. and therefore the equation for the determination of ) x i s 2 A(A + Ma 2 this equation x + {MgA ( P a) + Cn* is (C+ Ma )} x= . a&.77 Cw w + atzr l =F a.
we have where (f&. (2) that there exist rigid bodies. Consider the motion of a particle which is constrained to move on a rough fixed tube of small bore. the reaction between them at the point of contact may be resolved into a com ponent along the common normal to their surfaces at the point. Paris Mem. If on the other hand the frictional force required to prevent sliding is greater than fj.gt. the frictional force called into times the normal pressure. 702. and p the coefficient of friction. If two rigid bodies which are not perfectly smooth are in contact. The following examples illustrate the motion of systems involving frictional forces. heat) which is not recognised We shall first consider frictional systems. 635. pp.. . position in the tube. where /A is limiting coefficient of friction". and c is a constant depending on the initial circumstances of the motion. 1. and a component in the common tangentplane. prevention of sliding pressure. subject. 401. Painleve has pointed out that the four hypotheses (1) that the above laws of friction hold. 847: ibid.g. which has been established experimentally : The bodies will not slide on each other. 91] Nonholonomic Systems. we have dv* __ + 2u JV = 2 Integrating. some other form Dissipative Systems (e. which is called the frictional force. there will be sliding at the point of contact. u. (3) that the normal pressure between bodies cannot be negative. 227 continually changed into in dynamics. = $ds/p. Zeitschrift fur M. measured along the arc in the direction in which the particle is moving and let R be the normal reaction per unit mass. P. annee 1699. in the form of a plane curve. 2 vdv/ds and v /p. Motion of a particle on a rough fixed plane curve. where s is the distance of the particle from some fixed point of the tube. The discovery that the friction is proportional to the normal pressure was G. LVIII. (1909). 546. Comptes Rendus. (1905). under forces which on its depend Example solely Let f(s) and g(s) denote the components of force per unit mass acting on the particle in direction of the tangent and normal to the tube. ivhich depends only on the material of which the surfaces in contact are composed. and play will be /* times the normal pressure. made by 152 . (1905). The frictional force is determined by the following law*. where v Since the components of acceleration of the particle along the tangent and normal are is the velocity of the particle and p the radius of curvature of the tube. which is called the normal pressure. 186. provided the frictional force required for the does not exceed times the normal /j.90. 310. p. CXL. For a discussion on this cf. we have S/0tt Eliminating R. pp. 206. Amontons. CXLI. a constant called the ". (4) that all accelerations and tensions are finite taken together lead in some cases to contradictions of the fundamental laws of dynamics. p.
shew that the motion is given by the equation ce where c is a constant. Let 6 be the angle turned through by the hoop from the commencement of the motion. of motion is therefore 2 Cvt [2 { M+ m(l. referred to horizontal and vertical its own initial position. A m is attached to the circular hoop of mass stands on rough ground. times the corresponding normal pressure. side of this equation is a v2 Dissipative Systems [CH.sin 0). For the so initially initial motion. R=(M+m)( we have we have so initially F R x m(M+m) 2 y+g The hoop less will therefore roll or slide according as the coefficient of friction is greater or than m (M+m) Example 3. . 2. ti a\ f (1 M+m^ cos#).228 Nonholonomic Systems. 6. y= 9 ma M+m sin .lt. p. This equation represents the solxition of the problem. and a particle of end of the horizontal diameter. or is not. so the relation between s and t is tt = t / {F(s)}~2 ds. Example mass or slide. A particle moves under gravity on a rough cycloid whose plane is and whose base is horizontal if be the inclination of the tangent at any point : vertical to the horizontal. To find whether the hoop will roll M friction required to Let us investigate the rolling motion.e.. so that the equation of the cycloid can be written s = 4a sin &. and if tan e be the coefficient of tar friction. and so determine whether the produce this motion is. so that a x = a6 ma . The Lagrangian equation 2 T ( 1 . F=(X+m). vm Then The righthand we have say =F(s). a where a is the radius of the hoop.sin 0)}] + ma ft cos = mga cos 0. and let x and y be actually available. The kinetic and potential energies are T= Ma2 ft + ma?ft V= mga sin 6.. assumed possible. known function of s. this equation gives we have _ But if /J ~ ma 7 nf _ ~ _ _ ft A F be the frictioual force and R the normal pressure. greater than the maximum friction i. (downward) axes through the coordinates of the centre of gravity of the system.
g Integrating. For low velocities (below lOOft. different type of dissipative system is illustrated by the motion of a projectile in the air. and p the radius of The components of acceleration of the projectile curvature of the path. At time t let v be the velocity of the n projectile.(nk/g) fsec n+1 0d0. the equation v = pg cos = Iv sec0d0. y) of the particle can now be found from the equations x= The solution of the Ivcos0dt. of the velocity was then examined by John Bernoulli* * Book z and av + bv z were considered by respectively to v. is y problem n./sec. 1 l v".~ . Resisting forces proportional Newton. = . however. thus reduced to quadratures. resistance is approximately a linear function of the velocity. kv the resistance per unit mass. and as v is a known function of 0. p. proportional to any power in 1711. i. 1. can be integrated the projectile. . v 3. tan 6 ti". we have n (I/O sec + Constant 0. : in the following manner. The rectangular coordinates (x. as the resistance of the air depends on the velocity of A No general rule can be formulated for the solution of prob lems involving forces of this kind a case of practical interest. along the tangent and normal to equations of motion are its path are vdv/ds and kv n v/p . The case of a resistance 2. namely the motion of a projectile under the influence of gravity arid of a resistance varying as some power of the projectile s velocity. 2 This equation gives v in terms of gives gt To obtain t. Dividing the first equation by the second. 6 the inclination of the path to the horizontal. Principia. this equation gives t as a function of 0. .) the resistance of the air to a projectile is nearly For high velocities (say 2000 ft.91. Dissipative Systems 229 Resisting forces depending on the velocity. /sec.+~ we obtain k dv = d0 d  gcos0 or T7j d dv I (1 \ ^ n \v j + = vn 1 sec 0) do (n log = nk sec 0. Nonholonomic Systems.) the proportional to the square of the velocity. Opera. 92] 92. 502. and hence the (vdv/ds \ v /p 2 = g sin 6 = g cos 6.
Shew that the distance traversed in time t is 9* PHI? 1 ff. icr j. (Sac. l+b(u + l) c du  where a.2c/a. the Poisson pointed out in 1806J that the theory of singular solutions of differential equations has applications in Dynamics. Example 2. Rayleigtis dissipationfunction. 60. 5 e *t.+ C. (1901). n are arbitrary constants and R is another constant depending on them. t). Traite de Vequilibre et Paris.9 . p. of which the following maybe mentioned [ log 8 I vdu ^c ^ { I du J J l+a(u\} : c r. : a. Example 1. notably in the case of a particle under a resisting If a particle is moving in a straight line under a resisting force varying as the force. A heavy particle falls vertically from rest at the origin in a medium whose resistance varies directly as the velocity. 1744. 93. vm D Alembert * gu denotes the mass of the projectile. shewed that if Dissipative Systems ratio of the resistance to the [CH. vi. c.lt. it is possible to of the kinetic When express the equations of motion of the system in general coordinates in terms and potential energies and of a single new function. a system is subject to external resisting forces which are directly proportional to the velocities of their points of application. The initial velocity being c2. whose coordinates are (x. A heavy particle falls vertically from rest at the origin in a medium whose resistance varies as the square of the velocity shew that the distance traversed in time t is : . u = a + b log v. b. * du mouvement des fluides. the motion v is represented by the general integral ^at) z = (c so long as t&. (Cahier 13). 1175. C are arbitrary constants number of terms involved being finite when this equation defines c is rational. y. cxxxn. v in terms of u. the equation of motion dv/dt = is av 2. p. in an arbitrary displacement By. Siaccit obtained many more integrable cases. t Comptes Rendus.230 Nonholonomic Systems. . after which it is represented by the singular solution v = 0. square root of the velocity. Bz) be kz z8z. I Journal de VEcole Polyt.v denotes the resistance per unit mass. K where pv is the resistance per unit mass.log cosh where 2 (Jgii. p. u=a where n (log v} + R log v + b. For which let is the energy lost to the system by the action of the resisting force applied to a particle ra of the system. the integration can be effected in the four cases u = a + bv n . b. z).
. . where X. = kz z + Z. z only. in 26. we have ... where + Q2 8q2 .^ * +y^+^r r dy . The equations of motion of the be (mx = &..T k. represents half the rate at energy is being lost to the system by the action of the resisting forces . which is which and let system. ^. .gt.dz\  =d /dT\  oq dqj dt \dqr j ^ dT . .. Multiplying the equations of motion of the particle ra by dx/dqr dy/dq r and summing for all the particles of the system.2 . Z are the components of the total force (external and molecular) on the particle. Dissipative Systems 231 where kx kv kz are functions of typical particle ra will therefore x..z f } dq r dq r ^ dqj oqr ^ . . Q n Sq n denotes the work done by the external forces (excluding the resistances) in an arbitrary infinitesimal displacement Q^ + + : while we have oq r &+M d _dF dqr It follows that the equations of motion of the system in terms of the co ordinates (q lt q2 .my \mz kx x + X.. dz\ ^ =S dq r dq r dqj (kx x \ /. . so called the dissipationfunction..92. we have . Nonholonomic Systems. dy + y ^+z= .. dqr As s dq r j . except the force of resistance.. is extended over all the particles of the system. dx &. . Y. = k.gt.J y+Y... (q lt q. . dx = dy dz\ h kyy ~ v y ^. q n ) be coordinates specifying the configuration of the dz/dqr respectively. y. and * a  5  ". dq r where T is the kinetic energy ..lt. 93] . oqr dq r dq rj r&. . dx dqr . . q n ) can be written in the form d dT\ dT dF . Now let a function F be defined by the equations where the summation that F.
Vibrations of dissipative systems. relative (as vm y t .? or q\ 2 + + aq &. so that the equilibrium forces. the coefficients in these functions being constants.(*i z) *(&&) *(*2*l) the equations in general coordinates can be formed with the respectively.A ? = 0. dissipation where \ stable if and X2 will be supposed there were no dissipative of motion are positive. If the resisting forces Dissipative Systems [CH. k v (yifa\ *.gt. dqr l 9&. Taking as coordinates those variables which would be normal coordinates if there function. . 2 2 2 . energy function. we can write these three functions in the form were no velocities.z.ytf + *.lt. shew that./ A&.) 2 } as a dissipationfunction. Nonholonomic Systems. depend on the opposed to the absolute) so that the forces acting on velocity of their points of application.xtf + k y (ft . As in 76.gt.2).lt. + &?2 + ^2?2 = 0.232 Example.jl + hq^ + \ q =0. we find that for the vibrational problem the kinetic energy and can be taken as homogeneous quadratic functions of the dissipation function For simplicity we shall consider a and the potential energy as a homogeneous quadratic function of the coordinates.gt. } If we attempt to find a particular solution of these equations in the form on substituting these values in the differential equations we have A ( p* +ap + XO + Bhp = 0.lt. potential methods similar to those of and dissipation function. Ahp + B(p*+bp + from which it = X&. If a dynamical system system with two degrees of freedom. fr . is specified by its kinetic energy function. follows that 2 (p p must be a root of the equation + ap + \0 (p + bp + X 2 ) . the nature of the small determine to order in Chapter VII can be applied an vibrations of the system about equilibriumconfiguration. 3/2? g z) have the components kx (xix& and **(#2*l)&. two particles (x^ zt) and (# 2 &. 94. expression \ 2 {kx (x.) 0. would be The equations drtT\dT + W + d_V = dt \dqj dq r l (r=l.
sn where 4 and e are real arbitrary constants. on account of the presence of the factors e~^ of of u. 94] Nonholonomic Systems. con suppose the dissipative forces such that energy is being to the system. amplitude of oscillation of the other coordinate. on this supposition. where initial 4. Now we tinually lost a and 6 are positive. we have finally the general solution of the vibrational problem. while the phases of the vibration in the two coordinates at any instant differ by a quarterperiod.X = h ~ 2) e ^ at sin Vx^. roots of the last equation are readily found to be shall . the amplitude of oscillation of one of the coordinates is small compared with the same . the b can be neglected squares of the quantities a.X ) Be~ : bt sin (*/\2 t + 7). e ~ t al nns v". = h*J\ e~^ at (icos VXxi . B _ ih VXj therefore given by A of the differential equations particular solution ~ is = (Xj .X ) Ae ~ $ at sin (\/M + e). the normal are vibrations the periods h. 6) the (neglecting squares ^ 1 : as if the dissipative forces were absent and in a normal vibration. Adding to this the corresponding solution in e p **..X . so that F is a positive definite form. differential equations are r x = (Xj .X ) e ^ at (cos N/X] + i sin x/Xjtf). namely 1 = (\ . fa ^ 2 t l i in these and a second particular solution is obtained by changing i to of the solutions It follows that two independent real particular expressions. and therefore The last equations therefore shew that the vibration at and e gradually dies away.X ) Ae 2 at sin (\/M + e) + A x 5e~ a sin 2 + + 7 sin Vx^ + + e + (X2 .X 2) e~ ^ at cos VXjtf f (?! = (Xj . from connecting A and B. We the second of the equations Corresponding to the root p^ we have. B.lt. This represents one of the normal modes of vibration of the system. h.93. &. and therefore the most general (q t real solution involving e Pit is 2 = (Xj . 7 are four constants which must be determined from the circumstances of the motion. f and { V X .sin Vx^). .. Dissipative Systems 233 so that suppose the dissipative forces to be comparatively small.
t The laws of impact were discovered in 1668 by John Wallis (Phil. and the phase of the vibrations in q2 q 3 . . q n } are the normal coordinates of the system when the forces are absent. vm similar analysis leads to corresponding results for systems with more than two degrees of freedom supposing that the dissipative forces are small and that the dissipation function and potential energy are positive definite forms.. e. ..?2. The mental lawf. dissipative the dissipative forces are present. 867). Another mode in which energy may be lost* to a dynamical system is by a collision generally the collision of bodies which belong to the system . A and dies away presence of the dissipative forces. forces . but appears in some other manifestation. 864) and Christopher Wren (ibid.. e.234 Non1lolonomic Systems. we find that the periods of the normal vibrations are (neglecting unaltered by the squares of the coefficients in the dissipation function) .e. shall We Let (u. is based on the following experi analytical discussion of collisions When two bodies collide. heat. the values of the relative velocity of the surfaces in contact (estimated normally to the surfaces) at instants immediately : impact bear a definite ratio to each other before this ratio depends only on the material of which the bodies are composed. lost to the system considered as a dynamical system : the energy is not annihilated. in which the amplitude of the vibrations in of the vibration in q 1} qs. I. 95. results in a decrease of dynamical energy. No. v. * now find the loss of kinetic energy when two perfectly smooth bodies impinge on each other. Impact. . Dissipative Systems [CH. q n is small compared with the amplitude &. p. the bodies The general problem of impact reduces therefore to a problem in impulsive motion in which the unknown impulsive force at the point of contact of the bodies is to be determined by the condition that the change in relative normal velocity of the bodies satisfies the above law. and and w) denote its components of velocity before m . . When e is zero. and let (u v w ) and typify the mass of a particle of either body.g. p. Loss of kinetic energy in impact. . 96. 43. after the impact.. Discuss the vibrations of a system which is acted on by periodic external which have the same period as one of the normal modes of free vibration of the system shewing the importance of dissipative forces (even where small) in this case.. there is a normal vibration of the system when : . but that the vibration gradually if (q lt q 2 .lt.. and immediately after the This ratio will in general be denoted by are said to be inelastic. q n differs by a quarterperiod from the phase of the vibration in q lf Example. Trans.
we have MO) 2w {(u Now (u + eu ) + (v v + ev ) + (w . the three components of velocity of its centre of gravity and the three components of angular velocity of the body about axes through its centre of gravity). since the impulsive forces which correspond to each other in virtue of the law of Action and Reaction will give contributions to these sums which mutually destroy each other. we have 2 ( Uu + Vv + Ww) = 0. 2m {(u . (v + ev Q ). (w + ewQ ) respectively. Multiplying these equations by (u + eu 9 ). so far as molecular impulses are concerned.v ) =V. and 2 ( Uu + Vv + Ww = 0. summing for all the particles of both bodies.v ) (v + ev ) + w) (w + ew )} = 0.).M or ) (u + eu ) + (v.w } (w + ew )} = ${U (u + eu + V(v + ev ) f ) (v n ) W (w + ew ) )}. Also. and + ew similarly does not contribute to the sums ^V(v+ev ] ). Dissipative Systems 235 U. in The impulsive change rigid bodies of motion consequent on the collision of two free can be most simply determined by the space following considerations. We have therefore 2{U(u + eu ) + V(v + ev ) + and consequently W (w + ew (w )} = 0.w = ) W. W) molecular) on this particle. The total number of equations required to determine the . V. Examples of impact. The motion of each body before or after impact is specified by six quantities (e. This equation can be expressed by the statement that the kinetic energy impact is (1 e)/(l + e) times the kinetic energy of that motion which would have to be compounded with the motion at the instant before the lost in the impact in order 97.9497] let ( Nonholonomic Systems. m (w . since the part of (u + eu ) due to the normal component of velocity has the same value for each of the particles in contact at the point where the impact takes place (in virtue of the law of impact) it follows that the impulsive force between the bodies does not contribute to the sum and 2TF (w %U(u + eu. to produce the motion at the instant after the impact. be the components of the total impulsive force (external and The equations of impulsive motion ( 35) give u ti m (u adding. and ) = U. m(v .g.
times the normal component of the impulse (a) . the coefficient of friction between the surfaces in contact being yt.B The equation of horizontal momentum gives TO (u cos a  U~) = MU. this The following examples illustrate these principles 1.) U be the and relative to the plane. + ma (u 7 cos a). there is a tangential impulse equal to times the normal impulse between the bodies. (Coll. or if one of the bodies procedure is still valid after making some obvious modifications. therefore. .lt. and another by the experimental point law of impact. is Sheiv that the vertical velocity of the centre of the sphere immediately after the impact Fsin a 2 omsin*a Let r= n . is fixed. Of these. is unchanged (since the impulsive forces act at this point) another equation is obtained from the condition that the momentum of the system in the direction normal to the surfaces in contact (since the normal impulsive forces on the two bodies at the of contact are equal and opposite).. &. acau. If the motion takes place in a plane. Dissipative Systems [OH. The kinematical condition at the point of contact is condition that the angular momentum of the sphere about the point of contact shall be the same before and after impact is The m Va sin a = g mao&. provided the tangential component of the impulse required for this does not exceed //. velocity of the plane after impact. : if the bodies are imperfectly rough. the required twelve equations can be found. arid a its radius. . the last condition is not satisfied. the condition that the linear momentum of the system in any direction tangential to the (since there : is unchanged gives two equations if the bodies are condition the that the relative velocity of the bodies in perfectly rough. the remaining four is unchanged equations can be derived from the condition that the linear momentum of each body in any direction tangential to the surfaces in contact is unchanged is no tangential impulse if the bodies are smooth) if on the other hand the bodies are perfectly or imperfectly rough. (/3) if //. If the bodies are perfectly smooth. Exam. In all cases. u the velocity of the sphere parallel to the angular velocity of the sphere. the remaining two equations are given by the conditions that the relative velocity in any tangential direction is zero after the impact. six are immediately furnished by the condition that the angular momentum of each body about any axis through the point of contact . vm impulsive change of motion is therefore twelve.236 Nonholonomic Systems. : Example An inelastic sphere of mass angle inelastic inclined plane of mass M and m falls a. direction after the impact is zero gives the other two while any tangential surfaces in contact . with velocity rests which V on a perfectly rough on a smooth horizontal plane.gt.
= e V sin a.) its final Let its final F denote is the initial velocity of the disc. shew that Example 3. and yOz is the initial plane of motion.gt. with velocity V in a direction making an angle a with the horizon. and let and 2 be the components of angular velocity about Ox and Oy respectively after the impact. we have = I J/a 2 co 2  Ma Q sin a The tangent of the inclination of the new plane 0)2/0)!. Since there no sliding at the point of contact.97] Nonliolonomic Systems. ) (Coll. If the point of impact is distant b from the centre of the rod. from these equations.. mass and radius c impinges upon turning freely about a pivot at its centre. give. Dissipative Systems eo 237 These three equations on eliminating and U. and the law of impact gives the relation v sin ft + 6o&. \ cO. o&. of the disc about the point of contact.! M Equating the initial and final angular momenta about 2 . . and by / the normal impulse between the rod and disc. Oy. we have Ma Fcos a = Ma  Equating the initial and final angular 2 momenta about .gt. the equation of the motion of the rod is Ib = \ma 2 u&. Take rectangular axes Oxyz.gt. ft with the rod before and after collision. and the mass of the sphere. ~ which is 5 ~1M (M+m) Fsin 2 a + 2m + 5m sin* a the result stated. about an axis an angle a to the vertical and moving. Equating the initial and final angular momenta ft we have Fcos a = v cos Eliminating v. o&. If the plane be tangentialltj inelastic.i Ox. A sphere of radius a rotating with angular velocity Q. we have v cos j Denoting by co the final angular velocity of the rod. Oz is vertical.  Q. and the direction of motion of the centre of the disc makes angles a.gt. o&. The equation of impulsive motion of the disc in the direction normal to the rod is M(vsin(i+ ^ sin a) = 7. account of the perfect roughness of the plane) of motion to the plane yOz and this is therefore equal to is (on \Ma?Q. a&. Example 2.gt. strikes a perfectly rough inclined at horizontal plane.gt. we have ft 2 tan (3Mb 2 + ma2 = 3 tan a (mea 2 ) which is the result stated. and let v denote velocity and Q angular velocity. %Exam. where is the point of contact. find the angle which the vertical plane containing the new direction of motion makes with the old. a rod of mass m A perfectly rough circular and length 2a capable of disc of M 2 2 2 2 2 (3Mb + ma ) tan/3 = 3 (ema 3Mb tan a. sin a Ma V cos a or f a (Q/ F) tan a. in the vertical plane containing that axis. /.
times the normal impulse.lt.lt. u + impulse required for this does not exceed /x times the normal impulse but if this condition is not satisfied. in motion without rotation in its own plane. Example 4. Shew that the sphere from will leave the rotating sphere when the point of contact is at an angular distance 6 the vertex.Fcosa)= F. impinges on a rough fixed straightedged obstacle in the plane.gt. Dissipative Systems [CH. therefore is zero. A is which fixed. Part I. Let u and v denote the components of velocity of the centre of the hoop after the the impact. To find the impulsive change of motion. M mass and a the radius of the hoop. u+ aa&. we shall have The quantity u + aw will therefore be zero after the impact. of radius a is made to rotate about a vertical diameter. (a+o)g (Camb. is /x^cota/2(l+e).JT . Tripos. provided and if p. and let co be the angular velocity. axis its vertical about which is compelled to turn if a be the semivertical angle of the cone. parallel and perpendicular to the edge. Equating the angular momenta about the point of contact before and after the impact. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. We have and if M(u. we have Ma&. the motion is determined by the equations 7 sin a. cot a/2 (1 + e). in a direction making of friction is p. provided the frictional Since the plane is rough.o : Let F be the frictional and R the normal impulse : then we have ft. where COS 10 =^ 17 ^119 4 a 2 w 2 sin 2 a . the frictional impulse is p.) on the surface of a cone of revolution 2. does not satisfy this inequality.a + Mau = M Va cos a.. A distant aa from the highest point: investigate the motion placed on it at a point and determine in any position the angular velocity of the sphere. ^ be the angle turned . if 7sino. a&. distance of the centre of the sphere from the axis of the cone. r sin a be the vertex A its being uppermost . and the coefficient before impact is V.lt. the motion determined by the equations while if p. Math. M(v+ 7 sin a) = R = M(\ + e) 7sin a. A circular hoop. rough sphere of radius a rolls under gravity with uniform angular velocity n. Ma?v=aF. &. The law of impact gives the equation is zero after the impact.238 Nonholonomic Systems. 1889. perfectly rough sphere uniform sphere of radius b is with a constant angular velocity n. 1. The velocity of the centre of the hoop an angle a with the edge. we shall have F=pM(l+e) Thus finally.
O are determined by the equations of. 3. Math. c) arid the other portion is uniform heavy ellipsoid of semiaxes moves with velocity v in the direction of its aaxis along the its 6axis vertical and smooth portion of the plane has towards the rough. and that the motion will then consist of an oscillation about a steady state of * motion. y. Exam. shew that 2m where { (y .gt. (7 Qn} r=A. relatively to the cone. (Coll.r^. B. cos 6 + C+ Me 2 is o&. A wheel with 4 perfectly rough horizontal plane. b. z) are the coordinates of a particle and the summation is extended over i\ll the particles of the body.gt. portion.Mac Ca cos 2 = 0. Dissipative Systems 239 through. One portion of a horizontal plane is perfectly rough.. Exam. ) ( ) or + (a sin + c cos the inclination of the axis of the body to the horizon. if the ellipsoid will return to the smooth portion.) 6. o&. spokes arranged symmetrically rolls with its axis horizontal on a If the wheel and spokes be made of a fine heavy wire. is prove that the condition for stability 3 where a 5. (x. Tripos.) (4 + Me & + AQ? cos 2 6 .gt. Part I. k being the radius of gyration about the caxis. 1898. Nonholonomic Systems. by the vertical plane containing the centre of the sphere. C the moment of inertia of the body about its axis and a the distance of the centre of gravity from the base (Camb.Mc*& cos 2 2 6 = (C+ J/c2 ) ) cos 6 ^ &. of revolution mass M Mac { ~ (a cos 2 6) . A the moment of inertia of the body about a diameter of its base.ZMacvQ.vm] and o&. In the special case a = 26.lt. A perfectly smooth (a. 2% where 6  4. 3 be the rate of rotation of the sphere about the common normal. solid 1897. the angular velocity of the body about its axis. cos 6 . and (. Math.M*a?#} 2 ~ (a cos 6) + C (C+Mc2 o. A (C+Mc 2 ) . Shew that.) A homogeneous 6.9 . Tripos.9) = Constant.lt. Q the angular velocity of the vertical plane containing its axis.) . shew that after the return of the ellipsoid to the smooth the 6axis can never make an angle with the vertical which is greater than arctan Vf (Coll. prove that 14 cos a . . m (Neumann. If this plane be taken as plane of yz.y A )z (z z A )y} = Constant.) A body under gravity on a fixed horizontal plane. radius c rolls Shew that with a plane circular base of without slipping with its edge in contact with a rough horizontal plane. (1^ where A. yA ZA ) of the point of contact. &. are determinate constants. is the radius of the wheel and rolls V its velocity. Part I. (Camb.
A rough cycloidal tube has its axis vertical and vertex uppermost. If a be the 9. Math. p the velocity is V. Math. where a is the angle of friction. C gyrostat together about a line through their centre perpendicular those of the shell and gyrostat respectively about the axis. 2p.Mgb (a  b cot a) =0. motion of the spheroid on a perfectly rough horizontal plane. = y + 2 sin _ y)} 10. when its centre describes a circle of radius c with angular velocity Q. Part I.cota&.gt. po are the original distances of the points of contact from the points where the their distances at a subsequent time when shortest distance intersects the rods and 8. radius and y the angle of the helix. contains a symmetrical gyrostat. Dissipative Systems [CH. Part I. (p* and that (Camb. If po. . radius of the generating circle and a particle be projected from the vertex with velocity \/4ag sin a. and a the inclination of the plane. . A the moment of inertia of the shell and to their axis. plane. a the distance measured the shell and plane from the centre and parallel to the axis of the point of contact of b its distance from the axis. A p. the mass of the shell and gyrostat. shew that it will reach the cusp with velocity equal to (1 2 [4aff cos a 2 sin a~ (Jir ~ a) tana }]*. Tripos.) A particle moves under gravity on a rough helix whose axis is vertical. (Coll.) where M uniform perfectly rough sphere of radius a starting from rest rolls down under between two nonintersecting straight rods at right angles to each other whose gravity shortest distance apart is 2c and which are equally inclined at an angle a to the vertical. Tripos. 1899.) is the coefficient of friction. 1889. (?. the particle approaches asymptotically a line of greatest slope at distance u2 g where p. A shell in the form of a prolate spheroid whose centre of gravity is at its centre 7.240 Nonholonomic Systems. which rotates with angular velocity to about its axis and Shew that in the steady whose centre and axis coincide with those of the spheroid.sin 2 a Exam. the inclination a of the axis to the vertical is given by { Mbc (a cot a + 6) is  A b cos a + C (a sin a + c)} O 2 + C baQ . shew that the velocity v and arc described s can be expressed in terms of a parameter 6 by the equations _ cc y cos .l. the Investigate is if A particle Prove that 2 ^ 2p. inclined projected horizontally with velocity u so as to slide on a rough motion. Exam. (Coll. 2 cos a 4/x cos 2 a is ..) . shew that *  / _ i6c4 _ . If a be the 11. (Camb.
Tripos. and a and (Coll. /3 where kv 2 is the resistance. is attached to the point of the from the board and to an arm perpendicular to the board at the axis. that between the shell and the plane being practically infinite. 1900. Exam.) varies as the square of the velocity. and the board. A . particle begins to slip. Find the 16. Math. A between them time that elapses before slipping ceases between the rings if the coefficient of friction is p. then + t2 )ff sin a = aQ. 0(& 13. (Coll.gt. .) a is placed in a vertical plane touching a uniform rough board which can turn freely about a horizontal axis in the upper surface of the board (ft.vm] Non1lolonomic Systems. parallel to the surface of the board. with a rough vertical wall and the other end moves along the ground supposed to be equally rough and the coefficient of friction for each of the rough surfaces is tan e. Dissipative Si/stenis 241 A heavy rod of length 2 is moving in a vertical plane so that one end is in contact 12. A A string. descends. (Coll.) ring of radius a is fixed on a smooth horizontal table a second ring is placed on the table inside the first and in contact with it. The coefficient of friction between the particle A and the shell is given. Exam.) 16 w. depends only on T and is independent of the initial velocity. . Obtain an equation for the angle through which the shell has rolled when the 14. It has initially such a backward spin O that after a time ^ it starts moving uphill and continues to do so for a time t 2 after which it once more &. M are the masses of the inner and outer rings and b is the radius of the inner (Camb. 2 + a 2 cos2f)a 2 2 sin2e==a#sin(02f). Exam. when the board makes an angle Q with the vertical given by tan = by the mass of the (Coll. and prove that during the time that the inner rinhalf round the outer one the centre of the latter will be displaced a distance where m. rin g17. e medium whose resistance +e are the distances described in two successive equal intervals r of time. and is projected with velocity T 7 but without rotation. The system starts from rest in that position in which the centre of the disc lies in disc furthest Shew that slipping will take place between the disc the horizontal plane through the axis.) through its centre of gravity. inclination of the rod to the vertical at any time (9 is given by (Coll. if the motion take place (ti in a vertical plane at right angles to the given inclined plane. the coefficient of friction being p ( tan a). of length (a log Discuss the motion that will ensue released if at the moment slipping ceases the fixed ring be rolls and left free to move. Exam. and The centre of gravity of the board and arm lies in the connected to the board. hoop is projected with velocity V down a plane of inclination a. Part I.) thin spherical shell rests upon a horizontal plane and contains a particle of finite mass which is initially at its lowest point. A is the moment of inertia of the board about the axis divided 15. Shew that.) where disc. rigidly axis. . Shew that the . in a direction parallel to the tangent at the point of contact.  V. Exam. the point of contact of the disc being at a distance b from circular disc of radius this axis. In the vertical motion of a heavy particle descending in a shew that the quantity ka. and prove that the point of contact will in this time describe an arc 2)//*. D. Motion in two dimensions is set up by applying to the shell an impulse which gives it an angular velocity Q.
be k {v(vv )fi where v is the velocity at the . and a line parallel to the direction of motion when the velocity was infinite.f^ctt v J v (Coll. provided the vertex. where (^_ Shew that the connexion between s and t is given by an equation of the form 22. under gravity. (Coll.2 the axis of x being in the direction of projection and the axis of y vertically downwards.gt. Exam. under a force P tending to a fixed centre. be the retardation due to the resistance of the medium. where the velocity is v. where k is very small and the particle is projected horizontally is the of (neglecting path velocity F. can A y=b log (xjo). and p the perpendicular on the tangent. shew that d f 7 &. the approximate equation 2~. Exam. let fall Dissipative Systems in a [OH. R be the resistance. resistance at action of a force to the focus which varies as the distance. shew that.) is moves in a straight line under no forces in a medium whose resistance v is the velocity and s the distance from a given point in the line. with a retardation kv3. (Coll. a particle can describe a parabola under the 24. y) of a particle moving under medium of which the resistance is R satisfy the equation dx3 v* cos 3 (j) v being the velocity and the inclination of the tangent to the horizontal. from rest medium in which the resistance varies as the square of the velocity. for the complete trajectory of a projectile in such a is medium. Shew that the equation of the trajectory referred to the vertical varies as the velocity.) gravity in a Shew that the horizontal and vertical coordinates (x. is z j T72 = arcsinh cot 6 + cot 6 cosec 0. o dr\ \Pp*T\ * ds \ dp) r being the radius vector = 2% _ 2 .) Prove that in the motion of a projectile through a resisting medium which causes 21. the angle 6 between the asymptotes given by U where V 19.242 18. a point. the rate of vector to the fixed centre of force varies as description of areas by the radius R . projectile the velocity when the moves horizontally. (Coll. Exam. Nonholonomic Systems.) If A particle moves in a resisting medium 25. where a and 23. Prove that a heavy particle. will acquire a velocity Uta. if A particle is moving in a resisting medium under a central attraction . Exam. Exam. Shew also that. and describe 2 denotes the terminal velocity in the a space log cosh (gtjU)lg in a time t. particle is moving. c are constants. and v the velocity.) asymptote be written in the form in a medium in which the resistance 20. A particle v s logs)/*.nh(gt/U). (Coll.) Prove that in a resisting medium. Exam. where U U medium. Determine k. . (Coll.
Exam. reducing triangle. A rod of length a is rotating about one extremity. on to a smooth inelastic Just before impact the joint has a velocity V and each rod has an angular plane. 1. are in one straight line and moving with a given velocity in a horizontal plane at The ends A and meet simultaneously two fixed inelastic right angles to their lengths. the angular velocity at the time t is given by 11 Aa* . each of length 2a. varying as the distance the resistance of the medium is equal to its density multiplied by Shew that the density at any point is proportional to the the square of the velocity.) where and mass TO. mk 2 is the distance of the centre of gravity of each rod from the joint and (Coll. are jointed together at their upper ends symmetrically. and Q is a constant.) 28. Exam. which is fixed. Supposing the retarding 2 shew that effect of the resistance on a small element of length dx to be Adx (velocity) . each of length a falls and the system m (P + c where c is 2 sin 2 a) ( F+ aQ cos a)/{ 2 + c2 +a (a .) 29. Three equal uniform rods AB. Exam. the moment of inertia of each rod about its centre of gravity. r6 = /ie~ r^kr Jct * . CD. M= l/r. with its plane vertical. it to the centre of force and the centre of (Coll. the ratio e is the coefficient of elasticity. Exam.7 \ctu \~ i / (Coll. Exam. (?) repelling it from the a resisting medium which imposes a retarding force equal to k times the velocity. D obstacles. Dissipative Systems 243 P=p.2e) cos2 a}.u 2 . and R = kv 2 . .) A particle is moving in a circle under a force of attraction to an interior point 27. tangent of the angle between the lines joining the circle. A and D 1 to rest. strikes a smooth horizontal rod Prove that the angular velocity is diminished in at its middle point. that the orbit is given by the equations ~ ~ A . and shew that of the original momentum is destroyed by the impacts. x the distance of the centre of gravity from the normal at the point of impact and k the radius of gyration about a vertical axis through the centre of gravity. under the action of no forces except the resistance of the atmosphere. tending to increase its inclination a to the horizon. Exam.) origin. Prove where A is a constant quantity.) 31. (Coll.vrn] If Nonholonomic Systems. Two rods. 26. between each rod and the plane is 30. (Coll. BC. where Mkz is the moment of inertia about the fixed extremity. and we neglect P and higher powers. shew that the differential equation to the path is P ecu ^2~ 3 A being a certain constant. Exam. Determine when they will form an equilateral (Coll. Shew that the impulse velocity 12. 3 e 2fc = ( (f). and hinged at B and C. turning on a smooth horizontal table with but without any translational velocity.) 162 .lt. A smooth oval angular velocity of mass m disc of mass M. (Coll. in A particle is moving under a central force &. .
and the distance is reckoned from the first point of contact. A M m by impact.) 34. friction being sufficient to prevent sliding. prove that the angular velocity imparted to the lower cube is . Exam. The sphere has also initially an angular velocity O about its horizontal diameter to the of its perpendicular it motion. Dissipative Systems [CH. find the subsequent motion after impinging on the wall. ma?. and angular velocity (Q) is about an axis perpendicular to the vertical plane. vm 32.) . Exam. Exam. (\+e)cu where a is the inclination to the horizon of the lower face of the falling cube. If the initial components of the velocity of its centre are u and v. (Coll. ~ g where a is the radius of the sphere. (Coll. distance Shew that before it ceases to bound on the plane plane passes over a horizontal where e is the coefficient of elasticity. 2a length of an edge. Compare the 35. A perfectly rough sphere of radius a is projected horizontally with a velocity V from a point at a height h above a horizontal plane. final with the elastic initial kinetic energy. k the radius of gyration and e the coefficient of restitution. the upon a rod of mass point of impact being at a distance b from the pivot. is the Find also the motion of the upper cube immediately after the impact.244 Nonholonomic Systems. (Coll.) and radius c impinges without rotation perfectly elastic circular disc of mass and length 2a which is free to turn about a pivot at its centre. A smooth uniform cube is free to turn about a horizontal axis passing through the centres of two opposite faces and is at rest with two faces horizontal an equal and similar cube is dropped with velocity u and without rotation so as to strike the former along a line parallel to the fixed axis and at a distance c from the vertical plane containing it. (Coll. Exam.) homogeneous sphere (coefficient of elasticity e) is projected against a perfectly rough vertical wall so that its centre moves in a vertical plane at right angles to the wall. Prove that if the component of the the velocity of the centre of the disc normal to the rod be halved Mb 2 = the 33. and shew that if its centre returns to its original position the coordinates of the point of impact referred to this point are its initial A .
.". The trajectories of a dynamical system.. etc.2) . As the arc CD is 2&.lt... a set of values of q 1} q&. for conservative holonomic systems. of the relations of different states or types of motion in the Hamilton s principle. q n ) on AB: we occupies any position shall suppose each point on CD correlated to some value of the time. 99. qn .CHAPTER IX THE PRINCIPLES OF LEAST ACTION AND LEAST CURVATURE 98.adjacent. it natural to use terms such as ". and consequently to each point on CD there will correspond t described. geometrical ... the correlated value of will . there angular coordinates referred to fixed axes are the coordinates (q 1} q2 q3 ) of the given dynamical system.. object investigation in Dynamics is the gradual change in time of the coordinates (q lt qa . so that there will be a point Q on CD (or on the arc of which CD is a portion) which corresponds to the same value t as does. by be the time at which trajectory P P be supposed to vary continuously in the same sense. Consider any conservative holonomic dynamical system whose configuration at any instant is specified by n independent coordinates (q1} q.qn t. arc in space of n dimensions of a of the system. When the system has three (or less than three) degrees . . . represent part trajectory and let CD be part of an adjacent arc which is not a necessarily trajectory it would however of course be sub possible to make CD a AB : Let t jecting the system to additional constraints. "...... .gt. when speaking system..gt. the path of this point in space can be regarded as illustrating the successive states of the In the same way when system.. n ) in q q space of n dimensions. The chief of often a gain in clearness when we avail ourselves of a geometrical representation of the problem if a point be taken whose rect is : of freedom. the representative point (q 1} q. ...". A moving point which describes the arc CD will there fore pass through positions corresponding to a continuous sequence of values of q lt qi..&.intersection.gt. &... this path is called the of the and its introduction makes trajectory system.. q n \ and let L be the kinetic Let a given potential which characterises its motion. n 3 we can still regard the motion of the system as represented by the path of a point whose coordinates are (q lt 2 . q n ) which specify the configuration of a dynamical system. .
This result is called p. 64. and that Suppose now that C coincides with A.gt. 1835. we have and similarly we have if (Agv)^ denote the increment of q r in passing from J. are zero a t ^ Ag 2 : . 95. q. 1834. . as compared with neighbouring paths CD which have the same terminal points as the actual trajectory and for which the time has the same terminal * values. D respectively. 307 ibid. . an(^ ^ then the last equation becomes A(? n A. so that A^. t)dt. Hamilton. p. i we have Ldt CD AB Ldt = L&t L&t + 1 . and D coincides with B. dt r= r by Lagrange at \rmi .. which is .246 The Principles of Least Action shall [OH. ix We shall denote by 8 the variation by which we pass from a point of AB to that point of CD t . which shews that the integral I Ldt has a stationary value for any part of an J actual trajectory AB. respectively. to C.gt. difference of the values of the integral qn. . dt r=l r /s \r=l But if (Agr )B denote the increment of gr in passing from B to D. + . 1 and consequently f j cx&. Hamilton s principle*. . C and D are t and t. = 0. and t denote by t lt t +A ^ + A^ the values of terminal points A. arcs AB and CD respectively. C. s equations. If now we form the F taken along the q n qi. Ldt  J f Ldt = ^# S L*=I dq? ^r Ag r the times correlated to &. Trans. . Phil. SLdt LA A + (o . and by LR which correspond to the the value of the function L at any point R of either arc. ((& q*. B. correlated to the same value of the time.
. is Suppose now that the dynamical system considered such that the kinetic potential does not involve the time explicitly.. 151. which represents the r= l r total energy of Helmholtz. filr Math.. remarked that the conditions for a stationary 2 .. n.! J hdt + ! J CD Ldt t J Ldt AB AB = 2 we suppose that C zero. q n) +2 r ~ Vr (f.. 100] and Least Curvature 247 If the kinetic potential L does not contain the time explicitly. ql . since S q r ^ . c. . The principle of Least Action for conservative holonomic systems. so that the integral of energy rl exists.. value of p. J. we have 2 =i dL\ qr \dt f J i 2 . ..T I L=h dq r be part of a trajectory and CD to be Taking part of to the successive points of which values of the time are so any adjacent arc. OQV where AA is a small constant. = J  CD + A/0 dt. correlated as to satisfy an equation of the form as before * AB to r=l dL 4r^~ L = h + AA. we shall have coincides with If therefore A and D coincides with B.99. Oq in this case constant. n gZ CD. 4 2 qr r dL . oqr J (h AB\r=\ qr dqJ dL\ ~ }dt .L. and that A/& is .*r)l dt } (where the q s and ffs are regarded as independent variables) are so that we again obtain Lagrange s equations. we can evidently replace the condition that the time is to have the same terminal values by the condition that the total time of description is to be the same for AB as for is the system. 100.
. dq r . as compared with neighbouring paths between the same termini for which the time is correlated to the coordinates in such a way qr [2 // \r=i ^r \ to satisfy the same equation of energy. II.248 The Principles of Least Action n ". as compared with other paths between the same terminal points for which h has the same terminal values. Example 2. Shew which the integral of energy does not qr ~^r that the principle of Least Action can be extended to systems for Let the expression exist.. p. U. 2 qr dL c ?r + 1 dh\ j. 1744. The Principle of Least Action originated in Maupertuis attempt (Mem. Extension of Hamilton s principle to nonconservative dynamical We Let shall systems in now extend Hamilton s principle to holonomic dynamical which the forces are no longer supposed to be conservative. independent of the velocities. n let T denote the kinetic energy of such a system. in the following form. and by Lagrange more general problems. ix dt has a stationary value for any oq r / part of an actual trajectory.bL\ [on. therefore j.  L vqr be denoted by h then the integral n . homogeneous of the second degree in the velocities. systems.. p. &q. 1744) for the case of a single particle under (Miscell. dt) has a stationary value for any part of an actual trajectory. for which L is the difference of a kinetic energy T. 309 of his Methodus inveniendi lineas curvas. a central force. I. Oeuvres. 417) to obtain for the corpuscular theory of light a theorem analogous to Ferrnat s Principle of Least Time. (17601). .. ?i). the integral as This is called the principle of being called the Action. .dT  5 = Qr (r=l. p. shew that the principle of Least Action for the original system is identical with Hamilton s principle for the reduced system. In natural problems. 101. Maupertuis principle was established by Euler (Addit.. and a potential energy F. If a dynamical system which possesses an integral of energy is reduced to a system of lower order as in 42. n. &q n ) the equations of motion of the system are . Taurin. we have (41) and the stationary integral can therefore in this case be written iTdt. 2. and r=l 2 Q r $q r  denote the work done on the system by the external forces in an arbitrary displacement (Bqi. Least Action. de I Acad.". dt \dqr/ d /dT\ . ".... 365) for much Example 2 r=i 1.}dt .
in which the variations . Gntt.*+ ~ + ^nA rm (r = 1.?i&. m A where that if lt dq 1 + A&dq + a . true even for dynamical which are not holonomic.gt.q n ( so determined 87) by d fdL\ dt r) (df ~ dL = ** An + ** A r dq~ &.. together with the above kinematical equations...lt. 122.lt. Extension of Hamilton nonholonomic systems*.. Gott. . and let CD be a path by displacements consistent with the instantaneous kine AB Holder. Nach. p. Nach. $2&. p.2 .. ^2) . l . . and let ft be an adjacent same terminals..100102] and Least Curvature 249 Let a denote a part of a trajectory of the system. be part of a trajectory of the system. 99. 1896. m) : Au A . Tm . . \ **) dt  t.gt.. the motion the n equations L are given functions of q l} is q. s principle and the principle of Least Action is shall now shew that Hamilton s principle.. . r=i (oqr = This result 0. systems We Consider a nonholonomic conservative system. which is really a particular case of it) known as Hamilton s to 102.. ^m Let AB * derived from Cf. 12 . n). . . and Voss. r=l is (like Qr Sqr dt the theorem of principle. 2. when suitably formulated.. + A nk dq n + Tk dt = (k=l. A nm T ..lt. 1900.lt.. &. q n ) are connected by nonintegrable kinematical equations of the n coordinates (q l} q2 . then if 8 denotes the variation by which we pass from a position on a to the contemporaneous position on /3. &. . we have arc having the * / n ( 8r + !.. 322. . ^i.. .. denotes the kinetic potential. the unknown quantities being &. . 2. the times correlated to the path /3 at the terminals being the same as the values t and ^ of the time at the terminals in the trajectory a.Jn...
[OH. So far . ( .The Principles of Least Action matical equations.. to The same remarks obviously apply to the principle of Least Action. this path the above kinematical equations with the terms Tk dt CD will not in general be itself a path whose continuous description would satisfy the kinematical conditions. It may naturally be asked why we do not take CD to be a kiriematically possible path the answer to which is. if two adjacent possible configurations are given. follows that the terms of the type \ g A rs Bq r 0 in the integral annul each other. Hamilton s principle is true only for holonomic systems. the displacement from one to the other is not in general a there are infinitely more possible adjacent possible displacement : . positions than there are possible displacements from the given position. Proceeding as in the proof of Hamilton as usual a displacement from a point of s principle given in  99. 103.. whether holonomic or not.lt. ix omitted .  \ cv 7.dt.lt. Bqr + W  fV*&.. whether they as compared with adjacent paths. and Hamilton s principle as applied to nonconservative systems.ft T A T A = Lj Aj .e. Left &.L^A^o 4i / 2 \V44 L .  T 7 J^ Z/&.. In every case the varied path considered is to be derived from the actual orbit by displacements which do not violate the kinematical equations representing the constraints. are actually maxima or minima.lt. we have only shewn that the integrals which occur in Hamilton s and the principle of Least Action are stationary for the trajectories principle The question now arises. so CD is really a kine matically impossible path. so that if we compare the actual motion We with adjacent motions which obey the kinematical equations of constraint. we have Ldtl CD JAB Ldt = L B ^L A &t f P Jtt r=i\oqr (~ Bq r + ~ oqr Bq r ] dt / . ) Since the displacements obey the relations A it lk 8q l + A 2k Bq2 + . that in that case the displacements from to CD would not be : AB displacements consistent with the kinematical equations for in nonholonomic systems. thus obtain the result that Hamilton s principle applies to every dynamical system. + A nk Bq n = 0. Jfcrll0$r dt\dq r j Bq 1r ] From this point the proof proceeds as in 99.  . +\ m A rm )Bq rldt. so T we have TJ. Are the stationary integrals actual minima ? Kinetic foci. i. but it is only for holonomic systems that the varied motion is a possible motion .gt. B denoting to the AB I contemporaneous point on CD. ^ . \&.
