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# AE2020 Fall 2012 Assignment 2 1. The NASA Pathfinder-Plus solar aircraft (see picture) has a wing span of 36.

3m, length of 3.6 m, wing chord of 2.4 meters. Wing aspect ratio is given as 15. Total mass is 315kg. The maximum total lift to drag ratio at sea level is estimated as 21. Assume that spanwise efficiency is 1.0 (with all the high-priced talent at NASA, they should have been able to do that). a. What is the speed for minimum drag at the lower edge of the stratosphere (P= 22,633N/m 2, T= 216.5K) b. If the airfoil section has a lift curve slope of 6.0, zero lift angle of attack of -3 degrees, and stalls at 12 deg. angle of attack, find the lowest speed at which this aircraft can fly, at the lower edge of the stratosphere. c. At the conditions of Part(a) how much total thrust must the propellers produce to maintain straight and level flight? Explain. Solution: B = 36.3m C = 2.4m Aspect ratio is given as 15, does that make sense? Planform area is roughly b.c = (36.3) *(2.4). AR=b^2/S = b/c = 36.3/2.4 = 15.125. We will use the 15, maybe the planform is not exactly rectangular. So S is b^2/15 = 87.846 m^2 Total mass is 315kg. This is an electrical vehicle, the fuel is light from the Sun, so the weight does not decrease with time. Gross weight is therefore (315)*(9.8) = 3087 N. Lets calculate the wing loading W/S: a useful quantity for such problems. W/S = 3087/87.846 = 35.14 N/m^2. Wow! That seems low, doesnt it? It is just around 0.8 psf. But look at the aircraft: it is all wing with photovoltaic panels, plus a pair of vertical tails built into the landing gear supports. With several small electric motors and propellers. No fuselage, no people. Maximum L/D at sea level is 21. So minimum drag at sea level (density is sea level density) is 3087/21 = 147N. OK, there must be some reason for the professor to give us this, or is there? Maybe we can find the profile drag coefficient from this information. Reading Question (a) we see that the speed for minimum drag elsewhere is asked. So let me go ahead and find profile drag coefficient CD0 now: It must be half the drag coefficient at the speed for minimum drag (or max L/D). At sea level, density is 1.226 kg/m^3. So at the speed for minimum drag at sea level, L/D is 21, or CL/CD=21. Since CD0=CDi=0.5CD at the speed for minimum, drag, CDi= 0.5/21*CL. Also, CDi=CL^2/(Pi*AR*e) but e is given to be 1.0 by the HighPriced NASA Talent. In other words, CL= 42*CDi. Substitute for CL, and we see from the other equation that CDi=(AR)*(Pi)/42^2 = (15*3.14..)/(42^2) = 0.0267. So CD0 is also 0.0267, and that does not change as CL changes or density changes. It is a characteristic of the airplane. Why is it so high? Well.. see those landing gear thingies sticking out? Large drag sources. Lets go now to answer the questions:

a) Speed for minimum drag at the edge of the stratosphere where P=22633 N/M^2, T=216.5K. So density is P/(R*T) = 22633/(287.04*216.5) =0.3642 kg/m^3. Note that the relationship between CD0 and CL is fixed at the speed for minimum drag regardless of altitude, because at the speed for minimum drag, CD0=CDi = CL^2/(Pi*AR*e). So here CL = 42 times CD0 as we saw before, which is 42*0.0267= 1.1214. Speed is square root of ((2*W/S)/density) = sqrt(2*35.14/0.3642) = 13.89 m/s. By the way, what would the speed for minimum drag be at sea level? It should scale as the square root of density. So the speed for minimum drag at sea level is sqrt(0.3642/1.226)*13.89 = 7.57 m/s. Pretty slow, hey? b) Airfoil lift curve slope is 6.0. 6.0 what? Must be per radian, its way too high to be in per degree. Stalls at 12 degrees, but zero lift angle of attack is -3 degrees. So maximum value of lift coefficient, Clmax is Clmax = 6.0*(Pi/180) * (12-(-3)) = 6*3.1416*15/180 = 3.1416/2 = 1.5708 (didnt take a calculator to do that!) What is CLmax for the aircraft? We have to find the lift curve slope for the wing of aspect ratio 15 and spanwise efficiency 1.0. d(CL)/d(alpha) = 6.0/(1+6.0/(Pi*AR*e)) = 6.0/(1+6/(Pi*15)) = 5.3223 per radian. So the CL reached at stall is 1.5708*5.3223/6.0 = 1.3934. Stall speed at the edge of the stratosphere is square root of ((2*(W/S)/(rho*CL)) = sqrt(2*35.4/ (0.3642*1.3934) Vstall = 11.81 m/s Thats lower than what we calculated for minimum drag, right? Yes!! That speed was 13.89 m/s. Got to maintain pretty precise speed control to avoid stalling the airplane! Get into a tailwind, one gets into a serious problem. c) At the conditions of Part (a) (stratosphere edge), the CD0 is 0.0267, so total drag is 0.0534, speed is 13.89 m/s. Thrust required = drag = 0.5*(rho)*Uinfinity^2*S*CD. But wait! Before we launch into that calculation, wasnt the condition for Part (a) the speed for minimum drag? The L/D is 21 at that condition, so thrust required for straight and level flight (i.e., lift = weight, thrust=drag) is weight divided by 21. Which is 147 N. Did you see something? The thrust required to fly at minimum drag is independent of altitude!!!

2. A Pitot tube is used to measure the stagnation pressure in an air stream where the flow speed is 50m/s. The static conditions are sea level standard: temperature of 288K, pressure of 101325 N/m 2. Find the stagnation pressure at the probe tip. Universal gas constant is 8313 in SI units. Molecular weight of air is 28.9. Gas constant R for air = Runiversal/MW = 8313/28.90=287.64. This is a bit inaccurate, because both 8313 and 28.9 are a bit inaccurate. Below I will use 287.04, which is the more generally accepted value for gas constant of air. Actual value used is 287.04 T=288K, P=101325. Bernoulli equation P0 = P+0.5*(rho)*Uinfinity^2 P0 = 101325