The principle of Least Action. + a^dq^. (1892). this integral is to be 1 taken between terminals. and a&. Math. xxm.gt.lt. at each of which the values of q and q.lt. but their directions may have abrupt changes at any finite number of For such a path let (q lt q2 + &q2 ) be a points. paths will be supposed to have the same terminals. . This latter equation gives or dt = {2 (h ~2 i/r)} (a ll dq 1 2 + 2a 2 dq 1 dq 1 . Soc.?i 2 + J 2a. with any number of degrees of freedom. points.102. 241./&. Writing this equation we first shall discuss the discrimination of its effected maxima and minima (which was by Jacobi) by a method suggested by Culverwell*. as applied to the above system. is ( 100) that the integral The and to systems F I ( a n&. we shall write for frequently 8q 2 a small constant the order of which determines the order of is zero at the terminal magnitude of the quantities we are dealing with. so the stationary integral can be taken to be where q2 stands for dq 2 /dq 1 . * Proc.2 are given. and to be continuous.lt. ) dt has a stationary value for an actual trajectory as compared with other paths between the same termini for which dt is connected with the differentials of the coordinates by the same equation of energy T+V=h. q z ) q? + a 12 (q l . 103] and Least Curvature 251 We shall select for consideration the principle of Least Action. 2 g 1 5 2 r + 2 22&. ga ) on the actual trajectory. qa discussion can be extended without difficulty to Hamilton s principle. Consider any number of paths adjacent to the actual These trajectory. the motion being defined by energy T=^a n (q and a potential energy l . point corresponding to a point (ft.7". Lond. p. and for convenience of exposition shall suppose the number of degrees of freedom in the dynamical a kinetic system to be two. where a is &.lt. . qs ) q.
gt.f&. We For shall now shew final provided the let point is that for finite ranges the Action is a minimum. If this intersects the first trajectory again.gt./&. and this is positive.lt. very small. g2 + &. say at a point B. / is maximum Un = ~ = (h". is Thus  the range .lt.lt.252 The Principles of Least Action [CH.f&.gt.. large compared with the value of For since &. ix Let the expansion of the function f(q 1} in ascending qa +a&.gt. ^\2 J? ^ (a n + 2a ls q + a^_q./&.. ranges the Action is a minimum for Now consider any point trajectory be drawn through A on an actual trajectory. the most important term in 82I is 1 Un 2 (j) dq 1 and as the sign of this is always the same as that of U n (the a sign of dq t is taken to be positive). not beyond the kinetic focus of the initial point. then the limiting when the angle between the trajectories diminishes position of the point on the first trajectory.lt. If therefore it ft greatest value of (g KJZ) &. and its terminals are fixed. since the kinetic therefore a n a& a 12 2 is positive. we see that for small ranges. It is therefore evident that as we remove value of / for the limits P .p . and consequently by taking the range &. sufficiently small the ratio of &. P and Q be the terminals we have seen that if Q is very near 2 2 to P.gt. follows that be the numerically can never exceed &. to if can be diminished indefinitely.lt.lt. where P and R denote the terminals. or the indefinitely is called the kinetic focus of B A point conjugate to A. . the quantity S / is always positive and of order a compared with the and Q. P and R. we have . the range of integration at is is small. between (f&.lt. When value of is &. We energy is a positive definite form and thus have the result that for small the actual trajectory. Now or minimum according as Uu is negative or positive.2 2 )~ * t (a n a^ a 2 12 ). and let another actual A making a very small angle with the first.?i(p))/3. ) powers of a be let 57 denote the terms involving a in the first degree in and let 8 2 / denote the terms in a2 .lt.lt. the &. any point zero at the terminals.
the former on the curve Action F P and R PHQ and the . with the notation just used. Suppose then that PBQ is an arc of an actual trajectory.. Representation of the motion of dynamical systems by means of The principle of Least Action leads to an interesting transformation of the motion of natural dynamical systems with two degrees of freedom. point for which. Hence when the kinetic focus of the initial point is reached before we arrive at the final point. provided that in passing along the trajectory the final point is reached before the kinetic focus of the initial point. 104] and Least Curvature 253 Q further from P. Q being the first for which 2/ is zero point for which it is possible to draw a varied curve PHQ . Since the integral taken than that along EQF. let a trajectory ADC be drawn between these Then the points. as is we proceed from P. and there first . and Q is the kinetic focus of P. it follows that the integral than that along PEQR but the latter is equal to that along both integrals are equal from P to Q. shall we integral taken along taken along fore equal to Q cannot be the ADC is less than that taken along AHC. The trajectories are greatcircles on the sphere. .103. it is not a trajectory between two of its own points A and C (supposed near each other). Lastly we shall consider the case in which the kinetic focus of the initial point is reached before we arrive at the final point. the quantity 81 cannot become capable of a negative value until after Q has passed through the point for which B 2I can vanish for a suitably chosen value of (/&. which by hypothesis is that along PBQ. since the integral taken along small any part of it is a minimum. The kinetic focus of any point A is the diametrically opposite point A on the sphere. that the initial and final points are and be taken. Hence the a true minimum. and let two points E . Hence frl along PADCQ is negative. and the Action taken or along any path (whether a A B a greatcircle. the Action is neither a is not a . since any two greatcircles through A intersect again at A The theorems of this article amount therefore in this case to the statement that an arc of a greatcircle joining any two points A and on the sphere is the shortest distance from A to B when (and only when) the point A diametrically opposite to A does not lie on the arc. shew that the varied curve PHQ must itself be a For if trajectory.gt. trajectory not) proportional to the length of the path. so the integral PADCQ is less than that along PHQ. geodesies. simple example illustrative of the results obtained in this article is furnished by the motion of a particle under no forces on a smooth sphere. PAHCQ is trajectory. and therefore the . the variation It follows ceases to be positive that is a which contrary to what has been proved. Suppose. maximum nor a minimum.e. latter on the arc QR these points being taken so close together that the trajectory them gives a true minimum. when the arc iu question is less than half is . EGF joining along EGF is less taken along PEGFR is less PBQR. since integral along PBQR minimum but it is not a maximum. 104. i.
Shew that the orbits described under a central attractive force (r) in a plane correspond to geodesies on a surface of revolution. where and where r and p are connected by the relation p 2 =r 2 { &. Consider the function xr . and is therefore Consequently the equations the defining condition of the geodesies on this surface.2 ). the orbits corresponding energy is h are given by the condition that r 2 I (an9i + Zouqiqi + a^q*} dt is stationary for any part of an actual orbit. and . r ) r } . like Hamilton s principle.254 The Principles of Least Action [CH. but which does not involve the sign of integration.lt. can be used to define the orbits of a dynamical system. (xr . of the geodesies on this surface. of the orbits in the given dynamical system are the same as the equations 1. By total to that family of solutions for which the 100. Yr Zr ) . X  Fy m j +(y V mj \ r r 2 /./). The leastcurvature principle of Gauss and Hertz. We shall now discuss a principle which. &. But this integral expresses the principle of Least Action for the motion of a particle under no forces on any surface whose linear element is given by the equation ds 2 = (h ir) {a n dq^ + %a iz dq^dq z + aZ2 dq. the equation of whose meridiancurve is z=f(p). (X r.. ix Let the kinetic energy of such a system be and let its potential energy be ^(g 1} q. In any dynamical system (whether holonomic or nonholonomic) let y r z r } be the coordinates of a typical particle m r at time t..p 105.p Example 2. Shew that the parabolic orbits of a free heavy projectile correspond to the geodesies on a certain surface of revolution.lt. the components of the external force which acts on the particle. as compared with any other arc between the same terminals for which dt is connected with the differentials of the coordinates by the relation The integral r I i (h J tyyz (a u dq* + 2a 12 dq l dq 2 + is therefore stationary.
in which the displacement 8xr of the coordinate xr is proportional to (x r . is a possible displacement.. considered as relating to the kinematically possible path. . Zeitschrift filr Math. Hertz s theory is given in his Mecltanik. (1858). from the same equation. is con sistent with the equations of constraint. we have (since the velocities are the same in the two paths) Safe. p. in. Gauss measured the constraint by ".e. (x r r (which Let x r be a typical component of acceleration in the path considered is to be but is not supposed the kinematically possible. and let xro be the corresponding component of acceleration in the actual trajectory. p. Crelle s Journal. m). v. . The above analytical expression for it was first given by H. 2. . Subtracting the preceding equation.the sum of the masses of the particles. This equation shews that a small displacement of the system. . 105] and Least Curvature 255 where the summation is extended over all the particles of the system. each multiplied by the square of its deviation from unconstrained motion. . m).xn) = (A? = 1. actual trajectory..104. and not the function the curvature by Hertz. The components * of the forces exercised by the constraints are typified itself. Scheffler. where the coefficients xkr are given functions of the coordinates. let the equations which express the constraints to typify any one of the three coordinates of (using any particle) be as r To ?. forces. iv.". (1829). . by Strictly speaking.x m ). We shall shew that of to are supposed all paths consistent with the constraints (luhich do no work). 197. 232.. Werke.xkr dxr r = (k=l. 23. i. and where (x r yr zr ) refer to any kinematically possible path for which the coordinates and velocities at the instant considered are the same as in some . the actual trajectory is that which has the least curvature^. considered as relating to the actual trajectory. the square root of this function. p. In the simple case of a single particle moving on a smooth surface under no external reduces to the statement that the curvature in space (in the ordinary sense of the term) of the orbit is the least which is consistent with the condition that the particle is to remain on the surface. this result clearly establish this result.2. Differ entiating these relations. . we have OTi* X xr xs = necessarily actual trajectory). was called t Gauss. In what follows Hertz s terminology will be used. This function substantially represents what was called by Gauss the constraint and by Hertz (who however considered primarily the case in which the external forces are zero) the curvature* of the kinematically possible path considered.
Using xr to typifysponds of the three rectangular coordinates of any particle r and one r to typify any Let (&. m . . q no ) be the accelerations in the actual trajectory which corre 20 (ry 10 to the same values of (q l} q 2 . also Wassmuth. it follows that all xr . . x.. Sitz. ix X r) We and in any possible displacement the forces of constraint do no have therefore : 2 (m r x ro r X r) (x r .. 2&.lt. (1913). civ. p..lt.sc n x r\* + r (.^ro) + (j/r ~ j/ro) + (^r ~ ^Vo) Since the terms in the last summation on the righthand side are positive. qn ) be the accelera these coordinates in any kinematically possible path. zr \  m f t.. (1895) . Wien. 1321 and Schenkl. Cf.m r ] r (\ Z  r\ 2 &..m r (x r x r0 )~.n 2&. cxxn. Sitz. . Fr \ r 2 (zn \ /.?!. Wien..lt. The Principles of Least Action [OH. Sitz.m 2 r / ) r r x ro . p..+ mj /.gt. p. 323..ra r \/ &. the GaussHertz curvature of the path 2 and it has been shewn in the last article that this can is ^ni r (x r r /m r ) X .. &.gt. Z r \ which establishes the result 106. q 2 . ) an equation which may be written in the form xr .x ro = 0.lt. ^ &.. X \* ) + ~ 2..\ = ~ 2. Expression of the curvature of a path in terms of generalised coordinates. cxvi. =^ 2. qn) be the coordinates. and for further work connected with the principle of Least Curvature see Leitinger. (1908). let (q 1} q2 . Journal far Math.2... LXXXII... ..256 (m r x n work.. X the corresponding component of force.. n r Fry + 2 m 2 2 } + Sl {(r .. q n ).. q q 1} q. . (/..nj + y n . and let .??i. 721. or (reverting to the use of y s and z s) F. which define the tions .gt./ .+ V mj .. of . n&..gt. Lipschitz has shewn* that the curvature of a kinematically possible path in a holonomic dynamical system with n degrees of freedom can be expressed in terms of the derivates of the n independent coordinates position of the system. X.. 2 (x r Xro) . stated. Wien. X\ r s mj + y r . r be written in the form (x ro * X r /m r } 2 + ".
* dT ". raSS ^ k I i j 17 .2. . whence we have and consequently qko = ^ ^A S kl t (k = 1. 3* at 1 \dqk j 55". same for all the _x .) 3a?r v 2i _ . dqrfqi velocities are the and consequently.105. 2m r (x r . since on the actual trajectory we can therefore omit it without depends only the whole causing expression to lose its minimumproperty.. qk .. . n). j_ r&. kt&.2. 106] and Least Curvature 257 summations is the same for all the paths considered. let D denote the determinant formed of the quantities a and let AM denote the minor of ak in this determinant. oqk dqi av =V 2 far ~ &.. dq k since this expression is zero for the actual trajectory. q n ).lt. oqk But if we write _dsdT\ "..fc ^ Xr v ~ 22 + V k toq* q k qt * .m r x. n)..a^) 2 . D...... The curvature... i From the equation 2. .. . and we can call first The of these it : the remaining summation 2w. . (x r r x ro ) 2 the curvature of the path. (qk k qko ). dx (k = 1. .". we have xr .lt... or 8k = 2a w (qt  q lo ) (k=l. since the coordinates and paths considered. ) 5 dq k r ^ 5~ Xr . Let the kinetic energy be T=^Za k I kl qk ql} where the quantities ak{ are given functions of (q l} q 2 .gt. r2 r I = 2 S a k iq k q t t l k I we have XT Now au = r* 2m r r \jdjrp ~ i \}JUy  ... =( we have path considered and Sk = the difference of the values of ) for the at \dq k ) the actual trajectory.. n) . is therefore or W. 2.
. 2. .. whose rectangular coordinates at time t are By means of the equations which define the position of the at any time in terms of the coordinates (q 1} q2 . we can express m of the velocities by use of the equations others . where mk typifies the mass (%k.. Zk) of a particle of the system. Pz. . ix But by a wellknown property we have 22 i k and therefore (q\&. q n ). Moreover.gt.. . qn ) and the first these variables with respect to the time.. is equally applicable to holonomic and non The GaussHertz law holonomic systems.gt. and second derivates of of constraint (q l} q 2 . . : let .258 The Principles of Least Action of determinants. q n be nonexistent.. in such a displacement. ... Now any small displacement which is consistent with the constraints can be defined by the changes (Sp lt 8p 2 .. hence S can be expressed in terms of this last set of variables. 310... . p.2 . .. Let S denote the function ^m k 2 k (x k + 2 i/ k + zk 2 ). p n_ m q lt q2 . q n ) in terms of the the coordinates corresponding to these latter be denoted by (pi. Vk. ni) be the nonintegrable equations connecting the variations of the generalised in holonomic systems these equations will of course coordinates q l q 2 .... Bp n _ m ) in the quantities . as will be seen. . qn in terms of the quantities p 1} p. n&.. . + A 2k dq + 2 . .. cxxi. AppelVs equations. Pim).. it is possible particles ... .... . let A lk dq. of Least Curvature is the basis of a form in which has to write the general differential equations of dynamics.. finally the curvature can be expressed in terms of the coordinates q2....p n _ m p ly p2 . (1900). to express 8 in terms of (q lt q 2 . qn ) and their derivates in the form 107. Consider any dynamical system ... m (Pi. . q and . . + A nk dqn + Tk dt = (k=l. [CH.. Appell proposed* This form.p 2 Pnm)By differentiating these relations we can express q 1} q2 . As in we have Journal fUr Math.. . let 2 r=l P r &p r denote the work done by the external forces 26.
and (L. p n .gt. H.i . whence It follows that ^ ctxic * = 7rr = . PZ&. p lt . &. where a denotes some function of the coordinates..2 (03 JJ/. From this we have equations type 9#/9pr *B irr and so the equation which expresses xk in terms of (TTJ. yk . p n _m Example..lt. where * 2 2 denotes the function k (x k + yk + z k ). pa..gt.gt. cf.m } are coordinates equal in number to the degrees offreedom of the system*.... p...gt. . (1913). ^8 &m It is evident that the result is valid even if the quantities are not true coordinates... 3 = L. the connexion of these equations with the Principle of Least Action. \pi&.2 Co&.gt... ^+ k ..gt. we have nm U7r fj rj n ftGC . C] are the principal moments of inertia. nm). but are quasicoordinates. o&.o &. 172 . Brell. Differentiating this ^ r . moments of the external forces about the principal axes. and (p..p n . dp r n =^ P 2m t r k xk xk V . &. (A. for the motion of a are the * Sitz.. whether holonomic or not.gt. co 2 3 ) are the components of angular velocity of the body resolved along its own principal axes of inertia at the fixed point.m ) be ock 259 in terms of the changes in (PI. N) rigid . On cxxn. can be expressed in the form dS dJr =Pr (r = 1. 933.gt... . Obtain from AppelPs equations the equations A a&.. body one of whose points is fixed. B. where . f* + zk 9 r .and Least Curvature Let the equation which expresses the change in .lt. where (o^.2.. of this are of course nonintegrable. p 2 . M... dpr ~+y k + zk 3 and therefore /*e equations of a dynamical system. pnrn) will be of the form n m 2 r=l ir r pr + a.. 7T 2 7r n _ m ) are known functions of the coordinates: the . (C A) 0)30)! = = Ar (A B) 2 ( B C) a&. equation.i a&. Wien.
v.v ) V! + (w . w). [OH. and Liouville Journal (1). The Principles of Least Action Bertrand s . have I. before (u ly vlf Wi) denote the components of velocity of this particle m the application of the impulses. and in the comparison motion. 2m {(u (v . ) = . Multiply these last equations by u lt v 1} w 1} respectively.w) wi] = 2 (X^ + 1 Y& + Z^). v . m(v 1 v)=Y+Y m(w w) = Z+ Z v)=Y+Y +Y m (w. ix results theorem in impulsive motion. Let (X. The equations of impulsive motion are m(v .2m * + v? + s w. this equation can be written in the form 2m (u + v + w ) . respectively. 166. add.w) = Z + Z . Z) denote the components of the external impulse acting on the particle (X Y . sum for 2m Now acting on forces (M I u ) MJ + (v 1 . is due to Bertrand* and may be stated thus If a given set of impulses is applied to : A different points of a system (whether holonomic or nonholonomic) in motion. would on the whole do no work in a displacement whose are proportional to the quantities (u v 1} w^): and therefore we components (X lt F a . and the particles of the system we thus have .v. . and let (u.(X 1 u or 1 +Y l v1 v +Z w 1 1 ) = Q i 2m 2 2 2 {(ttj u ) u^ + (Vj 2 ) v1 + (w l w } w^\ = . Z ) the components of the impulse due to the con Y + Ylt Z + ZJ the components of straints of the system: and (X + lt f : . For (u.260 108. +Z l .) + (w 2 2 w. Anal. m(w l w}=Z l . vn. let ).. finite from the nature of the constraints. m(v 1 v )=Y 1 . the kinetic energy of the resulting motion is greater than the kinetic energy the same of the motion which the system would acquire under the action of to the reactions due constraints and and additional constraints impulses of any of perfectly smooth or perfectly rough fixed surfaces. after the application of the impulses. all it follows that forces the particles of the system and proportional to the impulsive Zj). l . Bertrand s notes to Lagrange Mec.) }.theorem. Subtracting. 1 . p. Y. w be the mass of a typical particle of the system. or rigid connexions between particles of the system. (1842). X the impulse due to the constraints in the comparison motion. which belongs to the same group of as the leastcurvature principle of Gauss and Hertz. . we have u) m(u all 1 =X l .utf + s .
t Theory of Sound. and the potential energies are respectively 7 and F. 100.) MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. and two open ends.) 2. The following result. under forces derivable from a potential energy I/ V(u. v)(Edu 2 + 2Fdudv + Gdv 2 ). applied to the two free extremities of one open end parallel to the diagonal. Part I. 317. Impulses P perpendicular to and towards the line of the diagonals are shew that the initial velocity. can also be solved. . each with one diagonal in the same continuous straight line. Example. due to Lord Kelvin and generally known as Thomson s theorem*. If the is problem of determining the motion of a particle on a surface whose linear ds z = Edu 2 + element given by the equation ZFdu dv + Gdv\ under the action of forces such that the potential energy is V(u. (Darboux. v). The theorem may readily be extended to the case : in this case the increase of kinetic energy per impulsive but continuous unit of time is diminished by the introduction of fresh constraints that do not affect the potential energy. 3P where sin a cos a TO cos 2 a + /i 2 sin 2 a m is the mass of each rod. 1. Vol. can be solved. Lord Rayleigh has remarked + that the theorems of Thomson and Bertrand may both be comprehended in the statement that the introduction of fresh constraints increases the inertia.108] which shews that and Least Curvature 261 2m (V + v + w 2 2 2 ) &. A framework of (n1) equal rhombuses. If Satjtjtji two dynamical systems in which the kinetic energies are respectively an d S&ijtjijfr. the excess being the energy of motion which must be compounded with either to produce the other. Math. the angle between each pair of rods at (Camb. \ 2m (V + vf + wf).gt. each of which is half of a rhombus. Tripos. the kinetic energy of the resulting motion is less than that of any other kinematicalty possible : the motion which the system can take with the prescribed velocities. shew that the problem of determining the motion of a particle on a surface whose linear element is given by ds*= V(u. of a system. v). or moment of inertia. and 2a is the points of crossing. is formed by 2n equal rods which are freely jointed in pairs at the corners of all the rhombuses. i. 1896. the trajectories in * Thomson and Tait s Natural Philosophy. of the extremities of the other open end is . when the forces are not and so establishes Bertrand s theorem. can easily be established by a proof of the same character as the above If any number of points of a dynamical system are suddenly set in motion with prescribed velocities. p.
potential energy of the particle subjected to a transformation If all the trajectories of a particle in a plane.) If T and V denote respectively the kinetic and potential energies of a dynamical system. y\ shew that the new curves so obtained are the trajectories of a particle acted on by forces derivable from the potential energy ^ with a zero value of the constant of energy. by a quantity which does not involve the accelerations and hence that is as maximum when the accelerations have the values corresponding to the actual motion. and that ". and which have the same values of the coordinates and a velocities at the instant considered. though described with different velocities. q n ) are the same in the two problems.262 are the The Principles of Least Action [CH. (Painleve. y. where a.b ik dqi dqk =(yU+ 8) 2aik dqidqk . 8 are constants. ix same curves.S.. (Forster. Y\ where $ and y=+(X. / . /3. arv m .9 rv . .) .. y 2 .. / . 4.. shew that differs from i _ (/ . . Y\ are conjugate functions of (#. shew that . so that the relations between the coordinates (q\... compared with all motions which are consistent with the constraints and satisfy the same integral of energy.) 3.an 2 . described under forces such that the is V(x. are x=$(X. y\ with a value A of the constant of energy.. (Goursat.
. If 8 denote the increment in (q lt q2 . q t) the kinetic potential of the system.7 r r=l = or 8 * 6 % 2&... .... * q.. . n&./ (r r l... 4? / 2.. q n q 1} q2 . p n ) as functions of the other set. .CHAPTER X HAMILTONIAN SYSTEMS AND THEIR INTEGRALINVARIANTS 109. . .. n\ dq Write ^=Pr 09V (r = = l. . qn PI. any function of the variables or (q 1} q2 .lt.. TO). .L\ = 2 r=l ) . so that the equations of motion in the Lagrangian form are . .p n ) . Hamilton s form of shall the equations of motion. T = oL ST we have ^^ .. r=l pr q r + . qn ) due to small changes in the arguments. n). Pr = d&. . . 2. the former of these sets of equations we can regard either of the . r=l (p r oq r (r=l 2 p^r .. .gt.. q n ) be the coordinates and L(q lt q2 . r =i ft**  5 oq r +^ \dq r oqr (&. O so that 7". o&. ... 2.. q n ql} q z . Let (q 1} q2 .... p2 . q 2 . From sets of quantities (fa..lt....... 2. q n ) or (p 1} p 2 . We now obtain for the differential equations of motion of a con servative holonomic dynamical system a form which constitutes the basis of most of the advanced theory of Dynamics.. ..2. at \oqr/ O T dL\ jiiaHa r 0 f d dL (r=l....gt..lt.
1809. Pet. 513. &. 71. H Melanges de VAcad. p 1} p. p n )... 95.. Trans. p. J Mem. Cl when expressed *Y) ".. Rep.2 .gt. ** Phil. .pi. 385.gt. is The equation above It often called the Hamiltonian equation of virtual work. de St. de VAcad. *&. 266. etc. The Hamiltonian form was introduced by Hamilton in 1834*. (1). 1819. . p.j0 n )=0. and the system consists first order. as was shewn by Pfaff work of Lagrange and Monge).264 Thus if Hamiltonian Systems and n [CH.lt.l or % = 8^ a^ IVie 7&. philomath. p. the disturbing function taking the (for the variation of elements) Moreover the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations place of the function H. 8 ( may form of the be written in the more symmetrical form HSt). p. of the first order had led to systems of ordinary differential equations possessing this form in 181415 and by Cauchy in 1819 (completing the earlier for. p.. whereas the Lagrangian system n equations. Trans. soc. 343. Mem. ~ dxz _ ~ _ ~ dxn ~ dpn s investigation by OstrogradskylF (1) was extended to the cases when the kinetic potential contains in 184850 and by Donkin** in 1854. the equations of the characteristics of a partial differential : equation f(xi. .xz . (Cahier xv). 76. q n p 1} . x the quantity \ r=\ Ct ^ p r qr Cl L. * Berlin Abhand.xn . 181415.gt.. vin. (1809). de Vlnst.pr^qr) dp r = ai /./) in terms of f) ft be denoted by H... 1835. p. In part he had been anticipated by the great French mathematicians: for Poisson in 1809t had taken the step of introducing a function 2 r=l . vi. where p. 10. . p n )..\ dH *\ . each of the consists of . and had actually derived half of Hamilton s equations: while Lagrange in 1810 J had obtained a particular set of equations in the Hamiltouian form. p.. we have *\ \_i ^40 ** s* n . ... pr^rT . Oct. }&. i j \ T* =1 2 &*# ?? T* i I i * *t i2i *l / dpr dg r motion of the dynamical system may be regarded as defined by these the equations. qn .. = o$ ^. t Journal de VEcole polyt. ~ dp l dxl Hamilton the time.. 1834. and expressing it in terms of (q l q 2 .pv . p.Pet.Hdt) = d ( 5 p r Sq r /=! Brit.lt.. Phil.f&.  Bull. 1854.. Ass. (1850). &H= * 2 r=1 (q r p r . 1848 . each of the second order.. r= l I p r dq r . which are said to be in the Hamiltonian or canonical form . dependent variables are (q lt q 2 of 2n equations. de St.
which occur in Hamilton : Thus. Example. 110] their Integral. __ dt~dp&. This equation can be written H H it (q 1} q2 . follows at once from 41 that H is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the system. When the kinetic potential L does not involve function t t H explicitly. and this is the integral of energy. that all the differential equations which arise from problems in the Calculus of Variations. de St. . will evidently likewise ( not involve Hamiltonian and the system will possess 41) an integral of energy. Pet. From the preceding chapter it appears that the whole science of Dynamics can be based on the stationary character of certain integrals. can be expressed in the Hamiltonian form* . .q n .. vi. which is possessed by the dynamical system when the function does not involve the time explicitly. the problem of finding the state of thermal equilibrium in an isotropic conducting body.. de VAcad. 5) /8F\2) integrated throughout the surface. namely n ) 2 r=l _ Or o^ . and where q denotes the angle made by the pendulum with the vertical at time the length of the pendulum.p n ) = h. Ostrogradsky.gt. can be formulated as follows to find. the explicitly.. a minimum. namely those s principle and the principle of Least Action similarly the differential equations of most physical problems can be regarded as arising in problems of the Calculus of Variations. .gt.L = h.pi. Mem..p 2 . .. 385. and the mass of the bob is taken as unity. Equations arising from the Calculus of Variations. 137 below. \ dt where ff= 2 l t. p.Invariants differential 265 form which directly suggests the importance of the n p r dq r r=l Hdt : in connexion with the differential equations of dynamics cf. with one independent variable. I is 110. /3F\* 1 ) ( + ( / \//\dxdydz. We shall now shew * Cf. among all functions V having given values at the surface. Shew that the equations of motion of the simple pendulum are &. (1850). For natural problems. when the points of its surface are kept at given temperatures. Oqr where A is a constant.109. : that one which makes the value of the integral T + vy/ T M8PV .
gt.. y. (t. for clearness. .z. that there are two dependent variables is the proof equally applicable to any number (m) z. stationary.z)dt may be tions. .. y.. X Suppose.. . (fm+n =z (nD  +p m . y. respectively... can. [CH. be a function of the independent and their derivates up to orders m.... of variables.. z.gt.q m +p m y l + Pm+ni (fm+n T Pm+n z t . The conditions that the f integral (m) (n) \L(t.266 Hamiltonian Systems and . z. n. y.z.y. .. y. z) the dependent variables y.m = by dL Pm+2 + ( w i) dt Pm+n = and write &= Then if (ml) y&. Qm+i == z i Qm+2 =z i &. by the ordinary procedure of the Calculus of Varia be written in the form dt o dz dt Now write dt dL P. (n) Let variable L t. y.. z.
.110. xn . ^f expressed in terms of the variables (t.Invariants supposed expressed as a function of (m) (n) 267 . 2. if . p m+n ^ ? ...p m+n . where JTj. .. .. qi. ". we have and ^7=^ at dp dq r dH r dp r at j7 dH = ^r~ dq r (r=l.. H is (t..8qr 2 r=l + 2 r=l q.. 111. We may regard these equations as defining the motion of a point whose coordinates are (xlf xz ... . (1890)...Y ^* = dt dxn dt = _ An&. PZ.. X z .. . the differential equations of the problem are thus expressed in the Hamil tonian form..) the quantities y and z being eliminated by use of the equations pm = vLfdy.. pm+n = dL/dz). X n are given functions of xl} x2 .gt. .. Thus. xn } in space of n dimensions.. we have r\ rj ^i \JLJ Q U JJ (_/// r\ r=0 dv dv =0 dz dz r=l 2 pr 8q r+l + p m 8y \ r=l (n) m\n m+n 1 (n) 2 r=m+l pr &?r+i +j?H*&* + ^ rm+1 qr+i&Pr + Z$p m+n . Pm+n). t. 111] (where their Integral. . .. Integralinvariants. q2 . qm+n \JJJ J. . . q lt q m+n Pi. The nature mentally connected with Poincare * has given the of Hamiltonian systems of differential equations is funda the properties of certain expressions to which name integralinvariants. ... 8 denote an increment due to small changes in the lt q 2 ... PI. Using the relations dL dL dL this becomes if 8H = is m+n m+n p. qm + n )&. * Acta Math.gt. .8p r ..gt. and arguments q (&.. m + n). Consider any system of ordinary differential equations dx\ ~ dt Y .. xm... The systems of differential equations which arise in the problems of the Calculus of Variations are often called isoperimetrical systems. p lt p 2 ..
. Example in a plane 1. In the plane motion of a particle whose coordinates are (x.. .. the number p sents the is called the order of the integralinvariant. y = c. v) are coordinates. u. xn ) are infinitesimal quantities. 2. integralinvariants of a given system of differential equations furnish integrals of another system of differential equations which can be derived The from these. t) (r = 1.n . 2. X r (ar.. lt x2 . w = 0. ... is given by the equations u = a. t. when the integration is extended over all the elements of fluid which were contained initially in any given region. j (xr + Sxr) = X r (x + &%!. n).. .. v). x consider a group of such points.... v = 0.. which occupy a ^dimensional at the of the motion. x2 . l x2 + 8x2 . Let (X. The variational equations. since the total volume occupied by these elements does not vary with the time. . in the fourdimensional space in which (x. xn } and (^ + Bx1} #2 + & 2 . 7= I(8xt8u).... if it has the same value at all times t. xn . . 6. and (u. For the where a. is an Thus. in the integral in variant . a. 112. under no forces velocity. t) = 1.. v) its : components of The quantity The equations of motion may be written x = u.. y = v. Consider the dynamical problem of determining the motion of a particle let (x. v = b. shew that l(u8x is x8u) an integralinvariant. y. Then we have . d are constants: and therefore we have 7= and this is independent of 2. . n + Sa. xn + &cn ) be the values of the dependent variables at time t in two neighbouring solutions of this set of equations where (Sx^ 8x2 . along the curvilinear arc which is the locus at time t of points which were initially solution of the dynamical problem on some given curvilinear arc in the space. y} be the coordinates of the particle. For let the given system of equations be doc = j . motion of an incompressible fluid. is an integralinvariant.. y] and whose Example velocitycomponents are (u. the integral which repre volume of the fluid. w). where the integration is taken. x=at + c. they will at any subsequent time t region f beginning A _ptuple integral taken over f is occupy another pdimensional region called an integralinvariant.268 If Hamiltonian Systems and now we [OH... .. under the influence of a centre of force at the origin whose attraction is directly proportional to the distance.
. HFr r (xi .. xn t).. . .... . Xn) of the original equations is known. Integralinvariants of order one. . xn } 8acr  must. xn 8x lt 8x2 regarded as are the dependent variables. + Mn Sxn .. xn . + M Sx 2 2 +.. where the derivates of (8x1} 8x2 . .Sx. the quantity ^ 2Fr (z\ j .... ... These last .. &fc 2 .111113] and consequently. n).. 113. . 8xn ) are to be determined by the . may be ...2. together with the original n equations.e. ...1. t) (r = 1. . 8xn ) Now if denotes an integralinvariant of the original system. may be an integralinvariant of order one of the system of differential equations where (Mlt M 2. M .. and so obtain n linear differential equations to deter mine (&BJ. dxr jdt = X r (X # . n ) are functions of (x1} #2 . . ... a set of 2n equations in which (x l} x2 . n equations. and vice versa.. . .. . . we can substitute the corresponding values differential equations. If a particular solution (a?1} must be an x2 . be zero in virtue of precisely this extended system of differential equations and therefore . a. 2. _ 9X r . ).2 .. . ... &&n). . #2 . x n ) in the extended (ar 1} . (r... their IntegralInvariants d j dX r j. .. These n equations are called the variational equations.. We must have 2 + . 2. to determine the solutions of the original equations which are adjacent to the known particular solution.. xn } 8xr : = constant integral of these equations so that to an integralinvariant of order one of the original system of equations there corresponds an integral of the extended system of equations. 2 . satisfied in order that Let us now find the conditions to be . . since the path of integration is quite arbitrary.. x.. + Mn Sx n) = 0. i.. 3X.
I k=ioxk J . &. If an integral of the differential equations. last article x extended system of differential equations introduced in the therefore 11 . For we have a  dF\ dt\dxj + a /a^\ a^\ ^ Afc k\0& OBr/ a^ az Z r ^5+ ^ dx k=\oxk r fc a =". and therefore the expression ^ Arl9r is dF /Vv 2 an integralinvariant. N ( j./ A i". say jF^u is . then an integral of the system can be found.=i \ u/c 2(^&v + Jf ^F)0 at r i or 5 Since (&EI. ^i = constant. known. and / rl /l/i /". &) are independent. &r2 .270 Hamiltonian Systems and [OH. Corollary n The converse of Corollary 1 is also true. we can at once determine an integralinvariant. U is a given function of the variables. ? Xtfcv + M r 2  r ft* = 0.JL(* dxr \dt = 0. namely that if where S ^ Sorj r=l u xr 8 U \ is aw integralinvariant of the differential equations.^ /aF I dxr \dt ^T + a^ 2t r A \ A.r 2 . the coefficient of each quantity : $xr in this equation must be zero and consequently the conditions for integralinvariancy are Corollary 1. .gt. 2. For we have dx r ) k= i dxk \dxr j k=\3xk ()x r and consequently the expression dt k=i dxk .
.lt. xn . . in the space in which (xlt xz . over which the integration is taken.. + M 8x . value be (t) is : &. any relative integral invariant of order p is equivalent to an absolute integralinvariant of order (p + 1 ).. By Stokes theorem.... (M lt M 2... is independent of this is a known quantity. 271 (x^ . The theory of relative integralinvariants can be reduced to that of absolute integralinvariants in the following way. : Similarly.. 114] their IntegralInvariants .. .. . . . 1} 2&. which let its a given function of (# 1} x2 .113. .. We shall now consider integrals which have the . 114.. Hitherto we have only considered those integralinvariants which have the invariantive property when the domain of the initial values..f&. so that this expression is invariable with respect to t when the integration is taken. 2 + .2 . xn ) . invariantive property only when the domain over which the integration is taken is a closed manifold (using the language of wdimensional geometry) these are called relative integralinvariants. M X X n . or U this is I (f) (t) dt and an integral of the system. Xn ) are functions of (x lt x. is quite arbitrary these are sometimes called absolute integralinvariants. = constant .. round the closed curve which is the locus at time t of points which were situated on . .gt.xn t)..gt. . x n ) are coordinates. Let \(M l Sx.. t). 2. this integral an absolute integralinvariant of order two of the equations.. the closed curve is and since the diaphragm is not a closed surface. ?i). initially some definite closed curve in the space. + Mn xn } be a relative integralinvariant of the equations dx r /dt = where X r (r=l. by a generalisation of Stokes theorem.. x2 .. Relative integralinvariants. . Then we have r d U/dt = $ (t). this integral is equivalent to the integral where the integration is now taken over a diaphragm bounded by the curve this diaphragm can be taken to be the locus at time t of points which were originally situated on a definite diaphragm bounded by the initial position of . ..
116.p2 .n) where H is a given function of (q 1} q 2 qn p p 1} 2 . Pn) are the other half. fii. . .. shews that the quantity I J 2 p r &q r = ! is a relative integral invariant of any Hamiltonian system of differential equations. = _3H dq r . Let (q 1} q 2 . p ... and (pi. ( r= t). integralinvariant I 2 p r 8q r where . and let S denote the variation from a point of one orbit to the contemporaneous point of an adjacent orbit. C . so that it can be written dqr dt is a = dH dpr . curve which GO to C. we have n oil = 2 p r oq r r=l n 2 r=l f3 r oot r ..gt.. By 99.. pn . . qn .gt. ftn) be the initial values of the variables (q l . Hamiltonian Systems and [en. next study the converse problem suggested by the result of namely that of determining all the systems of differential n / equations which possess the relative (#!&. For this system let denote Hamilton s integral. i2.. /3 2 . t of the points which are initially on G the last round the set of trajectories which pass from Integrating equation is the locus at time .pn ) respectively.. we have r n r I 2 pfBor = and this equation n 2 r /3 r &ct r .gt.. L is the kinetic potential . p 2 . O 2 &..lt. systems.li&. . qn) are half the dependent variables.. q 2) . .gt. . a n.gt. On shall systems which possess the relative integralinvariant We the last article.gt.. let (!. . z&.272 115. . . denote any closed curve in the space of 2p dimensions in which . &. x A relative integralinvariant which is possessed by all Hamiltonian Consider now the case in which the system of differential equations Hamiltonian system. dpr dt ..pi.. so that &.. p n ) are coordinates. n &.. and let C denote the closed q n PI.
lt. qn ) and (pi.115. invariant can therefore be written in the form The absolute integral v 9 (qt.. which do not vary with the time but are characteristic of the trajectory on which the point in question lies. q 2 .p n ./... and consequently by Stokes theorem J is an absolute integralinvariant. is a relative integralinvariant of the equations. 116] their IntegralInvariants 273 Consider then a system of ordinary differential equations of order 2n in which the variables can be separated into two sets. D.p n }. (A) J and as X and /x do not vary with the time.lt. Let the system of differential equations be where (Q lf Q2 . dytt dX and 8 d/u.. we can suppose that each point in it is specified by two quantities X and p. d dX .*". or 8 (X. /*) 8^ 8 (X. we must have _ dt M 9 (A. /i) 3p t 8 (x. tfc. (Qi.?!.... .... /*) ^ 8^ 8 (x. in this equation must vanish separately.p 2 . ) (rl. P P .. (&. 2. //( 3 . Qn .. t). such that (&. ^ PJ)\ . / Owing to the complete arbitrariness of the domain of integration and the choice of X and ^ the coefficients of ^ fi ^ ^.pi.. .. [[( ^ d\dfj..Pi) a. ... . Pn lt 2 .. q n . We thus obtain dpif dpi W.1 JJ \i=i (X. lg .. . _ ". &.. . ^ dX ^* 8/u. are given functions of ..)... p2 . As the domain of integration of the absolute integralinvariant is of two dimensions. P.
.I... c n are constants. result that if a system of equations ~dt~ Qr possesses the relative integralinvariant f I dq r _ dpr_ ~ p L dt (r=l 2 n) ( Pi Sg.. .gt. k). .. + p n fyn) is a relative integralinvariant of a system of equations dqr /dt =Q r .. + p2 S? + 2 + Pn &g) .. qn x t) These equations shew that a function exists such that H(q lt qz .. . . : P*&. it follows same way that the equations for &.pn) form a Hamiltonian system dt ^^ dp r .. q*&. . .p n +i. dq r where H is a function of (q lt q z q n p... then the equations have the Hamiltonian form dqr dt this is the converse of the = dH_ dp r dPr dt = _dH_ dqr last article. . ~.. _ dt .. is greater than qn pi. where k (qi. theorem of the Corollary. p. not involving (q n +i.gt. : pn....pk) 117. .dH/dq r r (r . If the solution of a system of differential equations is known.. . dp r /dt in the =P r (r = 1 . qk. The expression of integralinvariants in terms of integrals.. q n +2.gt. . let where c l} c 2 . be of integralinvariants n integrals of the system.. 2...). p2 . pz .274 Hamiltonian Systems and [CH. only. n.. the absolute order one are evidently given by the formula . the absolute and relative integralinvariants of the system may easily be constructed.p n .. .. 2. If I (pi 8?i +p 2 ^q 2 + . Q r = dH/dp r and thus we have the . P = . Thus. . .
(N1} t : K 2.p n ) are a set of k independent functions of (x 1} x. og Natur. y n ) which do not and the relative integralinvariants of order one are given by the formula . . The preceding Let llf = Zr let (r1.... .. where .. .. results enable us to establish a theorem due to Lie* and on the reduction of any system of ordinary differential Koenigs f equations to the Hamiltonian form..... .. be a set of other functions J.. 118. ty are independent functions of (a^.. be zero Let u u . .Invariants 275 . H . . . By. The theorem of Lie and Koenigs... n.. u 2 . 10.. such that (u.... . 2 k m may (u^ ) of (a?!.. p a . ..+ xn Nn Syn + SF). . p. since the term SF vanishes when the domain of integration It follows infinite is closed. . xk ).... ft... qn . (1895). . t Comptes Eendus. . n q lt qz . qn p lt p*.. .... .. a?t ). . : Now let the differential form be reduced to the canonical form (PI.. xk \ in number not greater than k. u k _. Nn ) are any functions of (y1 .. y2 ... r where F is any function of (xlt . and be any relative or absolute integralinvariant of order one of this system.2..*) be the given system of equations. . from this that any system of differential equations possesses an number of absolute and relative integralinvariants of the first order.p n ... 875.116118] where involve their Integral. p.. a?2 . . (1877). a?a .. j~ k are given functions of the variables we have seen in the last article that an infinite number of such integralinvariants exist. Archiv for Math. cxxi. +N a?9 2 Sy2 +. J The proof of the possibility of this reduction (which however requires in general the solution of a number of ordinary differential treatise on Pfaff s equations) will be found in * any problem. . t}. and suppose that the and where . 182 .qi.
becomes dqr/dt = Qr .gt. PI.. .. dpr/dt = Pr (s (r = 2. 333.. . where (Xlt are given functions of the variables (xl . xxix. U U. The given qn PI. Xn X . Qn .xz .gt./dt = U8 1} = 1.. . The Last Multiplier.. tCn} ICJ . du. 2.a.. thus reduced to a Hamiltonian system of 119..276 Hamiltonian Systems and [OH. pp. . 2&... . . &.x n x)... z&. as have been transformations such unaffected by performed and consequently have the form dq_r it follows ( 116) that the first 2n equations = dH_ dpr . x when expressed in terms of these k functions system of differential equations. X ... . P*. n _ 1 ) have X X * Crelle s Journal.. be a given system of equations: and suppose that (n l) integrals of this system are known. p*. 199. p. n). where H is a function of (q lt q2 system of differential equations is order 2n.. k 2w). say . 1. ..gt. of the Last Multiplier of a system of equations. . The expression is an integralinvariant is : invariancy a property since integral(relative or absolute) of this system. &. J v T X%.Y \i =1 J. . . where (&.. dpr dt . introduced Jacobi* in 1844.r\ n U/ r &. we shall introduce the conception. xn ^} be expressed as functions of xn then there remains only the solution of the equation of the first dxn _ dx TT / An to ~Y~ ** be effected. by Before proceeding to discuss integralinvariants of higher order than those hitherto considered. &.gt... as independent variables.lt. = _3H^ ~ ( r =l 2 n) dt dqr &. dx l dx2 dxn _ dx .. . together with the (k 2ri) additional equations p n t) only. ) fr (T \Xi. in which accents are used to denote that (xl} x been replaced in n and by the values thus obtained.. ..lt. Q2 . Uk ^ n ) are functions of the new variables. . . . xxvn. . Pn.. 2 ^. . 213..gt. n 1) From and x order : these equations let (xlt x 2 .
is called the as Multiplier of the system of differential For the proof of this theorem. . ri) transformed by change of variables into another system dyr /dt=Yr then (r=l. xn ) To prove this. which is ^l rs D : =l s=l ./9a?r = A rs /D. . . where M denotes any solution of the partial differential equation + (MX. equal to.gt... or Also 3y. 2.) + (* JO = o.Invariants 277 We shall shew that the integral of this equation is fjf ) 7 (X dx n X n dx) = constant. v =i 3=1 k=i oxr ^ y(v J. anc? A denotes the Jacobian The function equations. we shall require the following lemma : If a system of differential equations dxr jdt = is X r (r=l. . .118. dyk which is zero where of Yk different from.. xz . _  v "..lt.. d* x fc \ r ^ dy. we have xr * ^ 2 r=1 r=l dx r \ k=l dy k v ^ifc 3 /fc=l 5 3 k dxA ^Y = h &.=i doo r ^ ^. dys dyk l In this expression the coefficient of or unity according as s is dYk /dy s is I . 2. v ^&.. . a r=1 c 2 8 5 where D denotes the Jacobian o (aSi . . denotes the minor of dxr/dys in the determinant so the coefficient in the above expression.. k. 119] their Integral.n).dyk ..M".
. d IT ci A and consider the change of variables from by the lemma. Now in the original problem write Ci x* r /y/&. r =i s ri dys dy 1 8Z) y: ^ D . we have so the quantity M. so that the differential equations may be written dx dy ~ U V _ dz W* . which is a solution of the equation M satisfies dt the equation 8 /XA All a which shews that the expression the perfect differential of some function of xn and theorem of the Last Multiplier.278 Hamiltonian Systems and be written [CH. For of the Last Multiplier may also be made apparent by physical con simplicity we shall take the number of variables to be three.? ~ 5(^1. The theorem siderations. #2. x may D or T8 or . this establishes the Boltzmann and Larmor s hydrodynamical representation of the Last Multiplier.gt. is a. dyk We have therefore I r =i dxr _ dx r  ajj k=l dy k % k= i Yk ^ D dyk which establishes the lemma.
p. continuity is satisfied when M Now let (f) (. then the flow will take place between the thus we can consider separately the flow in the surfaces represented by this equation twodimensional sheet between consecutive surfaces C and (7+8(7.. . z) . gap between any two given points P and Q on C must be the same whatever be the arc joining P and Q across which it is estimated and since the flow across arcs PR and RQ together is the same as that across PQ. and ~ 2 + (90/9z) 2 } * 8C.v..= OX 0. 878). (1912). v d\ ^OX i HT .^uSC ".. x oz 3# (Mu) dy j This equation shews that in the hydrodynamical problem of the steady motion of a fluid in which (u. this is the theorem of the last multiplier for the case con sidered. rr .n (jQC o ~y o ~v J\ () / t and 3 . that this expression can be written in the form MSC(vdx.gt.&. u &. 279 multiplier and the last M satisfies the equation + ^(Mv} + ^ (Mw) = 0. 120] where (u. z) =C be an integral of the differential equations. tr 9 . as was remarked by Appell (Comptes Rendus. y. dX n OXn dX . y. v d . So if r the (variable) thickness of the sheet. + ^r+ ..Q J  C^. we see that the flow across an arc joining P and Q : must be if expressible in the form f(Q) f(P).gt... z).x v ID $y 4&.lt. their Integral. the equation of is taken as the density of the fluid at the point (#. so that / I **\ M N differential rr l (X V U ^ f/T* + + X. But it is easily seen and consequently M is (v dx a perfect differential . ^ ~v~ QA. w &. of the partial and Suppose now that two distinct solutions equation of the last multiplier have been obtained. and (B&. CLV. z This.+ ^f G3C . w} are the velocitycomponents at the point (#.z so the theorem really states that is an integrating factor of the equation dx u (f) x dy v (t&.u u dy} dy)/(d&. Derivation of an integral from two multipliers. G U +X ^ +X n ~losrJ/+^ F/ TV rr o \ o ~v~ 1 1 \ i r C/A til* ulT fi = 0.y dz = 0.f&. +^./8?/) . The flow through the . v.119. 3^1 . z}.t&. y. 9^2 . . form of the theorem of the Last Multiplier. denotes the velocitycomponent perpendicular to we have so that Mrds is the perfect differential of a function of position. ?/.Invariants w) are given functions of (#.lt. is a symmetrical 120. so that r = {(d^/dx) 2 + ds. ds denotes an element of this arc.lt.gt. We readily find for ds the value dz .gt. v.gt.lt./dz) .
= c be known. ^12 V A.280 Hamiltonian Systems and [CH. V l fen is a last multiplier. From this result we can deduce a theorem which enables us to integrate completely any conservative holonomic dynamical system with two degrees of freedom when one integral is known in addition to the integral of energy. let an integral it V(q l} q pi. Y f admits the infinitesimal transformations then the reciprocal of the determinant Al ll V At. is a solution of the . partial differential equation which determines the last multiplier so the last multiplier of a Hamiltonian system of equations is unity. r and consequently M= 1 a Hamiltonian system. 121. h. to Hamiltonian systems is : use of a known If the system of differential equations considered we have evidently ^dXr /dxr = 0. PZ) . n ln V A. the theorem of the last multiplier (dH dH = constant 9 (Pi. 1 From . dp2 dq2 I} and in addition to the integral of energy H (q q 2 PI.A. The reader who is acquainted with the theory of infinitesimal transformations will be if able to prove without difficulty that 8 the equation . pz) follows that 2 . single Application of the last multiplier integral. x Subtracting these equations. . / . and we have therefore the theorem that the quotient of two last multipliers of a system of differential equations is an integral of the system. \AjJU X^ Xn . we have 3 3 v but this is the condition that the equation log (M/N) = C&W2 3T 2 constant shall be an integral of the system Ct/tX/i Ct t/ jj. Let the system be ^2i = ^h = d_H dpl dp 2 ~ fit djf dpi _dH _dH dqj.
de M.H). and if then the the not time. theorem. 281 another integral where. is . df2 dc dc~d(V. and the remaining o/3 ^dc = constant. and dh j =t+ constant. integral expression involving where p^ and p2 have the values found from these integrals. This result leads directly to the theorem already mentioned. .". in. the orbits which issue from a point qi = ct 1} q2 = 2 ) which have * This theorem is really an application of the wellknown method for the solution of a partial differential equation of the first order. H} d(p . 351). p. p. 121] is their Integral. in the integrand.". PZ) p l p^ h.. denotes Pidq is 1 +p any 2 dq 2 c 1} q 2 (q^. q%. which be thus stated * If in the dynamical system defined by the equations : may dq r dt the integral _dH dp r . But if V= c for we suppose that the result of solving the equations p and p is represented by the equations 1 H= h and 2 then we have identically ". 317) and Liouville in 1840 (J. . dpi dc dp 2 dc ! dc dp 2 dc and therefore 8/1 dH/dp. dpr _ dt dH dqr / _ i o\ of energy other . p and p l &. PI.Invariants . and for the general case given here by Poisson in 1837 (J.? replaced by integrals their values in terms of q 1 and a be 2 are supposed to obtained from the known H and V.p2 ) l so the theorem of the last multiplier can be expressed by the statement that is an integral. the equations of the characteristics of n.lt. p. it was published for a simple case (motion of a single particle) by Jacobi in 1836 (Comptes Eendus. p2 ) _dH/dPl d(V. This amounts to saying that if any singlyinfinite family of orbits is selected (e.120.g. v. 59). c) . H (q = V = of a function 6 (g n q2 integrals of the system are the exact differential 7\fi h. the equations of the dynamical system being As a dynamical the partial differential equation. de M.
q2 ) there correspond definite values of p and p. proof.ST) ( 9 (ft. Moreover. and therefore M^ = 9ft l oft function 6 (q ly q2 last multiplier This equation shews that fidq +f2 dq2 is the perfect differential of some h. found. #20) I p dq l l +p 2 dq 2 taken along any arc joining two definite points and (q u . PS) r=0.P 9 .2 (namely the values of p l and p 2 corresponding to the orbit which passes through the point q l} q 2 and belongs to the family).^ 8(F.3(p 2 ga ) But since V= c is an integral. we have and therefore 3F. ^T) 0. //) 9 (p a PI) . #) . 2 9ft and consequently 9(F. . But obtaining we have 9/1/3 A and df2/dh in the same way as .gt. 5 7. Pi) + 3(F. 9 gi or ^ ft + 3F. x the same energy. so that to any point (ft. we have 3F. c): and the result derived above from the theory of the . = + ^. _ . g2 dp. #) d similarlv iri 9/. _PI 9pi 3F 3F. To complete the and F = c. . 3F 1 dq 3(F. 9(F. 9 (ft. 2 2 0. we have on differentiating the equations H=h 9ft dpi 9ft 9/&. shews that d&/dc = constant is an integral. 9/l/9c and 3/a/3c were df2 9A dh 3(F. q 21 ) is independent of the arc chosen.q * + v.282 Hamiltonian Systems and [CH. ^7 . J3 3(F. then the value of l the integral (fto.
JJJ I I i I MQX. xk ) can be expressed in terms Then we have ..I &. ^~ ". G2 . 122] their Integral.^2.... .. ..121. . system.... be a system and let us find the condition which must . (c l5 c 2 ck } by solving the equations. if (r.i ..... (x l} xz . JTT  on which completes the proof of the theorem. t).. *) where (Z n X Z) . Integralinvariants whose order is equal to the order of the The theory of the last multiplier of a system of differential equations is connected with that of the integralinvariants whose order is equal to the order of the system. .Invariants 283 Consequently or dt = ?)f PI/* l ~j dq f dq.. J . is . Let doc ~s = x  (r = 1 . . /) denote the the angles formed by r.2 . ck ) M r=l M . . be any set of constants of integration of these equations. . .. or dt 8 C l . xk t). integralinvariant. 6xk may be an Let so that.. 122. where M is a function of the variables. . a*. a ^ = i CXr which shews that M must be a last multiplier of the system of equations. { d * v \ Oj . 6 line joining the centres of force. / with the } integral } r 2 r 2 0ff .2c (p cos 6 +/* cos d = constant.. X k) of ordinary differential equations be satisfied in order that are given functions of (xl} xz . and hence complete the solution by the above theorem. t = W + constant. and (d. c2 .. . obtain the In the problem of two centres of gravitation ( 53). . . .. .gt... and therefore the condition of integralinvariancy d dt ~JI ( i  M 8(^... c 2 .xk y\ dt 8(c 1( c 2) ... [ ... Example. d(c1} .. fff ... ox. . .. radii vectores to the centres of force. of (d.
Another question applied is the following which the theory of the last multiplier can be To find under what conditions a given system of ordinary differential equations of the second order is equivalent to a Lagrangian system d /dL\ dL jllaH5 dt \dq r j dq r where 0 . the quantity is independent of t and also of the choice of coordinates : trajectories of the problem can be represented as the streamlines in the steady of a fluid whose density is and hence shew that the motion 123. . qn . .qi. n) must evidently reduce to identities when the quantities qk are replaced by the expressions fk and therefore the required condition is that a function L . let Example. .. .q n .. the expression is an integralinvariant theorem is of importance . 2.. H is any function of (q 1} q 2 . q n q l} q2 . to. .. L is a function of (q lt q2 . If these two systems are equivalent. i o 2.. the energyintegral when p take the form H ( f h.. Pi.. _?)H r dpr__dH dt~ qn . A)+_pt = 0.. \oqr dq k oqr dq k / Qk z } / + ^5.. dqr where (q lt q2 . .qz... t). the equations ^ k =i ( 3. dq r dt ^ dq r = (r 1. for trajectories which correspond same value of the constant of energy. t).lt.ik + 3 .o &. 2. _ pn . q n . x whose motion This result gives immediately the theorem that for a dynamical system is determined by the equations dq..t) are regarded as the independent variables. (r=l. Ps..... . n). shall exist satisfying the simultaneous partial differential equations 00 dqr ot d / (r = l.... solved for For a system with two degrees of freedom. in the applications of dynamics to thermodynamics. w). Redaction of differential equations to : to the Lagrangian form. ..... dt~dp where dq r 2 . p p lt .. to the Shew that. .284 Hamiltonian Systems and [CH.. . This since in this case unity is a last multiplier. . .
124.. 2 .. a part Gr which does not involve (j 1} j2 the equations are equivalent to a system j0) an d it is required to determine whether r =l. /&...... ?)..l.?) and also involves the 2 . ^ 2 homogeneous and of the second degree in (j h j2 . qr = Fr +O dT r ( .gt.) where T 7 is variables (^. satisfied For the equation by L is then _ dq* dqdq* dqdt dq from which we have _ _ ~ dq\dq 2 ~ f. i. / dq \dqdq dqdt dqj and therefore if we write d 2L/dq 2 = M.) are zero.) d /dT The condition equations for this is the existence of a function T satisfying the ".e determination of the function L reduces to the determination of the last multiplier of the system... The value of T is clearly not dependent on (6 1 ? . $ ) are functions of (g. and therefore we can consider the problem in which (G 1} 6r 2 a function T such that the equations are equivalent to the system .. When consists Case in which the kinetic energy is quadratic in the velocities. .. the question can be solved in terms of the last multiplier. Since F k is homogeneous. partial differential (r=1 2  *&. . .gt.e. 6.gt.. .n ). 6r M . we have 2 qs dFk /dqs = 2Fk and therefore . . ^j . and (&. .... ft .lt.2. &.122124] their IntegralInvariants 285 When n = 1. the most important case is that in which each of the functions fr of a part Fr which is homogeneous and of the second degree in (q^...lt.1? j 2 . the problem of finding ir = Fr dT (r=l. . q n ) only.. the function M /% satisfies the equation dM but this equations is  the equation defining the last multiplier M of the system of and therefore wAen w = 1. 2.. 8=1 * .. &. n ) and j q n&.
w 2 5 9^9^ + 9T\ r rr _ ".1.. d^ 2).).. for (Fr + G r ). Writing particle 1. . where the summation is an integralinvariant of any Hamiltonian system in which (qi. oH =^ ojo. cT\ or 8  /. q 2 . / r consists of a part which is homogeneous of degree two in is the velocities and a part which does not involve the velocities. q nt Pi. we have and therefore k ~ s =\ k= i Oq r dqk cq r Vfc=t 9yg dqk j ~* ". (r=1 %) and evidently these may be replaced by the equations * i 2 ~^ *k=i o^^k dFt dT ~ =0 +9 dT (r=l.gt. 2. where  JT".H ... _. shew that the equations of motion are dqr Fa&.. 2.. k r MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. 2 _ and /ni and /u 2 are constants.). (Poincare. ( ^ r= . the distance between the centres of and the semimajor axes of the two conies which pass through the moving and have their foci at the centre of force are (q l q z }.gt... force is 2c. )... In the problem of two centres of gravitation.1... i dp r = T a^ (&. Shew that j f jj extended over the \n (nl) combinations of the indices i and j.. . we have the theorem qr w/tere =fr reducible to the 2. [OH. ?r that if the system of equations Thus. . l&. are the variables.. 2..286 But Hamiltonian Systems and since dF/dq r is homogeneous.) . form d then T must be an integral of the system + ^O il^pl k= idq dq dq 2 r (. p n ) is . . writing/.=\ 9j r 3^ The equations to be satisfied 1 by T may consequently be written n .. . n v* fiF^ tiT k UJ T? (PT u L dT _f\ UJ . .. . p^.. (r=l.lt.
6. v n ) are functions of t such that an exact differential. denned by the equations .) 5. _ dx n _ dx An X xn x = Constant . 2.r2 _ A2 zi &.^ 2 0(X 1 #2 . ..gt.) .. If QI = Constant.=.. qn .. shew that the functions (vj.x] 3.. and let Tj.. acn x is used to in the function by its values found from this integral.gt.. / be a set of k=l If (vi. an integral ... their IntegralInvariants In the problem defined by the equations 287 dqr_dff^ dpr__dl[ dt~3p r where dt~ dqr bq&. Shew that the converse of this latter theorem is also true.. . =. dx dx 6n = Constant dxn are a set of integrals of the equations dxz shew that is 1 8(^. dxn dxn _i .. a last multiplier.v z .gt.gt. is a last multiplier of the reduced system dx. and hence by the theorem of (q^z (log qi = t + constant.... shew that the system of linear differential equations is adjoint to itself. H= q l pl  2 q2 p 2 a?i + shew that is f)a bat ?i = constant 121 obtain the two remaining integrals constant.. &. . = .gt.^) i X (iii. where Z is any given function of (q l .. 4.. ?&. vn ) satisfy a set of n linear differential equations.gt.gt... . *) /2 . &... ?2&. denotes the expression 1 = (r=l. 6 2 = Constant. . . (Hirsch. j2 &..). ?i&. which will be called the system adjoint to the system of linear is differential equations 7r If J ^. If M is a last multiplier of a system of differential equations dxi X of which the equation is l _ d. Let u2 ..?. and r if indicate that shew that M /(cf/cxn xn has been replaced ) an accent annexed to a function of # l5 #2 . . =7 dx (Jacobi.lt... linear differential expressions u n ) be n dependent variables. .. v 2 . a known integral.
y.CHAPTER XI THE TRANSFORMATIONTHEORY OF DYNAMICS 125. memoir on in Hamilton which was to the Irish optics. (1828). the a ray may refractive index at any point (a?. Royal Academy by presented the there introduced were afterwards transferred their 1824f principles by The : origin of the method is to be found in a celebrated discoverer to the field of dynamics.b that the integral ff I i* paths joining the same terminal points. E. (1830). We shall in the present chapter investigate the general theory which underlies this procedure. we must refer to the connexion between dynamics and optics a connexion which is perhaps less obvious in our day than in his. 1. has a stationary value for the actual trajectory as compared with neighbouring Comparing these two statements. y. as compared with neighbouring paths joining them. have seen* that the integration of a dynamical system which is by quadratures can generally be effected by transforming it into another dynamical system with fewer degrees of freedom. we Chapter III. We soluble Hamilton s Characteristic Function and ContactTransformations. p. ray History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity. medium. xv. 93. underlies the solution of all dynamical systems. xvi. z) ds has a stationary value when the integration is taken along the actual ray joining two given terminal points. pp. the path of the particle may be (IK. z}. In order to follow Hamilton s thought. (x. xvn. and. * Cf. when the corpuscular theory of light was still widely If a ray of light traverses an optically heterogeneous but isotropic held. J Cf. 4. Irish Acad. (1837). . 69. namely that the integral JJL.lt. 910. z} being the path of be determined by Fermat s Principle J. y. 3842. p. pp. 1023. If on the other hand we consider the motion of a free particle mass in a conservative field of force where its potential energy is and its constant of energy is h. indeed. t Trans. determined by the Principle of Least Action ( 100). which in this case asserts of unit &.
may be first is The thus explained. y. x y z) let it be denoted by V(x. . of this wavefront may be regarded as the source of a secondary wave. it exists at a definite instant Consider a wavefront.r.125] The TransformationTheory of Dynamics 289 see that the trajectories of the particle in the dynamical problem are the same as the paths of the rays in the optical problem. that the time taken by light to travel through the (x. m. . y z } by (V. y z }. z. Call this Now new wavefront 2. z. : . * The point (x. When different the undulatory hypothesis is adopted. according to the principle of wavepropagation laid down by Huygens. extend is the original wavefront at the instant t will therefore at the over the surface whose equation in the coordinates y . D. we observe . light. y. y. the second is to consider wavefronts. t medium from an arbitrary another arbitrary point (x y z ) depends only on the six quantities (x. m n ): these are the . latter method. y. as Each element t. y. the ray of light being conceived as a procession of But the statement in itself is rapidlymoving corpuscles. the startingpoint of Hamilton s theory.** is set up between the potentialenergy function in the one case and the refractive index in the other. and the directioncosines of the normal to the wavefront 2 at the corresponding point* (x. z. z) if the secondary wave propagated W. x y z } was called by Hamilton the characteristic function for the medium in A disturbance which originates at a point question. z) of the original wavefront will extend over a surface. z} of t instant (x.z ) = t t (1). y. 19 . provided a suitable correspondence *&. touches the envelope S at (x y z ).z. . or locus of disturbance in an optical medium. z) by (I.lt. . . (x. the wavefront which represents the whole disturbance at the instant t is the envelope of the secondary waves which arise from the various elements of the original wavefront. n).lt. This function V(x. . y. . z} from (x y z ) is said to correspond to (x. having the form of a surface &. point . To obtain the equation of this surface. x . . which was introduced by Huygens in 1690. z } V(x. this was regarded as furnishing the of the explanation optical phenomena.lt.y . y. . outwards from it so that at a subsequent instant t the propagated disturbance originating in any point (x y. we have the choice of two methods of discussing the propagation of light mathematically : the to consider rays.r and denote the directioncosines of the normal to the wavefront at (x. In the corpuscular theory of true whatever supplies a This idea hypothesis regarding light be adopted : and therefore it means is of connecting dynamics with the undulatory hypothesis. . &. x.y. z} to .
z ) defines a contacttransformation. z) in the direction at time t passes through the point (x. m. y ... y . n) at time (I. It will be observed that they are not differential but that they give directly. n ) . surface transformation of space which changes any a touch at point.. . t : and equations (1).290 The TransformationTheory of Dynamics . Lie a contacttransformation. the corresponding equation dV dx satisfied . (2).. in the integrated form. .dz = Q i dy those dz must be relation by all values of the ratios a. since in Then since to the wavefront*. y z I m. z. * y. from which we can determine the six quantities (x y behaviour the these Thus equations by I m..z } for the of mination optical medium or system of media through which the rays pass.. n ). n) in terms of (x.. z }.doc dV. (3).... function V(x. . + ^. Hence we have 1^? = 1LF = 1 8F I dx m dy n dz (2) of the normal to the Moreover. y. z. /a together with the equation /2 p + m +n . .. z) respectively. xi directioncosines of the rays at (x. I. [OH. .y . as surfaces the from or (to express it geometrically) be to is thus regarded as determining a a transformation. surface F at point (x.. x . z. a ray of light which passes through the point (x.. x. The function into a new surface 2.. I. after a finite interval of propagation through the medium. medium. . Thus any function V(x. m.y.. y.lt. =l . the corresponding It is evident that if two surfaces a and on this transformed surfaces 2 and 2 also touch at the corresponding point From . the point of view of Pure Mathematics.. normal an isotropic medium the ray is V to 2 is the envelope of the surfaces points on a. though optically heterogeneous. of rays of z are six equations.../ : account the transformation has been called by S. =. n) to the set to the surfaces 2... y.e. to correspond to directions in the tangentplane i. dV. ..r V &.. y..lt. n). the changes in equations. Hamilton considered also the more general case of a crystalline isotropic. any system of rays in optics depend on the deter It is evident therefore that all problems function s characteristic Hamilton V(x. z..lt.. since (I m. which is For simplicity we are supposing that the medium. = I dx m dy n dz 1 Now m. (4). we regard the change from of variables (x.z. . x. dx dy which : : dz which satisfy the ldx + mdy + ndz = 0... y z ) and (x.. n) are the directioncosines have we z the ).dy + ^.. in the medium is completely specified in terms of the single light y. the set of variables (x.... &. y /) in the direction (I m. y.r &.
&. we But if the by the time which light takes to travel along ds . y. equations (2) and (3) may be = Kl = *m ^. /j!n = ". is unity. oz where K and \ are quantities not as yet determined. + mdy + ndz). y. 8F = ^rf Ml . . from by propagation through the medium in the interval of time A simple example of a contacttransformation is the wellknown geometrical trans formation known as reciprocation. we write fjd = . V by proceeding a small distance ds along the ray at (x. z) and also with respect to v* r 1 j y i z } ) Proceeding now with Hamilton written s problem. oy = dV = r 7 ox M 8F .lt. Thus Hamilton (Idx general formula becomes dV = p If (I dx + m dy + = n dz ) /j. z) takes all possible positions on the surface a. y z) is 1/X. or p! 2 (I +m + 2 n } ds . z) and (x y z) . = JJL. Thus the time taken by light to describe ds is [ids . y z }. this with equation (5). Comparing where p z}. z) on a plane.gt. \1H . For the equations may be written readily found. ). yt/. They can however be dV = Now increase K(ldx + mdy + ndz) + \(l dx + m dy + n dz ) . y\ z) with respect to the quadric. . y.and 2 of the same wavefront is very small : 192 . where fjf denotes the refractive index at this point. /Jim = 77. units are so chosen that the velocity of light in free aether . then the velocity of light in the medium at (x.125] The TransformationTheory of Dynamics &.7 = . y. we correlate to every point (#. this takes the form quantities (f. namely o&.r the polar plane of (x. . The transformation from o. + m dy + n dz Similarly K s ). When the point (x. or // A. (I //.to 2 is evidently a contacttransformation. which is the reciprocal of a. In this case Hamilton s function ( V is linear with respect to (x. between the two positions Consider now the particular case in which the interval of time (t 1) a. y. ( ?? ) were called by Hamilton the components normal slowness of of propagation of the wave at (x. fin . we see that denotes the refractive index at (x. In order to find the reciprocal of any given surface with respect to a given surface.lt.r 291 transforms any wavefront a into the wavefront 2 which is derived t t. respectively. dx . the plane envelopes a surface 2. The . (5). fji m =v . 77.
d . dt .lt. z. W) = otdj. y.. + rj/3 + 7 77. (8). V= becomes . d (go. Now evidently. (2). g. =MtAf.dt 77. Then equation (6) 7/=77 + v&t. 126.. such as occurs in dynamics.. Hamilton was able to obtain an integrated form for the differential equations of dynamics. The integrals of this Hamiltonian system are the equations (1). Contacttransformations in space of any number of dimensions. ) are given by the equations dx_ dt dH d dy_ dt dH drj dz_ dt d_H d (Ph dt /m dx dt dy dt dz a Hamiltonian system of equations.. + u&t) (dx + da A) + 0? + v&t) (dy + dp A) + (f + wA) (ek + dy A) vjdy= u&tdx + v&tdy + w&tdz + %dda. to the general case of a The dynamical system with any number of degrees of freedom..y. etc. and suppose H expressed as a function of x. from (7).. the motion of a wavefront from one position to the position which it acquires after a finite interval of and this is Our investigation shews that : Thus we see how by using the ideas of the undulatory theory of light... y. Thus if we denote the function fa z.. so the rates of increase of the six variables (x.. rest of the present chapter will be concerned with the application of Hamilton s ideas.+ qd/3 + %dy. time. that is to say. = + wA.. ..transformation. In Write this case [OH.292 denote it The TransformationTheory of Dynamics by A. %. (4) above they represent a finite contact. that is to say.. it may be regarded as representing an in finitesimal contacttransformation.At = (J. in the limit u becomes a becomes dx y. xi said to be the contacttransformation is infinitesimal.. and the connexion ... f.. .. ... (7)....lt. + rjAtd/3 + dW = udx + vdy + wdz + %da. we have vdy dH=adt... j . WA* or or dW. dn .. . the motion of a wavefront from one position to a position indefinitely near it. (3).. &. depending on a single unknown function. described in the preceding article.. TF by iT. + ?7/3 + 7 udx vdy wdz... Thus we have dx . dy 7 dz .&c %dz %Atd&. + ftdrj + yd^udx wdz d ~ dt .. + /3dtj + yd ..
for Let (q 1} this purpose a generalisation of equation (6) of the last q2 . We using shall first define a contacttransformation in wdimensional space.Q 2 ...P2 dQ2 ...pi. P . is also a this is z n (qi. . Pn...... .. Qn ) are functions of (q lt q2 ...Pi..p n ) be a set of 2/i variables. + Pn dQ n . is may be observed that this is different in form from the definition which most convenient when contacttransformations are studied with a view to their applications in geometry and in the theory of partial differential equations the latter definition may be : stated thus (?i&. P P l5 2 . Qn ..gt.. . generally . 126] The TransformationTheory of Dynamics due to 293 Pfaff. .. ^Pn) contacttransformation.. &. q n . .. . a contacttrans .q ...... PZ... p n ). qn . (?!. .gt. . qn .. is a transformation from a set of (2w+l) variables set ?2. Qn 1} . Shew that the transformation defined by the equations is a contacttransformation.. .. Pn ) is .. . If the equations connecting the two sets of variables are such that the be differential form PidQj is. ... article.?2&. in terms of (qlt q2 .pi. for which the equation dZ. . .. q n p^ p.. (q 1 . clear that the result of performing two contactis to obtain a change of variables which is itself It is also evident that if the transformation to from &. and let . p lt p z ..PdQ . P the equations which connect (q 1} q 2 . . &. P P P expressed by saying that the inverse of a contacttransformation is a contactThis. q2 . . . If the n variables (Q ly Q2 .. . P P 1? 2 .. .. together with the foregoing.. . .... p n dqn l 1 l is satisfied. 2 . q n ) only. when expressed other set (Q 1} It Q2 ..2 . Pn ) .. . Pn ) is called a contacttransformation.. perfect (q 1} q 2 ...p n dq n ..pi. . . . where p denotes some function of . Q 2 .. . . dQ + 2 2 . q n ) with (Q l} case said to define a pointtransformation.Pn dQn = p (dzp dq p2 dq 2 . q n p l p 2 . : a contacttransformation . pn ...... the contacttransformation from the variables (q 1} q 2 .2 . . q n p 1} p2 . shews that contacttrans transformation... Example 1.. and Jacobi..q .. Z}. then the change from the set of variables (q l q. . z) to another (# l5 @2 . ...gt... . 2/i other variables which are defined in terms of them by 2n equations.gt.p n) (Qi.Pn. . . qn p l .. z)..125..Q n PI.. p n ) and their differ the differential of a of function entials.. Qn .. Qn 1} 2 n ) to . . p^ . formation. p n ) to the . Q n } being in this From the definition it is transformations in succession a contacttransformation.lt. Poisson. q n ..... . then the transformation from (Q n Q2 . p n ) to the variables (Q 1 Q2 n ) is called an extended pointtransformation. of the results with certain theorems Lagrange....p2. .p dq 2 . formations possess the groupproperty. + P. . ...
r When the envelope of the Qsurfaces corresponding to the individual points of 125. P .y. . : &. and is the only one we considered in is (/3) er... /. z ) represent a curve transformed into a curve. is a complete differential. We shall now obtain the explicit analytical expression of a contact transformation. . 1 . the equations which define (Q lt qn . . . *. y. 2. 2. xi In this case we have which is a perfect differential. . Let the transformation from variables (q 1} q 2 q n p . let the number of such relations be flrtei. ... z) is transformed into a surface. q n . . y.. general case.. Qn Q) = The meaning of these relations may be illustrated by reverting to the geometrical theory of contacttransformations in ordinary threedimensional space. is a contacttransformation. 2) . Example 3. Q 2 .(2qfi siupdp} p dq = d(q sinp cos p qp). P 1} . y. y z represents a surface so that each point (#. are given. regarded as the locus of a point (a/. (A).. these two equations in (a/. . 2. (Qi) Qz. From (qi. 1 . ) completely. .) . . Example Shew that the transformation 1 is a contacttransformation. r=l (P r dQ r p r dqr ) = where dW . Q2 . .. A).. . let them be denoted by (r=l. s.. . . and . . : If (x. z) is are given. qn ) . Pn in terms of Pn p pn ) . so that Qn. this equation.fiTcurve and z] : so each point any arbitrary . qi. This is the There may be two relations Q : (as. 2 . Shew that the transformation (P= 2(1+2^ cos p) q^ sin p.. &. . pn) it maybe (Qn Qa possible to eliminate(P 1 . k. . x y .. [CH..pi . y. x . say z".lt. when there are three cases to consider : (a) There may be only a single relation between the new and old coordinates.. .gt.. q*. ~). Qn. . (x. . y . y. say Q(x. ".. p n ) to variables Pn } be a contacttransformation.y /)=0. which we may call an Qsurface and any arbitrary surface is transformed into a surface 2 which (#. * ) =0. d ..294 The TransformationTheory of Dynamics PdQ pdq = (2qfi sin p {(2q) ~^cospdq. Qn . . of this kind.. so as to obtain one or more relations between the variables . = 0. . which we may call a . 2... P\. y.
. . z) is transformed into a point (x y z }. (&... . Their place in the theory formations was pointed out by Lie. 470. . say .. . and any arbitrary cr is transformed into a surface 2 which is the locus of the points corresponding to cr..... (Qi.. . . . Q ..] The TransformationTheory of Dynamics is 295 surface cr is transformed into a surface 2 which sponding to the individual points of cr. is a function undetermined multipliers and where are (2n + k) and The n (B) .. qn .2 . . we must have dW . y.r. Pn&. where (X^Xg. where their utility in the transformation of partial differential equations of the first order (to which of contacttransdynamical problems can be reduced) was indicated.gt.. p. any (k + and if .... p l . z } = 0.. . n&) which characterise the transformation. y... 1) functions of the variables (Qi... X 1. )&.gt. k an. in terms of the functions (W..gt. .gt. Z n . . the individual points of Since the variations (dq lf dqz . p n ). p n ) by the equations* 9TF an. ... x y z } = 0.of (q q equations to l} 2 . ... (y) the envelope of the . z. O 2 (x. y.gt. &.12(&. . Qn). . Q ). . be three relations of this kind.. Q 3 (.lt. 90 fc ? =^ dq r an. may z. .. x y ... qn . . 2 . Q equations (A) determine the (2/i + k) quantities . ... if ( W. Qi. These equations may therefore be regarded as explicitly formulating the contacttransformation. n H if 2 . y. . . . Conversely.&).p r dqr ) = dW are conditioned only by the relations (r=l. in surface which case each point (x. i( n. +X . Qn. where k ^ 2 .. X rdq r Vr L &. .ffcurves corre There flj (a?.gt. . ?2 . X fc ) are denned in terms of (q l q2 . Xfc) in terms of (q lt . 2.Xi ^ dq r an.... ... n . n4 ) are n.  + .. Q. Pi.Xt ) are W qn . dQ n ) in the equation r=l 2 (P r dQ r . qn. z. x y . Xi.. dq n dQ lt .?i.. 2 ) = 0. .. * These equations were first given in Jacobi s Vorlesungen iiber Dijnamik (1866). p 1} . Pn. . PI&.. } Qn..
. l l dX Using the relations l 8x1 r&. dx +. Qn .. P) a contacttransformation. 6x 1 n + n ... 181415..Theory of Dynamics transformation ) is [CH. dXn 8xn by X d8x l 1 . dXj/dxj. Example. + l dX r (]Xfi . set of variables derived differential from (x lt x. . 127. where (X J} kind is X 2 . . xn } form when expressed in terms of these variables be Fjefyi * Pfaff s celebrated + Y dy2 + 2 . 1 2 + X n Sxn .. . P= dW where W set of P TF= Q (&. ....#). + Xn 8dxn l 2 2 . 1} . and so is becomes.. #) be any n variables. xn )..... and write where 8 8dd is the symbol of an independent set of increments. Let (yi. } 1 l .p w ) ... . Now form x2 . and consider a differential X dx l 1 + X dx2 + 2 .. . Akad.lt.... called a Pfaff s expression* in the variables (x1} . expression be denoted by 0&.. . 1 Then we have 2 ...F$2 )* .2qk .. dx n .. respectively. to the Berlin Academy in 1815 : Abhandl.. P . yn ) be a new transformation let the some by . The bilinear covariant of a general let (x 1} differential form. and replacing dX r 8Xr dXr ~ ^ dX r = . der Wiss.. . Q = (Zq)k~ cosp. 2/2 . ..oc z . . in virtue of these equations. . we have where 8dd d0s= 2 i = y denotes the quantity dX{/dxj . + X n dasn ..296 then the The Transformation..q arccos is so that the transformation from (^ p} to ($... a form of this xz . 76. to (Q 1} Q2 ..2 . . + Yn dy n . Xn ) denote any functions of (x\. Let this ..... .. .gt.. Pn a contact transformation for the expression r=l 2 (P r dQr p r dq r ) dW. memoir on these expressions was presented p. xi P from M (q lt q z . If a perfect differential. Xn d8xn 8dxr = d8x which exist since the variations d and 8 . OX^ OX dX r ~ oxn + ^OXji . . d6$ = & (X dx + X doc + 4.X n dx n ) d (X 8^ + X 8x + = 8X dx + + 8X n dxn + X 8dx + . q n Pi.. ... are independent.. ..
pi..?$ 297 . Qn . so that X r=i P dQ r r differs from r=l by an exact It is clear is differential.dJ}/3y&. (Qi. Then since the the quantity 86 dd has d s expression obviously the same value whatever be the variables in terms of which it is expressed. we have 2 S i =l j=l ctijdtCiSxj = 2 S 1 n n = 1 j = i bijdyibyj.ipn) by a contact transformation. since it depends only on the quantities dX ifoxj .Theory of Dynamics 9P&..P 1 .. so that if the transformation (qi. PI. 128.dP r r 8Q r ) = 2 (8p r dqr dqr 8p r ). Qz. Pn ) be variables connected with (q lt q2 n .pi. transformed by any transformation into the bilinear It follows that the bilinear co variants of n the forms 2 r=l P r dQ r and 2 p r dq r r=l are equal.qn .126128] and let The Transformation.q^. called the 2 X r dxr . The expression taydxi&K) bilinear covariant of the form is. Qn ..lt.. Example. on account of this equation. .lt... . be denoted by by.. is from .bX}fixi which are all zero when the form is an exact differential: and we have shewn that the bilinear form .. For the transformation denned by the equations we have Q = (2q)* k~ 4 cos rfP(2g)~ijt*sin ^cospdjz T .. from the last article that the bilinear covariant of a differential not affected by the addition of an exact differential to the form.lt. Pn ) a contacttransformation.ln.^) to (Q l} Qz . &./&. .e.. . . . covariant of a form n is covariant of the transformed form.lt.... that ^(8P dQ.. i. .. the expression n 2 r=l is (8p r dq r dqr 8p r ) invariant under the transformation. The conditions for a contacttransformation expressed by means of the bilinear covariant..
Bp r dq r ) = S k.1.gt. obtain. I u{] (diii8u k . Mem. p l} 2n variables 2 r=l (dp r q r  Bp r dq r ) we can replace dp r by and similarly for the other quantities .expressions. .Suidu k ). . .. ... v]... on collecting terms.&. .) = I (dP r SQr .. . Pn) to the variables (&. now . P If (q l q^. .2... .. . where the summation on the righthand side variables (uk Ui) in the set (Q 1} Qz . . . PI. the expression . is .. is a contacttransformation. [Qi.. .. . Q n&. PJ=1 (t. n 2 r=l (dpr &qr . Lagrange.. 2. comparing i. give another form to the conditions that a transformation n) Qn 1 p n ) to variables (Qlt Q 2 . v) (and possibly of any number of other variables). Qz. i$k).. P . all pairs of But have if the transformation from the variables (q l} q 2 qn. Qn PI. .. Pn) is a contacttransformation.. . de VInstitut de France. 8pdq. and this holds for all types of variation 8 and d of the quantities with the above equation. taken over Pn)... .p n ) are any functions of Pn).. 713. . . then in the expression . . 3 r =i r (dq tyr _ dpr dqA is \du dv du dv ) usually denoted by the is called a Lagranges bracketexpression*. PI.. Q 2&. .). p.2. we thus [u k ..8Pr dQr r=l ). ann^e 1808: reprinted Oeuvres. [Q*... . . . xi we have 2 dP8Q8PdQ=sin*p(d&. Qn. .P*]=0 [Qi.P t ] = 0. and qn symbol If (Qi...p n ) are any functions of two variables (u. . . .pi. we r=l I (dp^r  Bprdq. &. ... .gt. &] = = (i.298 By The TransformationTheory of Dynamics multiplication [OH. We now from variables (q l} q 2 q n p lt may be a contacttransformation. [u. (q 1} q%. we have therefore . The conditions for a contacttransformation in terms of Lagranges shall bracket. . P 1} . ...28p8qdp)+cos p(dp8g8pdq) = dp8q and consequently the transformation 129.gt.q n . . .lt.k l. = I.k (i. . . vi.gt.
some connexion and the Lagrangebrackets [u r us ] . . are functions of (u 1} u. These equations represent in an explicit form the conditions implied in the invariance of the expression r=\ (dp r Sq r 8p r dq r ).Q.2 2 I t=\i=ij=i \oqi dpi (2?t*lS dpi d Now multiply out the righthand side. Poisson shall s bracketexpressions.. .128130] These satisfied The TransformationTheory of Dynamics be ... .] . .)[. . ... There will evidently be . .... and is denoted by the symbol Suppose now that (u 1} u 2 . .. % 299 may regarded as partial differential equations which must be ... wr ) [w &. p. .. . w.gt. . = = 1. the Poisson s bracketexpression* of the functions (u... by (qlt q2 qn ... when r ^ s... Ug] . We next introduce another class of bracketexpressions which are intimately connected with those of Lagrange. If u and v are any two functions of a set of variables (q 1} q 2 Pi. considered as functions of (Qi. . : this connexion we shall now investigate. the expression . Journal d$ VEcole poly tech. Poisson..lt. the equation becomes %? 2 / \ r t&..... u 2n )..Pn ) in order that the transformation from one set of variables to the other may be a contacttransformation.=i (w t . ^ t=ioqidu t ^ 2 du dPj r t and ^ S du t d t=l dpi d ^ are each zero . p 1} . qn . v). Pn).p n ).t M. 266.. . between the Poissonbrackets (u r u s ) . . vin.. p n ).. . . . 130. Q. (1809). PI.].lt.) [n t=i wj and consequently 2n 2 t=i 2n (w t u r ) [u t . while * 2 &. We have t=\ 2 (. . I is called /8w dv_ _ du dp r \ dv_ r =i\dq r dp r dqj u and v. . variables (q l} q2 g n plt . remembering that o t=i oqi ou t if i t=l pi are each zero if i $ j and unity =j . (Cahier 15).. .2 . and that . .. um ) are 2n independent functions of the so that conversely (q1} q2 q n p lf pn ) . i (%.
(Qi. .. let &. XT But these are the conditions which must be two determinants !. .p\.gt. p)... U2 ) [U 2n . shew that where the summation is taken over all combinations fr f . . n). Qj] = (.. . which in turn are functions &. Pj] = 0. fk ).300 The Transformation Theory of Dynamics [CH.. 131. (U 2n . we shall shew that which must be satisfied in order that the transformation may be a contacttransformation ( may one set of variables to the other be written in the form from (Pi.. Qj] = (i.. . satisfied in order that the M. [u2 .gt. j = 1.. .lt.. If /. (Q lt Q 2 . $n. U^ J \_U 2n .Pi..lt. 2. . Pn ) denote 2 n functions of 2n variables the conditions c[n.. . . . [Q { . For we have seen in are expressed 129 that the conditions for a contacttransformation by the equations f [Pi. qn p1 .e. Pj) = 0. Qn . If F.pn)&. may be reciprocal. P lt ..] . ^ are any three functions of (j t . $ are functions of (/l5 f2 .. . that any element in the one should be equal to the minor of the corresponding element in the other.. Example 1. u^ [u 2 . i.. &... . qz . p n \ shew that Example of (?D &. [U lt U2n ] .. 2. Hence the relations =0 . and (U 2 .gt.. The conditions for a contacttransformation expressed by means of s bracketexpressions. j = 1. U2n \ (^Ui . .gt. u zn \ U2 ) .. . divided by this latter determinant the product of the two determinants being unity and thus the connexion between the Lagrangebrackets and the Poissonbrackets is expressed by the fact that the determinants formed from them are reciprocal.?2. . Uvn) \U2n .. g . Poisson Now (^i) ^2&.. 2. . n)..
265... by Lie. ?2&......... TAe subgroups of Mathieu transformations and extended point Iran sformations.. Qn Pl} . ?(l . by a contacttransformation. In this case... .. f plt .. ... this is said to form a subgroup of the group... called ". . to the two sets of Example 2... Q n plf . p.gt. . . Pn ) so that the Poissonbrackets of variables are equal. . (1874).. If within a group of transformations there exists a set of transformations such that the result of performing in succession two transformations of the set is always equivalent to a transformation which also belongs to the set.q 2 .. p .. Journal de Math. Example 1. If (&.). Q 9 ... If (Qlt Q2 . u r }[u t . any two functions * and ^ with respect ( ?1 . pw ) is a contacttrans 2 pn ) to (^ . shew that Pn ) are connected with ( gi .. same as the transformations ?n Pl . .=l.. \ k from the ) (2n + k) equations . )". 2...q n Plt . . n ) are to be obtained by eliminating (\ l} \ 2 ..p n . of the of contacttransformations subgroup general group constituted by those transformations for which the equation set of transformations A is evidently n S r=l is satisfied. Q n ] are given functions of ... Q n .... Pr dQ = r n r=l 2 p r dq r These transformations have been studied by Mathieu*... formation. ft . homogeneous contact transformations in . nr] = the theorem is thus established.p n \ and satisfy the partial differential equations (Qr.. we see from 126 that (&.. .. xix... Pn ) can be found such that the transformation from ( ?] ?2 . .... ?n Pl . (r. ^ )= 8 ...2 . .. shew that % other functions (Plt P2 ... /Lj e \ 132. . ... They are essentially the (ft.. g.130132] The TransformationTheory of Dynamics become 301 of the last article while the relations 2n 2 (ut..
Example..n).... 2.. Ap n ).. PI... A# &p lt .. If 2 r=l  Pr dQr = n 2 r=l p r dqr n . so that we have equations of the form : . i..... = 0....p n ). and equating to zero the coefficient of p k we have dq k n r=l (fcl.f&. n&. Substituting in the equation n n S r=l P dQ r r 2 r= l* rdgv . so that r Qr = qr + &q r =qr + &.. which the new variables .. Q 2. 133. .. where Qn. . P degree (though not necessarily integral) in (p 1} pz . = dqk/dQr this .. subgroup within the group of Mathieu transformations is constituted by those transformations for Avhich (P P2 .lt.. Qn). ?l ) ...Pn )from the equations P = I r k=l Pt j2* V^r (r=l. ..p n ) are each multiplied by any quantity //. xi From the form of these equations it is evident that if (p j} p2 . Qn ) only. q n n p l} . These transformations are extended pointtransformations n 126). . . n ) must be homogeneous of the first each by yu. . ...gt.. .. [CH. the effect is to multiply (P 1} P2 . qn ) are functions of (Q 1} frk Q2 ... .?!.. . Let these differences be denoted by (&q lt Ag 2 .lt. qn ) with the variables (Qi. qz . and then determining (P lf P 2 .... ..302 The TransformationTheory of Dynamics .. . We (Qi... . . kind are obtained by assigning It follows that transformations of n arbitrary relations connecting the variables (q l} q2 .2...gt.. and (r. k=l. so (&.. n}. . A n Pr = 2 k=\ p k frk (q 1} q2 ... $2.e. linear... now consider transformations &.t O0r dPr P*S^= lf*^in P ". Pn) differ from the original variables (q 1} q2 .. .p ) by quantities which are infinitesimal.n). shall &. in them. .p n ) but also integral. and therefore (Pj. Infinitesimal contacttransformations..gt. P n ) are not only homogeneous of the first degree in (p l} p2 . ..2. n). P2 . ..gt.... P . and A^ is an arbitrary infinitesimal constant . S hewtha. ( 2. qn ) (r=l..
..p n } ...132... p lt . K) is said to be the symbol of the most general infinitesimal transformation of the infinite group which consists of all contacttransformations of the 2??. .. or 2 &. ..q n . A p w ).. general infinitesimal contacttransformation is defined by the equations where K is an arbitrary function of (q 1} q z .=! or It is evident that the function W must contain (^ : ... and ...... . ... where ?7 is some function of qz . 133] The TransformationTheory of Dynamics is 303 and the transformation specified by the functions Now we have suppose that the transformation is a contacttransformation. Then r=l (P r dQ r p r dq r ) = q.. p 1} The increment ments (q 1} q z . qn p lt p n ). : W= writing U&t. A . where W is some function of (q l} ...... .. .. pn ) .... _ r dp r dq or on this account the Poissonbracket (/.. qn ..2 . p lt .. p n ) when its argu are subjected to this transformation is .p n ). p 1} ..... Thus /te mos&.p n ) say.2 qn . q n p 1} .lt. q n p lt . is an arbitrary infinitesimal quantity independent of (q 1} q. the equation becomes Hence we have M / r=l r=l = dK(q 1} and therefore q2 .... .. qn . qn . as a factor ...gt. in any function f(q lt q z ..p n ). . ..2 ....p ly .. variables (q 1} q..
.... . . /3 2 . n ..... Pn) .2 .. . &. p n ) of a dynamical system at time t are derivable by a contacttransformation from their values . The last article it follows that and from the we can whole course of a dynamical system can thus be regarded as the gradual selfunfolding of a contacttransformation.p n )...q n . /3 n ) to (q 1} q 3 . {3 1} .gt... ftr+i. .. . .. fi l. ctn &.. fin) at time t . an . ...pi. in a dynamical system. 2 ... (!. ... . and let A refer to the increment obtained in passing to that orbit which is defined by the values (q l} qt &.. . ot 2 ..p n ) are the variables are their respective l .. . all The theorem established in the last article enables us to extend to conservative holonomic dynamical systems. Now orbit which suppose that 8 refers to the increments obtained in passing to that is defined by the values (!..gt. we have (128) where the symbols A and 8 refer to increments arrived at by passages from a given orbit to two different adjacent orbits respectively. or2 . lt 2 n 1} . transformationtheory of dynamical systems.. a.. The TransformationTheory of Dynamics The resulting new [CH. PS+I. .. r +S@ r ... p lf t t Q the equations which express (q qz qn a in of which terms constitute the @ n .._!. n .gt.304 134. . in this t is .. PSI.. qn . PS + &Ps&. cr 2) . &. Since the values of the variables (q l} q. . j3 (a t) (and Pn) PI.. 135.... xi mew of dynamics.... For the motion dqr j is expressed ( 109) by equations of the type dff __ dp r * * _ dH dqr [ fB 1 2 n) dt dp r dt interpret these equations as implying that the transformation from the values of the variables at time t to their values at time t + dt is an infinitesimal contacttransformation. and values at some selected epoch &. = . regarded merely as a parameter occurring in the equations which define the transformation. .. &... . This result is really a generalisation of the statement that the paths of the rays in a pencil of light can be specified by the gradual propagation of a wavefront...gt. .. . q n p lf .. . it is the foundation of the From this it is evident that if (q 1} q 2 (a l&. Taken in conjunction with the groupproperty of contacttransformations. .. /3 n ) . fin) at time t . solution of the differential equations of motion) express a contacttransforma tion from (!.gt. .. whatever be the number of degrees 125 for of freedom. Helmholtz s reciprocal theorem. . the conception which was formulated at the end of certain simple systems. q n p lt .. .
.. /3 1. dp r dp r dt =3dq dH (r=l. p. in the direct motion.. D. 2. qs due to an increment in /3r (when a l cr2 . (Lamb. Shew also that a tangential communicated at the extremity of the 2 minor axis... /3/1. xix. Soc. w) r obtained will transformed by change of variables. (1898). 305 so the increment in .. This result can for many systems be physically interpreted. c.. 144. Loud.. ...~ dv... The Transformation.. . In elliptic motion under a centre of force in the centre. PS+L.gt. . t Cf. .ky&. p s (when qi. 20 .q n . . the subsequent history of the system is the same as its previous history. We can therefore state the theorem broadly thus the change produced in any interval by a small initial impulse of any : any other (or of the same) type. as was observed by Helmholfcz*. but performed in reverse order. i.e. . .. if a small velocity 8v in the direction of the normal be communicated to the particle as it is passing through either extremity of the major axis.Theory of Dynamics then the above equation becomes &ps&qs=8/3.pi. dQr ly ". shew that the tangential deviation produced after a quarterperiod velocity 8v... Proc. Lamb. w.) 136. a n fi n are not varied) is equal to the increment (with sign . (1886). ".. the motion which starts from some given position with each of the velocities corresponding to that position changed in sign. JOgi. Math. p n and ). produces after a quarter period an equal normal deviation p. P .134136] at time . equal change produced in the same interval of the reversed motion in the coordinate of the first type by an equal small initial impulse of the is to the type in the coordinate of second type\..** : Q2 . p n are not varied) equal to the previous increment in /3 r . /3 r+1 .q 2 . where /* is the constant of force. Qn . 116 that if It appears from a Hamiltonian system of differential equations dq r nr dt is = dH ^... reversed) in a r corresponding to an increment in.. .. the system of differential equations so still have the Hamiltonian form dQr_dK_ dt dPr provided the new variables (Q l} dPr__dK ~ dt ... . is p. Pn ) are such that is an integralinvariant * (relative or absolute) of the original system.dtf. Jacobi s theorem on the transformation of a given dynamical system into another dynamical system. so that (pi.. for a small impulse applied to a system can be conveniently measured by the resulting change in one of the momenta the change in a r due to a change in p g can be realised in the reversed motion. fiir Journal Math. Example..
involve the time. . I r=l P r SQr. where U denotes some function of the variables..... it transforms the chosen Hamiltonian system. Let (Q l} PL .. dQr_dK_ dt ~dPr . where dW denotes an exact differential.. equations. but it Hamiltonian system given Hamiltonian system into another will not necessarily transform any other arbitrarily into a Hamiltonian system. . q n by a contacttransformation.... q n . variables. Q P n .... will so the transformed system of differential which (Q 1( Qz ..2 p r Bqr =8W.... [on. P i r &Qr a relative integralinvariant in . . . the variation denoted by S in the integralinvariant is a variation from a point of one orbit to the contemporaneous point of an adjacent orbit if Now .p n ) P r=\ r dQrr=l p r dq r = The equations which define the . transformation may . Pn. a 2n ) are the constants of integration which occur in the solution the equations of motion. r=l r n and therefore is 2 J }=! . as a special case of the last . : equation. where (a 1} a 2 of .. t). P . in general... so that is Q 2 .. : We have seen (115) that a relative integralinvariant of any Hamiltonian system. Qn .gt. Among these transformations however are included transformations which have the pro perty of conserving the Hamiltonian form of any dynamical system to which they may be applied these may be obtained in the following way.306 The Transformation..... a 2n . a2 ... .. we regard the variables as functions of (a l . the variation & is one in which (a 1} a 2 .pi. Qn P1} ... dPI ~ __ dK dt . so that (Q 1} &. .. t). special to problem considered.. Pn . 1} Pn ) are but in the variation denoted by d functions of (q l q z .e.. where K is some function of (Q lt Q2 Qn Pi.2 p r dq r = r=l n dW+ Udt. p 1} . dQr . the equation becomes 5 : n 2 r=l P r dQ r .. n ) be a set of 2n variables obtained from (q lt q 2 .Theory of Dynamics transformation of this i. xi the A kind is. .. if t is supposed to in this equation the time is not supposed to be varied vary. therefore . a 2n ) are varied but t is not varied we have consequently....... Pn ) are taken as dependent have the Hamiltonian form and can be written . Q 2 .
the system*. &. Comptes Rendus. v.. If we equate dXj/dxi). obtain the system of (2?i+l) equations order.. (1837). 137] The TransformationTheory of Dynamics . p. if 2 r=l * Yr dy r . p = 2Q)% kt dp = dt z Shew that the contacttransformation defined by the equations q = (2#)4 k ~ * cos P. is invariantively related to to zero the coefficients of Sx 1} Sx2 . Since the determinant of the quantities a fj is skewsymmetric and of odd and these equations are therefore mutually compatible.. qn Pn} of any dynamical system conserves the Hamiltotiian form of the equations of T&. Hence a contacttransformation of the variables (q lt q2 .... ". . 307 .gt. changes the system dq__3H_ dff dg di~dp where into the system H = \(p* + k q*\ dQ_dK dP__dK_ ~dt~dP where 137. the is merely an extended pointtransformation..gt. in variantively connected with it made..136. we . . Let any be differential form with (2n + 1) independent variables (X.dt~ dQ K=kQ... it is zero.. Representation of a dynamical problem by a differential form.gt. and if the differential any change of variables is . x2 ... sin P.. Bx^^. They are known as the first Pfaff s system of equations corresponding to the differential form 2 r=l X r dxr and from the mode of their formation are . .. qn ) only. This important theorem was first given by Jacobi. Qn ) are functions of (q lt q 2 . in which (Q1} contacttransformation Example. form be changed by this transformation to is .. The reason for the importance of contacttransformations in connexion with dynamical problems is more clearly seen by the introduction of a certain differential form which is invariantively related to the problem.change of variables". 61... 202 ..gt. Q 2 . In the case of an ordinary ".\&. we have seen ( 127) that its bilinear 2 covariant + l 2w+l 2 S ddSaS where a tj denotes the quantity (dXi/dxj the form. in the dynamical system. y m+1 ) being given functions of (ar.. . the new variables (yl} y2 #2n+i)&. x2 . that to say... .
.... dp r t ~ ~^di Of these the last equation is a consequence of the others : and therefore the system of equations can be written dqr * dH dpr dp r * . Hdt . T).gt. n). from the variables (q lt q2 q n p\. / iv* IV * 7? i dt dt but these are the equations of motion of a dynamical system in which the It follows that the dynamical system whose Hamiltonian function is H.pn . . P\&. xi 2 1=1 first & fl cfa/. p lt .. motion of the dynamical system.Theory of Dynamics 2n+l [OH... Pfaff s system of differential equations of this differential &. is invariantively connected with the differential Hamiltoniah function is H form Pidqi __ +p 2 dq2 + . Consider now the special differential form in the (2n+ q 2 . Forming the corresponding form is dp r . . . .. ... T) Pfaff s system of the differential form which is derived from the form Pidyi+ptdqt by the transformation variables (xlt + . 2... . find that the first quantities a^. . are the first x2 . 2 .  ^^ dH dq r ..gt. we Pn. x^. .. 2 Ui Z dxi = 0. t). 2?i+i c^i = 0. n\ dq r dH U = A ^dt () (r=I. . pn ... 2. inasmuch as variables (x l the equations of . +p n dq n . where H is any function of (ft.. . . t). x 2n .. &. qn ..308 and if The Transformation. 1) variables (g 1} q 2 .r dt = (r = 1.. is equivalent to the system dxi = 0. 2 t=i b ii2n+l dyi = be the Pfaff s system derived from the differential form 2 then this system 2n+l ii F ety r r.. .gt.... = 0. +p n dqn Udt.. 2 ^=1 b^dyi = 0. . in terms of any whatever. qn &.. ..gt.t} to the x2 . ..
*...lt..r dq. 27 p w r dqr TT 7j = 2 Hdt V". ac Jj JTIT 4 a (r + z ..gt...r 2 r=l Pr dQ r 2 I dq r + ^~r dQr } 2 Xs 2 in (5^ &. TF) are any functions of the variables (q 1} q From these equations we have identically 2 p. an.. U*%r d v/ ^7* &. =1 J_ . _ . which all the variables. (j/j.. n). y~\ x an 2 ~T~ A&. w / 7/^ Pr dQ r 7^ / I TT H a TF V __ ^ ^ Xs 2 _ ^  & : The since it perfect differential dW first Pfaff s system of the differential form hence the contacttransformation transforms the si/stem of equations does not affect the on the righthand side can be neglected. A. P 1} ..Theory of Dynamics 309 The Hamiltonian function of the transformed equations.gt. enables us to find the Hamiltonian function K of the system For thus obtained.. ^s /^ \ A X.. .gt. . /fr /... ^.. ^^ j dt 7 . result of the last article furnishes another proof of the The theorem that the equations of dynamics dq r dt _ dH dp r dp.gt. The Transformation. .. are changed) o j ^ D j/a Z p r dqr = i Jr r d(^r f . ^ X2 ^ an 2 .. u(/.ferH and hence (the symbol d denoting a variation including t. = ~df let dPr ~dT~~ ~dQ r (r = l.. and da^ = to the ciH dpr^_d_H 1 2 system ~ 7~/ dt dP r r\ T\ ^~". .n). K being supposed expressed in terms of (Q Q2 .2 . 2.2.137. an.q. T an* A.. Pnt t).. d^ (ral. . dH dq r 119 ... and moreover it contacttransformations of (q l . where (n^ H 2 .. .. Qn .Pi&. . .. T . . 138] 138. dQ r s where K=H ^ ot 2 X x= i lt ^ dt .... u _ ".. &.. n. Xj= dgv a^.Pn). dt all conserve the Hamiltonian form under qn&. . n).. the contacttransformation be defined by the equations (r 2 k} an i .gt. &. X.gt.
. .. qn . Pn. Pj.. the function obtained by substituting in the equation .. New formulation have seen ( of the integrationproblem... . .. the required transformations are thereby completely determined. .gt. t) + h = 0.. T) + k = 0. . . q t.. this condition the transformation has been assigned.gt.. T.gt... .. ....... The Transformation.. where the variables equation (q ly q 2 .. P 15 . q n t. 137 also enables us to determine those transformations of the whole set of (2n &.. + P n dQ n + kdT + .. xi changed. + &. .2 ..310 139. T. \ .. are connected by p lt But any contacttransformations . into the differential form qt. p l} . . if We 137) that dqr dt any change of variables dpr dt == ~ is made in the dynamical system = 3H dp r _dH dq r Pfaff s system of the form the new is which differential equations will be the derived from first Pidq! +p 2 dq2 + ... A) are connected by the H(qi. . t &.... Qn . PZ. Pn.. P . qn Pi.. where the variables (Q 1} Q 2 the relation . Qz. ". n k). transformed into a system of the Hamiltonian form dQr _dK For this is the dT~dPr + dPr _ dK ~dT~~dQr which change the same thing Pidqt as finding the transformations differential form +p .pi.. n k) will satisfy lf 3 . PI. of the (In 2 . . P 7l . The (Qi. 2 dq.. .. ... . + pn dqn Hdt by the transformation. p lt .. when K is q*.pn.. . Qn T. pn . P P 2) variables (q 1} q2 . hdt. q n . + .. 140.gt..gt...p n h) to new variables (Q l} Q ... t)to new ~ variables Qn&. k).p n . P 1 dQ l f P 2 dQ + 2 .gt.. q n&. K(Q Q l} 2 .gt. &. 1) variables (ql} q2 . Qn . P . and then solving this equation for k.+ p n dqn + t. PI. T} by which any Hamiltonian system dqr _ = ~dt is dH dp r dp r ~dt _ = dH ~dq^ _ . the values of (q ly q2 ..Theory of Dynamics Transformations in which the independent variable result of is [OH. pn . p 1} . a perfect differential..p n h} as functions of (Q lt .. Qn. so that it takes the form n&. ..
139. ? n Pi.+ Pn dQn . +P 2 dQ..). when expressed in terms of variables.. Pn ) dynamical system. Qr = dPr = (r 1.. If (# 1? x2 . 140] The Transformation.gt. and the integrals of these equations are Constant.lt./&.Q n .Theory of Dynamics is 311 Supposing that a transformation found... where (Qi. The integrationproblem is thus reduced to the determination of a trans formation for which the last term of the differential form becomes a perfect differential. of variables Qn.P 1 .. &.. when the quantities (Q 1. is Qz . 2. shew that if .arctan . so the equations qr=&. + . divided by D. . 2n ) denote any functions of (q lt ^ . .Q..dQ. n) .r(Qi&. ..gt. PI.gt. defined by a set of equations which the is such that the above differential form.. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. an d if moreover a mn denotes dXml dxn . PI.gt. . Qz. . is Pn t).. P =\ arctan %L 2 a contacttransformation.. . . Q 2 are regarded as 2n arbitrary constants of integration. 2. and that it reduces the dynamical system whose Hamiltonian z z 2 z function is ^(pi 2 to the z + \~ qi +\whose Hamiltonian i is +p !i q. ) dynamical system function 2.. . some function of the first dT . the corresponding Pfaff s system of equations dQr = 0. . Shew that the transformation denned by the equations ! = arctan  .Pn.. X 8v CU . .t} }\ l constitute the solution of the Qn..d nfixm D denotes the determinant formed of the quantities amn A ik denotes the minor of a ik in D. differential .l&.dT.. is the perfect . new becomes P. and u and v denote arbitrary functions of the variables.. . 1. n). x. . P = Constant r (r = 1.
.8q n 8p l .8p n and l lff.) 4. the original system.. and hence integrate . Qn..gt.(24k) cos ^i + X2~ l (2^2) 2 cos Ai = X!~4 (2i)4 cos P +\ ~^ (2$a)". Pi&.. ) Pn) and P".lt.. xi any Hamiltonian system the f integral invariants j j ...J8Q 8Q2 . tt dt~~dQr JTX^+X^..W (r=1 2) dq r where into the system dQr _dK dt~dP~ r where dPr _ &. extended over corresponding domains.8Qn 8P l . i $2&. = changes the system dq_r o? = dH_ 9pr dpr = dt _&.8P n .. q 2 .. Integrate this system... Prove that the contacttransformation denned by the equations = Xj ".312 3.Theory of Dynamics Shew that for [OH. The Transformation. A..gt.. (Qit ..gt.J8q l 8q 2 . are equal if (qi..oosP. q n are connected by a contacttransformation.
gt. . . ri).K (p p 2 . 3 . . dqr dK r~ = ^ dqi .. hdt. p... t) are connected by the the differential form can therefore be written .. ( But the differential equations corresponding to this form are 137) 3.... + 2 n&. p n h... since the first 2) equations do not involve t.2 .. d dq l = d^K dh dk_ ~ dq l The last pair of equations can be separated from the rest of the system.2 dq 2 : (qlt q2 . Reduction of the order of a Hamiltonian system by use of the integral of energy.+ p n dqn 2&... have shewn in 42 how the Lagrangian equations of motion of a conservative holoiiomic system can be reduced in order by use of the integral of energy of the system.. h. . where we can regard (q 1} q 2 . . + . where A is a constant.CHAPTER XII PROPERTIES OF THE INTEGRALS OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS 141. . dp r dp r = dK d~ ~i r dq dq (r=2.. shall require the corresponding theorem for We We the equations of motion in their Hamiltonian form follows. is the integral of energy of the system. qn p. +p 3 dq 3 + .. (2&. q n h) dq lt .. and h is a constant.. t) as the (2n+ 1) variables.gt...gt. pn .. . pn . for Let this equation be solved the variable p lt so that it can be written The differential form associated with the system Pidq^ is + p^dq. +p n dq n + hdt.. . q PI. . this may be obtained as Consider a dynamical system with n degrees of freedom for which the Hamiltonian function does not involve the time explicitly. where the variables last equation p.. . so that H H+h=0.. q.i ...
is performed on the variables of a dynamical system defined by the equations dqr_m dt~ dpr dpr __dH ~dt dqr .lt.gt.. 142.k.. (r. if If follows from 138 that a contacttransformation defined by the equations p = dW P dQ r Pr = dW Tqr q.. .&. and applying the theorem given above.).2 . Example. we have K and the system reduces to the single equation ddL ^~r k o  ~T dq z the integral of which (supposing ok s . /) dq which has only (n This result is dp r dq 1 dq r 1) degrees of freedom.1.2 _ dK dq 2 dq l where dp 2 dqi Since does not involve q lt the equation Constant system.2_dK ~~ to the dp. of the orbit Hamilton s partial differential equation..314 The original system Properties of the Integrals of differential equations [CH. ./ 2 ) is /u&. these are easily seen to be the equations of motion of a particle : attracted to a fixed point with a force varying as the inverse cube of the distance and q 1 are respectively the radius vector and vectorial angle of the particle referred to the centre of force. This is the equation. as can be equivalent to that obtained in shewn by direct transformation. . the equations reduce dq&.* q. and we can therefore perform the same process again * K K= is : writing an integral of this last . Consider the system dt where ~dp r dt dqr a being a constant . Qn . where e is an arbitrary constant.. described by the particle.. where W denotes a given function of (q 1} qn . is &.. xu can therefore be replaced by the reduced dqr_dK 7 ~\ 1 ) dp r 7 _ dK o V * ".2. ) ". 42.lt.?2 which Writing system H= h. in polar coordinates. t). Qlt Q 2 .lt...
. K is zero..gt. then the equations . ..gt. Trans..gt. a Suppose that a complete integral of this equation. 142] the resulting system is Dynamical Systems 315 dQr = dK dP r dt where If the function dPr = &... ". function such that *\ Now the system will be said to be transformed into is a will be zero. w ) be these arbitrary constants. . Pi..?n&. qn . .... an . 8 0. . constants n arbitrary taining Let (a.&.. .. dW ^t+ H( qi This is dW dW . W .gt. a n fr . .lt. . containing n arbitrary constants (a 1} a2 .7i&.. . satisfies variables (5^ provided TF.gt. ).. extension to dynamics of the partial differential equation which he had called Hamilton s It discovered ten years previously in connexion with optics. . . is known.lt. q n dynamical system the contacttransformation from the variables (q ly qz ..gt. since they express the variables in terms of t and 2n arbitrary constants (a lt o2 . 0&. W &.. i. . so that the solution can be written i.gt.. . * Phil. and perform on the original (q ly qz ... &.. ...^.gt.lt. &. p. provided the function K W ft i. c Ln. 247. 1835. 2 .p\. new system Hamilton s equation. ^.e. p.*J ? associated with the partial differential equation in 1834*. ctn . (&. being the Hamilton was published by given dynamical system. y n )... = dW Wr ^=1 2 .. solution con &. .. the equilibriumproblem.lt...141.gt.pn) dynamical problem. ~di dK dQ r K=H + dW/dt.e./2&. . ". . additive to the in addition constant. pn ) to variables (a x a2 . dW \ = q2 . defined by the equations Since W satisfies is zero. &. . 1834. considered as a function of the the partial differential equation ^2.q n ". It dW ^ = ^ r *&.... W are constant throughout the motion. constitute the solution of the &. 2 ... /8i.. ... ibid.. the Hamiltonian function of the and consequently the equations of the system are so that (a. 95.* . y3 M ) follows that if denotes a complete integral of Hamilton s partial differential equation. .
which gives (?) / (0 = 1*1 a. [CH. where / and $ are functions of their respective arguments : then we have 0=/ (0 + 2 H4&. xn In this way the depend of freedom is made first to solution of any dynamical system with n degrees on the solution of a single partial differential equation of the It order in (n 41) independent variables. in. .?)/a}* arcsin + {fyq (a . . xxvu. equation. Ball Acqua. which in this case are of the Hamiltouian form. Palermo The integration of Hamilton s equation by separation of variables is discussed F. (1906). where a and /3 are the two constants of integration. LXVI. Hamilton s integral as a solution of Hamilton s partial differential There are an infinite . a complete integral of this equation may Assume WfW+tte). for an extension to such systems. (g/a)* solution of the original problem is therefore given by the equations /3= = d p Wfdq. The Hamilton s equation corresponding 9 to this system is W be found in the following way.ia)* arcsin (gr/a)* + {^q (a . had been discovered by Pfaff and Cauchy (completing the earlier work of Lagrange and Monge) before Hamilton and Jacobi approached the subject from the dynamical side. Consider the system by dq dt _3H ". (1837). g and fj. On the use that can be made of an incomplete integral of Hamilton s partial differential equation (i. (1904). may be rioted that Hamilton : s partial differential equation is not applicable as cf.gt. (1908).e. 263. p..(2. Quanjel. xxn. . 161. .316 &.  143. 97 and Liouviltfs J. p. The TF= fMt/a + (2/xa)* . Nach. CLXV. It col.gt. Astr.?)/a}*. Properties of the Integrals of /3 M )*. Crelle J. A. Math. should however be observed that the converse of this theorem namely the theorem that the solution of a partial differential equation such as Hamilton s depends on the solution of a set of ordinary differential equations (the differential equations of the characteristics). 209. p. (1837). (2)} F/? This equation can be satisfied by writing where a is a constant . Example. pp. LehmannFilhes. 60. Aftn. one containing less than n arbitrary constants besides the additive constant). is a constant. it stands to nonholonomic systems Rendiconti. 398. dp ~ = dt _3H ~dq dp where IT jf=fc&. number differential equation * and of complete integrals of Hamilton s partial each one of them furnishes a contacttransformation s This theorem is due to Jacobi. cf.
.. .. where L denotes conditions.e.. . and the integral of the kinetic potential is the determining function of the transformation. .e. become the equations of the equilibriumproblem. /3 n ).. q n a 1. an . fti.. He found however that this function. . n Sfti.. their values at Among this infinite . i... . /3 W ) . q n p lt .. p n ) respectively. then we shall have ....e. or 2 . fi n q ly ... . q2 ..... (we suppose this possible. ^__ from to (q lt q 2 ifs ... . In his earliest dynamical investiga Hamilton used a ".. .. fii.... . an ^.. Trans. n @ lt . described above. ..q n . so . qn a lt ....p n ). an .. * tions...142.p n ) of the dynamical system to variables (j.. /3 n ) are constants. integration is performed.. ..... 8/3 n ) in the initial changes (S^.. 143] Dynamical Systems . number of transformations there^is one of special in which the quantities (a l a2 . (oij.l3 r S r=l ft I r \ It follows that if the quantity . expressed in terms of the final and initial coordinates. p. .. namely the initial values of (q 1} q z .gt.qn a ly . Suppose that & denotes S small 8a a variation due to 2 .. 95.. pn ) (a jt a 2 . . 307 ibid. a n /3 X . qn p l} . 317 from the variables (q^.... . Ldt... . . strictly analogous to the characteristic function . a n )) and if the function thus obtained (which Hamilton called the Principal Function) be denoted by W(q l} q 2 ... 2 &. a n t). we assume that it is not possible to eliminate (/3 1 /3 2 . .a n t)...characteristic function". /9 n ) a contacttransformation... p. s For consider Hamilton integral (99) Ldt... 9JF_ and therefore* the transformation . Hamilton.. (the transformation involving t}. In this case we can find in an explicit form the corresponding complete integral t . 1835. the kinetic potential of the system.. . . as to obtain relations between (q1} ... . involved the constant of energy.gt. a time taken as an epoch from which the motion is estimated.. q n PI. .... the quantities (a l 0%. i. such that the equations of motion of the system when expressed in terms of .... Phil. when the . .. p n ) from the relations connecting ( 1} . . a n&. . which s is of Hamilton partial differential equation. ( ... : which he had employed with such success in optics this function being the Action integral... /3 n ) are that interest. be expressed in terms of (q l} q2 . 1834. {3 lt . when employed in dynamics...p 1 . .. /3n p ly . Then ( 99) we have B [ Jtv Ldt= I (p r 8q. and so substituted for it the ". .. ...principal function". i...
. P) 2..dH x . On.. w).. or OL and therefore the integral of the kinetic potential satisfies the equation dW M which is W a2 .. . Let r dq  . dq. that a number (say m) of distinct relations exist between (q lt q 2 these be solved for (a ls a 2 .. X m ) are arbitrary . .. ft. . . &. ... . ft.*n) Establish the equations Pr = ~ 5 da r 9F  ^ A* fc=1 B/^ o 9a r where (Xi.... ... . (r 1. dW dW Hamilton Let Pi. ft.. so as to take the form is .. Example.... so . ft) with possible to eliminate (ft.. ... 2.. a.lt. X2 . (?i. . p q =i . in the dynamical system represented by the equations dt = cH dpr dp J1== dt _dH dqr (aj.). TAe connexion of integrals = dH  urith infinitesimal transformations admitted by the system... system. a n ) . n) .. . an . jo n . qn . (qi..... ?n. q n a l5 . expressed in terms of (q^. ?2.. . and shew that the function W=V+ is 2 X t /t fc=i an integral of the partial differential equation 144.. . dp r = . . xn we have dW = dW dt T = L dt r= i dq r dt I frWdqr or ot V r r + 2.318 Also Properties of the Integrals of [CH.pn) entirely. 2. .. let and let V denote Hamilton s integral Ft I for the ^ qz .. .. Pi. ft. (r = l.. s partial differential equation... . . Suppose that from ) the ifc relations connecting a2 . (a l5 .. ft ( ) be the initial values (at time fo) of ?M Pn) respectively. .. o?n + i.
j.* j j.. 8p B ) .... . Adopting the language of the grouptheory.143./ ^ ?)H fc=i / 82 ^ dJJ 8 2 A. dq n dp.. 8qn ) are satisfied by the where e is a small constant. = d V8pr/ 1 f?^ for (Sq 1} Bq2 . 921 . and 0(?i.". * j. q n Pi.lt.. .p n ). &. can be shewn to be satisfied by these values and hence the equations e is a small constant and is an integral of the original equations. 6 n .lt.. and hence the variational equations values .. and therefore transforms the whole family of orbits into itself. R o&. . j..lt.r \ ^ 90\ 9^/ 80 \ 9 dt 90\ d^ V8p r / \dp r ) ". +~ &H ~ *". .dp n dpidp r dqjc rf&.. j.. 80 \ S^A. . 144] Dynamical Systems let 319 be the equations of any dynamical system. . dt oq r = d*H . qn p lt . we say that the dynamical system admits this infinitesimal contacttransformation. . which is defined by the equations : .=I 9p fc ftli ct / 9?* 9pt9p r k=idpk dqkdpr ct0 9/&. ~. transforms any orbit into an adjacent orbit.gt.) = Constant this denote any integral of the system we shall shew that the knowledge of integral enables us to find a particular solution of the variational equations ( H2).fr + . We have therefore the theorem that a integrals of dynamical .~ * but we have 8 2 zz 80 9 2 /i 80 8 2 /z 80 dq^ 8 2 /z 80 dqidp r dpi 3. For the variational equation d T7 for 8q r is _ o&.... Similarly the variational equations for (Spi.. Sp 2) .? . This result can evidently be stated in the form The infinitesimal contacttransformation of the variables (q^ q 3 . 3p n dp r dq n dp k 80 rfi ".pn. djjj * + . + &H J n + &H j. j.lt... constitute a solution of the variational equations.
cf.gt. (f&. 133) is the It will be observed that the ignoration of coordinates arises from the particular case of this theorem in which the integral is p. t). any integral 4&. xn and contacttransformations which change substantially the same thing.. but since v/r) along the original orbit and along the adjacent orbit: the value of must therefore be constant throughout the motion.lt. vin. (1809). = Constant finitesimal (/. 260. t A discussion of this theorem s Lagrange Mec. v/r) . . xi. . qn .lt. theorem.lt.f&. 2 . this ( 144) transforms every orbit into an adjacent The increment of the function &.gt. (1853) : cf. q n P\..f). the system into itself. the Poissonbracket constant throughout the motion.lt. .lt. v/r).. 145. We thus have Poisson s &. is an integral. Anal. expressible in terms of (/&. Consider the in contacttransformation whose symbol is the Poissonbracket since ty orbit.. p } . .. Let ?2. t) = Constant and (qi. &. 484.gt..gt. Bull.(qi&. then the equation (&. . q n Pi... any of the other variables. and which therefore (when it proves to be independent of the integrals already known) furnishes a new 0(?i \Jr integral of the system./&. denote the two integrals which are supposed known. t.. ^r) = Constant constitutes a new integral of the system^. = Constant.gt. 120. xxxvn... given by Bertrand in Note VII to the third edition of Oeuvres de Lagrange. does not reduce to merely zero or a constant. (&..gt. ^Pn. is On the extension of Poisson s theorem to nonholonomic systems. (1909).. If (&. is v^) and ty are two integrals of the system.lt.gt. A/T). . Dautheville. by means of which it is possible to construct from two known integrals of a dynamical system a third expression which is constant along any trajectory of the system. Pn.gt. and if moreover it is not ^r and such other integrals as are already known.lt. (f&.. p.lt. Properties of the Integrals of [CH. which is a function of the variables (q lt q 2 ./ &. has constant values is an integral. . Poisson s theorem.. are &. . de la Soc.lt. de France. how Poisson s theorem can be applied when two integrals are already known. math../&.gt. where q r is the ignorable coordinate the corresponding transformation is that which changes q r without changing . The last result leads to a theorem discovered by Poisson* in 1809.. p. = Constant ( corresponds to an infinitesimal transformation whose symbol Poissonbracket ( f ). p.320 system. where e is a small constant./&. The following example will shew to obtain new integrals of a dynamical system * Journal de VEcole polyt. that if (&. q n PI. is e (&. under this transformation &. ".gt. ".. pn . Pn.
lt.. r and i~ \% = Constant. as s bracketexpressions.. the equation i = Constant momentum about the is another integral of the motion./&. a 2n ) is . a2n t). q2 . ... 2n) denote 2n integrals of a dynamical system with n degrees of freedom.. By means functions . dqr dp r \ dajdaj 21 . D.... being arbitrary constants.. . . where a r and a s are any two of the time Since the transformation from the variables (q 1} q 2 . we have (128) . . only A to refer (a lt a2 . an analogue in the theory of Lagrange s bracketexpressions..144146] Dynamical Systems 321 Consider the motion of a particle of unit mass. the last equation becomes d 3 /dq r dp r dt r= i\daidaj w.gt...gt. \//). d at r= i where the symbols A and B refer to independent displacements from one If now we take the trajectory to an adjacent trajectory.. .pi. Let u r = 0r (r=l. ... r=l becomes in this case PWifcft! and in fact. and the quantities ar . .. &) and whose components of velocity are (p l p.lt. The theorem might be expected. q n p 1} . Lagrange bracketexpressions [ar quantities (a 1} a 2 . Let these be taken as the two known integrals which is \^ . s a.. 2... .lt. symbol to a variation in which a t is the rest of the quantities varied. .remaining unchanged...fc. whose rectangular coordinates are ?2. being the integral of angular third axis. and &.. am ).p n t]. which is free to move in space under the influence of a centre of force at the The integrals of angular origin. (&. az . 146. . q n p lt .. momentum about two of the axes are (?!&. and form the . ps ?2 . and take 8 to refer to a variation in which a} only varied. the Poissonbracket (&..2 . p 3 ).5 3j2 = Constant. q n . con stituting the complete solution of the problem: the quantities u r being given functions of the variables (q lt q2 .. The constancy of Lagrange of Poisson has. ^Pn) as of these equations we can express of (a 1..p n ) at t to their values at time t+ dt is a contacttransformation.]..
.. . which establishes the result.gt. a. &.) are functions in involution: and let and w = be any two equations which are consequences of the u^ equations = 0. u r ) are in involution.. s result.. Math. or to form . . Since the equation w= w= a consequence of these equations. . u r } denote r functions of 2n independent variables (?l..*). ur = admits each of the r infinitesimal transformations whose symbols are ( "..2 .. . w) = 0. u r ) belongs to this group. and therefore each of the equations ii! = 0. it follows that the must also admit this transformation. if it is possible to express all the Poissonbrackets . the functions (u 1} u 2 to be in involution. (W 2 . . = is admits the infinitesimal transformation whose symbol equation (v.. u2 = 0.. ..2 . If the quantities (uit n^} are all zero. the functions (u lt u2 . bracketexpressions. 2. and therefore we have is (v. . . u r } are said an involutionsystem. xn = .322 or Properties of the Integrals of [a { [on. vm. . Ann. (1875)... ?2..w. ./)5 and consequently the equation v = 0. functiongroup*. (". ..f). we shall shew that v and w satisfy the relation (v.] has a constant value during the motion along any trajectory.. q n . Lagrange integrals .Pi.u r ).. ./). . for s we have know all does not enable us to find any new the integrals before we can form the Lagrange 147.... must also admit these transformations that is to say. Now v = U suppose that (i/ u 2 . . . we have . . 215. Let (u l} u2 . Involutionsystems.*. uk ) a.. as functions of (wj. M2 = 0.  . * Lie./).. .ur ) are said to form Any function of (u lt u. For since (u lt u. each of the equations M. . ^ cij] 0. ..Pn)\ (iii. unlike Poisson to s. p. being a consequence of these equations. which shews that the Lagrangebracket [a. )=0 = ur (k = l. this theorem was given by Lagrange in 1808. (Mr.Mg. ... . I. u2 0. ur = . iv} = 0. = 0..
/ dq r . &... where is &. v ...lt.. are known for the dynamical dq r ~TT dt = dH ^ Opr &..gt.l. n\ or iM=0 dq dq r s (r. .q*.p n . &.. ".f&.. . ..p. denoting it the latter expression becomes a perfect q^ .2 . as them in the form so to obtain ipn) (p\.gt. q n . it by the last article that the functions Pifi.f&. and the equations 0. . 137.. are in involution. = 0.. xx.gt.gt. 212 . . then on solving these integrals for functions (^.. . Solution of a dynamical problem result when half the integrals are known. and therefore (Pr ~fr..gt.. Journal de Math.. .146148] Hence we Dynamical Systems see that if(u 1} uy v } 323 ..lh./n) respectively l for (p .. = vr = = 0. 2.n&. where (a 1} a 2 system . p^f*. b n ) are arbitrary constants.2 . .. &._ ~ IT dt .gt.. . . (r = l. &. 5 n&. ~~ dH ". 2 u r ) are in involution. n) and substituting (/i. 2.q n any given function of (q 1.f)ia lt For since the functions follows 2 &. 0. .. and if the &. Complete Integral of a nonlinear partial differential equation As a dynamical theorem it is due to Liouville.n) Pr=fr(qi. On. * This theorem is essentially the application to Hamilton s partial differential equation of the wellknosvn method for finding a of the first order.gt.r(qi. H &.... .. +p n dq n : Hdt..lt. p. a i ^2.. . . . v r ) are in involution. S pn fn are in involution.... . .gt. ur then the functions (v lt v2 ./2 . .2. where (b l} 6 2 .... t)..lt. . t)=a r (r=l.Pi. an . a n ) are arbitrary constants.. &. dp. for systems with two degrees of freedom to extended 121 can now be in systems with any number of degrees of stated * If n distinct integrals thus The theorem may be freedom.gt. v.gt.pn) in the expression p dq l +p 2 dqt + .. remaining integrals of the system are ^ oa r =6..~. PS ~fs) =0 = 1. . differential . 148.. 2. r q .n).f&.gt. &. .lt.02. (r. The which was established : &.5 ... n). . u2 = 0.Pn.gt.pi&... (r = l.gt. 2. a. by dV(q lt the qn i.gt.. a2 . .t).lt. . &. l . q.2 are in involution. are consequences of the equations M. (1855).
2&. qn .. xn dH _ dp r _ dfr dq r dt dt A+  =d dt M^i tyr dp s si dq s dt = dfr +  df.z. . . when expressed takes the form in terms of the variables . . ?2 . i. t).2 ^ dV x \) \AJf dV d(f) r =p l dq 1 +p 2 dq 2 + ..lt.&.dH^ dt s =i and consequently dfr dt = _d_H _ I dHdf^ dq r s =idp s dq r _dH. 2 &. 2.}&.lt. problem are namely . an . n)... ni 0 The equations _ dqr dq s 2 2 dt dq r n dqn shew that is /i rfgj +/ dq + . +f H^dt q^. and hence the differential equations of the original dynamical to the first Pfaff s equivalent system of this differential form. qn . where on the lefthand side of the equation we suppose that in the quantities (a ly a z . t) . d(f&.. 0..gt. H when expressed in terms of the arguments . p%. q. . .. This equation shews that the differential form Pidqi +p 2 dq^+ .gt.gt..1. . dV.lt.. + p n dqn (q l} Hdt. . r = (r = 1. &....gt. +fn dq n ... In this equation replace the quantities a r by their values obtain an identity in (q l} q2 . d (d = V/da r ) 0. &.lt..H^dt +*2 r W da r.!. which establishes the If the perfect differential of some function V (q lt first part of the theorem. 0n. q n PI. .f&. the symbol d denote the total differential of the function we have therefore V with d V =f dq l 1 +/ dq + 2 2 . a n ) are replaced by their values (&..gt.. .gt. &.gt. and 0n). . ?n.p n i).324 Properties of the Integrals of [CH. now respect to all its arguments. .i.... +p n dq n dV . namely .... dq r where H^ stands for the function (?1./&. cf) r : we thus .
In the motion of a body under no forces with one point fixed. a t the angular momentum about v/) OXYZ let the fixed axis OZ. and corresponding to these integrals there exists a class of particular solutions of the system. xi. denote the three Eulerian angles which specify the position of the body relative to any fixed axes at the fixed point. . .gt. and let L denote the kinetic potential.. and a 2 the angular momentum about dT/d&.. n). del Cf. a the constant of energy. . 309. dell Ace. . m constant values of * Bend. 2. Let 2 .148. (b lt arbitrary constants..) &i. Burgatti. .. a system in which some of the coordinates are ignorable.. first The integrals corresponding to the ignorable coordinates are dL/dq r = Constant (r=l. (. . +i&. dT/d^ Obtain the equations Q =arctan 2 {( 2 . The expressions dV/dar are therefore constant throughout the motion. and that the remaining integrals of the system are oV 9^~ where 6. q m ) have constant values which can be chosen arbitrarily. . the normal to the invariable respectively. $. .. . LeviCivita s theorem. .lt.. of these particular solutions. while (q m qm+z. 6 2 are arbitrary constants. p. let ($.. (1901).. LeviCivita* has established a connexion between the integrals of a dynamical system and certain families of particular solutions of the equations of motion. p...#i 2 ) /a i} Hence shew that 9d is the perfect differential of a function F. qn) have constant values which are determined by the equations .* a^T (Siacci. Consider q coordinates (&. = br (r=l.j&. q n ) m q ) be the ignorable and (q m +i..lt. namely those steady motions ( 83) in which (q l} q 2 ..e. (7) the principal moments of inertia of the body at the fixed point. plane: and (# n l5 ^) 2 i denote 37730. m + 2. ra). 2. . ibid.?!. 149] Dynamical Systems 325 i. 3. are integrals of the system this completes the proof of the theorem. 149. n). dLjdq r there are oo 2in =0 (? =m + 1. the equations dV/da r where b2 . . the nonignorable . J5. x. 37 ". .4.* 97 ^".. since the Lined.. (1902). b n ) are new Example.gt.
.. 2.q n ... 2. integrals system in this case.3 %*.. to the consideration of which we assigned. .. . . we shall among themselves.pm) we an identity when for each of the substitute the corresponding function r quantities f . ".. .. we obtain relations which are satisfied identically in virtue of the These equations and of the equations (Aj) themselves. suppose that the relations (A) or (Aj) are in involution This condition is expressed by the equations !.~T7r $ * o dqr dt dfrdH ~ 5 i  dfr * 5 dH o j= m +\opjoqj V *&.~idp.! Let + i*".. K denote the function obtained from H on replacing . may be regarded as an extension of this result.gt. .p2&. c. particular case. q m ) and the initial m values of (qi. q n ...gt.gt.p m +i..p m ) take Pr=fr(qi. 2 m) (p 1} p .^ = .... [CH. which are such that if we differentiate the relations (Aj) with respect to t. q2 . we have : _ dH_df . and which are invariant relations with respect to the Hamiltonian system...^^ j\oqjOp) and writing (F.. . Let dq r l = ay/ 1 dH dp r dH ( *". ^~ (r = 1.2.p .(A 1 ).) be the equations of motion of a dynamical system. &. .(4). the function supposed not to involve the time explicitly. pm ) by their values (/i.1. so that 3F = 8^_ dp r ~dp I 8/7 r . m) .(A) Let be a system the form F (q . Properties of the Integrals of .. q*.. Moreover.. of as a the invariant relations include.e. * &..qt. .(2). . ..... i./2 .pn = Q of m relations. Pn) (r = 1.. which when solved r l ) (r for = 1..... shall now proceed. Hamiltonian Since the relations (A x ) are invariant relations. 2...d and 5T ". . . they will involve arbitrary constants.a . H being ..).326 (q lt 2 . (p 1} jo 2 ....gt. m).../m ). this Tf}= S /* becomes this equation becomes (Pi. xn q m ) can be arbitrarily The theorem of LeviCivita. .
we obtain We shall now shew that the system of equations ( Pr =fr Pm+i.m are zero in virtue of equations (A).. we have from (3) and hence equations dt dp __ 9?r (6) ___ *=i9p. (2). 2. (1). q lt . .e. d fdE\ dt(dq r ) dt(ty. is invariant with respect to the Hamiltonian equations. and using (2). . pn . ?) (r = 1. (5). 2./*f now taking account of (B). . . We have from the Hamiltonian equations d and /7/ 57T I dt \oq r / I _ (BK\ ~ f 1 ( ".gt. (B). .J (r=m + l. . . dq &.} *=i wf* f)ff (r = 1. . i. and combining this with (4) we have Substituting in (1) this value ofdH/dq r the equations + {H. using (B). = 5T". dp. fr \ = [K. m). ldq r dqs . . &.149J Dynamical Systems (3) 327 From we have [H. . pm+2 . fr}+^~ !/.r.fr }. that d fdK\ and . . (3). become dps ldpr dqs dpr i^r^ . . 5 f f dq r ) ^ ^ ^T g=l oq r dq (5) gives on differentiation. (4).gt. /.
The solution of this system can.. .pn.Properties of the Integrals of or by (7). shew that the LeviCivita particular solutions corresponding to the integral ~ = Constant (Pi bqz)lq\ are given by the equations 2i = 0. : contain oo m particular solutions of the arbitrary constants..&. p.. which are in involution.. by making use of the integral of energy. dqm /dt) in terms of (q lt q z . which can be thus stated To any set of TO invariant relations of a Hamiltonian system. let the variables . Systems which possess integrals linear in the momenta. where e is an arbitrary constant. For the dynamical system defined by the Hamiltonian function H= qi pi . the others being and the general solution of this system. which will identically satisfied equations. will give Hamiltonian equations. expressed by the equations dqr _dH dpr _ dH dqr . we shall obtain m . = 0... . 150..*.. which are in involution. Pl = ae~ t+e . xn d dK\ . there corresponds in general a family of oo 2m particular solutions of the system. (m 1).. qm ): from the invariant character of (A) and (B) it follows that on substituting these values in the Hamiltonian independent equations.!. Pa. m there corresponds a family of oo particular solutions of the Hamiltonian : system. [CH. namely those which express (dqjdt. shall We now proceed to the consideration of systems which possess integrals of certain special kinds. . qn ) be determined in terms of (qlt qz . qz = e~ t+f . d /dK\ jrU = is / which proves that the system of equations (A) and (B) respect to the Hamiltonian equations. be reduced to that of a system of order (m 1) m : and thus we obtain LeviCivita s theorem. which are obtained by another set of m : m integrating a system of order Example. If the invariant relations (A) are integrals of the system..q p 2 z . q m +i. ~dfdp r dt~ . Suppose that a dynamical system.. (PI. dq 2 /dt.gt. whose determination depends on the integration of a system of order (m  1). invariant with Now from the equations (A) and (B)..qm).. = be~ t+e . they will contain integrals of a arbitrary constants and hence to a set of Hamiltonian system.aqi 2 + bq^.
it follows from the above equation that . where (fi. so that the new variables (P l} ./) are given functions of (qi.. this transformation the differential equations of the new set of Hamiltonian equations dynamical system dQr_ dt dPr dt bQ r and the known integral becomes Pn = Constant.. .n)..t +fnp n = Constant. w 1)...q2 .. varies... and let q?. Q M _j) remain dqi_d&. qn ) to the n ) are P defined ( 132) by the equations Pr = By are changed into a *=1 i^f O^r dP r _J&...ln &.. we shall have qn ) . suppose that the (n 1) integrals which constitute 2. .h_ f /i so that if (Q 1} /2 f _ dqn _ j n Jn f ** *&.lt. Suppose then that we consider the contacttransformation which extension of the pointtransformation from the variables (q 1} q 2 variables (Q lt Q2 . 7T~7 which its is of order (?? !).gt.. qn )= Constant (r=l. 150] has an integral which is Dynamical Systems linear 329 .. is the . Then if constant and Q n the variables change in such a way that (Qx Q 2 . Qn be a function defined by the equation where in the integrand the variables by their values in terms of (q lt Q 1} is (q2 ... and homogeneous in (p 1} p2 .gt. .lt. Q n ) are regarded as a set of new variables in terms of can be expressed.. Q2 .. which ((?!. Q 2 . . Qni) q n ) are supposed replaced before the integration carried out. we : have dK/BQ n 0.149./. so the function K does not involve Q n explicitly and thus we obtain the result that when a dynamical system . .f2 ... . 2. .. Since dPn /dt = 0. . p n ).... 2 Qn).K (r = l.. q2 . . ...qn). Consider the system of equations dq\ _dq*_ = 2 _ dq n "... solution are Qr (qi. .. . say fipi +f a + p&..lt... P .... q3 .
or must be transformable by a pointtransformation into a system which velocities (q l} q2 qn ) and a potential energy V(qi. mem. 1.Pi. (1907).Pn. (&. quadratic in the . xxiv.. ( This result might have been foreseen from the theorem ?2.gt.. pi. in p. (.. if in (p l . Collect. if T and admit the same infinitesimal transformation. This result is known as Levy s theorem. = Constant an integral of the system.. Chelini : P...gt. q n) which is . from the variables (q l} q. there a pointtransformation. and conversely.) 2. Grossi. we have the theorem that the only dynamical which systems possess integrals linear in the momenta are those which possess ignorable coordinates.*. it is clear that the Hamiltonian function of the equations after transformation cannot involve Qn explicitly. or which can be transformed by an extended pointtransformation into systems which possess ignorable coordinates. consists in increasing the ignorable coordinate by a small quantity and leaving the other coordinates and the velocities unaltered .330 Properties of the Integrals of and homogeneous in (p lt p2 . namely the trans formation which. . D. p n }. and The converse of this theorem is evidently true. then the differential equations of motion admit the For when is linear and homogeneous infinitesimal transformation wr hose symbol is / ). math. .lt..!. ^ ". ..lt.gt... (f&.. Example Shew that if integral linear in the components of belong to a linear complex.2 . 144) that if q n . p n )... . 25. Considering of a now .... q 2 But in either case the functions T and possesses an ignorable coordinate.. then V there exists an integral linear in the velocities. having been published by Levy* in 1878. ignorable coordinate. this transformation is ($ 132) an extended pointtransformation this pointtransformation is transformed by change of variables so as to have the symbol : df/3Qn . kinetic energy T(q l} q2 . . the line of action of the force must cf. (Cerruti.gt.. q l} . . Example If the equations d &. the differential equations of motion of a particle admit an momentum. &. . Palermo Rend.. in particular . LXXXVI. is . V when the coordinates are so chosen that one of them is the ignorable coordinate. systems whose kinetic potential consists qn . integral linear in independent the velocities may exist the system must possess an ignorable coordinate.. which is such that the transformed Hamiltonian function does not involve Q n The system as transformed possesses therefore an Qs&. . xn possesses an integral which is linear exists (Qi&. Comptes Rendus. evidently admit the same infinitesimal transformation.. [CH. q n ) which is an we in order that see that of the velocities. q n ) to new variables Qn).
.. as all it contains only the quantities (q lt q2 . Let &. . 151] where f (?i&. . + Cn q n + C= Constant. qn. be an integral of the system .. Dynamical Systems ik 331 a mi ) are given functions 2 2 a T=% i=lk=l qiq k .. . qn &. n).. T the kinetic energy.... on differentiating we have Substituting in this equation for (q ly q2 ... .... .. Q n ) linearly. q n ) their values as given by the equations of motion.. (i) xvn..(?i&. .. . 8T dT (r=l. \ d idT\ dt \dq r = Qr )^9o. shew that it one of its positions displace an invariable system in one direction from any defined by the form .. this integral cannot be chosen at random. which are supposed to depend only on (qi. we can therefore differentiate it with respect to (q l} q2 n new equations which. . where (C l C. (1852).gt... Let (q1} q*. . This relation. q n q i9 .. ?2. t)= Constant it.. . Q n ) the unknown forces. for which however the acting forces are unknown (it being supposed that the forces depend of application. p. in the Before proceeding to discuss systems which possess integrals quadratic we shall obtain a result due to Bertrand*.. Q n a u a 12 .) Determination of the forces acting on a system for which an integral is known. and (Q 1} Q2 .. in the velocities.. we have a relation involving (Q ly Q. t}. must be an identity: . ..2 .gt.. ?2&... . Q. . Moreover.. and where (ft.gt.2 ..2 . but must satisfy certain conditions.lt. and so form linearly. .. &.. . and not on the solely on the coordinates of their points discover the we can unknown forces provided one of these velocities points). 2. integral is known. . 121. is possible to in the space Sn = Shew that for this a necessary n n 2 2 can be trans i=l k=l and sufficient condition is that the ds 2 formed in such a way that one of the variables becomes absent from the coefficients. . qn . namely that motion of a dynamical system of given constitution.. qn ). to of which we can assign arbitrary independent values. . 151. Cn C) are functions of (q 1} q%. q n ). . . q n ) be the n independent coordinates of the system.. (Cerruti and Levy. ?)) possess an integral of the form Cl qi + C2 q 2 + .q 2 qn) so the equations of motion are .. will integral will * Journal de Math.gt..gt. Q n ) The suffice in general to determine these unknown quantities... #1..150... likewise containing (Q1} Q2 .
. we have for x and y from the ^~ dy dxj ^..= dy dP 0. + dQ ox dQ + dR = ^ ^ ox dy U.... . M dv .. ___ dv dy _ may possess an integral (other than the integral of energy) of the form = Constant.8F ^ dx J ^ dx \ Kdy J 8F ^8F = dK dK + ^ySjT^ ^x r ox oes dy dy . Differentiating the last equation. c) x 2 + (ax2 + b x + c } y.= 0. 6.lt...332 relate to Properties of the Integrals of an actual system only when these values of (Q lf [CH.. to Example. + c. ^ dy _. shew that it is of the form F(&. Q. y) which. If an integral of the equations of motion of a point two different problems. + c . from which integral it is in the readily deduced that the terms of the second degree must have the form (ay"..gt.. (Bertrand. t} = Constant... K are functions of x and y... 2&. dR ... are those in which the integral is common to several distinct dynamical problems. . y x T~ \dy n /. c^ are constants...b y bx + Cj) xy...fc . /A . Qn) are not independent.. so that (Q 1} Q2 Qn) are indeterminate. T...8F Q * I &.. y~ /it .. ....lt. Equating to zero the terms of the third degree in x and y. Application to the case in possess an integral quadratic of a particle the velocities. we have dP ^ dx =0.. Qn ) satisfy the equation the cases in which the equations for the determination of (Q Q .. by 6 .. Ptf + Qxy + Rif + Sy+Tx+ K where P. and substituting equations of motion. xn Q 2 . coordinates and $ is the derivate with respect to t of (x.. R. da.. in a plane is common x.gt.._ . (A). &. } ..+ (.. whose equations of motion let it be required to find the application of Bertrand s method.) 152.. .. where (a.. in order that the equations of nature of the potential energy function motion of a particle which is free to move in a plane under the action of As an F conservative forces.2axy .. y. y) are rectangular a function $ (x.fi.dV\ . represents the equations of a set where of straight lines.. 8. equated to a constant.
we have 2P 8F dV ~ ox Q v ~ + r dK z. whose coordinates are p/m and qfm we shall exclude this simple particular case. we have terms of the second degree in x and y in equation C/7/ ^jOC (jCC (J U from these equations we deduce 8 = mx + p. and the latter with respect to x. oy ox 0 w. . 97 d This equation shews that if (m.my + q. 97 dy Darboux* has shewn that this partial differential equation for the function 7 can be integrated in the following way. we have  dxdy dx dy Q. and equating the two values of d*K ^ thus obtained. p. and hence it follows that the con stants (m. (mx + p) . Differentiating the former of these equations with respect to y. we have 87 dx . where (m. dy* dy dy dxdy dx dy dx and replacing P. q} are constants. 152] Dynamical Systems to zero the 333 Equating (A). R by their values as found above. p. Equating to zero the terms linear in x and y in (A). T = . (ii) vi. q) must each be zero. 371 (1901). p. y. q) are different from zero. .151. Equating to zero the terms independent of x and y in (A). p. so that the integral contains no terms of the first degree in x. * Archives Neerlandaises. we have or dV. the force is directed to a fixed centre of force.
This form puts in evidence the curves of the partial differential interesting fact that the characteristic where the arbitrary constant is now equation are two families of confocal conies. under the action of conservative cases only of where /and &. + 3y y =. 2 we form the 2 2 2 differential equation of the characteristics xy (dy If in this . which amounts to supposing that tt = c i. It follows that the the motion of a particle in a plane.dx) + (x y .lt. can write this integral in the form where m By i 2 a simple change of notation.c ) dxdy = 0.334 Properties of the Integrals of [CH. oaofi d/3 + B^ = A^ da ". we x2 I &. C that the partial differential equation will 2 known from the general theory d take the form V + da. it Clairaut s 2 z equation we take x and y as new variables. 2 . on performing the change of variables we which can be immediately integrated. where A and B are e find functions of a and y3 . Taking then as new variables a and ellipses and hyperbolas. 6 = 0. . d = 0. y a2 a2 c a. partial differential equation for 2 V becomes . (y ~x +c F ) 531 cxdy .lt. giving are arbitrary functions of their arguments. so that * = ?. if moreover we replace by ^c the . we can always by change of axes reduce the given integral to the simpler form ^ (xy 2 yx) + ex + 2 c y 2 + K = Constant. xn Excluding the particular case in which the constant a is zero. 0. equation: we thus find that its integral is becomes a (7?^ + 1 ) (mx 2 y 2 } me = 2 0. C it is /3 the parameters of the confocal y^^c^^F)}*. dV dx _ dV dy To integrate this equation. c 6 = 0. denotes the arbitrary constant. in fact.3a?30.
transformation. 2...%) denote the determinant formed by these functions.. Since by differentiation we have the kinetic energy is T= A (V . .gt..P) # 2 ) * and an inspection of the forms of T and F shews that these problems are of Liouvilles class ( 43). n) be n 2 functions depending solely on the arguments indicated. . G. di Pirro. and are therefore integrable by quadratures.152. . (Stackel. . It is obvious from 43 that all dynamical systems which are of Liouville s type. 153. 315. homogeneous and of the second degree in the velocities. namely A^f* where (a 1( a 2 . most general dynamical system whose equations of motion possess an integral quadratic in the velocities (in addition to the integral of energy) has not yet been effected.$ (0) ?T05. and 4&.. but also (n 1) other integrals. General dynamical systems possessing integrals quadratic in the of the explicit form of the velocities. Dynamical Systems 335 which possess an integral quadratic in the velocities other than the integral of energy. Annali di Mat..). or which are reducible to this type by a point. (1896). dynamical system is reducible to the form Shew that if the kinetic energy of a and the potential energy is zero. possess such integrals : and several more extended types have been determined *. xxiv.. . there exists not only the integral of energy.) 2. Example freedom be Let the equations of motion of a dynamical system with two degrees of d where * Cf. I =1 . .. 153] forces. p. 1 ". is 3. an) are arbitrary constants: and that the problem soluble by quadratures. . The complete determination Example 1 . Let H (q k ) (&. 1 (* = 2. 2.. and /3 are the parameters of confocal ellipses and hyperbolas.".= let 2 fc=i W *H (1=1. are those for which the potential energy has the form /(a) where a. . .
functions of the coordinates. shew that the equations at \cq r / define the of motion... the equation of energy.336 and (a. and $ w denotes the minor of $ w )... Shew that a complete integral of the HamiltonJacobi equation n C = 2 i=U where 2. and if Jl where &.. shew that = Constant. . a. n in which the elements of the th its line are functions of q k only. (Goursat. A 6 ) are quadratic in the velocities and distinct from 2 2 If A and A denote (afcA ) and (a & A ) respectively.... A dynamical system is denned by its kinetic energy ni (where $ denotes the determinant $21 $22 $2rc nl 2 . . A. 6) Properties of the Integrals of are [on.. .+a n il (a 1? a 2 . etc. . q?) as the original equations and that one set of equations can be transformed to the other by the trans formation MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES... {a 1 $ + a 2 $j 2 + . and by potential energy * * where ^ = ^11 \^ fc and the quantity denotes a function of q k only.t ) are arbitrary constants. 1.) If is an integral of a dynamical system which possesses an integral of energy. . ^ ct ^ OT *f = Constant. system possess an any functions of the coordinates (q. oq r same relations between the coordinates (g^.lt. q 2 ) : and let this integral a q^ + 2A J! j 2 + & ?22 = Constant.?/ / ( A\ _ ) 2 (o jji + Zh ft qj + b q^\ stands for dq r jdf. where ( . are also integrals.
^12. is obtained when we replace h of the (Albeggiani.^!. n . and denotes all the Poissonbrackets formed from every n functions G... il..? 4 = first (i=l.).. (r=l.. & = Constant. and v/ are any two integrals whatever. yn... #12. 2 &.. a2 = Constant.) 4. /z.xii] 3. if &. i&. AV&.gt. i.lt. D.. il&. Let the expression f [JZi.). q n PI... Ghv are if Ai&.n) d{ is = Br(3li ?2... .... A* O?AI ?A 2 oqx k p^ p\ k (Laurent. . . . . shall satisfy the simultaneous partial differential equations of the where Pi(y h F} denotes the expression which . . Dynamical Systems A system of equations 337 jf= .. 2.. . 5. an Shew that the equations must have the Hamiltonian form . S n. 2.^ n 2r 57 ) r . a* = Constant. where + k = ri).K*Ui ^2t.) is also an integral. 2.. jn. *//) such that integral... . A is particle of unit referred to fixed rectangular axes are y) free to move in a plane under forces derivable from a potentialenergy function /(#. ..) functions 6. A r(qi. F in P (F n t ) by as many y s.l l. (i&. shew that represents the necessary and sufficient conditions that the functions yt = F*t(xn. /3 2 . Vi2..lt. the Poissonbracket is also (&. ?2.. g n. /3 fc integrals of a Hamiltonian system of differential equations.r. 2. xji (j=l. .hv) (* = !&.gt. order 2. i A ..) be called a Poissonbracket of the nth order. A ^n.. ^ =1 5 2 arising from the equations &.gt. ?2. . . dqr dff ~dity r If at dH ~dt~~dgr dp r _ (Korkine. *&. (... ..gt.?*.lt. .) where HI... ^ n are functions of the nv variables If G\.gt. the variables being &. . are e any 2 !) = Constant.. H 2 ..gt. = Constant. . mass whose coordinates h.^.. shew that A.gt. uJ :B(^.lt.. functions of . j /&. .. = Constant.gt.lt.i/h V ! G2 (h . Xkv".. V . . y\ the total energy being Shew that 82 \ i I if the orthogonal trajectories of the curves y)} + 5~~9 lg {*/(*! ayy Constant 22 W. n 2..
&. /3m are functions of A^.xrXg) Ct = Constant. . y). g (. xn are orbits. (Bertrand.... the differential equations of motion of the particle possess an integral linear and homogeneous in the velocities (#. 2 s=l of .... 2.) where the quantities ks and a rg are constants. (Pennacchietti. 8. shew that the surface is applicable on : a surface of revolution.3m).. 7.) . #2 &.. shew that this integral can be written 3m 3n 8 2 s=l .. where /i. The equations of motion of a free system of m particles are ^ If =X 8 (s=l.gt. . Two particles move on a surface under the action of different forces depending if their differential equations of motion have in their respective positions on only common an integral independent of the time. /2 . an integral exists of the form 3m 8 2 =1 fx g s Ct = Constant.gt. .338 Properties of the Integrals of Dynamical Systems [en.r 8 + r. ^sm? an(* C* is a constant.
T. whose dimensions are very small compared with the distances which separate them) it is usual to consider the problem of deter their motion in an ideal in which the are replaced by bodies form. (1911). The motions of the bodies relative to their centres of gravity (in the consideration of which and shapes of course cannot be neglected) are discussed separately. to determine their subsequent motion. Math. Lovett. Quart. p. : trois corps (Paris. we shall discuss . Report on the progress of the solution of the Problem of Three Bodies (Brit. XLII. Bep. The problem of three bodies cannot be solved in finite terms by means of any of the functions at present known to analysis. In some cases however (e. Essai historique sur le 1817) B. and (as they have approximately the form of spheres. so that between each pair of particles there is an attractive force which is proportional product of the masses of the particles and the inverse square of their distance apart: they are free to move in space. A. Whittaker. and is known as the Problem may Three particles attract each other according to the Newtonian law. have been published on the subject f In the present chapter. Problem of Three Bodies. that since the This difficulty has year 1750 over 800 memoirs. integrals of the system and their application to the reduction of the problem to a dynamical problem with a lesser number of degrees of the known freedom. Journ. 1852) E. in the Theory of the Satellites of the effect. p. and are initially supposed to be moving in any given manner .CHAPTER XIII THE REDUCTION OF THE PROBLEM OF THREE BODIES 154. Grant. 1899. : : 222 . their sizes of Major Planets) the oblateness of one of the bodies exercises so great an cannot be divided in this way. stimulated research to such an extent. 0. mining of masses to the masses of the particles equal respective bodies and occupying the positions of their centres of gravity*. many of them bearing the names of the greatest mathematicians. Introduction. Ass. Gautier. in the Theory Precession and Nutation. History of Physical Astronomy from the earliest ages to the middle of the nineteenth century (London. of all dynamical problems be enunciated as follows : The most celebrated of Three Bodies. who discusses the memoirs of the period 18981908. 252.g. 121) and E. e.g. to the The practical importance of this problem arises from its applications to Celestial Mechanics the bodies which constitute the solar system attract : each other according to the Newtonian law. t For the history of the that the problem probleme des cf.
9).m. 9 n i 2 g^+V.Handl. ix. 2. Q. Kongl. 9h and these are a set of 18 differential equations. Sv.. . Q.. w. . kinetic energy of the system fixed rectangular axes Oxyz.qJ + (q q ) +(q q Y}~^ 3 2 2 2 5 3 6 The equations of motion of the system are m k q = dV/dq r r (r=l.pi. z l where k2 is the constant of attraction we shall suppose the units so chosen that so that this attraction becomes m^m^r^ ~ 12 1 . each of the 1st order. for an improved Lagrangiau reduction.&. and H= r= S dq r ~r.. and the system therefore Writing mk q r = p r (r = 1 . 2 is Tc 1 mmr^ l z . . . where k denotes the integer part of ^ 9 differential equations. determination of the variables (q It q. Let P.gt. m m 2 . .gt. 3) their masses. .qj* + (q .m. (1772). 9. R. . Take any is and let (q lt q 2 q 3 ).. Lagrange of course did not reduce the system to the Hamiltonian form. may be In the since no forces act except the mutual attractions of the * Eecueil des pieces qui ont remporte les prix de I Acad. xm and of the problem.q )} * . Boblin. 2). Cf. de Paris.9). . seen from the following considerations.gt.. .^9) which was shewn by Lagrange* that this system can be reduced to a system That a reduction of this kind must be possible is only of the 6th order.q a . 2mjc _ ~ oE ~~r~ oq r the equations take the Hamiltonian form at _ oH ^ dp r dp r j at j7 \ _ ~  1 ". ^12) their mutual distances.q*)* + 2 (q6 q 9) ". XLII. (TIB. and the corresponding term in potential energy of the system & is _ m. each of the 2nd of order 18. . be the coordinates of P. respec T= m. . (q 4 tively. the potential energy is therefore is m m.2 m 3 m {(q. The q 5 q6 ). denote the three particles.p2. ? si&. (r + This system consists of is order. R . . . (ra 1. 3 ??z 1 q 2 7} + (q s 8 . 2.2 . Vet. r 1 2 The unity.340 155.w a . .. (q 7 qs q 9 ).qj + (q. The Reduction of The differential equations the [CH. first place. + : + 2 3 the force of attraction between m^ and m . (1907). No. for the l&.  {(q 7 {(q.
xxvi. a8) a9 are constants. is . p q p + q p. q + m q . the angular momentum of the three bodies round each of the coordinate axes is constant throughout the motion. By use of these three integrals we may to be able to depress further the expect equations of motion from the 12th to the 9th order. This fact is expressed by the 6 integrals j m q .+ m q . is in this fact first (though contained implicity in explicitly noticed by Jacobi* in nodes.(p.. where a lt a.lt. This fact is analytically expressed qiP2 by the equations  q2pi + q^p* qp +qp q p = a. and Lastly.(p +p +p + m. =a + p4 qp qp qp 5 4 7 s a 7 e s 5 8 9 a t 6 9 7 7 9 9 . we Journ. where azimuth. So finally 6th order. independent : . Lagrange s memoir already cited) was 1843. consisting of two functions which are in involution with each other and with and hence the HamiltonJacobi partial differential with 6 Equations. may H : equation variables can be reduced to a partial differential equation with 6 . generally referred to as the elimination of the is it two units as in time. In the second place.". by using the integral of energy and eliminating the the equations of motion may be reduced to a system of the From the point of view of the theory of Partial Differential p. It may be expected that the use of these integrals will enable us to depress the equations of motion from the 18th to the 12th order.. express the matter by saying that the integrals of angular momentum give rise to an involutionsystem. position of the system is taken to be the azimuth of one of the bodies with respect to some fixed axis the axis of and the other coordinates (say z\ define the position of the relative to the this system plane &.lt. + m q. This way to the 8th order. 115. ..2 . * possible again to depress the order of the equations by 42.155] Problem of Three Bodies 341 particles. fiir Math. having an ignorable coordinate. But when one of the coordinates which define the a.. q p = 03.2 or 4 independent variables this will be the HamiltonJacobi partial differential equation for the reduced system. and consequently the corre sponding integral (which is one of the integrals of angular momentum abovementioned) can be used to depress the order of the system by two units the equations of motion can therefore. as a matter of fact. the centre of gravity of the system moves in a straight line with uniform velocity. t . be reduced the coordinate &.(p +p +p 3 7 2 3 3 s 2 s 8) t 2 6 3 9 3 6 9) t =a =a 4 . a6 are constants.
number of free particles in space. which has been used in researches of the system. let (#. xm Jacobi s equation. **.%) 2 + (& .. and sum for all the Multiply these equations by # f y { . . . over all pairs of particles in the system. in considering the motion of any Newtonian the to law.342 The Reduction of the [CH.*+&* + i **). .) be the We shall suppose the centre of gravity of the system to be at rest . are the masses of two typical particles of the system.{(* i. and consequently we have = (2?H. . p.j .gt. add them. r=Umi (#. system and we have S. 2 TO^. and the summation is extended between them at time t.) X 2m.5. we thus F is since homogeneous of degree particles of the system obtain 27/1. (X (^m x t But (2ii) x 2 nii X? i i 2 t} =2m i. or 2m i ( or ^ This is 2 called Jacobi s equation. 8F z f respectively.gt. 22. : **~5. : i Thus we have T= ^ *".1 in the variables. 1. V . . * Vorlesungen iiber Dyn. the arbitrary constant in determined by the condition that V is to be zero when the particles are at infinitely great distances from each other.m xi Q. V being If now F denotes the potential energy of the system.) } ^. we have m * my s F= . i faSt+ytifi + z i Zi) = &. will be called Jacobi s function and denoted by the the M concerning stability symbol *.3 t % (x t %) 2 . yf coordinates of the particle m t referred to fixed rectangular axes with the centre of gravity The kinetic energy of the system is as origin. z&.. has introduced the function other each attract according 1 2 i.3 where v^ denotes the velocity of the particle In the same way we can shew that TOJ relative to ?ny . which Jacobi*. r^ is the distance is the total mass of the particles. . J where m t and m.gt. 156. i where the summation on the righthand side is extended over every pair of particles in the = in virtue of the properties of the centre of gravity. .1 IJ The equations of motion of the particle m f are 8F 8F w=^. .&) a + &  2 &. . This function.
lt. Ann. m (P?. : Kief. (1915). on substitution of the new variables for the old. by use of the integrals of motion of the centre of gravity.p s p 7 (pS +p 4 ) K?/ * .gt. vin. m + p q + p._ 1. it is easily seen that q2 q s coordinates of 1 relative to s (?/. dqr_dH dt dpr__W dt dp r dq r reduce this system from the 18th to the 12th order. p. by use of the integrals of motion of the centre of For this gravity. Atti del R. Univ. we have where. . .. qs qs } are the coordinates of to ra3 (q 7 q8 q) are the coordinates of s (pi. . purpose we perform on the variables the contacttransformation defined by the equations first to we have dW where W = p. .transformation used in 158 is reduction Hamiltonian) form. It appears worthy of note from the fact that it is an extended pointtransformation. C.156. ) 2 are the relative m 6 .?/ . p p f . also Woronetz. + p + p + (P* + ps + Ps) qs + (p + p +p ) q 2 2 3 4 4 5 q&. 12 .. Cf.?/. . (1896) that used due to the author.p 3 ) are the (&. m .gt. of wi lf (/&. Problem of Three Bodies to the 343 Reduction 12th order. 2 3&. [PiP* + P*P* + P* P* + \Pi* + \ Ps + 2 ". Veiieto. p 2 . 907. 1907.4. Lie.lt. rfp/__w dt~ ^qr dt dp r . It will Taking the equations of motion of the Problem of Three Bodies in the form obtained in 155. by pure pointtransformations. The second transformation in the alternative Another reduction of the Problem of 160) is not an extended pointtransfurmation.% now become 138) = a# ". of momentum . and was originally published in the first edition of this work (1904). ( Three Bodies can be constructed from the standpoint of Lie s Theory of Involutionsystems and Distinguished Functions cf.? 6 6 4 7) q7 s 6 s 9 . cxxin. Bull. 1st. Math. 157 is due to Poincare. The differential equations &. PS Pa) are the components of momentum ( of the system.q +p q + p + p q + (p.R.q. which shews that the reduction could be performed on the equations in their Lagrangian (as opposed to their in The contact. Interpreting these equations. to carry out the reductions which have been that it is possible to retain the Hamiltonian form appear of the equations throughout all the transformations. LXXIV. .). p.lt. 157] 157. and LeviCivita. ) components are the components of momentum of w 2 and . shall We now proceed described*. 282./.
: . namely where A A A l} 2 . The system of the 12th order obtained in the last article must now be reduced to the 8th order. a p = Constant. . . (q 3 sin q s +p s +q +q 2 cos q6 cos qs cos g6 cos q 5 4 +p q ) +p qt ) 3 6 2 sin qt  sin qg f . 9 We can without loss of generality suppose these constants of integration to be zero. Apply equations q to the variables the contacttransformation denned / by the /\ = dW Wr ) ) ^ = Wr / dW 1C* (r=l&. This may be done in the following way. Reduction the 8th order.?/ cos ql cos qs +P* (qA : ~ q* q 4 cos qt sin q s cos g/sin q s f +p 2 (g/ sin q..qtf + (9. to 158. r__ dt The system of the 12th order. where W =Pi follows (&.6). derived from H in the same way.. and the new Harniltonian function will be ...gt. to which the been reduced. 3 are constants. as this only means that the centre of gravity of the system is taken to be at rest the reduced kinetic potential obtained by ignoration of : coordinates will therefore be derived from the unreduced kinetic potential by replacing p 7 p 8 p 9 by zero. and three integrals of angular momentum. H = Constant. The Reduction of the [CH. by use of the integrals of angular momentum and elimination of the nodes.lt.2. xm coordinates q s q 9 are altogether absent from the corresponding integrals are H. It is readily seen that the new variables can be interpreted physically as . equations of motion of the problem therefore be written (suppressing the accents to the letters) of three bodies have now may r__ dt _ dqr dp r where [q* {(q.g 2 5) + (q 3 This system possesses an integral of energy.344 Since (//. 7 p = Constant. they are ignorable p = Constant. by using the three integrals of angular momentum and by eliminating the nodes. .
Ox 6 is . 158] Problem of Three Bodies 345 . We have now (namely made use and p = s k) of one of the three integrals of angular momentum the elimination of the nodes when the other two : . is a constant. .2. ) qs cot q K + p.gt. The equations of motion in terms of the new variables are ( 138) dq^JbH_ ".2 relative to the same axes qs l . A * a* * j. m and Ox respectively. on substitution in Pi H of the new variables / the old. m . 6). j.gt.*&.Pi qi + p qt . 1 . The equation dq /dt = dH/dk can be integrated by a simple quadrature when the rest of the equations of motion have been integrated the equations .gt.pt q./  ^ it (r = 1.T. and p 5 will therefore system of the 10th order for q 5 fall out of the system. qt . which thus reduces to the = where /&.P* q) q* cot qa +p s q 4 cosec q9 2 +p 9 q3 q } } .gt. take a new set of moving axes Ox y z is to be the intersection or node of the plane Oxy with the plane of the three bodies. Oy is to be a line perpendicular to this in the plane of the Ox three bodies. where A. In addition to the fixed axes Oxyz. ^ 1 qi q* ) 3 2 Pa qi + Pa q* . . 4. / . Then relative to axes drawn through ??? 3 parallel q^) are the coordinates of to Ox Oy (q3 q) are the coordinates of m. cosec qt + ) tfa _o o K Pi fc )8 ^V + PS ?/  /&.?/.157. (q2 q3 . dp^__dj[ dt dt dp r dq r for where. p{ Oy .lt. 3. the corresponding integral PS a = k. is the angle between Ox and and p 2 are the components of 3 s t the angle between Oz and Oz q momentum of m relative to the axes Ox . +p. and is therefore an ignorable coordinate . is q\qi) V* IB * ^* * *". is to be normal to the plane of the three bodies./.  . p and p p and ps are the components of momentum of 2 relative to the same axes are the angular momenta of the system relative to the axes Oz . is to be replaced by the constant k wherever occurs in H. and Oz (&. q cosec q +p 6 } NOW T q 5 does not occur in is H. we have j./& cot ?/ 2 +j3 5 ^2 cosec g/ 1 ~ s + ^sV} r PiP L +P p4 ~ jf&.
. they become (pa qi (pz qi . p. {(Pi q*Pa qi +ps q* pt qs) cot q 6 + & cosec ^6 2 } fl 4 / iV . . sin ? =^ 2  The values of the constants .Pi q. q 2 q3 q t p^. p2 p3 p4 .lt. xm are expressed in terms of the new variables./ 6 in the system.? and p a and so can be regarded as replacing the equations dq dt _ dH ".#V in terms of the other variables.?/ shall choose the axis (cf. The system thus becomes dq r dt _dH ". we have = ~ ds ds dq6 ds .! and J. of the system. &. dp 6 d&. ^ t. ) q* p*qi + ps q*  ^V) cot (? + & cosec W} 2 .pi qi + ps q* . dpi _ dt _ 9ff ". These equations determine q&.lt. q 6 is to be replaced by value found from the equation k cos qt = pi qi . cot q cot q + P* +P cos qs=Ai. Oz is momentum the special system.lt. so that last to be the line of resultant angular and z are zero l 69) the constants A A : plane thus introduced called the invariable plane of the The two equations then give (/ k cos =p*qi .34(3 integrals of angular The Redaction of momentum the [CH.p q*) sin q cosec q . 2 depend on the position of the fixed axes Oxyz we a. . then if s be the function obtained when this value of q6 is substituted denotes any one of the variables g/.W = ~ _d# dq r rr12^4^ ~dpr dt where H = V2m 1 _ + 2m / 3 1 j/ ^_ (q q* 3 i  2 q l q. after its the derivates of H have been formed. Now in let H H .k sin ? .jpsV) cos & cosec + ^ cos ? pi q* +Ko 3 / f s ?".piq. = 0.Piqt) cot ^ + ^ cosec ^ 2 } and where. 4 . .pi q + Pt qs . . J.2 +^V .pfq* + pfq* .
these terms in k can therefore be regarded as part of the potential energy. is zero by p. and we can say that the system differs from the corresponding system for which k is zero only by certain modifications in the potential It may easily be shewn that when k is zero the motion takes energy. The Hamiltonian system of . state the 6th order thus obtained is. Reduction to the Qth order. 159] Problem of Three Bodies p = K 347 But since 0. H *". As the actual reduction is not required subsequently. it will not be given here in detail.lt. place in a plane. . 159. we have dH/dq = 6 /&.gt. of the general Problem of Three Bodies. It is also to be noted that this value of terms which do not involve the variables p plane through their centre of H differs from the value of H when k l . T^ ^ mm 2 s (q^ + qf) 2 mm s 1 (q^ + q% ) 2 * mm l 2 2 {(&. } Many of the thus (q z q have simple physical interpretations quantities occurring in is twice the area of the triangle formed by the bodies: and qiq4 ) 1 H : 2m is mm 2 A (/ 1 1 \ /I 1 \ the moment of inertia of the three bodies about the line in which the plane of the bodies meets the invariable gravity. by making use of the integral of energy H = Constant. this reduction the and eliminating the time. Three are Bodies reduced to the of system of the 8th order and thus (suppressing the . The theorem of 141 shews that in performing Hamiltonian form of the differential equations can be conserved.accents) dqr dt _ dff dp r dp r _ dt dH dq r where ". = 0. and therefore ds fa in other words. in the present our the ultimate reduced form of the equations of motion of knowledge.?i qs ) + (q 2 2 q4 J . I . The equations of motion can now be reduced further from the 8th to the 6th order.2 . p3 p i . we can make the substitution for q6 in H before forming the derivates of the Problem the equations of motion of H.158.
and be 2 : w . v. \2 2 . xin Alternative reduction of the problem from the 18th to the 6th order. ) 2 2 + m. . *t&.lt.2 (qf + q.ft) nil i ^2 / The integrals of motion of the centre of the new variables. p.. Norm. Annales de I Ec.. (1868). The Reduction of the [CH.^_ (r=l./ f 2 ?4 t l i".2. 311. Sup.lt.gt. (PS + P? + Pe2 )  m l m. and consequently the transformed system pressing the accents in the dqr dt is only of the 12th order: sup new variables. . can be written qr of gravity. * Due to Kadau. + 2 q/} f 2 ~ *M . when expressed in terms = q* = q* =p? = p* = p* = f &. dqr where H =~ (p? + pf + P/) + 2~~. shall of the general problem of three give another reduction* bodies to a Ilarailtonian system of the 6th order.. We now Let the original Hamiltonian system of equations of motion be transformed by the contacttransformation ( 155) where W = Pi (q* ~ ft) + p* (ft .348 160..6).ft) + P* (ft .2 The new Let G variables may be interpreted physically in the following way Then (q lt q2 q s ) are the the centre of gravity of m. it is = dH dp r dp^ dt = _&.
lt. and fjf. q^ is the angle between Ox and the latter of &. and l* ^=pr (r4. 115. This reduction. q3 is the angle between : The new ^ ./ these nodes. ".lt. The new Hamiltonian system clearly represents the equations of motion of two particles. so that the angular of these particles about momentum any line in the plane Oxy is zero. The equations of motion in their new form dt 138) __dH _ dt Journal fur Math. and p s is the angular momentum of /A round the same are ( line.160] Problem of Three Bodies .// and the intersection (or node) of the invariable plane with the plane through two consecutive positions of q^ (which we shall call the plane of instantaneous motion of /A). pS is pq\. q5 .. (p s sin qs +p 4 ) +q z t sin qt )* + p^ variables are easily seen to have the following physical inter is the length of the radius vector from the qi pretations origin to the the radius from the origin to is particle //. ps is the angular momentum of /A round the normal at the origin to the invariable plane. though substantially contained in Jacobi s* paper of 1843. p. was first explicitly stated by Bertrandf in 1852. one of mass p at a point whose coordinates are (q lt q2 q3 \ and the other of mass /* at a point whose coordinates are (g^. dp r p. dqr f Journal de math. 2 ) +p 2 3 }% .2. s&. pl is the angular momentum of /// round the origin. q^ is the angle between Ox and the former of these nodes. have therefore replaced the Problem of particles being H We Three Bodies by the problem of two bodies moving under this system of forces. q q6 ). contacttransformation which Let the Hamiltonian system of the 12th order be transformed by the is defined by the equations ^= where dW W + q.gt. xxvi. We plane shall for suppose the axes so chosen that the plane of xy is the invariable the motion of the particles fj. i.p is ^ q^ps is the angular momentum of p round the origin.3). ^ = dW Wr 0^VX p p l W = (p + 2 sin qs +p 1 cos g5 cos qs ) q^ cos q3 q2 cos qt sin q3 {(p 2 cos q s sin qt {(p s cos q* sin q. 349 projections of m^n^ on the fixed axes. 4 is the angle between q. 393. these . &. q. qs ) are the projections Gm ^=Pr (r1.. and (g4 of Further 3 on the axes.5.6).e. xvn. supposed to move freely in space under the action of forces derivable from a potential energy represented by the terms in which are independent of the ps. .2 and the node of the invariable plane on the plane of instantaneous motion of pf.
. p = ". ". these. ". qa ". The system may equations dq r ". .p* + qt p*. dfr". ( ". 25 = 90. We have therefore so p6 where A. ".. dqr dt _ ~ ~dp7". q".p* + q*".. p"..=p s ".  6)&. variables q".. p". solved which reduces to the 10th order system ". dH/dq.. derivates of and let s denote any one of the for p 5 substitution this making ".". and p 5 is to be replaced by (p3 p4 )/k after the denote the function derived from Let have been formed. ~3q r H ". ". . 8^ _ 877 ds ds dH ". system be transformed by the contacttransformation is H Let this pr= where dW W". dPr dt ". dH ". (p* .i (p* +# ) + pi + q*".dt ".=dH/dk can be integrated by a quadrature when the rest of the equations have been so the equations for p 6 and q 6 can be separated from the system. fi depend on this quantity. then we have . 6 k.. position arbitrarily But H W = 0. . H 2 2 have been formed. dW (r **57 qi ~ 1 2 ". #&.*pr. _ _ 3# ".".". p". the equation q 6 ". dt dq r where. are readily found to be ". owing to the fact that the plane of xy is the invariable plane. when expressed represented by in terms of the new variables. xm supposed expressed in terms of the new variables. is a constant momentum.gt.. dp.gt. 1 2 _. in this last set. : ". _ dH ~dpr".. .p* ) + &. pa ". dt as may be seen either by expressing does not involve q 6 in terms of the new variables. therefore be replaced by these two equations and the ". no arbitrary constants of integration enter.". = dH ds dp & ds ds . = dH ds dp. The equations of motion now become dqr _dH ".lt. =. H H \ H by ". Jcp 5 ". dq r We have still to use the two remaining integrals of angular momentum . qs can be replaced by 90 before the derivates of ".350 where The Reduction of the [CH. dt". or by observing that q depends on the while none of coordinates the other of the axis chosen Ox. W= q*". this is really one of the three integrals of angular Substituting k for p6 in H._ ".
the coordinates of &.lt. this will obviously happen if the directions of the initial velocities of the bodies are in the plane of the bodies./!. dpr__dH dt~ dq r where ^~to +jtf)+0tf+i* H(^ f g3 ..160.. as the problem of three bodies in a plane we shall motion to a Hamiltonian system of : q z ) be the coordinates of m 1} (^5. The problem of three bodies in a plane. 2m! ft g a / ~m&. by Perform on the using the four integrals of motion of the centre of gravity.j/ kz p. variables the contacttransformation defined by the equations dW dW . Oj. fixed axes Ox. The motion of the three particles may be supposed to take place in a plane.p ^^2 * ..ft) ~ . The equations of motion are thus reduced to a system of the 8th order. we have + (p* H (p + ) . 3 . This case is known now proceed Let (&... which (suppressing the accents) may be written in the form ~ _ dq r dt dp r dt where. and let pr = m k qr) where k dqr_*ff dt dpr q 4 ) the coordinates of ??? 2 and any Oy in the plane (q 3 . 161] Problem of Three Bodies p". \ sin ft sin ft **J +7 ( 2p. 161.7e) m s . .m s \q^+m (* l + m^\ Mcosftcosft p. 4 These equations will now be reduced from the 12th to the 8th order.lt.* 2ra 2 &.pt The equations of motion may further be reduced to a system 6th order by the method of 141. 4 .".M! wi a 2 ] {(q. ^ (r + 1).g ) 3 2 } ". .lt.tfj) + 2 (ft . effecting in H the transformations which have been indicated.lt.q Y + (ft . . instead of in threedimensional space. The equations of motion are (as in denotes the greatest integer in 155) l. will not Constant is As the reduction not required subsequently. . to reduce the equations of the lowest possible order. +  1) 1 ". using the integral of energy of the H and eliminating the time. it be given in detail here. 351 and it is therefore allowable to substitute for in H H before the derivates of have been formed.?p? * 5* . referred to of the motion.smg smg * .
where  mm 2 3 (q/ + ft ) 2 ~? . . p.2 parallel and perpendicular mm mm . p 6 ) are the components of momentum As and of the system. dW sin q t . (q s q ) 1} (p 3 are the components of momentum of p t ) are f m w m . through lt is easily seen that Wg parallel to the ft ) are the coordinates of t m l relative to axes relative to the same original axes.? 2 . .lt.m. (q? + q 2 2 )~ + h* {(?i a ?s) + (q* ~ qtf] ".m. ". (q a qf) are the coordinates of the relative to of coordinates the are 3 axes. reduce to the system of the 8th order. w &. when expressed in terms of the new variables. (pf. Next. The become differential equations.352 where The Reduction of the [OH. in  157. an ignorable coordinate. 1 along p* and p 3 are the components is the and to t angular momentum p of m. m.//. we shall shew that this system possesses which will make possible a further reduction through two units.q sm ^ ) + P* (ft + ft cos g/). dq r dt = 9# ty r dp r _ dl dH Wr .2 ) the components of momentum of 2 fixed axes. : of this transformation is as follows g/ is the physical interpretation are the projections of 2 3 on. xm W=p q l 1 +p 2 q* + pq + P*q* + (Pi+P* +P*) ft + (P* + P* +P) ti a (&. distance 1 s ft and qi m z l and the axis of x pi is the component between the is 3 1 angle q4 of momentum of momentum of 3 m. of the system. m . mw . dt dp r dt where P \f*v ~w ik *7+rt~*. . ^Wr a W = ptfi The cos qt +p a qi sinqS+ps (qj cos q4 . and (p 6 . .^ . and perpendicular to. the equations for 5 q 6 p 5 pi disappear from the system in the new variables) the equations of motion accents the (suppressing . m m . Perform on the system the contacttransformation defined by the equa tions ^ = Wr where dW P f .lt.
?. in the plane of the be the motion let (X. where k integral is p 4 the integral of angular momentum can be integrated by a quadrature when the rest of the equations have been and disappear from the system. which is generally called the planetoid.2. 3). bodies $ and J revolve round their centre of gravity. dp r where H#) 2 2 I 2 &. in circular A third body P. 162] Since qt is Problem of Three Bodies it is . is the restricted problem of three bodies . &. of three bodies to determine the motion of the body P. under the influence of their mutual attraction. The equations of motion are fixed rectangular axes dt*~dX or in the dt* ~dY Hamiltonian form.W__dH dt". OF. and (U. without mass their motion). Another prominent this may be enunciated as follows special case of the problem of three bodies. The restricted problem of three bodies./. m. s 23 .161. of P. is .e. Let m l and m 2 be the masses of 8 and J. H= % (U D. Y) coordinates. 9s i a system of the 6th order it can be reduced to the 4th order by the process of 141. : Two orbits. (i. 0. such that in the it is moves is same plane attracted by S and J. be written . 162.?/ an ignorable coordinate the corre this can be interpreted as a constant The equation q4 = dH/dpi of the system. 353 sponding not contained in H.2 SP Take any : JP OX.lt. dX = dH dt d7 dt dH atr dv &. the time.F. but does not influence as 8 and the restricted problem &.lt. = k. and write m. through 0. which has occupied a place in recent researches. V) the components of velocity. integrated and thus the equations for p t the equations can therefore Suppressing the accents on the new variables.lt. qr = _ Pr dt = __ dqr dt (r = l. dx dV__3H } ~dt~ ar 1 where \v. making use of the integral of energy and eliminating This is .lt. 2 + 7 ) .
la Mec.lt.gt.F.354 Since The Reduction of the [OH. y is and n the angular velocity of 8J. y= may dW p W&. j 2 1 p t \P. The equations become du dx eft _dK ~ 8wT &. Another formf transformation obtained by applying to these equations the contact dW Pr=Wr . explicitly. Comptes Rendus.. xm H= but also of and a function not only of of the an Constant is not system. A u^n (P^P^} ( ) dv ". it is at once seen that to the moving and line as axis of y. = dW ^ l (u cos qz + v sin q The new be defined directly by the equations and the equations of motion become dqr _ dH ~ dp. where * W =p t 2 q2 + /. and a line perpendicular to this through is now a function of x and y only. ^^Wr ( ^ .. so K does not involve t K = Constant .gt. Jacobi. dW 2 2 . Adopted by Poincare in his Kouvelles methodes de . where W=q variables ^^ 3W P2 2 ). in.^ = 2 I (u + v 2 } + n (uy vx)F. . Celeste. dp. p.fy_c_K ~~ = ~ _dK dx ~dt ~dv ~di dv = dt~ _dK fy where (138) dW K = H . F x and y are the coordinates of the planetoid referred OJ as axis of as. 59. Another form of the equations of motion last is obtained by applying to the system the contacttransformation x = dW ^&. integral is F X F the equation Perform on the variables the contacttransformation which the equations is denned by where _3E _^W_ v _dW V _3W = = X dx ~3V ~dU dy cos = sin nt + W V (x cos nt y sin nt) +V(ae nt). is an integral of the system it is called the Jacobian integral* of the restricted problem of three bodies. =12) ~dt dt where H= is (pc + ~  np 2 . = _ _ dH dqr . t. (1836). p7*\ ) Pl .
the equations of motion of the restricted may be taken in the form dqr _ dH dpr _ ~dt~~ dt ~~dp r dH ~3^ where H can be expanded as a powerseries in p in the form while H H lt 2 .?/ the mean anomaly fixed its ellipse which would describe about a of the planetoid in the body of unit mass at 0. 11 problem of three bodies discarding the accents.(! e )p. The equations of this 4th order system may system of the second order by use of the integral tion of the time. measured from is OJ. and and p respectively. to find the term independent of fj. and p the semimajor axis and e is the eccentricity of this ellipse..162] Problem of Three Bodies 355 where u denotes a current variable of integration. J g/=arccosi V  ^ + 2 J)/ 2 2(7 ~4* Q \* . = Constant is an integral does not involve t explicitly.lt. 8 and J to be the unit of mass. with the period suppose p to be zero]. so of the equations of motion. if projected from is its instantaneous position with instantaneous velocity . we since SP now becomes q lt we have . are periodic in q 1 and q 2 with . which is periodic in qf and q2 p2 q. be reduced to a Hamiltonian = Constant and elimina # 232 . 1\ Thus finally. in H. #2 =a arccos 2 and it is easily seen that it is &. written These equations may be p. the period 2?r. which are now 2 {. f t ^ . . 2?r. q2 the longitude of the apse of this ellipse. .^Vj ~ . f dp r _ 3ff r ~dT~~ dq? 1} 2^ we take the sum of the masses of 1 denote these masses by /u. as in 141. 2 where a is H H dq^ dt If = aff ~dp ". we have ~SP This is an analytic function of p^.. qa Moreover. p is a*.
. Shew that the equations of motion may be written } dq r di where _dH tyS dp r _ dff ~di~~dq r (Bour. T. Part I. Mess.* j_ where k plane. Many in the reduction of the of the transformations which have been used in the present chapter problem of three bodies can be extended so as to apply to the general problem of n bodies which attract each other according to the Newtonian law. respectively. and /* 160 let qi and q 2 be the distances of p. Math. Shew that variable plane.356 163. 1. 113. where r 12 is the distance between the bodies whose velocities are positive constant. (1904). 1893.) is the angular momentum of the system round the normal to the invariable Let the problem of three bodies be replaced by the problem of two bodies p.lt. let * be Jacobi s function. &. Vi and v 2 and if r is a shew that the greatest possible value of the angular momentum of the . MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.) 2. pi through the bodies and the origin. the three integrals of angular momentum. let Q be the angle between any fixed line in the invariable plane and the node of the plane of the three bodies on the invariable plane. the integral of energy. In their original form. L.? : l . of Math. xm problem of n bodies. and p.lt. 12)th order. let i be the inclination of the plane of the three bodies to the in be the area of the triangle formed by the three bodies. If in the problem of three bodies the units are so chosen that the energy integral 2 i(vi + V+*V) = 1111 +r +r 3l is ?*23 12 r . Tripos. di dt f M _ n* (De Gasparis.fc _ = k ". 3. the elimination of the time. by using the six integrals of motion of the centre of gravity. (Camb.) H= Constant is the integral of energy. in the plane as in : : &. *The Reduction of the Extension to the [CH. the equations of motion of the n bodies constitute a system of the 6?ith order this can be reduced to . from the origin let q 3 and q 4 be the angles made by q l and 2 respectively with the intersection of the plane through the bodies and the invariable plane let p and p 2 denote pqi and pf q2 respectively and let p3 and be the components of angular momentum of p. the (Qn The reduction has been performed by p. and the elimination of the nodes. (2) xxxiv. In the problem of three bodies. and let 77 dQ. system about its centre of gravity is f\ 2r. Bennett. and p.
by the theorem of 141. the variable p5 is the normal to the invariable plane p i qi dq..) . (where t stands for V^l 3 and i. c l5 c 2 .?8) 2 + (26 .163J 4.lt. Shew that the integrals of motion of the centre of gravity are q& = qi = q = p& = PI =pa = is  Shew zero.!_dff ~dt~ty? where =k.. (Bruns. Hamiltonian system of the 18th order which 155) determines the motion of the three bodies. Problem of Three Bodies Apply the contacttransformation defined by the equations qi = {(V* 92 357  ?7) &.? 2  2 26) A 6 =m l q +m = ". 8. b s . &i (?i + iq$ + b 2 (g4 + t (r0. & s&. i&.gt. c 3 are any nine constants which satisfy the equations a1 to the +2 + = ) ^1 + ^2 + ^3 = 0.. Hence shew that the equations reduce to the 8th order system dpr _ ~dt~ dff fy? Reduce this to a system of the 6th order.=0 XO^r 2 . ( a 2 &3a 3 & 2 =l). is further that when the invariable plane and that the integral of angular momentum round taken as plane of xy. 8). . where k is a constant. 2 + 2 (&.lt.?9) 2 }*. ^2.?i) = {(?7  + (?5 .gt. Pr = s A. 1. ^ + 02 + 03 = 0.
. q 9 . . and the integral of energy these are We have seen : ( .CHAPTER XIV THE THEOREMS OF BRUNS AND POINCARE 164. Bohlin. namely the linear differential equation with constant coefficients has no algebraic integral except when integral ^i//n 2 is a rational number.7i. It may be remarked + that the nonexistence of algebraic integrals does not necessarily imply great complexity in a system. 55 Ada Math. (q 1} q2 . Each of them is an . &.e.. generally called the classical integrals of the problem. Astron. 1. $9. also Forsyth. the classical integrals are problem of three bodies.?2. Theory of Differential Equations. in which case the first ^ = now proceed Constant can be transformed into an algebraic integral.P*&. . t)= Constant. Ch. 1887. One of the simplest of differential equations. xvn. i. but without success. K. pp. Cf.lt. Vol. (i) Bruns theorem.^9) Efforts have frequently been made to obtain other algebraic integrals of the problem of three bodies independent of these (i. 155) that the problem of three bodies possesses 10 known the six integrals of motion of the centre of gravity. a Sfockholms Observ. ix. algebraic integral.gt. where / is an algebraic function of the coordinates and of t. p.e. Ges. N r 1. der Wiss. in. lakttagelser och Unders. (1900).Pi. the only independent algebraic integrals of the in other words. Sachs. (ii) Expression of an integral in terms of the essential coordinates of the to a proof of t problem.gt. the integrals namely three integrals of angular momentum. . Statement of the theorem. We shall Bruns result. t Cf. not formed by combina tions of them). xi. 25. * Berichte der Kgl. (1908). Pa. PI. &.lt. considering first those integrals which do not involve explicitly. is of the form /(&. and in 1887 Bruns* shewed that no such new algebraic integrals exist .
q 6 p 1} .. g/).. + 2) (qi . . q s . An integral must involve the momenta... 6 = y so that T= 2 Let the coordinates of the three bodies be (g/..pi. we have Q_ j. We have to enquire into the (1). p 6 ): we shall therefore. . of the equations . df . For suppose..p&) as linear functions of (qlt q2 .. &. is compounded . W e shall first shew that an integral such as (2) must involve quantities p.. if possible.. we integer contained in to discuss are of the form propose ...164] The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare of motion of the problem 359 The equations form may ( 160) be written in the dqr Wfa where _dH dp r _ ~dt~ dH Wr H=TU. .. such as (iii) T (2). gg (r . i. . on making these substitutions in the integral. if not. of the integrals of motion of the centre of ...e. ^ (g/. . ... _ 4 d/jy . ^ 6) only. : the integrals whose existence &.. say does not involve (p lt p.. that the integral.. ... . (2). .. qLp\..lt. q6 p p s ). express q*. q2 If the integral gravity. . / will evidently reduce to a constant . q*. Differentiating with respect to t. and let mk qr = p r where k denotes the greatest .. an arbitrary constant and is its The formulae of 160 enable us to the variables arguments.lt. / will be an algebraic function of the variables (q1} existence of integrals. q 9 Pi.. where a p 9 ) = a..?/. .2 . (g/.. q6 ). p 6 ).... ^ 6 = = //... obtain an is (&. an algebraic function of . equation /(?i. 5 3 We shall write = = = /. .. . l .p 6 )=a . g/.. . (j&.gt. q. T= * 2P (P )* + p + P^ + * 5? ( ^ + p ^ + P^ +q 3 q6 ) l + \ 2 _m 3 (m + m ) m yu.lt. it some of the cannot be a function of (5^ q 2 . . ....
. (4) is and reducible in (q 1} 2 Pe. . If this fan are rational functions of (q lt .H) + .. q 6 p lt .. common roots . + (^ . .. p s).. (^H} p l = Q where (ty r .. so that it becomes w~ 2 2 &. 6 ..... H}.? zero. PI. p6 .. fi . ... is reducible in the variables (q lt . we may . ifr 2&. .. + where &.gt.. *). l} (5) have one or more &. and we shall consider this includes irreducible in (q 1} . we have (5)...pi.gt. are rational functions of (q q p lt p6 s). . . and a mere constant.. + ^i(q 1 . &...360 The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare [CH. ./&. We and shall first suppose that the expressions q 6 .gt. &. PI.2&. does not involve (q l} q2 .q 6 .H) l (1). but not necessarily rational. distances..lt. Now the function / is algebraic. each of the form . = 0. 6 ) + ..(3)... . xiv and therefore the equations = J^ r dq (r~l...r (2). are all and the is this therefore inadmissible. ... . p 6 s}..... . . but this equation is irreducible... = . p6 ). that is... .....gt.. ... 9s.pi.. s).. &.lt. (4). . Differentiating with respect to t. which are rational functions of in equation (4) can be com hence the integral l . &.*) .. e&.. fa.... i. This implies that all the coefficients (^r are integrals of the equations (1): and pounded algebraically from other integrals.s) l ....q 6 .gt..p*) .. therefore suppose that U is expressed as a rational function of (q 1} q. quantities (v/rr H} hypothesis .. As the type of the type represented by (3) as a equation represented by (4) be a to we shall given by an equation of the form (4). .. tyi) f (?i.q... As the mutual distances of the bodies are irrational functions of function of these q6 } the function U will be an irrational (q lt g 2j it is easily three mutual of the s the sum variables. which are rational functions of (q 1} . in other words. qK p lt . fa... decomposed ~ a + a ^(q 1 l l l .. .gt. (gi. .6) must be so is satisfied identically.. suppose particular case. p let the resulting equation be arranged in am + am  1 (f) l (q l . q&. the irrationalities involved all capable of being expressed by means of the .... qs p lt ...e. / .. and let powers of a./&. ...gt.2 ... (//&... and using equations al + a^(^.m(?i. . q6 ). H} denotes as usual the Poissonbracket of tyr and H.lt.% Pi. then one of these last equations will give the value of a which corresponds to equation where ^ .gt. .2. Denoting by seen that the mutual distances can be expressed as rational functions of the (iv) } seven quantities (q l} q 2 in the irrationality of s .p ... . are not a. . variables (q 1} ... ty z . q6 .gt. s) + .. mutual distances are .. in the 6) . all zero.p 6 . Only one irrationality can occur in the integral...qe . s). .. if it can be equation into other equations. equation instead of (3)..q s .q 6 .gt...&&.. q6 s).pi.. .p 1 ...gt.p l . Then equations (4) and consequently equation . . p )+a 6 the equation (2) be rationalised.
^ a 8 dB (q+p + _ l) equations are equivalent to the _ system _ A from which ~ dt it is ~A.gt.. respectively.164] (v) The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare Expression of the integral as a quotient of two real polynomials. qe .s) =a . .gt. s ) When . q. this equation be....... Now / (qi. we have ". dB dB.&.p.. _ LLJJn dA dA.. the equations are unaltered.f^Efr*** f Now k is k ".. is must be an integral of the system. If therefore these substitutions are still made whatever k may in equation (6).. where /is a rational function of the arguments indicated.. s). (6). equation must be zero n and therefore /7 4 U/iln /77? ..... . where k is any l .. . dt A p ~dT _ ~ B ~dt 5g B rfi evident that each of the quantities A 2 B . = These 5. &..P&. its arguments it can therefore be ex two functions.. If in the equations of motion we replace qr p r t by qr k2 pr k~ and tk3 respectively. The form of /can be further restricted by the following observation.lt.gt.gt. a rational function of pressed as the quotient of (?e&.. &.pi.. ..&. 2 by q r k . l .....p 6 .. and denominator an numerator by appropriate power of k) take the form PI. We need therefore henceforth only consider integrals of the type ?. so the coefficients of successive .. . p r k~ where (A df/dt is . + powers of k in this arbitrary. constant... Since zero...gt. p lt . $2.. B q) are polynomials in (q 1} . .. each of which is a polynomial in : in these polynomials we replace q r p r s the function / will (on multiplying its sk.. A lt .
The equation T^\TT} at \Cr 2 / 1 dy \dilr r TT HJT vr = 1 dt dt TT JT G2 dt dG 2 = . dG... 1 common with G2 Hence we see that dG 2 2 1 dx dt \G dt \ . . It may further be observed that the functions G l of generality. the real and imaginary parts of an integral and G2 may..dQ .p 6 ). xiv be an integral and thus we have the result that any integral such as f can compounded from other integrals. in polynomial in (p lt .z is a polynomial in its arguments. .. the case that the function GI is resoluble into a product of irresoluble polynomials in (p lt p2 . .. times in . + i. ty has no or %.. and % = 1. and every complex : P integral can be compounded from real integrals. Also. be taken to be free from imaginaries. without loss For if P and iQ denote P + iQ = Constant.. q. forth assume that Gi/G z is free from imaginaries. . Since the differential equations are free from imaginaries. we have dP jat ~ = 0..p6 ).362 is : The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare [OH. . . .. . have GI = ty. s). .2 Now factor in d^fr/dt is (p 1} . being rational functions of (qlt q 2 suppose that it is repeated A. G l : be such a polynomial.. and v/r is also polynomial of order less by unity than the order of dty/dt. the coefficients in these polynomials It may be . ctu . this form. and is a merely multiplied by power of k when the variables qr p r s are replaced 2 We need therefore only consider integrals of k~ sk2 k respectively by qr pr where each of the functions l . . identically. (vi) We shall therefore hence Derivation of integrals from the numerator and denominator of the quotient. Hence and Q are themselves integrals. it follows that dP/dt and dQ/dt are free from imaginaries and so dP/dt and dQ/dt must be zero separately.. When G l irreducible.p 6 ). which are of the form 6r 1? G. U.. and and let x denote the remaining Let ^ factors of G is 1} so that G^^ X we shall of course .
. of order unity : denote this polynomial It may .q G .lt..gt. is homogeneous of degree be of order &.. Further. ft... l satisfies an equation of this kind. of order unity.&.lt.. since such a term would be multiplied by an even power of &.gt..lt.lt. pr .gt.).. where (ft.gt. G 2 also satisfies the equation ~dt~ l 2 satisfy the same differential equation. so that and let the equations they satisfy be then we have 1 V dG l JL^"..s). .. p 6 ).? is of order m in (p m in lt .A ^~ when this by r =i 6 = ^ T I ^ 1~ ^ ^ ) &... &&. we have m + 2n = m + 2ri. ./&.gt...q . dt Y &. ...gt./&. 1 in the quantities . n in (ft.. a polynomial in (p lt .gt...?.. .gt.p 6 ) and of order (p l} ... Now respectively merely multiplied by a power of k when .p 6 ). s): since these terms are multiplied by the same power of k so when the above an even number.p 6 ft. s are replaced 2 2 by qr k p r k~\ sk since m= we see that &&. 363 must be a polynomial by co then we have : . can be arranged in the form .. m m is Hence &.. let one of the terms in . . is 6 dG = l and therefore (since GJGz is an integral). q & s). Denote the various factors of G by ^ i/r". and rational in Thus G! satisfies the equation .. It follows multiplied that &) cannot contain a term independent of (p lf . p e ).ty n dty v d^r".f&... .. is therefore of the form &&... the equation 9= : o&. we shall in future use to denote either of them: so 9 is a real polynomial in (p 1} .p 6 ) and of order n in (ft. . ...164] The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare in (p 1 . ~I 9 is ~TT ac 3 substitution is made.. substitution is made.s). As G and G which satisfies is &. opr oqr / where each of the quantities w r (ft. "..lt. be shewn in the same way that each of the other irreducible factors of G .lt. while another term &.. 9 V^ft. 6 .
.. l. . the equation tty or + + . 6 equating the Let denote those terms in terms which do not involve p 6 on the two sides of this equation.p 6 ).. .lt. homogeneous in Pe) and also in (#1 . = wxp! +wp 2 2 4. + Now &.. .. &.gt.p s ) than these. . \ in this case we have 1 3R ~^ = fji r a) r D R / (r = 1.gt. where does not involve p 5 as a factor. is a mere function of q lt q 2 .r a&. s). ^&. R.lt. . and where as a where k = 0.f) the quantities (pi. o) /ardjV or 3 a) r 1 9^2 = ^^XI o x (r = = _....lt.../&. + ft gives. We shall now shew that when &.f&.?).. ". on equating the terms of highest degree in (p l&. .lt....lt.... 2 denotes terms by two units in (p .. .p s q l} .gt.gt. . to take account of this case.lt.gt. 5)...lt. p6 ). n o 2. xiv of order less denotes the terms of highest order in (p lt . [CH.. we have "..lt. C/g r and therefore d^g (/n.^&.gt. &... integral by multiplying it by an appropriate rational function of(ql9 s: For suppose that does not involve &./&. qt . &. o).. Supposing next that it ".lt.lt. r) = c.lt.. ..". $ =$ in the for have k case we Substituting p6 may special differential equation.lt....p 5 ).gt..gt. &. and so on: and each of l .. which do not involve j..gt.. p s as ".f&.q K say equal to .. can be made into an . . s 1. .lt.o contain p &. &.lt. &... 6 as a factor : in order to take account of this case. does not involve s. &. a factor: does involve some of the quantities (p 1} ..q K . we write .j&. it becomes write &.lt.^0= ^r oq r ^ &. &.364 where &. The Theorems of Brans and Poincare &.gt..gt. It may be that &.lt. 2./&. does not contain p6 as a factor./&. The equation now becomes r=\ . may = p^fa involve ".gt.lt.^ (/*&)) (r. ". r=l I p. may . &.f) = p&..j&.f .lt. s}. r is a polynomial in (p l} . 2.. &...gt. .lt..
.gt. . = a pj f &X + c p^ps + ^r . .. that either or else a function ty exists. . wz is zero... 365 : which do not involve p 5 equating the denote the terms in $ terms which do not involve p s on the two sides of this equation. The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare ". a denominator. have no common Similarly &&. . b = b Q. I  &.164] Let iv &. .* + ty 2 . 2 } i/r The Pi. . p homo and is free from any factors which are .gt. ..! 1 so ^ p/. c..gt.gt. as a factor. Hence ty must contain a . satisfies the differential equation + 2 a^ dq2 l 3^ +1 fr Now let = apj + bp + cp^p. as . q.2 ..2 .. . .. are polynomials in (q 1} q 6 ): they may have common polynomial factor Q.pz) ) tut is lefthand side of this equation is a polynomial in (c^. we have r=l f^r Oq r Proceeding in this way. But this factor. 2&. w = The a quantities a.^ l+l on the two sides of the last equation. . it. inconsistent with the supposition that a.gt.lt. say. b.. q K if a/ contains 9^ then tw/ contains a or some factor of it. which geneous in q l} .! 3^ y^ 9g 2 p + 1 / a&.. q 6 and also in p l} l is p 2 . Then / ^ ^ ) ( ft Q/AJ 9g 1 Ji / ^j + 6) da 2 j5 2 . 1 where Pi /*i = &&... q 6 PI. = Q\Jr . or some factor of . \ i .gt.. we ultimately arrive at the alternatives.= 2 \/ (&&./ is zero.p.. W1 = fra d^j 7 /A 2 o 1 db ^ 0^2 q.+ 2 g. so that a Let so that v// a Q. b Hence a cannot involve q and therefore 1 . mere powers of p and p2 and which ^ /MI .. . equating coefficients of p^ we have l and p 2 da ".. etc. polynomial in q lf . .
and hence that the functions &. (vii) Proof that &. Thus &.OM*X where R is some rational function of (q 1} q 2 . ^^.gt. have the result that any algebraic integral of the problem of three bodies can be compounded from integrals which are polynomial in (p lt p 2 . R dt and therefore ^ = Constant..gt..lt. if it can be shewn that the terms in G 1 and G2 9e) &. which satisfies an equation can involve not involve s s. Thus The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare &&. q6 s. [CH. pr 1 p ~ ". by multiplying it appropriate rational function of q lt required result.lt. dR ^(?r * r = l . ]. by multiplying them by appropriate rational functions a nd hence.. a .. . q6 ).R. The case in which &.lt. .R 3gV d (/&.. occurring in our problem do so that the above result is quite general. xiv = I 7^ dQ I .lt. .gt.f&. q6 ...2 do not involve s. real function &..lt. Thus we have a} 1 p + 1 o)^p 2 + . + co 6 4 pr p = Z =  6 &. we shall . .p 6 ) and rational in q 1} q2 . does not involve the irrationality s. into integrals. 2 of (q\.lt. can 6e transformed into q.2 constant.. which is by an the in G and l G.lt. If therefore the terms &../&.. .. Similarly we can shew in general that ^ and hence we may write &.gt.. ^r to 2 dQ and therefore which is ^ d : the same as the alternative previously noted so this equation is true in any case. we can transform &. namely 1/. We shall however now proceed to shew that no . do not involve s./&.366 rp..gt. G l and G ^2. involves s is not included in the above investigation.lt..gt. .gt. .
. a/. to r=l Pr 3q r 9o ..f&. are the values of when the it.. 367 For suppose that a function exists. . and satisfies the equation This is a partial differential equation for &.gt.lt.lt.. fa". &..lt. q2.Q p ^ .f&.p6 )..gt. 4.gt. a linear function of (pi. .&.lt.. = 0.lt.&. . When exists this relation f(&.gt.....lt..?!. . fyr = where i .. q6 ). and similarly . ..lt.& : there are 6 independent variables.lt.. o&. r ..&. .. //i &)+&&. Let = &. Then we have   &.lt.lt. ". J &.gt. So we . .. which involves s and satisfies the above differential equation..l&... ".lt. the factors of &.qK ).f&. (Ml \ Pi (**/ _^ PK J . r=l Pr fyr 5 = a) . values of s corresponding to ../&.I&.gt..gt...gt. namely the quantities f^ V Pi 1 fc&V . multiplying therefore that by some rational function of q lt q 2 &.lt.gt./9p (q 1 . .&. d(f&. 3&..gt. respectively are substituted in 4&. which shew that (on &..q 2 .gt.d(f) = 2. .gt..P. Now are (&.. g e) O is zero. they satisfy equations of the form ". where &.p 2 of functions (q 1} q 2 . II is . . q6 ).. we shall therefore 6 will each be zero.lt. &. differ : used in their formation q2 .. It follows that 3&.gt.. ..164] The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare &.p.. . 9) = have d^/dp^ between .f&. . from the manner of : its formation.$&. pr 4 2. . &. &. . is a rational function of .gt. ...h.lt.o".lt.gt. .&. can apply to the results already obtained.lt.gt.. not involving s and it is clearly a polynomial in (p lt p 2 . O..f&. the coefficients being rational Now (q lf q z .... and 5 independent solutions can at once be found. mQ. from each other only in that different roots s so when such a relation exists between q 6 ) that two of these roots s become equal to each other... .lt.gt.gt.gt. .p s ).gt. &.. .l&.lt. then = be regarded will become equal to each other two factors of hence if as an equation in jo 1} at least two roots will become equal to each other.lt. &. When the 8 values of s are substituted suc take a number of distinct values let these values be n will cessively in &. denoted by . is a function only of the quantities .
g6 ) are of no importance in this algebraical elimination. The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare is [CH./8pj = 0.. If small variations are given to the variables which satisfy the equation = 0. their increments are connected by the equation 2 r=1 but if (q lt ?. xiv homogeneous Pi &.. . ..I&.lt.gt..lt.368 Since &. ?6 Pi. we have (for sets of values of q lt q2 . Now the actual values of (g^.. 94&.. . this equation becomes and this relation between the increments 8^ r must therefore be equivalent 6 to the relation 2 fBq r =0. +p 6 K  = is equivalent to of the equations &. ..gt. . &. ft) (q lt ... since 2 7) r 3&. p 6 which satisfy these equations) The equations f= r and 2 ^ ~= are therefore algebraically derivable r=1 from the equations 94&. so we can replace q r by we see that the equations pr) in a11 tne equations: and thus 2 r=1 /^ dty l+ ! t.. 8..lt...lt.& = ....t&.gt.E&. does not constitute an equation independent . .gt. . = : so &. and so.. d&.J) . are algebraical consequences of the equations 7\ 3&.p 6 )  ^T . p 6 ).lt... Pe) satisfy the equations 6 d$&. p lt .gt.&/dp 6 = 0./3p r = 0.lt. .. in (p 1} p 2 . g~ is zero....$/dp r = q.gt.lt.q 8 . r r=i oq df Hence the equations 6 are consequences of the equations d&.p 1 ./dp r = 0. .gt. .+. the equation H Pi o I . .gt.
. we see that cannot enter into the combination : we have The for is &. factorisation of w. Now one such algebraic combination of these equations &. D. 2.gt. .. 24 . + 8^ + it S( = 0. &. .J&./&.#.(?!.q 6 . Hence and &. Since the latter equation involves Si.. .J&.lt.gt. : &.lt... 8.. to find all possible polynomials &. which are the conditions that the equation for s may have equal roots..lt. / /axir U i . ^e) = 0. We shall shew that for it mentioned.. ps ) in turn..gt.!&..) = (). by result enables us then to find all possible polynomials the equations Now f(q lt q2 ..lt.= ^= &.lt.164] The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare result of eliminating t 369 Hence the between the equations AH must be an algebraic combination of the equations (r=l. then the equation 1 r =i .gt..t&.= the eliminant of the equations and 3* . 1 + i . can be derived by multiplying the equations by (p l .1&. and it is the eliminant which has just been adding them..gt. can easily be written down and this and hence.6).lt. For let the eliminant in question be denoted by 6 W .. shews that the equations found identity of these equations with those which have already been are equivalent.gt. is . ..p!.lt. 5V3gr 8g r  must be a combination of the equations r=l o and I 1#a and so ..
I m7T  9* M* M. The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare roots s are the eight values of the expression [OH. and therefore no real poly A and r 3 similar result can be deduced in connexion with the equations r 2 = = 0.. + and forming the discriminant with respect of the equation thus obtained. 1\ r. 2 (q l9t we (ft".^1^4 . l ^2 pf/) {p\. This expansion cannot be factorised into polynomials can arise from this source./&.lt. by (q r + prt/f^r).gt. it = r3 . r2 = 0.T~ fit s \* ^1 i or 2 ( 9l gr 4 + ?2 ^ + ? 5 3 ?6 )  ^ //tj ~ 2 (?! ^T ^2 +^+ q*) = 0.lt.. can arise from this source./&. .gt.2 .2 = 0. 1 m +m~( l o~r  o".gt.gt. r3 rx = 0. where r 1} r2 r3 denote the mutual distances: so we may have two roots equal as a result of any one of the equations ?i s = 0.P2. xiv +r l r^r r3 3 . can be written in the form I + 1. so no functions ^&. linear in &. r3 = r 1} i\ = r. . Replacing to t 5. nomials &.I&. 1 ^2^5 P . find = + q*q + q 5 s q 6) ^^ +? + 3 _.370 The eight .lt. ipe).lt. The equation = gives &. 2 3 and the eliminant of +p t\ =0 = so the value of &. in f/tj ". rz = r3 . Consider next the equation r.tf + q^ + q:? = 0.i~ If 2 \/j. 8fi & fc&Y arising in this connexion is yu3 7x2 this expression is not resoluble into real factors.
lt. of degree (1). say of q. =\oq r Hr dp.r? + r*}* = 0. can exist. cannot be Thus finally. and a p. of degree (k homogeneous algebraic function of the variables q./&. we have shewn that any algebraic integral of the differential equations. can arise in connexion rr r .lt.lt.gt.lt. now proceed to shew that an integral characterised by these an algebraic function of the classical integrals. of degree (k . homogeneous polynomial in the variables p. or by &. form &. ./&./&.lt. 4 is a homogeneous polynomial in the variables .lt.lt.lt.gt.gt./&. no real polynomials $ .gt. 2 +$ + 4 ..gt. a function only of the momenta and the integrals We shall is properties.2).2 + &. is an algebraic function of integrals each of which can be written in the &.. Summarising the results obtained hitherto. this case reduces to that &. and a homogeneous algebraic function of the variables q. last discussed it : When i\ is zero. =+ rz . I : 2 is a &. _ ^ r r .gt. where is a homogeneous polynomial in the variables and a homogeneous algebraic function of the variables &.gt./&. which was and since the polynomial is not resoluble in this special case. which does not involve t. involving s. Proof that of angular momentum. the rationalised form of the equations 1\ is 2 r2 r3 = 4 rfa* (r3 .gt.The Theorems of Brims and Poincare Similarly it 371 may be shewn with the equations rs = that no polynomials l &.. and equating terms of equal degree. 4 &.lt. 5 h 5 ~ dq. resoluble in the general case. p. at gives on replacing &.gt. degree say of degree k.4).l&.f&. so on.lt.lt. of degree (I 2) and &. Lastly.f&.0 + &.f&.lt./&.gt. &. The equation go.lt. .4 + . (viii) is &. ** ~~ r ~ r=l _ dqr 242 .lt.
. d&...372 The first The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare of these equations is [CH.gt. fi\ 2 in terms of the variables . are Vdqt * + r=2 = 2 9 p l 8 . .lt. .pi. P 6 .P s . ft. P e .. xiv &. a linear partial differential equation for which can at once be solved. .gt.. .. p e .Pi&.._ 8Pr If F denotes the expression of q U .r Qrpl /Ltj  PrQl fj. .P2 PS.. expressed in terms of q lt P 2 . PI. in terms of the variables P &. Pz. P* 2 =/ 3/2 2 (ft..  where g r = frPr + . . .gt. r (i 9 ^ A o. p). P 2 . 3 .V where Let the expression of be 4&... &. .p).lt.. p = ". . 5^5 The terms now seen to be X which may give rise to logarithmic terms in I Xdq^ are so the terms which may be logarithmic in j Xdq^ . 2 a 2 aF dq r + 4 2 ^". 01. ^ .. P 6 . .gt.lt.gt. =/ (P P 2 . &.lt.f&.lt. .. * .lt. . we have  = in ^rj (r 1) and * = ~ S .b we have / = 8&. pi. . and gives &. P 6 . _ dq or ^r l r~2 Mi 8 Integrating we have so there can be no logarithmic terms in ^Xdq ly where X= = S ^. ... . .. pi.. . &.
.7o.gt. 2 + q2 2 + qs 2 ). we must l have g r=2 r .p t \ ?i I H / (/iP PI + fftP2 I I P^q\\ ff^Ps Pi I \ h /^PsQi\ . 3 ) and on solving this equation . 85 &.sin 2Cq. * &. + Gq^) are linear functions of the q^ + q. P (p^ p^qt). Thus for each of the fractions (A + Bq + Cq^^./A. r Now for the first of these fractions.* + q/)~^.lt. or : Since the three expressions (A + Bq1 three quantities (q. * (qt + qf + q. P*. P*. (q.). we have so the first of the three equations will be r=2 8P2 or (since /i x ^ 2 8P S = yu. of the last expression we have for the transcendental part 4 9/0 Pr ! Vp r ps * arcsm (7 f 1 . Now V a sum of three terms.. / + is a function of Pi.gt. namely (q^ + q. Pe. we s see that . 2&.p..164] The Theorems of Brims and Poincare is 373 l . and (p^qs psqt). we can for our present purpose replace them by these three quantities so the second expression (A + Bq^ + Gq^) may be taken to be (q^4 + q 2 q 5 + q3 q K }.. 1 dB arcsm fl.Olll . 8/0 tZ.q.q.. 1 PP1 I \ pi + if^Ps I PaQi\ /AtPfi h^ 1 1 + Pi fjfp l } \ Pi pi so for this expression we have 2 Pi VPS Pi* . 2 = yu.lt.ML Q yvcn n V&.rr. each of the form (A + Bq + Cq^y Taking each of these terms separately. 4 /J.*).
the corresponding equation proves to be the same as equation (A)..p s 6 6 s . M. (ix) Proof &. that &.lt..p 6 is a poly a polynomial in its arguments . N. N.. . is a function of T. M.. . ti It is easily verified that three independent solutions are 2 +P 5 p6 4 Pp 6 s . since the coefficients r)f of the derivates ^ do not involve the quantities P. and so there must be 5 5 6 : P P P 2 . L. ..p +qp qp + q p. therefore the result that L. 2 &. q 6 p 1} ... solution will be a function of these three solutions and of p p lt . and may We have therefore only to consider equations consequently be neglected. (A) and (B) : simplifying (B) by of (A).? . is . 6 6 . have are the three integrals of angular momentum of the system. . therefore form a complete system. any other 2 . ~ 0* 5 \ /* / 0*i \ /* f The third expression (. 2 K ly function of p p .lt..p only.. p6 Since lt .. or where \ q3 p 2 3 M = q^ .(B). .. ps it is clear that $ We shall write M.... N.q.4 + ..lt.P. M = Constant... 4 . Pi + P2 . nomial in L. when expressed in terms of p p2 .lt. .. q l q2 .... and the three equations L= Constant. +P S = I these equations are obviously algebraically independent and the Jacobian conditions of existence are satisfied identically for them. These two equations P P . pi. +P p P p 6 4 6 . l . . &.B^ + Cijj*) may means be taken to be 4 qs + q*~ .374 The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare is [OH. xiv and the corresponding equation  P.q. 3 . N = Constant We w . they may be written .p . with 5 independent variables 2 = 3 independent solutions.
Taking becomes A+ %+ fi in terms of (j9 u .... . p 6) when expressed R 9^1 in terms of (&. &. 2) 6 .gt...fe =  8G W. 9P. ie. this expression 2 or (omitting a factor /a) .lt.?!&.lt.^.lt. stands for dU/dqr supposed expressed in terms of q lt We have therefore .. PI. =  G r =i r 9p &. atf r= i 9p r 9gv and the equation for/2 is where F.. 2 ..?2&... P p .pz) We see therefore that the expression K dG ] g W  /dG W in first dG\ .p ) cannot give rise to terms involving + (^4 Bq + Cqi ) in the denominator so the quantities multiplying each of the expressions (A + Bq^ + Cq^ must themselves have the same character 1} 6 2 l : as &. dB dP r 2gl 95 9P r 2 i ". P 2 .. . . p l} .. Now the term %(P . J6 ). .* dA 4 Cgl ^gp.164] so The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare a 37 5 we have &.. . . they must be polynomial in (p lt $6.p 6 . Pi r=l & r 9F = ^a/h Pi V+  ..2 +q 2 3 . P.... p 6 .. Cqf = q* + 2 q.lt....gt.. Pi 9/i r^2\9p r HrpidpJ (p^ B ~^AC p \ when expressed must be a polynomial q lt .lt.tapr where the symbol expression (A l 2 A indicates summation over the three values of the + Bq + Cqf).
for integrals which do not involve is The equation which determines the function fz . so a polynomial p p 1 . Since . p 6 ).p 9 ). 2 ..gt. as a factor t : so = h(L M. xiv or Pi oft ^^ The so the &. last fraction must therefore represent a polynomial in denominator must be a factor of the numerator. it is clear that if T is in (q lt q2 ... M. it must be &.. solution is easily found to be 6 2 n 2 =i ^. Deduction of Brims theorem. N)T its we can m .. C give ( dG The function G a complete variables. 2/.5.. in which case the denominator so either they contain no terms in q lt q z q s of a factor the numerator or be else cannot they contain some terms free .. T..dG [CH. which are evidently system of five independent equations with six this independent and consequently possess only one independent solution.. q6 ) and .. 6 ).gt. involve (q lt . .pr dG fcl&fc~ = 4. M. t. or T. the conditions arising from the other sets of values of A. T involved in &.. B. at all. p IS ow n G is w (dG UVdp2 . in which case also the denominator cannot be a factor of the numerator. N. The function G therefore involves (p and since G is polynomial in (p lt . l ... $ is homogeneous the expressions (L.. M. The condition can dp 2 therefore only be satisfied by supposing that 8^ _ Pi Pa p2 pi ? dpj. J\r and involve q lt q2 q3 only by means of L.lt.gt.lt. = dp 3 8^ _ Pip 3 3G = /x 3 ^ dp 1 l As might be expected from considerations of symmetry. N from q lt qz q 3 . q 6 ).. .376 1 The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare .. write where h (x) is a homogeneous polynomial in arguments.. PiP? dG\ S*= an d i _ f^G \dp s topiop!/ are polynomials in Z. .6).f&.... /If. it must also be polynomial in . and also in (p l} p 2 . q 6 ). and are each linear in (q l . . i r uin L.. while does not N) is of degree 2 in (p lt . therefore satisfies these five equations. p e) only by means of the expression T : p .f&.. fi. .
.164] The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare But we have KWKWW PJ. & = fc . ^+ ?^2) &. compounded of n the classical integrals.lt. is an integral of the same character as except that its highest of order two degrees less in (p lt .. dp. is . Proceeding in this way.. Thus The namely 1 : integral &.gt.lt. M..lt. N}(T.gt.gt. . N) T~* U*. . . N) Tm 3 U3&. . we must evidently have & = 0._p6 ) is either . If is of order zero in is a function it (p lt ..M=&.lt.lt. &. the integral h(L./&.j).gt.gt. of (q l but we have G shewn that such integrals do not exist q ) only already and so in any case can be compounded from the classical &. integral of the differential equations of the problem of three bodies. = 1} ^"..gt.U) m which the classical integrals. .lt.. h (L&. = x (P 2 .lt.&.lt. .f&. &.)mh(L. M&.. .. . can be integrals. p 6 ).gt. &. is itself compounded from and 2 the integral $ and where = &. &. which does not involve &. . . w=h(L. we see that (f&.gt. P p .lt. .lt..lt. unity in (p lt p 6 ) then . &.p lt .f&.gt. .. M. compounded by purely algebraic processes from the classical .. can be compounded of the classical whose order in (p l} . therefore.lt. that every algebraic integrals.lt. But ((&.M. If &.lt. integrals together with an integral (n is of order unity or zero. ../ + . Now we have shewn that integrals together with the integral can be compounded from the classical can be compounded Similarly . 4 + .lt.p.gt. . and therefore / = %(P 2 2 .m( 0.gt.lt. . (n) &. U. n is in this case. term. can therefore be compounded from two other integrals. &. from the classical integrals together with an integral character as but is of order less by four units than &. &. &.. . &.gt.lt. . &.lt.. M. &.f&....l&.l&. h (L. in the equation &..lt. &./&. . p6 ).lt. of &. lf .lt. N) T&.lt. p dT 1 dp.gt..lt.&.gt. P t . f 6 &. N)T k algebraically Hence we have Bruns theorem. &.gt. which has the same in the variables p.lt.gt.".gt.p6 ) than the highest term. : : the time./&.
1 . when expressed the so that of t functions rational are previous equation would p lt . q^ypi..lt.. Differentiating with respect to d we have d .lt. .f&. t) + a m ~ ^(q^ + m (qi.. ...gt.pi. It follows that .gt.. a^ dt p + a^ ^ + at : + d ^ at = 0. . t) + .gt.f) r f can be compounded t are therefore themselves integrals: and hence the which are rational other integrals from &.. where the functions their other &.j). q ^(f&.. ....lt. .gt.+ ni^if {* I a&. .....lt. be reducible in t if this equation did not vanish identically.pa)t : linear in so that it may be written where (P..^*) are algebraic functions of (q 1} Since this expression is an integral..i 1 dt [~ 1 ~ ~ d(pi\ "...}&... .? d&. &. .pi. ^t&. i. &.gt. functions of and algebraic functions of (q lt . This equation irreducible in such that it : the original equation f= a....lt.#.gt.. are rational functions of (q lt . p lt . k { dtJ 37". so far as the variable t is concerned. q s .. q^p.^...p 9 .gt... ~ dt) dt J t^\ \ ni .lt. in terms of (g lf q a .lt. and a is a constant.^. &.^!.*^!. ..p .. of proceed to consider those algebraic integrals of the problem three bodies which involve the time explicitly. 9 the quantities r /dt. We now For this purpose we shall take the equations of motion as a system ( 155) of the 18th order: we have therefore to investigate integrals of the form where / is an algebraic function of its arguments. it may be that equation be rationalised. t and algebraic functions of may be supposed p p cannot be factorised into other equations which are of lower degree in a and are rational in t for if it is reducible.+.) .lt. xiv which involve the time. Let the last The function is not necessarily rational in its arguments.. The expressions integral &.lt. J ~4 n^ IT. be resolved into factors Let such an integral &. 9 this equation does vanish identically : that is. t. = o. 9 )..q 9 .. we can factors which corresponds to suppose it replaced by that one of its irreducible arguments t.p]f\ dt)^ T T".p 9 &.. q.lt. we have ri ~77 .. .e.t). i . l} . 2 &.378 (xi) The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare Extension of Bruns result to integrals [CH.t&.&) +T Pdt^^^A m&. Now . so / arranged in the form am + a m (q l . .
Now it is known that i_^gi is : + fr!M? = Constant t. ^1+^4+^7 an integral hence any algebraic integral of the problem.&. .lt. .164] The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare 379 Wh (&.gt. at i.. 81. Thus finally every algebraic integral it of the differential equations of the problem of three bodies.. and the classical integral _ But the ?fti9i integrals in classes (1) ... f f if ./&. are re P acedb y their ralues (P *&.!. is t &.gt. Astr.. (tyi... is an algebraic function of (q lt . H)..&. _ miqi where (3) &.!. tyjr lt . Bruns theorem has been extended by Painleve*.gt. * Bull. p 9) . 9 ). (1898). .lt. . who has shewn that every integral of the problem of n bodies which involves the velocities algebraically (whether the coordinates are involved algebraically or not) is a combination of the classical integrals. t fa..lt. ...gt. == Constant. xv. q 9 p^. can be compounded from the classical integrals. . . . whether involves the time or not. ivhere &. &. is an algebraic function of (q 1} .gt.e.. t^i Hence am/ an integral... not involve the time and (2) are algebraic integrals which do and hence. q9 PI..&. problem of three bodies which involves t can be compounded (1) of algebraic integrals which do not involve algebraic integral of the t and (2) of integrals of the form t (f&..gt.. p.. which involves can be compounded of (1) (2) algebraic integrals which do not involve integrals of the form t ... //). they are combinations of the classical integrals.   * f 1 .lt.. . by the result already obtained. t..gt.$ 2 .&.lt.gt. if each of the expressions P.. eft d ... . this equation must become an identity: but this can happen only eft cfa ..f&.
= _dH dqr ( r =l 2} where for sufficiently small values of H can be expanded as a powerseries in the parameter n. the equations of motion of the planetoid can ( 162) be written in the form dq r dt _ dH dp r dp r dt l _ _ dH dq r 2 (r=l. where H=H + p. xm. Write H 2 = K. Xouv. p.) are periodic in q lt q2 with . p.. H is not now zero. H H l .. 1 dK dp r = ~JT ~~o7^~ 2h dt \ oq r and therefore. and the Hessian of period 2?r. . analogous to that (i) The equations of motion of the restricted problem of three bodies. dp. and let H = h be the integral of energy 1 dK = oi o then we have a\ v. and (H l . de la Mec. . 233. . We next establish another theorem on the nonexistence of a certain which is in many respects type of integrals in the problem of three bodies. In the restricted problem of three bodies. we can write the differential equations of the restricted problem of three bodies in the form H dqr dt = dH^ dp r dpr dt /*.380 165. (1892).gt. Meth.*)* . 2 . . . are periodic in q ly q2 with period . i..H + fj?H + 1 2p^~ and UP 2 27r. xiv theorem.. (1890).. dq r ~rr dt 2h &. taking a new function equal to K/2h. by Poincare*. 259. we shall modify the form of the equations so as to obtain : a system for which the corresponding Hessian is not zero. 2). in 1889 was discovered and of Bruns. ***. The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare Poincare shall s [CH. The Hessian is in the proof evidently zero as this circumstance would prove inconvenient of Poincare s theorem. H z .. Gel.. * Acta Math.
.165] (ii) The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare Statement of Poincare &.gt. say where ^.I&. JJL) which regular for all real values of q 1 and for values of l &. H . is a function of this character. is onevalued and which do not exceed p q. . which is of the form 4&.gt. . 2 .. .pz remain in the domain D.gt.t)a (iii) Proof that shall first ^&.p^).lt. which is periodic with may be as small as we please and suppose that respect to and the 2?r. equivalent to it). l . Under these conditions the function can q qz having period Let denote a function of (q q^.I&. .lt.I&.pi.lt. &. the equation /r (H) = Constant will be a onevalued .p ). For suppose a lt p2 ) p 2 ). wliere &. the equation we have on solving for p l an equation of the form p^ = 6 (H be a onevalued function of its arguments unless dHo/dp^ to exist. (q 1} we and as its arguments ty will be a onevalued but by hypothesis.. and will be expansible as a powerseries &. zero in D. to The proof which follows is applicable whose any dynamical system equations of motion are of the same type as those of the restricted problem of three bodies. &. and for values of p and p 2 which form a domain D.gt.gt..gt. ) = 0. = Constant.lt.J&. 2 .. .lt. a onevalued function. are onevalued analytic functions of (q1} qz .3&.gt. 0r .gt. be expanded as a powerseries in /j.p^). p 1} p 2.lt. a certain limit..lt.4g+(jr. : .gt. is a onevalued function of . relation of the form O = ty (H From H = H (p .lt.gt. function of (q lt q z H H .gt.pi. and therefore will also be a onevalued integral. Replacing p by have an equation of the form l its value 6 in the function ^&.J&. .) expressed by the vanishing of the Poissonbracket (H. the function ty depends only on It follows that ^r is a onevalued function of so long as the variables pi.gt.. and is not zero in D provided ^H^fdp^ or more generally provided one of the derivates and dH /dp 2 is not dH^/dp! 4&. &. ** not a function of 4&. and B will is zero in the q^.lt. domain D. We shew that cannot be a function of ) H .I&. a condition which is Since t/r is evidently satisfied in general. so that and therefore a (H .f&. H Q .v/r (H) = Constant integral of the differential equations. 381 s theorem. periodic in ^ and q 2 Poincare s theorem is that no integral of the restricted problem three bodies exists (except the Jacobian integral of energy and integrals of &.gt. The necessary and integral is sufficient condition that = Constant may be an &.
X&. q 2 then since can write it is periodic in = 2 A . of the same character but such that derive always If.gt. )OTo . = Constant will be a onevalued analytic integral : writing the function function of &. since 4&. thus arriving at a third whose onevalued analytic integral.lt.i where m. or It follows that all is zero. It is evident that in this way we shall be a function of .lt. H when H and &.gt. ) = mi 1 * dPl c and therefore (as this equation is an identity) ij = dp. .gt.gt.lt.E&. it does not reduce to a function of &. 2 _ .I&. involves the variables q. and m 2 are both zero. the are functions of p 1} p z and represents the exponential . //..382 in fj.l&. . oq* But we have becomes d3&.I&. i denotes v 1.gt.lt.gt. We can therefore always suppose that (iv) is not a function of H . which is onevalued and analytic an integral is a function of we can and distinct from H.?.lt. /dq r = 2 im r A m m m.lt. when the Hessian of does not and consequently are zero. Since H o ill. &. = +m dpj 2 0. so the equation (H 4&.lt. which is not the case.!&.I&.lt.lt.gt. H when p vanishes. there exists &.lt. part independent of /A will not in general and so on.gt.gt. but which is such that from it another integral.) does not involve q 1} q 2 we have . ty (#) is zero. . dq. i. we write . If the function these variables we 4&. Q) r  dp. H will not in general be a function of H : if however it is a we perform the same operation H . H .lt. therefore. Hence we must have either or &. cofactor of Am HI j.mo = + m dH 2 (l fdp 2 = . .lt. Proof that &. again. involve the variables q. the equation &. but the latter alternative is possible only when m. unless IJL &. and quantities m m^ m 2 Am are positive or negative integers. .^ (H) = p . and q z . except A 0t the coefficients A m H &. : The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare it will [CH.gt. in which case the two integrals is zero. are not distinct. xiv If then moreover be divisible by &..$&. ultimately obtain an integral which does not reduce to a function of is a function of H.gt.& Q cannot involve the variables q 1} .gt. ^ dp 2 %. &. &.gt.idHo/dpi A mi .
and the coefficients have therefore depend only on p lt p 2 2 .t 9^0/3^2 = 0. or (since this equation an identity) This equation is valid for all values of p p l} 2 : and therefore for values of p and p2 which l satisfy the equation &. + m 2 dH /dp m m = 0.m are given.gt.2 be two integers : suppose that we give to p^ and values such that the equation . m2 &. 3 = ^) Op r/ 0. ^ so the equation 4 2 a^a^ r 5 =^ r =i 9jo r 2 a^a^ = ? ^ becomes 2 B OT. p 2 Now let ki. 2 secular H is a given function.lt.. where m 1 and and C^. a ^=i dq r 2 Cm Wi&. d t. be expanded in series m. case of dynamical systems expressed by differential equations of the kind we are considering. and we shall take this case first: so that the equation is = x d^o/dp. ! . 3jp 2 we must have either B m. and are periodic with respect to q 1} q2 they can of the form l x 2 B m.gt. 2 Bm m n2 m r ". . say.^ are positive or negative integers.165] (v) The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare Proof that the existence 383 of a onevalued integral is inconsistent ivith the result of (iii) in the general case.. or m z i 9^o/3^i ^ + m&. As the functions H .m 2 f ( V=l is ! m.w . m We Bm ^=i dqr mi .) = 2 B . q . the coefficients Bm &.gt.m.p2 have In the general We As shall say that a coefficient l 1 values such that Bm ^ m becomes m dH /dp + m dH fdp = 0.. + m^ d /dp2 a consequence of the equation l dffo/dp. f ( \rl 2 m.^) Opr/ 9^  r=l dp r dq r 2 C m^m. r !Ti dpr dqr . when pj.1 dH. no one of these coefficients will vanish when it becomes secular. ^ opi f W1 2 dH = ^r 0.^ n mrS. Consider now the equation = dp r dqr 4&.2 ". ei(m iqi + m .gt. k.gt.
the Harniltonian equations possess no onevalued analytic integral &.J&.m&. R wij . other than H= h.gt. We B indices relation to consider the case in which at least one of the coefficients when it becomes secular. belong to the same We shew that the is result obtained in (v) as to the nonexistence of one. mj/m/ = ra /m shall first ?n/) belong to the same class when they satisfy the and that in this case the coefficients Bm ^ m and class. the restrictions on the coefficients .& /9. m = X shall say for brevity that this class or is in this domain.gt. .gt. i p + W 3H z have values such that /dp2 mi dH ftpi + m dH /dp 2 Q 2 is zero. xiv We z z 1 that m 1 k 1 +m k can find an infinite number of pairs of integers m lt m. and consequently d$&. a class let lt ra 2 completely defined by the ratio of the indices which for indices of C the class be commensurable number.Pi the former of these equations. B^^ B ^ ^ If pi. ^r dH  9//o 1 _ _n V.lt. and let is .2 &. and consequently in what was But this is contrary to (iii). m! BOo/a^j + m2 /dp2 is zero. it must must be a function of therefore vanish identically.lt. Thus in any domain. Comparing these two equations. 2 2 .lt.lt.gt.valued integrals true provided that in each of the classes there is at coefficient least one m m which does not vanish on becoming secular.& ..lt. but the coefficient that the coefficient m m is not B suppose zero. such and for each of these systems of integers the is zero: l expression m dH /dp + m dH /dp 2 2 is zero. it in other respects the same as in (v). and consequently and although the relation n^ 3&. if a set of values of p l} We G p 2 belongs to a given can be found in this domain such that A. there are an infinite number of systems of values of p lt p 2 for which this Jacobian is zero as the Jacobian is a continuous function.lt. H . 0&. however small. Removal of have now vanishes (raj . )/3 (p 1} p2 ) is zero for all values of p p2 lt for which dH fdp l and dH jdp are commensurable with each other. must be erroneous mental assumption as to the existence of the integral that is.gt. : Now X be any mj/w 2 domain. = cannot be inferred from /dp 2 can be inferred from the latter the proof is + 2 d3&. We shall say that two pairs of m 2) and (m/. The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare [CH. and therefore the funda proved : &. mi&. we have so the Jacobian d(H z &. provided no one of the coefficients Bm B ^ m vanishes when it becomes (vi) secular. For is zero. we have = 0.384 is satisfied.
for these values we have dH A. (1905). p. : H H H H 1 . there exists no one.valued integral distinct from .. xxx. Levi cf. there are an infinite number of classes for the coefficients of the class vanish when they become secular. The theorem has been extended by Nouv. by hypothesis. for the class 9pi op* Suppose that : A. to the general problem of three bodies . does not involve q and q2 and . are functions of and lt 2 we have periodic q lt q2 shewn that no integral of these equations exists which is distinct from the equation of energy and is onevalued and regular for all real values of q and q2 for values of /* which do not exceed a certain limit. In the four preceding sections. But. } is zero. however small. . Meth. domains of a different character.165] The Theorems of Bruns and Poincare shall 385 We small. there exists in every domain 8. 4&. however contained in D. the existence of integrals which are uniform in Civita. i. and on the function H^ by actual determining : expansion we find that the last condition thus established. and that which corresponds to this value of X. it has also been extended by Painleve C. an infinite number of such sets of values of p lt p 2 The Jacobian consequently vanishes at all points of D. Cel. is commensurable. all the coefficients of the class do not vanish when they z become secular the preceding reasoning then applies to this set of values. 305. l contained in D. D. : . 3/f T  _ U.gt.. as before. however small. ^ ^ all This result can be applied at once to the restricted problem of three bodies for we have seen in (i) that the of motion in this problem equations are of the character specified. Poincare s theorem is Poincare s theorem establishes the nonexistence of integrals uniform with respect to Keplerian variables. Poincare". and for values of p and p z which form a domain D. and so for these values of p and p2 the Jacobian d(H )/3(p 1} p. de la Mec. contained in D. we have considered equations of the type dqr_dH dt in dpr ~ _ dt dH dq r dp r which H can be expanded in the form l . and therefore O is a func tion of so. . which implies uniformity in the neighbourhood of all the tra This however does not exclude the jectories which have the same osculating ellipse. s theorem. shew that the theorem is which all which not is still true if in every domain B. cxxx. H .R. 253 w. 1699.p 2 such that l . provided that in every domain. Acta Math. Cf. For take any set of values of p . 25 (1900). H (vii) Deduction of Poincare". p. where the Hessian of Q with respect to p^ and p 2 is not zero. which is l . is satisfied. there are an infinite number of ratios m^m^ for which not the corresponding coefficients Bm m vanish when they become secular. p.
been observed ( 104) that the determination of the motion two degrees of freedom under the action of conservative with of a particle to the problem of finding the geodesies on a surface with forces is reducible It has already a given lineelement. The orbits orbit) ( have been obtained hitherto relate to periodic principal results which of a given orbit (especially of a periodic to the stability 167171).CHAPTER XV THE GENERAL THEORY OF ORBITS 166. motion is purely periodic. Such modes of motion are called periodic solutions. shall We now orbits of dynamical systems. the question to the with of orbits time. Great interest has attached in recent years to the investigation of those motion of dynamical systems in which the same con particular modes of figuration of the system is so that the repeated at regular intervals of time. an account of the properties of geodesies might therefore be regarded as falling within the scope of the discussion. ( 177179). Many of these properties are however of no importance for our present purpose and as the theory of geodesies is fully treated in many works on Differential : which are of general Geometry. a of respect given group stability the lapse of a after character their orbits the how far as to general preserve very great time 167. Introduction. with respect to small displacements from it ( 172176). chiefly consider the and disposition of the pass to the study of the general form For simplicity we shall in the present chapter motion of a particle which is free to move in a plane under the action of conservative forces. and to the i. but many of the results obtained can be readily extended to more general dynamical systems. we shall only consider those theorems dynamical interest. a solution is is periodically repeated: said to be periodic if the thus in the problem of mutual distances of the . The term periodic solution is also used in cases where a relative rather than an absolute configuration three bodies. Periodic solutions.e.
166168] bodies are The General Theory of Orbits 387 periodic functions of the time. Perform on the system the contacttransformation defined by the equations where ( 8* (. in which case no periodic orbits exist in the vicinity. dt = dH dpr dpr__dH = dt dqr t where the function fc H does not involve the time 0l(0&. vibration is real. explicitly P* . ?2=&. Considering specially the motion of a particle in a plane or on a fixed smooth surface under the action of conservative forces. while p. p. The equations which pressed in a most conveniently ex form due to Poincare Let the motion of the dynamical system considered be defined by the equations dq.lt. namely the orbits corresponding to the normal vibrations of the particle about this equilibrium position. s 168. it may happen that the periods of both the modes of normal vibration are imaginary. be the equations which define a known There periodic orbit of this system. 6S have the period 2rr. Cel. orbit. l initial values. : in which case these or_that the period of one of the modes of normal real normal vibrations give a family of periodic orbits orbits in the these orbits will evidently however be unstable. it is evident that a family of periodic orbits will exist in the neighbourhood of each position of stable equilibrium of the particle.gt.gt. Poincare normal variables for a known periodic define a periodic orbit are *. 252 . From these equations be written in the form can be eliminated : let the result of the elimination so that the functions 6 1} 0. = fa(i) . whereas the neighbourhood of the position of stable equilibrium are stable. If the position of equilibrium is unstable.2 . and let = Pl = ^l(t)&. is clearly no loss of if we generality suppose the coordinates (q l} q2 p^ p 2 ) to be such that after the lapse of a period the variables q lt qz p resume their . 369. although the bodies may not have the same orientation at the end of a period as at its necessarily beginning.) * Nouvelles Methodes de la Mec.k(0&.gt.2 increases t by 2?r. n.
Signorini.9. Monthly Notices R. (1902). P= 1 0. 346. LXII. L. are of motion of the dynamical system. t. however. Whittaker. for the discovery of periodic We shall now shew that the existence and position of periodic orbits can the be determined by a theorem* analogous to those theorems which furnish roots of an algebraic equation by considerations depending on position of the We shall for simplicity the sign of expressions connected with the equation.*. Cf. Rend. referred to any fixed y} be the coordinates and let V(x. 1 Q. p.".gt. considered to be that of the motion of a suppose the dynamical problem mass in a plane under the action of conservative forces: the particle of unit result can be extended to more general systems without difficulty! A criterion of the particle at time t. 186. by associating together of oo 2 orbits set a h such which the constant of energy has the same value * xxi. of three bodies. normal form. cf. Lincei. (ft) + {*  ft (ft))  fft . (1902). : oo 3 really sets. Palermo. f For the extension to the restricted problem LXII. pp.A. d. each those orbits for containing a double infinity of orbits. xv Q. Lincei. and their general solution consequently involves four arbitrary One of these constants is. Monthly Notices R.*3 (ft)} The equations variables. where h is the constant of energy. xxi. so there are only This triple infinity of orbits can be arranged in distinct orbits. P =f 2 2 (0 This form of the equations of the orbit will be called Poincare s 169. 332. Rend. rectangular axes in the plane.. l(#+f)+V(a&. d.y)=K. (1912).S. . p. d. p. orbits. A. 36. (1912). y) be its potential energy function. p.A.S. 187. (1912). . to which determines the epoch in the orbit. xxxin. 251. The differential equations of motion of the particle form a system of the fourth order. . Tonelli. Rend. merely the constant additive constants. of the so that energy is equation Let (as.388 The equations The General Theory of Orbits of this transformation can be written [en. = 0. in terms of the new dt dPr dt 0& it is and from the above equations of transformation solution is evident that the periodic now defined by the equations Q = 0.
namely that the orbit between two given points (x the value of the expression y ) and (xly y^) is such as to make stationary as compared with other curves joining the given terminal points Oo. it of energy a natural family.lt. symbol 8 denotes an increment obtained in passing from G to C ). y)}? 8 {(dx? + But we have . ) 8p. x.A cos 7 . y).gt. and if / + 81 denote the value of the same integral when the integration is taken round the curve (so that the C". Consider any simple closed curve C in the plane of xy and let another simple closed curve G be drawn. and where p is 8 {(dxf + (dy} = 8p.* sin 7 l ^ T P dx dy is * Following Painleve. C".V(x. We may regard as defined by an equation of the form . 169] The General Theory of Orbits ( 389 100). Then if / be the value of the integral when the integration is taken round the curve C. customary to call a family of orbits .i a rr/ {A. Liouville which have the same constant s Journal.168.. enclosing C and differing only slightly from it. i y}\ 8F M*/ I cos ^j{(dx? 7 + 9F ysin 7 V.. 2/ a )*. and consequently always positive) and 7 is the inclination of this normal distance to the axis of x. y)}? + [ {h  V(x.y} . we have 81= {(dxf + (dy)^ 8 [h  V(x. may be defined analytically by the principle of least action .dy = the radius of curvature of the curve C at the point (x. where 8p is the normal distance between the curves C and C (measured out wards from C.fe)+(dy)}*{Ar^^ J This equation shews that if ( p ox oy } the quantity 7=r dV dV hV(x. (1894). ?/ ) and (&. Thus we have S/=f{(&..
* 2 / 3F cos 7 . Cong. is given by . Since with D C or D for any part of its length. p. useful summary problem of three bodies II. We A 1912.. and so the integral I has negative at all points of C. Proc. therefore. As the quantity hV(x. is taken instead of therefore. D we as the path of integration.y) ^ .390 is The General Theory of Orbits [OH. can be shewn that the integral / is diminished when any simple closed curve D . Moulton. and hence curves adjacent to furnishes a stationary value of / as compared with all the that the curve is therefore an orbit in the dynamical The curve to it. which furnishes the least There exist. V it 3 + sin 7 ^r dV\ dy/ . * sin 7 rdy 8F be negative at all points of the inner curve and positive at all points of the outer the two curves there exists a periodic curve. in the same way. When. K K not coincide with it follows. dV 5 \ sin 7 p dy can be calculated immediately for every point on the curves C and D. curves adjacent theorem: // one dosed curve be at the arrived We have thus system. among the for which the one or more curves simple closed curves of this aggregate. de function and the curves pending as it does only on the potentialenergy themselves. dV 7 ^ ox . of three bodies. then curve when its value diminished surrounding C and adjacent to C is any of taken instead of C as the path integration. 182. this result furnishes a means of detecting the presence of periodic orbits. and such that at curve suppose that another simple closed all points of D the quantity D can be drawn enclosing hV P is positive. and if quantity D K K K hV(x. does value of / is less than for all other curves of the aggregate. Inter. are all members of the aggregate in question. that the C or along any part of its length. xv 81 is negative. Cambridge. y) singularity coincide cannot or be C and cannot of I value D. consider the aggregate of all simple closed curves which is assumed to situated in the ringshaped space bounded by C and that the curve is clear it function of the no contain V(x.i cos . Now C. of Math. then in the ringshaped space between orbit of the dynamical system. . Lagranges shall three particles. for which the constant of energy is h. now consider specially certain periodic solutions of the problem of theorems relating to families of periodic orbits in the restricted K. enclosed by D and adjacent to D.y) v ?p i cos dV ~ 7 * dx . Then. the enclosed by another closed curve. 170. ".
Moreover. ~ where U= ^m m 2 r12 l 1 . A discussed by Let the equations of motion of the problem be taken in the reduced form obtained in 160. = 03 = dH ^=^. 1 . The General Theory of Orbits and collision. 11 . in is 391 which two of relation of periodic orbits to orbits of ejection the bodies occupy in the same position at the same time.169. is category of nonplane periodic orbits in the problem of three bodies Pavanini. the quantities . must be constant. /&. 2 ( 1 1 3 . (3). sin . studied by Moulton. and cos ft cos ft k psin sin ft ^ ^ 2 2 p&. 2 /* 3^2 A* shew that p and l p.lt. (1912).__ W*2 yj^ 2 ^. ft. Annali di Mat. The mutual distances f &. 170] The Proc. *ppt and therefore or 2 p* + ^ 4 ^ =+ 2 . xin. ) 2jo 3 p 4 we have tan ^ 3 cot ft & Pi + ^ = cot ft tan ft = ^ 2 K 2 . xi.3 2p 3 p 4 2 . . and hence the functions U. 1 t follows that. 367. dU/dq^ dU/dq 2 must be constant. 3 aff = ^. s l \ s sin o 4 2 3 */ 1 + and it k p pf 2m o go/ \ sm ft sin a cos cos ft gW* ft + * + m + m. ^ m +m \ 2p p. p. so f cos ft cos o4 ^ 3ft \ . . ft. The equations = ft = dH =p 5 . L.\ ft ) 2. ^ = (/ p4 ) . S.lt.2 must be permanently zero : while the equations shew that p3 and p 4 must be constant. p.^ 2 ^J ^4 \ sin o.gt. in the particular solution considered. . (2). and let us first enquire whether these equations admit of a particular solution in which the mutual distances of the bodies are invariable throughout the motion. M.7i are 2 s . \Q (*~ . (1906). 9^i p. 3ft 0=^4 = ^ a# 3ft a C S ?4 9ft fj and are zero.? 4 . 179. the equations A= shew that the expressions 3 . k p pf 2m 2 ftft/ sin q cos q cos q.
It follows that there are an infinite number of solutions of the problem of three bodies.392 The General Theory of Orbits [en. s takes place in a plane. We have now to see if such a motion is possible. a^. Considering first their centre of gravity the collinear case. 2 aj)~ . we have m and this l sin ra 2 sin PRO _ ~ sin QPR _ ~ QR QRO sin PQR P combined with the preceding equation gives PR = QR : we find PR = PQ. But since is the centre of gravity of the particles. the generality of the discussion.. From these equations readily find 2 rn^fc {(1 + k) 3 . the distances a lt a z a3 can . : in other words. in circular orbits round 0. and if n is given. s [k .a as respectively: we which does not lessen 2 s suppose that a l Since the force acting on P must be that corresponding to circular motion round 0.1] + ma (1 + k) (& a2 )/(a 2 k. the motion of the //. This condition is satisfied if the If they are not in a three particles are in the same straight line. n?a = m 2 2 (a2 i)~ ni 3 (a s .. we have shall &. &. It follows that. the straight line rotates . be completely determined. (which particles m^ m .a . Q.lt. it gives sin PRO = ^~ *ffl 2 sin QRO. PQR na =m 2 3 and similarly (a s 2 o^)". 1) + m. either the bodies similarly Hence must be collinear.(1 + k) = 0. and positive when k = + oo there is at least one positive real root. condition which must obviously be satisfied is that the resultant attraction of any two of the particles on the third must act in the line joining One the third particle to the centre of gravity. the centre of gravity of the system being supposed at ra we shall denote by P.lt. such a root determines uniquely real values for the ratios a 1 :a 2 :a3 . and // takes place in a plane : and therefore motion of m m m 1 . where n n 2 is the angular velocity of the line a2 = m 3 (a s a 2 )~ 2 + n^ (a we 2 a^". in which the bodies remain always in a straight line at constant distances from each other . l +m 2 (a 3 a 2 )~2 . xv an equation which shews that the instantaneous planes of motion of the bodies and // coincide with the plane through these bodies and the origin fj. 2 . Since the lefthand . R) must move the 2 3 rest. or else the triangle formed by them must be equilateral. let the distances of the bodies from (measured positively in the same direction) be a l} a. 3 } where & denotes the This is ratio (as a quintic equation in with real coefficients. side of the equation is negative when k is zero. and two similar equations. straight line. 2 .
after Lagrange s discovery. and the other three in longi group. xn. F. For references to extensions of these results to the problem of n bodies. (3). cf. 624 Hector. to the papers there mentioned may be added E. * and include Lagrange s particles They were discovered by Lagrange in 1772 : Oeuvres de Lagrange. Annals of Math. Arkiv for Mat. 0. a condition which reduces to relating to the motion of Q and of R reduce to the same and hence a motion of the kind indicated is possible. Soc. . 12. No. 229. and the size of the triangle is then determinate. and 659 Nestor. the mutual distances of the bodies are determinate. p. p. . p. (1907). an example of the Lagrangian equilateral. theoretical. Bull. xm. Math. of Considering next the equilateral case. posed purely was found to have a mean distance equal to that of Jupiter and it was soon For more than a century : realised that the Sun. p. OR. These are evidently periodic solutions of the problem. Lovett. (1910). (1908). Linders. and rotates uniformly in the plane of the motion: the angular velocity of its rotation can be arbitrarily assigned. as a limiting case. (1904). which are in the same caset. Shew that particular solutions of the problem of three bodies exist. my article iu the Encyklopadie d. p. Annali di Mat. vi. J. t Cf. to a circular orbit round 0. Amer. although the mutual distances are not constant but are periodic functions of the time. tude Jupiter + 60.". 529. let a be the length of one side Since the triangle formed by the bodies. 20. and Achilles constitute. 617 Patroclus.triangular configuration. R. math. Longley. R. Hence there are an infinite number of The conditions solutions of the problem of three bodies.Trojan Patroclus is in longitude Jupiter 60. and when angular velocity has been (arbitrarily) assigned. 1. provided n equation: and a are connected by this relation. Jupiter. Example. 588 Achilles. approximately at any rate. iv. in which the bodies are always collinear or always equidistant.Of this ". 324. 2. its interest was sup to be But in 1906 a new minor planet. Shortly afterwards came the discovery of three other Asteroids. 1 W. and F.170] The General Theory of Orbits its 393 uniformly. the force acting on 3 is that which corresponds m we have a? 1 cos PRO + ~ a 2 2 cos QRO = n* . vi. and let n be its angular velocity. Wiss. Moulton. in which the triangle formed by the bodies remains equilateral and of constant size. The two called particular types of motion which have now been found will be Lagrange s collinear particles and Lagrange s equidistant particles respectively*. xi.
where . When first the planetoid in the vicinity two families of periodic orbits equidistant configuration of relative equilibrium : the 2 approximation. there exist of its . and for the equidistant case we have a = ^(m l m2 } m 2 ). m 1 and m 2 their masses. 6.r case we have I y) in the position of relative equilibrium con 6 = 0. namely the normal vibrations about the position of equilibrium or steady motion. It has been observed ( 167) that in the neighbourhood of any configuration of stable equilibrium or steady motion there exists in general a family of periodic solutions.. of periods are. . with the other.#) n* = 0.n*\* + (*i . where k = 4 . 77. dy_dK ~di~~dv du_ _dK ~di~~dx vx) dv__ dt~ _%& 8y K=\(u z + v*) + n (uy b) mi/SP m 2 /JP. where denotes the distance SJ. denote the values of l/(m l + (x. The General Theory of Orbits Stability of [CH. be the bodies of finite mass. are supposed to be small quantities neglecting a constant term. The equations of motion of the planetoid S and J are ( 162) d^_ dJK ~di~du where Let (a. . so that ( 46) The values na Write of u. where X is a root of the equation X 4 . v = na + (f&. sidered. # = a+. We shall now apply this idea to the case of the Lagrange sparticle solution of the restricted problem of three bodies. since 2 and they will be real provided 4 (f J & 2 ) 27 mj ra 2 1.gt. or (wij + ?n 2 ) satisfied provided one of the masses S.lt. so that for the collinea. v in the position of relative equilibrium are easily seen to be nb and respectively. Let is gravity. b =\ *J%1. &. dK ~3~ _ dK we find that the period *frj Solving these equations in the manner described in Chapter VII. u=nb + : Q. The two values ~ ^2 (f i of X 2 given : ) i s positive is a relation which by this equation will be positive provided they are real.lt. STT/XJ and 27r/X 2 where X^ and X 2 are the roots of the this condition is satisfied. &. and thereby obtain certain families of periodic orbits of the planetoid. xv Lagrange s particles : periodic orbits in the vicinity. x and y the coordinates of the planetoid P when taken as origin and OJ as axis of x. J is sufficiently large compared &. obtain an expression for with which the equations for the vibrations about relative equilibrium can be formed we shall for definiteness consider vibrations about the equi K : distant configuration : in this case the expression for K becomes The equations of motion are ~W of a normal vibration dK n ~W dK . is 27T/X. to a 2 equation in X .394 171.gt. we have we On expanding and retaining only terms of the second order in the small quantities. mi + m 2 .p y b+ rj. their centre of n the angular velocity of SJ.
the constant of relative energy is greater than the configuration of relative equilibrium. (1912). p/ p 1 ou 1 2 u\+. (1905).s+. A Example. a. ) /. and for which the constant of energy has . LXXIII. Shew that. 441. 281 Stromgren. Nach. 105. Nach. Let P and Q be . CLIX. u\  /. for one of the modes of normal vibration of the planetoid in the in vicinity of the equidistant configuration. Math. We now proceed to consider the stability of orbits in general. * . under the action of forces derived from a given potential energy function V. let known and adjacent QN perpendicular to the known orbit. Moulton. orbits respectively at time Draw a and arc let PN = NQ = u. namely the integral of energy M \2 1 H ) s2 + V = h..) 172. and also Lovett. CLXVIII. solutions. + \ z u\us dp = f as 3F JT p/ p os known ( integral. the positions of the particle in the t. Astr. Astr. p.171. while for the other mode the constant is less than in the configuration of relative equilibrium. is known and consider a solution which is immediately adjacent to this known solution. the memoirs referred to on page 530 of my article in the Encyjtlopadle. p. OP = the orbit at P. and consequently in the neighbourhood of a position of relative equilibrium of the planetoid on the line SJ there exists a family of unstable periodic orbits*. the same value. 172] The General Theory of Orbits 395 similar discussion leads to the result that the collinearLagrange sparticle configurations are unstable. s).. Lagrangian equations of motion are therefore . The differential equation of the normal displacement from an shall orbit. . The kinetic energy of the particle when describing the adjacent orbit is T=i^+i(l + and its W /p)2 * 2 . be a fixed origin on the known orbit let : . p. where h is a constant. The first Lagrangian equation and the integral become dp \\dujp * + \dudajp u \du For further work on the subject of orbits in the neighbourhood of the Lagrange sparticle cf. Ann. = ON = so s We shall regard the by the quantities p be the radius of curvature of position of any point on the adjacent let and orbit as specified (u. arc s. but the equation for the periods of normal modes of vibration has always one real root. \ 1 + p) these equations possess a p )us p/ . (1902). Suppose that some particular solution of the motion of a particle of unit mass in a plane. (Charlier.
where a the characteristic exponent 175) happens when aT/2iri is a commensurable and T is the period of the solution.and b. gen. provided the range is It follows that if the quantity comprehend 2 2 2 2 known orbit. who has found that the neglected terms give rise to instability in certain cases which appear to be stable when only firstorder is terms are considered : this ( number. . then any solution u which is zero for within the range will be zero again for some value t within the (t t ) range. des Surfaces. xv du and the two preceding equations become Eliminating (&. Th. any adjacent from it. This expression sufficiently large to this interval. 67. (1904). but will intersect it again infinitely often. * Cf. we obtain the equation 2 f/9 F\ So 2 ) or (taking s instead of t as the independent variable. i. p. Annali di Mat. + greatly can therefore be called the coefficient of stability for the orbit. (1901). in.e. Cf. Darboux. Annali di Mat.lt. Cigala.T fir). 172176. this orbit will of the all is at 3v points /p positive (3 F/9w )p it once will not diverge which intersects orbit be stable^. xi. also A. v. p.396 Since The General Theory of Orbits [CH. differential equation of the form d2u where for a certain positive real quantities a value t range of values of t the quantity / (t) lies between two a. 221. The effect of the neglected terms on the stability has been studied by LeviCivita. if we have any the stability of the known orbit. E. 1 and writing v for cr) du ds2 2 dv du fl id ( 2 V v ds ds v2 \ du2 and this is the differential equation of the adjacent orbit From this equation we can at once deduce consequences relating to For by Sturm s theorem*. all f In the discussion of stability in powers of the displacement above the first are neglected in forming the differential equations of the adjacent orbits. where lies between ir/a and irjb. Vol.
same as those occurring in the linear relation between u n+2 u n+l Next.lt.lt. 3 u n+2 = (f&. u m+l = ty (s + mS). which shews that the constants occurring in the linear relation between u m+z. (n+ l)th. so that they will be the same x + (m 1) S). ds 2 . we have c^un ^ + c u n+s = k (c 2 u n+l + c 2 w n+2 ) + k t (du n + c u n+l \ and therefore u m+2 = ku m+1 + k^u m) u .lt.f&. From n the equations d2 un ds dv du n vds ds 1 [1 /S 2 F\ 2 31 p*) ~ l*\8tt*/ /tfl j I ds 2 + 1 ".gt.gt. we un . ^n+3 = fo Un+2 ". is also the equation of an adjacent orbit the orbits represented by these two equations are in fact congruent. so that we can write is : where n . The General Theory of Orbits s 397 Korteweg theorem. shall find the value of the constant k^.n+l n L ~J~~ 1 /9 If ~ f 1 F\ n 3 v ds ds / o \ ~^\ . but the corresponding tracing points are separated by one or more periods.172. u m+l .a ^n+i 2 &.(s + (n + 1) S). is displacement u periodic orbit whose perimeter is S then if = (s + nS). orbit. . it is evident that u Suppose now that the known is : &. (s + nS).(s + (n(s) is 1) S). m are the .lt.f&. at the same place in the orbit. ". with respect to which the normal a measured.f&.f&. u= &. 173] 173. &. they must satisfy a relation of the form where k and k^ are independent of s. u= (s) is the equation of an adjacent orbit.gt. dv du ~ . 1 dv du v ds ds (1 /9F\ 2 \v*\ du /. and (n + 2)th period.gt. a solution of the equation d 2 u. . . any integer. u m+2 = ty (s + (m + 1) $). i Un 1 . Since u n u n+l u n+2 are three solutions of this linear differential equation. un = where &. Un+i i ". u n+l = &. For um is a linear function of the two solutions un and u n+1 say and therefore on adding periods to the argument s.gt. we have But from the equations Un+2 == ". We um= shall first choice of the adjacent orbit and of the for any other set ty (s shew that these constants k and & are independent of the number n. In any orbit adjacent to the known orbit let u n u n+1 u n+2 (where n is an integer) denote respectively the normal displacements in the nth.lt.gt.
depends on whether k = 2 cosh a Supposing first that k is positive and greater than 2.1 [CH. as is well known. xcm.e. the ratio k = (u n+2 + u n )/u n+1 has a constant We value. 1.gt.I/ til I// tv 7)41 L tt t/ //^i / / /Y J/ W/ tlfr /7 II IX/ I* *] and hence.3+ 11 T^ v as as [& \ou* J Korteweg.. The nature of the integral of the differenceequation ^n+2 rCUn+i ~^~ Un = ". where un u n+1 u n+2 are the normal . Wiener Sltzungsber. au n as 7 un au n+ i as j = c v .^! * riii IX/M/TJ. : 1 are functions of s which have the period S these functions so as to make the solutions u satisfy the equation (s) and vr (s) choosing + TT as * d*u 3 Idvdu (1/8 2 F\ ~ 4 j. . e tt (s). &. .lt. ^/c^. . j j .lt.^jgJ dtO 1 ~dT so that &i has the value ds . i. (s) and u = _as ".gt.lt. which is the same for all adjacent orbits. depends./". Changing s to s + S. displacements from a periodic orbit in three consecutive revolutions. on the reality or nonreality of the roots of the quadratic equation \*k\ + I= 0. ^ . for reasons which will now appear. write k a a then the roots of the quadratic are e and e~ and we know that two inde pendent solutions of the differenceequation are of the form &. . (1886). 174. ratio The constant k= (u n +z+ u n )/un+1 . is called the index of stability of the periodic orbit.. it 2 or k 2. on integrating. we have ds / 7 ds fi i/ ds 7 cu n+l + k lUn )a Wn+j \ ^ ^71tl / di  u n+1 / 7 rit i wW/Tj. ". thus have the theorem* that if u n u n+l un+ denote the normal displacements in an orbit adjacent to a known periodic orbit in three consecutive revolutions. as u = e^ where &.398 we have un tt The General Theory of Orbits //S?/ .f&. xv /". &. The index of stability. where c is a constant.
is a definite constant. a* uK where l *4&. c (s} + be~ ^ (s). Modern Analysis.lt. to the stability of it follows from the character of the expressions obtained for u that the divergence from the and ^r have real zeros.gt.gt. &. and where the satisfy equations l and K and &.lt. $* are functions of s Next suppose that k 2 k 2 let k = 2 cos a.f&. we have two independent particular solutions of the latter equation : (f&. and consequently the general equation of the orbits adjacent to the known orbit. &. = is orbits adjacent to the known u the general equation of the of the same form 2 cosh a. Similarly k 2. according as the associated index of stability is less or greater (in absolute value) than two. b are u = ae $ arbitrary constants.gt.lt.173.lt. remain within fixed limits. the general solution is a linear combination of these particular solutions. writing k orbit as &.j&. and ^(s) have the period S. Of. C8 where period S. and &.(*y + K e~~s + 0). the normal displacement is represented by circular functions of real will arguments.lt. when k 2.f&.lt.gt. &. 2?rs i cos .gt.f&. is of the form &. so that same way we now find that the general equation of orbits adjacent to the &. 174] The General Theory of Orbits 399 (which gives linear differential equations of the second order for the functions and vjr).lt. t &.+ . 1 of the form a. 2 cos _+ 47T \ .(s) a* K l and K if 2 are arbitrary constants. &.gt. : known orbit is where K and A are arbitrary constants and where and &.gt.lt. the oscillation about it) becomes periodic orbit (or if continually greater as s increases while if k 2. Chapter xix. and $ and Whittaker and Watson. ^r are functions of s with the period S.lt. = K^ (s) + K e~^^r (s\ z _os where which K 2 are arbitrary constants. the From these results important consequences relative known periodic orbit can be deduced. &. In the 2. and may be deduced from.lt. We thus The results of the present article agree with.gt. ^ are periodic with . and . the theorem that the general solution of a differential equation of the type (Pu p is +( (n + . For if k 2. consequently obtain the theorem that a periodic orbit is stable or not.
and suppose that a periodic solution of these equations . of Kharkow.gt.) Characteristic exponents. the functions fn) can evidently be expressed as sums and products of purely Math. p. equations ( 2 . .^ rtf. de la Mec.// either have the period or satisfy the equations and that the known orbit may be either stable or unstable. . defined by the equations where fa (t + T) = fa (t) this. Consider any set of differential equations where (X^. Nouv. n) are supposed to be small. . &. (Korteweg. 175. . known. . p. . K As these are linear differential equations. . xin.gt. Soc. is X 2. Annales de 203. Toulouse (2). \js (s).. * cjfc ".. Liapounoff . a?2 . . .p (s) + s\l/ (s)} + K. it is known from the general theory of linear differential equations that each of the variables & will be of the form where the quantities S{k denote periodic functions of t with the period T. Meth. $ and &. n). (1890). (1907). Davaux. &. i..400 The General Theory of Orbits : [CH.. . ix. ^ ^ K= 1 . .. n). . Discuss the transitional case in which the index of stability has one of the 2 shewing that the equation of the adjacent orbits is of one of the forms u = KI where {&. and the n quantities ak are constants. and are given by the variational 112) fit \Juv 7 . ) having a period T in t are functions of (a^. 2.. which are called the characteristic exponents of the periodic solution. If (fi.lt.. and translated into French by E. * all &. xv values Example. (i = 1. with coefficients periodic in the independent variable t. (1892). In order to investigate solutions adjacent to we write where (1. On the general problem of stability the reader should consult the extensive memoir of A. .gt. ^ ^ ( ^ == J ) ^ . originally published in 1892 by the Ada Math. Xn . the characteristic exponents are purely imaginary. The stability of types of motion of more general dynamical systems may be discussed by the aid of certain constants to which Poincare has given the name characteristic exponents*. Gel. xn } and possibly also of t. 1 .
let ({31} /32 .. 26 . . /3 2 .. . denote the In one of the orbits adjacent to the given periodic orbit. $. .+ le OPi i 9^1 r aT 9".. . ..valued functions of (&..... . . /3 2 . .. Hence the condition for stability of the periodic orbit imaginary. is that all the characteristic exponents must be purely We shall now find the equation which determines the characteristic exponents of a given solution. ..^ = ^ Op 2 dfa 2 . one of the adjacent orbits will be defined by equations of the form and consequently a set of values of & . we . after the lapse of a period. @n ) initial values of (. D.. are satisfied : 2..174176] The General Theory of Orbits 401 periodic terms. . ..T a ^..fa n ) are one. As the have by Taylor s theorem (neglecting squares and products of &. which are zero when (&. while this is evidently not the case if the characteristic exponents are not all purely imaginary... quantities (fa^faz. /3 n ) are all zero. . @n ) If a k is one of the characteristic exponents. n ) and let /3j + fa be the value of . . @n exists for which the equations (i=l. f)ft dfa2 9^ T/ie characteristic exponents are therefore the roots of this determinantal equation..n) the quantity a k must therefore be a root of the equation in a vfai O.. %%. . . t is When not contained explicitly in the functions Xi (X lt X.&). j82 . Properties of the characteristic exponents.... then e) W.. 176.. Xn\ it is evident that if = fa (t) is a solution of the equations.
2. n (0).lt.. The equations (t1.. . dFldaen = satisfied at all points a very exceptional case. ) is zero. . characteristic exponents is = so that one of the characteristic exponents : the determinantal equation for the aT evidently satisfied by the value e =l.. Suppose next that the system possesses an integral of the form F (#! where .gt.*) &*(*+) therefore define a particular solution of the variational equations. where the characteristic exponent (0. x... .lt. etc./&. but as a periodic function of t. ./&. 0.gt.lt. of stability k and the period T by the equation k the orbit is exponents action of orbit are the index = 2 cosh aT .. l )/a( / &.. by is zero.f lf i/r 2 . one of the characteristic exponents is zero. .. x2 . = 0.2 .&. . . all when = 0. dF/dx2 is dF/dxn are correct. In the notation of the we have t F {&.. x2 . . and true one but when the Jacobian : of the periodic solution: this is evidently the former alternative must be in general the is zero. &. where in dF/dx 1} dF/dx2 . .. + &}..j) 2 (0). i.gt. . F is a onevalued function of last article.. xn ). Differentiating this equation with respect to . stable or unstable according as a is purely imaginary or not. is If the latter alternative arbitrary) the equations = must be 0. the quantities (x1} cc2 these equations . A comparison of 173.. one of the exponents of every periodic solution is zero... x^ = Constant (oc^. dF/dx.402 is The General Theory of Orbits where e is [OH.e. an arbitrary constant.lt.. where for brevity F (#.. .) is written in place of /3 fj F (i . .... . it follows that the coeffi d(j)i(t + e)/de is evidently cient e akt reduces in this case to unity: and hence when t is not contained characteristic explicitly in the original differential equations. (0) + + + }=F i (&. .. A/r. we see that (since the origin of time . x n ) and does not involve t. xv also a solution.. a. the characteristic exponents of any periodic a is connected with a). or else the quantities dF/dx. by fa (0). . zero ..gt. . 174 with the theory of characteristic shews that in the motion of a particle in a plane under the conservative forces.. Thus if the differential equations possess a onevalued integral. (0) . n _ xn ) are to be replaced teW&. we have 2 dFty + dFd+ Wi* ^m tez + W^ .lt. it follows that either the Jacobian 8(&. (j&.. From 8 1 .
176, 177]
Example
1.
The General Theory of Orbits
If the differential equations
403
explicitly,
do not involve the time
and
possess p onevalued integrals /\, ..., p which do not involve t, shew that either (p+l) characteristic exponents are zero, or that all the determinants contained in the matrix
F
dF
9^are zero at all points of the periodic solution considered.
2.
(i
= l,
2,...,^;
= 1,2,
...,),
(Poincare.)
If the differential equations form a Hamiltonian system, shew that the Example characteristic exponents of any periodic solution can be arranged in pairs, the exponents of each pair being equal in
magnitude but opposite
repellent regions of
in sign.
(Poincare.)
177.
Attractive
and
a field of force.
The general character of the motion of a conservative holonomic system by a theorem which was given by Hadamard* in 1897. For we shall suppose that the system consists of a simplicity, particle of unit which is free move on a to smooth surface under forces derivable mass, given
is
illustrated
from a potential energy function V; a similar result will readily be seen to hold for more complex systems.
Let (u, v) be two parameters which specify the position of the particle on the surface, and let the lineelement on the surface be given by the equation
ds*
= Edu* + 2Fdudv +
Gdv*
where (E, F, G) are given functions of n and
particle
is
v.
The
kinetic energy of the
T = \ (Eu? +
_
dt\du
which can be written
du
dv
2Fui&gt;
+
Gtf},
and the Lagrangian equations of motion are
du
du
dt\dv
.__
dv
z
dv
^
\
du
du
2

^
dv
du
dv
1
"
w
"\
I
"
\
*
ff
1
~^
if)uj
\
dv
" ff *
^ dv
~~~
1 * ~7 
V
duj
o
I
We
have, by differentiation,
T&gt;
V=
37.
~
u
ou
+
2
dV
dv
_
.
v,
dV.. w ^ du
+ ^+ dv
y
dV..
u +2 du
.,
2
dudv
^ uv + .
v.
dv*
*
Journ. de Math.
(5),
in. p. 331.
262
404
The General Theory of Orbits
u and
v
[CH.
xv
Substituting for
their values from
the preceding equations,
we have
where
8F/ .,9^ + =^^ 3^ dv
V
^
z.
dG dG dr F G + *F
(*
du
dv
dv
dv
( \
F
ZF
dv
2
E
ZG
dv
ZG
9tt
quantities occurring in this equation can be expressed in terms of The principal deformationco variants connected deformationcovariants*.
The
with the surface whose lineelement
ds*
is
given by the equation
Gdv"
= Edu + ZFdudv +
are the differential parameters
,
f ) = (EG  F*r
\B%&F&& + % f}
d
A,
W = (EG  F*r
Bj
dv dv
\du dv
dv du/
1
du
2F
du dv
+ G
where
&lt;
and
fy
are arbitrary functions of the variables u
and
v.
With
this notation, the preceding equation
becomes
Utilising the equation of energy
Eu + 2Fuv + Gv*=2(h2
V),
and observing that the expression
3&gt;
(u, v)
Eu&gt;
+ 2Fuv +
Gv*
 d V/du) (d V/dv, E(d V/dvf 2F(d V/dv) (d V/du) + G(d V/du)
&lt;
2
The
definition of a deformation covariant is given in the footnote
on page
111.
177]
The General Theory of Orbits
405
contains the quantity (udV/du
+
vdV/dv) as a factor, we can write
r=A
where \ and
yu,
8(V)/_
1 (F&gt;+
Al (F)
+(XU + ^)F;
contain in their denominators only the quantity
and where I v denotes the expression
3&gt;
(d V/dv,
 dV/du)/(EG  F*)
in the form
;
we
readily find that
I v can be expressed
Consider, on the orbit of the particle, a point at which has a minimum value at such a point is zero and is positive as A, ( F) is essentially positive (since the lineelement of the surface is a positive definite form), it
;
V
V
V
:
follows that
zero,
i.e.
at
/F^O, the inequality becoming an equality only when A, (F) an equilibriumposition of the particle.
is
As
an
the general case) or (in exceptional cases) the function will, after passing some point of the orbit, vary continually in the same sense. Suppose first that the former of
is
infinite
the particle describes any trajectory, the function number of successive maxima and minima (this
F will
either have
regions contains in general an infinite number of distinct of the each of finite orbit, parts length whereas in the other region, for which I v is negative, the particle cannot remain per
points of the orbit at which
is the true one then if we divide the given surface into two regions, in which 7 r is positive and negative respectively, it follows from what has been proved above that the former of these contains all the
:
these alternatives
Fhas
a
minimum
value,
i.e. it
;
manently.
attractive
it is
These two parts of the surface are on this account called the and repellent regions. Each of these regions exists in general, for
any isolated point of the surface at which F is a mini any point where stable equilibrium is possible) is in an attractive region, and any point at which Fis a maximum is in a repellent region.
easily found that
(i.e.
mum
It is interesting to compare this result with that which corresponds to it in the motion of a particle with one degree of freedom, e.g. a particle which is free to move on a curve under the action of a force which depends only on the position of the particle. In this case the particle either ultimately travels an indefinite distance in one direction or oscillates about a position of stable equilibrium. The attractive region, in motion with two degrees of freedom, corresponds to the position of stable equilibrium in motion with one degree of
freedom.
Consider next the alternative supposition, namely that after some definite F is always in the same sense. We shall suppose that the surface has no infinite sheets and is at all and that
instant the variation of
regular
points,
;
Fis
an everywhere regular function of position on the surface
so that, since the
406
variation of
finite limit,
The General Theory of Orbits
[CH.
xv
V is always in the same sense, V must tend toward some definite V and V tending to the limit zero. Considering the equation
x
region length But greater than any assignable quantity) or else Aj(F) tends to zero. Aj ( F) can be zero only when d V/du and d V/dv are zero if therefore (as is in general the case) the surface possesses only a finite number of equilibrium
;
see that if A ( F) is not very small, X and /j, are finite and the last term on the righthand side of the equation is infinitesimal; and consequently either there exist values of t as large as we please for which I v is positive (in which case the part of the orbit described in the attractive is of
we
positions, the particle will tend to one of these positions, with a velocity which tends to zero. position of equilibrium thus
A
approached asymptotically
equilibrium
must be a
versed
is
for the asymptotic motion re position of unstable equilibrium a motion in which the particle, being initially near the
:
position with a small velocity, does not remain in the neighbourhood of the equilibrium position and this is inconsistent with the definition of stability.
;
Thus
follows
:
finally
we obtain Hadamard s theorem, which may be
move on a surface which
is
stated as
If a
particle is free to
everywhere regular
infinite sheets, the potential energy function being regular at all points of the surface arid having only a finite number of maxima and minima on it, either the part of the orbit described in the attractive region is of length
and has no
greater than any assignable quantity, or else the orbit tends asymptotically one of the positions of unstable equilibrium.
for part of its course
to
Example. If all values of t from  x to + oo are considered, shew that the particle must be in the attractive region.
178.
problem of stability. simple criterion for determining the character of a given form of motion of a dynamical system is often furnished by the equation of energy of the
Application of the energy integral
to the
A
system.
in a plane
Considering the case of a single particle of unit mass which moves under the influence of forces derived from a potential energy
y),
function V(x,
the equation of energy can be written
^(x
+ y ) = h2
V(x,y).
Now
for
is
the branches of the curve V(x, y)
h] is
=h
separate the plane into regions
respectively positive and negative; but as (&+y*) an orbit for which the total energy is h can essentially positive, only exist in the regions for which V(x, y)&lt;h. If then the particle is at any time in the interior of a closed branch of the curve V(x,y} = h, it must always remain
which [V(x, y)
within this region.
The word
moving
stability is often applied to characterise types
of motion in which the
particle
is
confined to certain limited regions,
is
and in
stable.
this sense
we may say
that the motion of the particle in question
177179]
The General Theory of Orbits
407
in
The above method has been used by Hill*, Bohlinf, and Darwin J, chiefly connexion with the restricted problem of three bodies.
179.
Application of integralinvariants
stability
to investigations
of
stability.
to a system which, in the lapse of time, returns infinitely often to positions indefinitely near to its original It has been shewn by position, the intervening oscillations being of any magnitude. Poincare that the theory of integralinvariants may be applied to the discussion of Poisson
in a different sense
The term
was applied
by Poisson
stability.
Considering a system of .differential equations
for
is
which
I
I
I ... I
fta?&B
...
8x
an integralinvariant, we regard these equations as denning the trajectory in n dimen sions of a point whose coordinates are (xv #2 ., %) If the trajectories have no
P
,
,
branches receding to an infinite distance from the origin, it may be shewn that if any small region R is taken in the space, there exist trajectories which traverse II infinitely often
:
and, in fact, the probability that a trajectory issuing from a point of R does not traverse this region infinitely often is zero, however small may be. Poincare has given several extensions of this method, and has shewn that under certain conditions it is applicable in
R
the restricted problem of three bodies.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
that the motion of a particle in an ellipse under the influence of two fixed Newtonian centres offeree is stable. (Novikoff.)
1.
Shew
2.
A
particle of unit
centres of force which attract
the distance
the integral
:
is free to move in a plane under the action of several according to the Newtonian law of the inverse square of denoting the resulting potential energy of the particle by V(x, y\ shew that
mass
it
I
/
I
(
1
^
)
log {h

V (a%
;
where the integration is taken over the interior of any periodic orbit for which the constant of energy has the value h (the centres of force being excluded from the field of integration
by small
3.
circles of arbitrary infinitesimal radius), enclosed by the orbit, diminished by two.
equal to the number of centres of force (Monthly Notices R.A.S. LXII. p. 186.) Let a family of orbits in a plane be defined by a differential equation
is
where (#, y) are the current rectangular coordinates of a point on an orbit of the family and let 8n denote the normal distance from the point (,v, y) to some definite orbit
;
adjacent
of the family.
Shew that 8n
satisfies
the equation
*
Amer. J. Math.
i.
(1878), p. 75.
f Acta Math.
+ Acta Math. xxi. (1897), p. 99. Poincare, Acta Math. xin. (1890), p. 67
x. (1887), p. 109.
;
Nouv. Meth. in. Ch. xxvu.
408
where
The General Theory of Orbits
r fdy\ 4 1 + /= /
I,
[CH.
2
}
)
M(  3$ ^ + dy S0\ ^) + {(b(x,
f
2
y)}
,
and
is
a variable defined by the gquation
dt *:l
\dx
(Sheepshanks Astron. Exam.)
A particle moves under the influence of a repulsive force from a fixed centre shew 4. that the path is always of a hyperbolic character, and never surrounds the centre of force that the asymptotes do not pass through the centre in the cases when the work, which has
:
;
to be done against the force in order to bring the particle to its position from an infinite distance, has a finite value but that when this work is infinitely great, the asymptotes
;
pass through the centre, and the duration of the whole motion
may
be
finite.
(Schouten.)
5. Shew that in the motion of a particle on a fixed smooth surface under the influence of gravity, the curve of separation between the attractive and repellent regions of the surface is formed by the apparent horizontal contour of the surface, together with the locus
of points at which an asymptotic direction
6.
is
horizontal.
moves freely in space under the influence of two Newtonian centres of shew that when its constant of energy is negative, it describes a spiral curve round the line joining the centres, remaining within a tubular region bounded by two ellipsoids of rotation and two hyperboloids of rotation, whose foci are the centres of force and that when the constant of energy is zero or positive, the particle describes a spiral path within a region which is bounded by an ellipsoid and two infinite sheets of hyper boloids of the same confocal system. (Bonacini.)
particle
;
A
attraction
:
The necessary and sufficient condition in order that a twoparameter family of 7. curves defined by a differential equation
y"=&lt;i&gt;(x,y,
/)
is
may
be a system of orbits with the same constant of energy
that
shall
be a linear homogeneous perfect differential.
The
potential energy
is
then a
constant multiple of
.*f(8&)*
(P. Frank.)
In the motion of a particle in a plane under forces which depend only on its position, 8. a oneparameter family of trajectories is obtained by starting particles at a given point in a given direction with all possible velocities. Shew that the locus of the foci of the osculating
parabolas is a circle passing through the point. If the initial direction is now varied, shew that the locus of the centres of the oo 1 circles obtained is a conic having the given point as focus and if the forces are conservative, this degenerates into a straight line counted
:
twice.
9.
in every direction,
In order that a system of oc 5 spacecurves, of which x 1 pass through every point may be identifiable with the system of trajectories of a particle in an
is
arbitrary positional field of force, it should have the following properties
:
necessary (but not sufficient) that the system
(a)
The
:
a pencil
that
is, all
2 curves passing through a given point form osculating planes of the oo the planes pass through a fixed direction.
xv]
(/3)
The General Theory of Orbits
The osculating spheres
:
409
of the
oc
*
curves passing through a given point in a given
direction form a pencil
their centres thus lie on a straight line.
10. Shew that the on 2 curves of a natural family which meet any surface orthogonally are orthogonal to oc 1 surfaces, that is, form a normal congruence. (The surfaces in question are the surfaces of equal Action.) (Hamilton.) 11.
Shew
that the property referred to in Ex.
10 belongs exclusively to natural
families.
12.
In order that a family of
oc 4
curves in space
sufficient, viz.
:
may
constitute a natural family of
orbits,
two properties are necessary and
(a)
point
p
If the osculating circles of those curves of the family which pass through a given are constructed at that point, they have a second point in common, and thus
P
form a bundle.
Consequently, three of the circles in such a bundle have fourpoint contact with the corresponding curves.
(/3)
These three hyperosculating
circles will
be mutually orthogonal.
13. The only pointtransformations which convert every natural family into a natural family are those belonging to the conformal group.
[Examples
8, 9, 11, 12,
13 above are taken from memoirs by E. Kasner in the Trans
actions of the Amer. Math. Soc., 19061909. For further work in this direction the reader is referred to Professor Kasner s Princeton Colloquium lectures on Differential Geometric
Aspects of Dynamics.]
14.
Two
sets of oo
l
a certain conservative
particle considered as
field of force.
curves in a plane, which form an orthogonal system, are orbits in If U denote the Action at any point (x, y~] of a
of the first set of orbits, and denote the Action at moving on one of the second set of orbits, shew of x
moving on one
V
y) that
(x,
when the
particle is considered as
U and V are conjugate functions U= constant, V constant, are identical
and y
:
and that the families of curves
(P. G. Tait
with the orbits.
and K. Ogura.)
CHAPTER XVI
180.
The need for
series.
series
which converge for
all
values of the
time;
Poincares
We
have already observed
(
32) that the differential equations of motion
of a dynamical system can be solved in terms of series of ascending powers of the time measured from some fixed epoch these series converge in
;
within some definite circle of convergence in the plane, and consequently will not furnish the values of the coordinates except for a limited interval of time. By means of the process of analytic
general for values of
t
continuation* it would be possible to derive from these series successive sets of other powerseries, which would converge for values of the time outside this interval but the process of continuation is too cumbrous to be of much use
;
in practice, and the series thus derived give no insight into the general character of the motion, or indication of the remote future of the system. The efforts of investigators have therefore been directed to the problem of
expressing the coordinates of a dynamical system by means of expansions which converge for all values of the time. One method of achieving this
is to apply a transformation to the plane. Assuming that the motion of the system is always regular (i.e. that there are no collisions or other discontinuities, and that the coordinates are always finite), there will be no singularities of the system at points on the real axis in the plane, and
result j
the divergence of the powerseries in t 1 after a certain interval of time must therefore be due to the existence of singularities of the solution in the finite part of the plane but not on the real axis. Suppose that the singu
larity
and
let
which is nearest to the real axis is at a distance h from the T be a new variable defined by the equation
t
real axis
;
~t =
2h
7T
I+T
log 1
.
T
in the
A
band which extends
*
to a distance h
on either side of the real axis
JT
plane evidently corresponds
Of.
to the interior of the circle
5.
=1
in
the
Whittaker and Watson, Modern Analysis, 5 t Due to Poincare, Acta Math. iv. (1884), p. 211.
180, 181]
;
Integration by Trigonometric Series
411
the coordinates of the dynamical system are therefore regular rplane functions of T at all points in the interior of this circle, and consequently within they can be expressed as powerseries in the variable T, convergent for all real values of T this circle. These series will therefore
converge
t
between
1
and
1, i.e.
for all real values of
between
oc
and
+
oc
.
Thus
these series are valid for
all values of the time.
181.
The regularisation of
last article
the
Problem of Three Bodies.
In the
we made the
reservation that there are to be no collisions
t.
or other discontinuities for real values of
The importance
of collisions in
the mathematical theory of the Problem of Three Bodies was first indicated by Painleve *, who shewed that the motion of the bodies is regular (i.e. their
coordinates are holomorphic functions of t) for all time, provided the initial conditions are not such that after a finite interval of time two of the bodies
collide.
The
relations which
must subsist between the
initial values of
the
may ultimately happen between two of the three bodies have been discussed by LeviCivitaf for the restricted problem of three bodies (when there is one such relation) and by Bisconcini \ for the general problem, when there are two relations these relations are analytic, but they are expressed by somewhat complicated infinite series, and are not
variables in order that a collision
:
directly applicable except
when the
interval of time
between the
initial instant
and the
collision is sufficiently short.
A
considerable advance was
made when K.
F.
Sundman shewed
that the
a collision of two singularity of the differential equations which corresponds to of the bodies is not of an essential character, and that it may in fact be removed altogether by making a suitable change of the independent variable that is to say, it is possible to choose the variables which specify the motion,
:
and the independent variable, in such a way that the differential equations of motion are regular even when two of the three bodies occupy coincident It is thus possible to obtain a real prolongation of the motion positions
.
after the collision IF: the coordinates can be specified for all values of the time t oo to + oo from whether collisions take place or not and a positive lower
,
:
bound
*
/
can be assigned to the two greater of the mutual distances.
There
Lemons sur la theorie anal, des eq. diff ., Paris, 1897, p. 583. f Annali di Mat. (3) ix. (1903), p. 1 ; Comptes Rendus, cxxxvi. (1903), pp. 82, 221. * Acta Math. xxx. Cf. also H. Block, Medd. fran Lunds Obs., Series n., No. 6 (1905), p. 49. (1909); Arkivf. Mat. Astr. och Fys. v. (1909), No. 9.
Acta Math, xxxvi. (1912),
p.
105.
The
essential
features of the
work were
originally
published in Acta Societatis Sclent. Fennicae in 1906 and 1909. LeviCivita regularised the differential equations of the restricted problem of three bodies by an elementary transformation in Acta Math. xxx. (1906), p. 306; and in a later paper, Rend, d. Lincei, xxiv. (1915), p. 61, he extended this to the problem of three bodies in a plane.

If
The
instant of collision
variables can be expanded in ascending powers of (ti  1)&, where the orbits hare cusps at the point of impact.
:
ti
represents the
Sundman applied Poincare . (1914). Sundman introduced a new independent variable w defined by the equation where r .log8 7T 1T  in order to transform the band r. when t varies from oo to + oo . are new variable in the wplane into a circle of radius unity in The coordinates of the three bodies. There a continuous onetoone correspondence between the real values of t and lines parallel to the real axis the real values of w. p. If in the solution of the problem of the simple pendulum ( 44) we consider the oscillatory type of motion. w likewise Lastly. . and replace the elliptic function by its ex we have pansion as a trigonometric series . t G. Whittaker and Watson. Acta Math. of the distinct types of motion which are possible and the actual execution of the processes described is attended 27T   g4. r 1} rz denote the three mutual distances.412 is Integration by Trigonometric Series [CH. series discussed in the preceding articles are all open to the objection that they give no evident indication of the nature of the motion of the The system after the lapse of a great interval of time the : they also throw no light on number and character : in the problem with great difficulties. namely when all three bodies collide simul taneously but this can happen only in a very special type of motion. and the time. xvi only one case of exception. of three bodies was given by J Cf. Trigonometric series. 55. Modern Analysis. s transformation iv I+T = 2H. whether there are collisions or not the case of triple collision alone being excepted. bounded by two exists and on either side of it. so that varies from oo to + ac . A simpler equation available in the restricted problem Armellini. CLVIII. 22 6. Under these circumstances we are led to investigate expansions of an altogether different type. 8 (2sl)^(tt ) Q : ~~ * This last fact had been known to Weierstrass cf. Comptes Rendus. in which all the constants of angular momentum are zero together*. and I is the lower bound The coordinates of the bodies. the plane of a time. xxxv. and the now holomorphic : functions of T everywhere within the unit circle in the rplane and therefore they can be expanded as convergent series of powers of T for all real values of the time. 253. already mentioned. p. : Disregarding this case of triple collision. : 182. are then holomorphic functions of w within a band of finite breadth 2O in the wplane. The motion is then in one plane.
p lt .. H does not involve the time 8 The algebraic solution of the 2n simultaneous equations /= dp r 0. Tisserand. az ....g. J e. where 6 denotes the inclination of the pendulum to the vertical at time t and t may be regarded as the two arbitrary constants of the solution.2. * one or more sets of values ..... Paris.p n ). 206.. This each term of which elliptic integral complementary expansion..2 62 \ . we find that series of trigonometric terms have long been recognised as the most convenient method of expressing the coordinates of the members .. explicitly. (1902). .n fc cos (nl 6l + n. Moreover. in the repeated application of contacttransformations. while q denotes e~ vK IK where is the complete to K. and Poincare. as will be seen. . 1860. Newcombf in 1874 obtained a similar result for the coordinates of the planets. when the constant q is not large. designed processes for the solution of the general Problem of Three Bodies in this form these processes are also applicable to other dynamical systems whose equations of motion are of a certain type resembling those of the Problem of Three Bodies. Land..w).gt. p... Delaunay* shewed in 1860 that the coordinates of the moon can be expressed in this way. and is a definite constant. . dqr_dH dt~dp r where the energy function dp r __ dff dfr t dt~~ 1.... the first few terms of the series give a close approxi mation to the motion for all values of t. X. these series are of the k ).181183] Integration by Trigonometric Series 413 . : Removal of terms of the first degree from the energy function Consider then a dynamical system. will furnish in general for the variables (q.. *. Soc. of the solar system .. and each of these sets of values Theorie du mouvement de la lune.. 6 n ) 2&. (r1. Proc. xxxiv. 1874.n 2 .) ... and several later writers J have . Math. q. Lindstedt. . q n . ^= oqr (a. type 2tfn. whose equations of motion are 183. .. .. which ultimately reduce the problem to the equilibrium problem. is valid for all time. f Smithsonian Contributions. K a trigonometric function of t. . trigonometric series the method consists essentially. and e being constants. K /j. ... Whittaker. a n b l} 62 . +nk where the summation is taken over positive and negative integer values of % 1} nz .. Turning now to Celestial Mechanics. n k and 6 r is of the form \ r t + e r the quantities a. In the following articles we shall give a method which is applicable to all dynamical systems and leads to solutions in the form of . The circulatory type of motion is of the pendulum may be similarly expressed by a trigonometric series of the same general character..
.. The expansion which with the terms therefore of 2 (suppressing the accents of (&. We H now apply * In obtaining the transformation of this article a method is used which was suggested to the author by Dr Bromwich.pn)it Since H does not contain any of the variables. . I *&. we Thus if the system considered were the simple pendulum. p r = b r +pr (r = 1.lt. .. dq r variables the function and for sufficiently small values of the new H can be expanded as a multiple power series in the l form . .gt. and which furnishes the transformation more directly than the method originally devised. Determination of the normal coordinates by a contacttransformation. or steady motion.. (c rr pS 4 2c n p r p. + H. ... express to normal coordinates for small vibrations of the system.//.gt. dH _ ". H H begins H . H=H + H + H. 184./&.414 Integration by Trigonometric Series [OH. / ".2.. our aim would be to find series oscillatory type. were neglected s those of a vibrational become would the with in comparison 2 equations .. the equations of motion become dq ar 7.+ 2 where H k denotes terms homogeneous of the kih degree in the variables (qi. Take then new equations f f . q2 ... qr = ar + qr . xvi will correspond to a form of equilibrium or (if the above equations are those of a reduced system) steady motion of the system. qn .. .2 = ^2 (a rr g r + 2orS q r q s ) tt r s where but b n is + 2b n qrp + = asr. &.i dpr * ) dH O / / dt dp. .. . c rs = c sr 8 ...&. . may be omitted and the : fact that the differential equations are satisfied when q z .\ If the terms not necessarily equal to b sr 4 .. q n p. to obtain variables which correspond 2 in a simpler form *. the new variables) may  be written in the form H. and the form of equilibrium chosen were that in which the pendulum hangs which would the motion is of the represent the solution of the pendulum problem when vertically downwards at rest... pS. ^ . a n b 1} b 2 shall shew how to find expansions which represent the solution of the problem when the motion is of a type terminated by this form of equilibrium l . . . shall a contacttransformation to the system in order to in fact. . p n ) vanish should are permanently zero requires that l identically.p n \ defined by the n) . problem (Chapter VII). variables (q.pi..... dt 7i V ( f = . .gt. H H H . q*. p 2 . b n ) be selected Let any one of these sets of values (a a2 . .. .. q n .gt.. 1 . ) ni ". . .
..gt.. xn y lt . .. .i t 1/i / ~T~ * so that H (r. ll ^*** i Ic^l &.. y n }.lt. + a rn xn + n y^ + \) + j..!/]&..gt. + sk ) ^ P=I (^ r yp ^xp yp ) = + sk we have n ^ ^~ \. root there will correspond a set of values for the ratios of the . and (as in 84) we shall denote the roots of the equation is 2 is n the quantities s lt s. + brn yn\ = + crn yn l(r l.. sum with n is.^2 .#!.gt. k) = and therefore k yp . where 1 \ i /t/ ) . _.2. ^H \ vQb] jfc Vi r* Jt^. we have ^p = rXp .. . fXn ry^.. \ jcp k yp t ifKp r yp ) = H (?% k). r y n ). let the set which corre .183. .. let the set which correspond to the root quantities (xl xz . \f&. by simplicity we shall suppose no two of them to be equal. r so yn)&. r x2 .. Xn &. J U....2. ..". **/ .r rl x + 1 + cn y + ) we obtain for s the determinantal equation which in 84 was denoted by f(s) = we shall suppose that 2 is a positive definite form.~ ^**3 2 jx ] Jb". and . + + .^^p kyj) k p sr t jPs is and consequently H (r. and respect to p we thus obtain the equation .. add them. . y^). .A x o 2r z lr x l + o..7 o nr x n l .^2 *~ K^\ T^^f "..w) ~ 8aSr ^dy r or z^ a rz x.. that we have Multiply these equations by kxp and k yp respectively. . is r be denoted by spond to the root . rXn . &. y^&. . is r be denoted by (y^. . ..... n and therefore So.ryi.. . and for isi. k. 2.gt. On solving these equations.gt... To each . k\ 0. .n).gt. . Interchanging r and is k we have (kXp r * 2 P=I yp rXp kyp ) = H k (r.. is zero : if + sk zero.. sn are all real.. (_. ".2 1 * x .. n 1S r p=l \rXp ryp r Xp ryp) = ".. J syr = a sx. 2 .. : H .. 184] Integration by Trigonometric Series 415 Consider the set of 2n equations (r = l. .gt. unless s r (s r is zero. *&. k) is symmetrically related to r and k..
.?/. 2 ! (p r 2 ".ryi .ryi ri ryi) Now hitherto the actual values of have not been . Pn) by the equations I n ~fr v 7". we have the result that the to equations of motion of the dynamical system have been brought the form dq r _m ~ dp r dp_r__dH ~ dt dt dq r .. . ..r) qr pr .. .lt. 74 / *2 n i . Pn).. H= 2 n i 2 r=l sr q r pr .. (q\&.gt...gt. as only their ratios are determined from their equations of definition we may therefore choose their values so that 2 O* .. . Pi. . and if 8 and A denote any two independent modes of variation. 2.. . . q%.Integration by Trigonometric Series If [CH..qn PI.. q*&. n). . n). 2 ). in the new and thus. to the variables (g/.lt. H . ".. pn ) the contact dW ^r where which gives Pr &. H will =i 2 r=l n ". } . . : variables be homogeneous polynomials of degrees 3.gt.. qn. q2 A . .M ryi) = 1 1=1 (r = i... .. xvi now we 1 define V~T*1 6 i i new  variables i ((?/. q n pi. . .&i 1=1 n which is zero when r is not equal to k.i ... 4.. omitting the accents. PI.p n ) in terms of 2 we Moreover..kyi .gt. and the coefficient of this term rXi. . { . it is evident f yi). substitute for (q lt q 2 . I". we see that H H 3 . . qr As all 4 .n Ir 1 2 ^ ~dqr 2 W= n ". Pn) 128) the transformation from the variables (ql} q 2 . q n plt ... (p r 2 + sr 2 ".. . q n PI. . qn . .. / 1 vr = 1 J.q r + i ip 2 r iis r q... . Thus 2 (Sqi&pi AqiSpi) contains no is terms except such as (Sq r &p.. . and then we shall n have n 2 1=1 (8qi&pi &qi$pi)= 2 r=l (Sq r &p r Agv Sp/).. . . r yi 2 (iici . . . . fixed. &. q2 apply to the variables transformation defined by the equations (&.Agv &p/).. the transformations concerned have been linear. we obtain 2 H = r=l 2 H or (r.2 1 &. thai the coefficient of tar Ac* in 2 (Sqi&p t n bqiSpi) n is 2 (M .*// /* _ lit i / ( Pr = tfr . Now . if in so that ( . p n ) is a contacttransformation.
and now H sines Since a product of powers of cos p r sin p r can be expressed as a sum of and cosines of angles of the form (n^pi + n 2 p. . . .. + mn =  r.lt.2q r )? sr ~$ cos pr . q n p^.. H H H found in 185. Transformation will to the trigonometric form of H.. q*.. ... now be further transformed . +m +  .. + olll The function . each of the form n 1} n 2 . . H r can be expressed tf^ft where m. an aggregate of terms which are r denotes homogeneous of degree \r in the quantities qr and homogeneous of degree r in the quantities cos_p/.. D.. defined by the equations .lt. to it a contactvariables transformation from the variables (q lt q 2 . . n n have integer or zero values. H )H is thus expressed in the form /* . .... H r is a homogeneous polynomial of degree r in the variables. .. ... by applying . pn ) to new . . . dt dp r 2 ~dt . + n n n ). where p ... p n ). . . . 185] where in which Integration by Trigonometric Series 417 H= H + H + H 2 3 4 + ... qn 2 mn si n (n lPl LUb +n p + 2 2 . where for each term we have % + w. nin /* / . . the solution obtained will be identical with that It is clear that if . + sn q n +H + H 3 4 +. dW dW where so that W= S r=l  q r arcsm p r = (2sr q r ^ sin p r The . 1 .. differential equations become ".J + . 1 ". + nn ^  2 (m. . The system (&. (r = 1..... and therefore n x + nz + . where H = s^ + s q. and in particular we neglect . ^. t m + 2 . qr = (&. 84.. . na  + . + .. ainp r .. . in and S) 4 2 comparison with the integrate equations. q n Pi.. ). [ nr r. + n n pn 2m r . it follows that as the sum of a finite number of terms..184. 2. + mn ). ). .?/.
. equations. the rest of the expansion being called the periodic part) begins with the terms MI + Ma + when .. q^ ...lt.q n only .n.2) ..lt. however. q n are not.. cos (n l .. Moreover. g/.. in fact are not restricted at all in is required to To avoid unnecessary complexity.. moreover.. p2 ....q2 .lt. we . the expansion of a 0j0 . + n n pn). q n do not exceed certain limits of magnitude. . .. where H=u is 0(0 .?/. p + n2 p2 + ... .. the combination ?i x = nz = .gt. . + n n p n f are collected together.. any important respect modify.. + n n pn \ part of H a are functions of q .. For convenience we shall often speak of g/..o / at least has for argument (n p 1 + n 2 p 2 + . . so involving the same argument that H n^ takes the form where the coefficients a and b are functions of q2 q n and the expansion i n of contains no terms of order or b niy n . .lt. . provided &. as they are to be treated Sof n .q n are small...... infinitesimal.. . absolute convergence in it : follows that the order of the terms can be rearranged any arbitrary way we shall suppose them so ordered that all the terms + .. dp r . magnitude except so far as ensure the convergence of the various series which are used. .. . .... . l ni&... and their presence complicates.gt.n n of a n .. q n as ". 2 . since they contribute terms independent of q2 q n to the differential &. = n n = 0...)..ln .. pn From the .o (which will be called the nonperiodic part of H.. and the coefficients 0)0&.. the periodic a term which small compared with the nonperiodic part a .. ^n powers extend n and where the summations lower than ^ + 2 + ... . xvi .. shall ignore the terms sin (n^pi + .. in order to have a definite idea of the relative importance of the terms which occur.. q2 . . ... in the same way as the terms in H. these are the most important terms in H. and. and . .. but does not the later developments...n 2 . q2 . ..... + n n pn} S^.?/. It will be understood that q^.. clearly the series is absolutely convergent for all values of p^....". q2 . +\nn \\..small...418 and Integration by Trigonometric Series [CH. +n n p n ) has its coefficient a ^. ..... nn except &.... + 2a n ..n .nn qi. over all positive and negative integer and zero values of n 1} n 2 . {   .//.q2 .. in which the problem has now been brought may therefore be stated as follows (suppressing the accents in the variables) The equations of The form to : motion are aqrdH dt dpr dt = l l m dqr (r=1... +s n&. cos(n 1 p + 1 / ...
.. while the variables p 1} to the time..2.. . cease. p n vary almost proportionally same form. the oscillatory motion of the simple pendulum. /?/+ q 3 is the true anomaly of /* in its ellipse. dq. qn are small they vary very slowly.. I dH (^ ".2. Theorie de la Lune Tisserand. Memoires. But these equations may be shewn to be applicable also to motion which is not of this character. . qn .. . 186. except a force of magnitude m^m^q^ directed to the origin and let a be the semimajor axis and e the eccentricity of the ellipse described after this instant then the instant t variables can be interpreted in the following way. % + of a  n2 \ + . + sn q n \ It follows from this that when the variables q lt q2 . and the expansion .o.4).. . li)W2i .  I 2 ^r 2 .. and in particular to motion such as that of the planets round the sun. W dp. all .o begins with the terms +s 2 q2 + .3 is the mean p anomaly..o. e. q t p 2 p^ stand in a corresponding relation The equations of motion now take the form .3. + n p2 + n p + n^ 2 3 3 ). p 2 . xvm. 186] of order ^ .4) be applied or to this system. (1885). where * + 1  77. : q. . or those types of motion of the Problem of Three Bodies which have been studied in 171. and are describing orbits of a planetary character about l} it is readily found that can be expanded in terms of the new variables in the form H H= m ao. when the particles w 2 and ra3 are supposed to be of small mass compared with Wj. = it^m^a e 2 ? . oqr r~ dq r (r = l. For let in the form obtained in the equations of motion of the Problem of Three Bodies be taken 160.. Integration by Trigonometric Series { \ 419 . l3Fn4 cos (n^pf .3.9ff = 1.o. q3 = Further.o + 2a.. and . + nn j \ } in the small quantities q lt q2 (s l q i . to the particle ///. The new Suppose that at the forces acting on the particle //... * Delaunay.. The variables qj.. Other types of motion which lead to equations of the The equations which have now been obtained have been shewn to be applicable when the motion is of a type not far removed from a steady motion or an equilibrium configuration. or the moon round the earth *. Annales de Obs. and let the contacttransformation which is defined by the equations Pr = dW ~.g.185. 272 . dqr _dH Wfa". if the lower limits of the integrals are suitably chosen. de Paris.
. and 6 and R are supposed to be expressed in terms of the new variables by means of the equations of transformation df * . q. cos + n *P* + terms of is +n ^P^&. xvi q a q4 ) only. it is of the same character as that obtained in this expansion of a are functions of (qi.tf of Readers familiar with Celestial Mechanics will notice the analogy of this method with that the idea is essentially Delaunay s lunar theory: the analysis is different from Delaunay s..n 2 ._dW where = dW / . .nn H be selected. +R &. W = qfa + q suppose that 2 p2 + .lt. .420 where the Integration by Trigonometric Series coefficients [cu.. + . when we wish to put we shall write it Apply to the defined by the equations system the contacttransformation .T". R denotes the rest of the periodic H . say + n ?P2 + &. ...Pi .gt..gt.. ..&..lt.. as yet undetermined. . ?n 0) . Removal of a periodic term from H. this be the removal of one of the periodic terms from to the the H .. . H follows that the either to method of solution given in to motion of the planetary type or the following articles is applicable motion of the type studied in 171.gt... As 185.. 187.lt. but the same.. in evidence the arguments of which &. . + q n p n + f (?i ?2 .&. of the arguments is now expressed by the equations ". 1 2 .. .XPi + n n p n ) Write so that H=a . will further accentuate the feature already noted. . R &.... . the periodic part*. ". shall We effect of now apply will which is system another contacttransformation. we shall / is indicated. the summation zero values of n lt w 2 n s ?i 4 and extends over positive and negative integer and the coefficient a 0)0)0)0 is much the most important part of the series. namely that the nonperiodic part of H much more important than cos ( n i. . a function.*.. Let one of the periodic terms in n. The problem a function. dt dp r dt dq r where 8/ ) : f Hi ~Q .gt. qn + wn o/j cos ^ ) "...
~\f ". ./ Then the equation 9/ 9 (*. are known functions of q^ q2 . a 0. a&.0 .. and is at our disposal. Sin fvd ia \ ( r \i.q n alone. .gt.. o i + HI  . nn ( qi + &.0.&. by successive approximation).o(qi. . &. to be zero.r\f\ n... .. . qn + nn ^ cos j so that this quantity is a function of &.?/.o.. as yet.lt...0 is condition that c &. .... and add them : writing WiK + we have 1 n 2 p2 + .. for instance... q2.. =a determines 9/730 in terms of &. .. q^.186.. 3/ fig In  + n n 9A ^ ) cos B 8. /= ti* The equations denning the transformation now become Pr % 1 dc k =pr+ 2 757 k .gt. Now qi.. .gt.. It will be chosen so as to satisfy the condition that 6 shall identically disappear from the expression D. . qn Integrating with this equation respect to 6. ( qi + MI .lt. df ov so that c ^= where c .qs. S m .. 9a . . . .... qn + + nn . ... we have dffi8= I where now c 1} C 2 ... n) ii).lt. ( . are known functions of q^. + 2 k=i c k cos kO. ?h 5^5 + w2 OClf + . ^n .lt. qr = + nr 2 k=\ ck cos kd I Multiply the first set of these equations by n lt n z ... .. and for our purpose taking the constant of integration to be zero... this determines a ..lkd ^ ^ qr . say ) o. Cj...gt. + nn p n = . 2 &. . .o as a Impose the function of qn .gt.gt. and... ... we have 1 ^sin&tf.. 2 &. ..? h &.//. c2 .gt. g0 .. o&. is as yet undetermined.. nn respectively.. 187] Integration by Trigonometric Series The function/ is. . . ck cosk0.vie . v /V =6+ 2 /I V* * / I ".. qn ... and cos Suppose that the solution of this equation for f)f/d& is expressed in the form of a series of cosines of multiples of 6 (which can be done. o.. on substituting its value in the series for df/dO. . o.. a 0&. k=i c 3 . undetermined and at our disposal... ..
n n COS (n^ + ?? 2 &.. .o equation + : a ni ... by expansion of the enrich can In this way we nonperiodic part of continually process. . + mn p n . (m p + m 2 p2 + .o... &./. qn of become value of d in the equations transformation. p. before the transformation. sn COS where all the coefficients r Vk&.. . . j ** / dt cos l dq r where H = a^o. . [OH.o + Sa the coefficients m...gt. it was before the transformation was made.. + mn p n ) 2&.. qn Let us now review the whole effect of the transformation. &.. g...... 9k are known functions of &.. + m n pn).422 Integration by Trigonometric Series series.//.o to its we see that one term has been transferred from the periodic part of is less important...?/.. of Substituting this q 2 . H .gt./ Now. of terms of the type . found for (q 1} q . .. xvi Reversing this we have 6 =&+ S functions dk sin ke\ ......gt. . the function R .. . and where a are known functions of q 1} q2 ..gt. /&.gt.TOB cos (w^ PJ + . periodic proceed periodic part of the same a the into repetition nonperiodic part.Mn cos (m^pi +m p + 2 2 .. pn ..?. they where d 1} d 2 . a are known functions of (#/. consisted of an aggregate of terms of the type R = 2a Wi when the )OT2&. &. .... + nn pn) = a . are known &.gt. into the nonHaving now completed the absorption of this periodic term of the new terms of the one absorb to we of H. .Wn  dp r  _ l ~~ dH i / x. the system is still expressed by a set after the transformation of equations of the form dq r dt _dH dp r . 5 #&./.lt. 2 + .n 2 .pn) are reduced is series and the in this substituted by replacing powers expression..gt. ).. . q^. q n p\. it is clear that R will consist of an aggregate R = 2a mi)Ml2) where the coefficients .. and products of trigonometric functions of p n by cosines of sums p... ... . qn } We thus have the result (omitting the accents of the new variables) that has been effected.o. in comparison of the periodic part nonperiodic part H H with the nonperiodic part.. .gt. . than 188.lt... but from the equations of motion have the same general form Oo.gt. of multiples of p. Removal of further periodic terms from H... values which have been . The differential as before..
only nonperiodic is .. and ultimately. an /3 l5 .. . 2. a n ) only. it is easily seen that the variables (q 1} q... n .187189] Integration by Trigonometric Series 423 at the expense of the periodic part... . {3 n . r + er the quantities . q 2 .. in terms of which the configuration of the dynamical system was originally expressed.. .. which shews that the quantities a are constants. (~1. . to the original coordinates..2 p lt .. We have therefore 0. . are obtained in the form of trigonometric series... a n ).. result of performing any number of contacttransformations in succession .pn ) used at the end of 185 can be expressed in terms of ( 1( 2 /3] . Reversion Having now solved the equations of motion in their final form. _ a function of where H... l 2 . 2..gt. /32 o Let that it may be neglected. after a number of will become so applications of the transformation.. . .. q n ... and the quantities the form ft.. the quantities (d.... /3 n ) be (a insignificant the variables at which we arrive as a result of the final transformation then H H .. are arbitrary constants.. .. *. (3 n ). : the equations of motion are doi r _ dH = d@r of its dp r __ ~di dT~~ dH ~^r part... . and the part of fi r independent of 2 . consisting ( 1} a. From this it follows that the variables (q^. . . . of the form t fj. *~/g* er .. q n . /3 2 .. /8 n ) by equations of the form mn sn 6 are functions of (a 1} a 2 .gt. a contacttransformation. n). is ... . Remembering that the .. where the coefficients a and .. ft are of = fji r t + where a r = dH ^ oar (r = 1.. &.. .. . . 189. . cr e. an) is ST.&. These angles are linear functions of the time.. ^Pn) of 183. it remains only to express the original coordinates of the dynamical system in terms of the ultimate coordinates (a 1 a2 .. . the periodic part of an /3 1.pi. proceeding in sines and cosines of sums of multiples of the n angles @i. .
*.. p) = Constant .? tities qi.. K 2 . 1916). by the present writer On the Adelphic Integral of Nov. . . . g] when the quan a occurring in it are replaced respectively by 1? 2 P\i . p . in terms of trigono Evidently also. pn of a dynamical H (qi. the second volume of Poincare s Nouvelles Methodes de la Mecanique Celeste : contains an account of several methods of deriving expansions. . b n be the values of q lt q 2 . b n 2 ...gt. &.. . . q^.. qn .. k n . while the quantities are of the form Pr = *.424 er /j. reference may be made to treatises on Celestial Mechanics in particular. the coefficients c being independent of the constants of integration.lt...f&. n) only.. ?n&. c kl ..gt. . &. bi. the limiting member of the family being the position of equilibrium or steady motion which was our startingpoint.gt.. Shew that 2. ..lt. iPn respectively at the and let {/..lt. ? let 2.+ possesses a family of solutions represented by the expansion (retaining only terms of order less than a 7 ) . a n 6 1} . we obtain a solution of the Problem of Three Bodies. Edin.+ S *1. xvi are n of the 2n arbitrary constants of the solution. 2 . a 2 t .gt. Shew that the dynamical system whose equations of motion are dq_dH ~ dt ^ = ~ J _^ dq dp where H= W ^ ^t  IW . qn . the Differential Equations of MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. in connexion with the Problem of Three Bodies. 3a /2a\4 3a where p=k+ ~ and e t + f... . . equations of motion found in 187 189 to the by applying the integrationprocess of 186.. 1 . &. when the motion is of the planetary type.. &. i* a* 2 n* n .lt. Roy..gt. g} denote the value of the Poissonbracket (/.. instant =t &..Pn &. r Integration by Trigonometric Series [CH. The most recent discussion of the subject will be found in a paper Dynamics (Proc. and a are arbitrary constants. %p&.pi. with a discussion of the convergence of the series obtained.gt.. For the further development of the theory of the present chapter.gt.. g2 . Let &.lni &. metric series of the kind above specified.. %. The expansions thus obtained represent a family of solutions of the dynamical system. denote any function of the variables system which possesses an integral of energy 1. The coefficients in the trigonometric series are functions of the arbitrary constants (i.. Soc. Pi.
G. H. 259 Dumas. 5 Cailler. F. 112. 278 Bonacini. G. 337 Amontons. 3. 177. R. F. Bertrand. 166 Brims. 117. F. 93. A. 261. J. E. C. H. A. 109. 214 Albeggiani. 166 Cigala. 166 Elliott. 72. 358. L. 41. 357. 320. E. 331. 325 Burnside. C. A.INDEX OF AUTHORS QUOTED (The numbers refer to the pages. 174 Glaisher. Daniel 62. 262 Ford. W. 124. 4. 264. Frank. am E. R. 9. 255 Gautier. 215 Flye SainteMarie. 183 Bohlin. 260.} AbdankAbakanowicz. M. 9. 258. L. 264 D Alembert. A. 311 Conway. 412 Clebsch. 408 Galilei. 248 Ferrers. 83 Culverwell. 210 Ende. 90 B. T. 127. A. A. C. 230 Acqua. 396 Clairaut. G. 130 89 W. A. 177. F. 420 Derriman. L. W. 174 Forster. 78 . 88. 413. 100. 94 Bour. P. G. 115 Cerruti. T. H. V. 349 Bessel. C. 166. G. H. 330. 320 Davaux. 339 Gebbia. M. 400 Delaunay. 144. 4 Christoflfel. B. 80. W. 356 Bernoulli. 333. 332. 419. H. 186 John 62. 227 Appell. 356 Gauss. H. D. J. 81. G. A. V. R. M. 96. R. J. 118 Donkin. X. A. W. 229 Dainelli. 395 Cassie. 9. 414 de Brun. 177 Chasles. E. H. 358 Fouret. Chretien. 99. L. 279 Armellini. K. 0. Dall 338. 39 de Gasparis. B. C. 80 Gorjatscheff. 358 Burgatti. C. M. 12 Forsyth. 73. A. P. W. 396 Darwin. 72. 118 Cauchy. 411 B6cher. P. E. L. 251 Curtis. 356 Brell. H. 407 Boltzmann. A. 114 J. R. 408 Bonnet. Sir G. 69. S. 407 Dautheville. L. L. 112 Euler. 41. 91 Bisconcini. 62. 12. F. 26 Cotes. 2. 97. L. M. P. 8. 97. 316 Cayley. 177. 124. 316 Darboux. W. C. W. 340. 113 Bennett. le R. V. 331 Charlier. 411 Block. Bromwich. G.
166 Poincare. 413 Liouville. 316 di Pirro. Thomson) 261 Kepler. 320. G. Legendre. S. L. M. 166 Mathieu. H. 301. 411 Lagrange. 82 Novikoff. A. 47. 264. H. 48. C. 342. 203. 103. 247. G. 349. 385. 340. 45. 41 Hamilton. 299. E. 246. 267. 341. 264. K. MacMillan. 86. R. 396. 337 P. 229 KerkhovenWythoff. 38. Pascal. 106 . Longley. 256 Heun. G. 113 Pavanini. C. A. 91. 296. 78. 393 Lovett. 215. 393 Halphen. M. 278 Laurent. Newton. 144. 1. 389. R. 339 Green. 391 Pennacchietti. 325. P. 29. 400 Lie. 117 Mehmke. 410. 298. 323 288. 0. P. S. 90. 183. H. 77 Monge. G. 166 Kowalevski. 262.426 Goursat. 411 330 J. Sir 27. 339. 380. 295. 0. 0. 222 Klein. 230. 106 Hamel. 387. 99. 106. G. M. 70. H. F. 45 72. 395 W. C. 166 S. Newcomb. D. de 248 Mayer. H. 104. 50. II. 316 Jacobi. 398. E. F. 424 Poinsot. F. 385. 275. 400. A. 305 Lambert. Hadamard. 177. 290. G. N. Hazzidakis. A. 67. 198 Lazzarino. 264. 112 Nobile. 315. P. 116. 265 Painleve. 264. 214 97. von 45. W. K. 167 Korkine. J. 393. P. Sir J. 307. 9. 330. G. Kolosoff. 281. E. 336 Grant. A. 316. 207 Kobb. 322. 193. 379. 85 Marcolongo. 91 Lame. J. M. 3. A. 59. 338 Pfaff. 30. 102 Helmholtz. 62. D. R. P. 343. 322. 407 Puiseux. 316. 281. 337 Korteweg. Sir W. G. 281. 55. G. 390. J. 41. E. A. 407 Hiltebeitel. 89 Grossi. J. J. 307. J. 276. W. 164 227. 166 Huygens. 104. 256 LeviCivita. 152 Poisson. 323. A. 0. Ill Kasner. 99 Hirsch. 156. L. Linders. 403 Levy. 385. 239 S. R. 403. N. R. 90 Nanson. 287. 409 Kelvin. C. R. 2. R. V. D. 37 Hill. 287 Holder. M. 400 Kotter. 82. 316. 183 Joukovsky. Nicomedi. 60. L. 335 Lamb. C. 104 Larmor. 264. 174. 79. G. 407 88. 413. 393. M. 249 Hoppe. G. E. A. 407. 409 J. 83. R. G. C. E. 316 Leibnitz. Lord (W. 77. 264. 109 Koenigs. 395 Muth. F. 262. 305 Hertz. A. 166 Ostrogradsky. 34. 179 Moulton. 409 Olsson. 203. 391. H. 248. 354 Jordan. R. 62. 167 Lipschitz. 286. 295. 12. 354. 255 R. V. R. T. 62. 5. 331 Liapounoff. I. 38 Grinwis. G. G. von 35 Leitinger. 290. 393 Laisant. 343 Lindstedt. E. R. N. 183 413 Neumann. 275 Oekinghaus. 69. 55. 94. N. F. J. 91 Ogura. 301 Maupertuis. 251. 130 Husson. J. W. E. 343. 90. G. 81 LehmannFilhes. 163.
A. Brook 177 Tchapligine. 184 Radau.. 395 Sturm. 419 Tissot. 21. A. F. W. 396 Woronetz. K. 316 427 Sundman. 81 Stekloff. 109. 45 Weierstrass. A. E. A. 388 Vierkandt. 144 Salkowski. 24. 412 Whewell. E. P. K. H. 183. J. P. A. 167 Routh. V. 3. 261 Resal. 249 von Vieth. J. 221. W. 388. 411. 55 Rueb. G. 166. G. 124 Siacci. Sir C. 343. 424 Sommerfeld. Lord Tisserand. Lord 230. A. 408 Segner. S. 174. E. A. 412 Sylvester. 48. G. J. E. 234 Signorini. 234 80 . J. 413. O. 409 Rodrigues. S. 271 Stromgren. 48. 85 Schouten. Sir G.Index of Authors Quoted Quanjel. J. 104 Tonelli. H. 78 Whittaker. F. L. 9 Taylor. P. 154. 256 Weber. 193 Stackel. 335 Stader. F. 388 Wassmuth. 64. J. I. 348 Rayleigh. 115 Tait. 215 J. A. F. 197. A. 255 Schenkl. 343 Wren. 166 Stokes. 109 Scheffler. 230. J. see Kelvin. 166. W. J. 23 Voss. F. Suchar. 325 Wallis. C. T. 256 Schoute. 339. 393. 407. Thomson. R. H. P. E.
instantaneous. 392 Collision. 12 Central forces. where the term occurs for the is first time in the book or defined. to (a transformation). 301 infinitesimal. 9 234 Angular Momentum. 42 Cotes spirals. 260 Bilinear covariant. 77 Centre of rotation. 89 Aphelion. bilinear. 4 ChristofFel s symbol. 83 Covariant. 124 Axis of rotation. 38 Constraint. 97 ignorable or cyclic. 298 Poisson s. 29 Coefficient of friction. 3 Centrifugal forces. Eulerian. 293 Azimuth. 30 Chasles theorem. deformation. 248 Action and Reaction. 54 BoltzmannLarmor representation of the Last Multiplier. 14 Actio Agentis. 255 Cyclic coordinates. 227 of stability. 258 Apse. 85 Components of momentum. 358 Canonical form of equations of motion. Least. 252 Conservation of angular momentum. 19 Bernoulli s principle. 299 Brims theorem. 14 Conjugate point. instantaneous.. 331 Bertrand s theorem on of impulses. 396 Admit. 32 elliptic. analytic. 59 Conservative forces. 181 quasi. 410 Coordinates of a dynamical system. Angles. Adjoint systems. 358 Action.INDEX OF TERMS EMPLOYED (The numbers refer to the pages. 255 Appell s equations. orbits of. 289 Definite quadratic form. 400 function. 94 Bracketexpressions. 62 of momentum. eccentric. 403 of inertia. 41 Characteristic exponents. 48 of a vector. 296 parameters. 39 Classical integrals. 59 Anomaly. principal.} Absolute integralinvariants. 117 Differential form. true. 186 homogeneous. 297 Continuation. 2 Axes Contacttransformation. 278 Bonnet s theorem. 302 determination forces. 34 Density. 404 Degrees of freedom. Least. 297 . 86 Attractive regions of a field of force. 391 Collisions. 271 Acceleration. 264 CayleyKlein parameters. 290. 292. 287 Law of. 111 Curvature. 59 of energy. 54 normal or principal. Integral of. 111. Lagrange s. and mean. 36 Deformationcovariant. 111 . 86 Apocentre. 319 Collinear Lagrange s particles.
231 Hamilton s characteristic. 203. Hamilton s partial 315 . 124 momenta!. 49 Impulsive motion. 231 Dissipationfunction. 293 External forces. 255 Holonomic. 268 Equidistant Lagrange s particles. 124 radius of. 296 Freedom. 322 Groupproperty. mean. 302 Initial motions. 193. 154 Hertz s principle. differential. 3 Integral of a dynamical system. 195 Kinetic. 53 of angular classical. 254 Gravity. 255 Elementary divisors. 62 Jacobian. 234 Inertia. 258 5 differential Pfaffs system of.Index of Terms Employed Displacement. 292. equation. 264 function. 391 Gauss principle. 37 Form. ellipsoid of. 124 Infinitesimal contacttransformations. 354 . 246 315 Jacobi s. degrees of. principle. integral of. dissipation. 97 Geodesies. 2 centre of rotation. 35 Potential. 124 Elliptic coordinates. 183 Elimination of the nodes. 406 Halphen s theorem. Appell first s. 400 Extended pointtransformations. 14 45 Focus. 77 centrifugal. 54 Ignoration of coordinates. ellipsoid of. central. 26 principal axes of. 213 variational. 234 Impulse. momentum. 37 Field of force. 227 possible. 87 Divisors. 265 Jacobi s. 34 358 of energy. 307 Hamilton s. Equations. 29 Forces. 396 Instantaneous axis of rotation. 177 Herpolhode. 9 Exponents. 38 Hadamard s theorem. 301 Homography. 322 Eccentric anomaly. 79 Hamiltonian form of equations of motion. 307 Fixity. Impact. 56 Equilibriumproblem. 342 in Lagrangian. orbits of. 38 parallel. of motion. 48 Index of stability. 169 Flux of a vector. 32. 226 Distance. 62 Gyroscopic terms. 27 Group. 342 Functiongroup. elementary. kinetic. 89 Ejection. 124 moment arid product of. 393 Equilibriumconfiguration. 341 Ellipsoid of gyration. 293 Gyration. 124 of inertia. 41 Instability. 183 principal. 37 quasi  coordi theorem. 59 external and molecular. function. 30 conservative. 33 Function. 118 Energy. 186. Fixtures. 317 Hamiltonian. sudden. 43 with undetermined multipliers. 1 429 Frictional systems.. 117 Eulerian angles. 265 nates. characteristic. 117 93 First PfaflPs system. 12 Ignorable coordinates. 398 Inelastic bodies. 289 Dissipative systems. 315 Equimomental bodies. 252 Force. 32. 263 partial differential. 33 Homogeneous contacttransformations.
5 Plane. impulsive. 37 mean. 386 Mass.. 307 Mathieu transformations. 34 with undetermined multipliers. 86 Least Action. 397 Kowalevski s top. 330 Lie and Koenigs theorem. 296 . 346 motion. systems of. simple. 57 Newton s theorem on revolving Newtonian law. integral. 268 . 86 orbits. 275 Korteweg s theorem. 278 Last Multiplier. 326 Invariants. 59 Inverse of a transformation. 342 Motion. distance. 252 . 349 Nodes. 86 Perihelionconstant. 31 Pericentre. system of equations. 144. 39 Lambert s theorem. 111 LarmorBoltzmann representation of the Particle. 72 spherical. invariable. 277 Natural family of orbits. 301 Mean anomaly. 48 angular. 89 Pitch of a screw.Index of Terms Employed Integral of momentum. 104 Perfect roughness. 85 Perihelion. 45 Jacobian integral. 107 Kinematics. 54 integral of. 87 Period. 181 vibrations. 27 Euler s. 354 Joukovsky s theorem. 117 ellipsoid. 389 83 systems. 93 Lagrangian function. of inertia. 186.. 346 . 29 Newtonian. 267 corresponding to a coordinate. 28 time.. 293 Involution. 268 Mean . CayleyKlein. 268 Moinental 124 Momentum. 87 absolute and relative. Koenigs and Lie s theorem. 33 Normal Lagrange s bracketexpressions. 67 Localised vectors. 322 Isoperimetrical systems. 35 focus. 342 function.. 393 Pendulum. of a system. 298 equations. 248 Curvature or Constraint. 341 Nonholonomic. 325 Levy s theorem. 193 Multiplier. Lagrange s. 52 Oscillation. Last. elimination of the. 275 Liouville s type. 1 Kinetic energy. 32 Moment of a force. 277 Law of Action and Reaction. coordinates. 58 of a system of equations. 393 Parallel fields of force. 73 Periodic solutions or orbits. 164 Node. 132 43 three particles. 15 Particles. 11 differential. centre of. 38 Kinetostatics. 58 Jacobi s equation. 48 initial. 213 of impulsive motion. 78 periodic. 195 Orbit. 88 Meridian plane. 271 Invariable line and plane.. 255 LeviCivita s theorem. 30 . 87 Pfaff s expression. Invariant relations. 386 Order of an integralinvariant. 50 forquasicoordinates. potential. 91 Parameters. 8 Last Multiplier. 53 Integralinvariants. 88 steady. 18 Molecular forces.
87 Top. principle of. 403 Resistance of air. 14 integralinvariants. 1 . . 339 in a plane. 293 Mathieu s. 229 Time.. 339 in a plane. function. 38 Kinetic. 124 coordinates. 31 Spherical pendulum. 1. 78. 39 of an infinitesimal transformation. 226 frictional. Helmholtz s. 407 of steady motion.. dissipative. 387 theorem.. 38 . Rough. Superposition of vibrations. 230 Reaction. 1 theorem. 31 Polhode. Problem of. 322 isoperimetrical. law of Action and. 299 stability. 47 motion. 83 Rigid. 116 Prolongation of motion after a collision.. 186 Problem of Three Bodies. 227 involution. 293 Poisson s bracketexpressions. 3 point. adjoint. . 159 Restricted problem of three bodies. 164 sleeping. 326 Relative velocity. 32 Transformation. 186 Surfacedensity. 169 coefficient of. 307 Quaternions. 411 Thomson s theorem. 41 Suspension. 104 top. 246 of Least Action. 320 centre of. 248 of Least Curvature or Constraint. 26 Repellent regions of field of force. 407 theorem. 353 Relations. 301 Sudden fixture. 26 of Superposition of Vibrations.Index of Terms Employed Planetoid. 47 Sleeping top. 33 Potential energy. 203 Steady motion. index of. 351 restricted. centre of. 83 . 353 Resultant of vectors. 154 Possible displacement. 291 Regularisatiori. 290. 183 Symbol. 303 System. 155 Kowalevski s. 293 Translation. 261 Three Bodies. 193 Principle. 9 Radius of gyration. 255 of Relativity. 206 spherical. 396 398 secular. problems soluble by. Hamilton s. invariant. 271 Relativity. instantaneous axis of. 287 Systems. 132 Sylvester s theorem. 159 Spirals. 351 restricted. 186 of orbits. 27 periodic. 1 s representation. 118 353 Product of inertia. 396. 353 431 s Poincare Poinsot s normal variables. 304 Reciprocation. 48 Quasicoordinates. Cotes . 163. 5 Similarity in dynamical systems. 305 Revolving orbits. 2 3 Pointtransformation. 411 Quadratures. 317 moments of inertia. contact. 245 Reversed forces. 124 Stability of equilibrium. Christoffel s. 54 Quantitas Motus. 267 Pfaff s. 410 point. 14 Trajectory. 44 Principal axes of inertia. 29 Reciprocal theorem. 181 Screw displacement. 380 152 Rodrigues and Hamilton Rotation about a line. 206 Smooth. 118 Rayleigh s dissipationfunction. 301 Poincare s. involving the velocities. 193 Subgroup.
232 of nonholonomic systems. 89 Two centres of gravitation. Liouville s. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS . 33 Trojan group of asteroids. 393 True anomaly. 268 Vector.A. 195 of dissipative systems. 193. 15 relative. 193 normal. 97 Type. 396 Variational equations. corresponding to a coordinate. B. 14.432 Index of Terms Employed Velocity. 35 Wavefronts. 13 Velocity. PEACE. 186. CAMBRIDGE: PRINTED BY j. 289 Weber s law Work. 186. 264 Vis Matrix. 203. 30 of attraction. 14 Virtual work. 221 Unstable. 67 Vibrations about equilibrium. 29 Vis Viva.. 45 . 177 steady motion. M. 15 Vectors. localised. 33 angular.
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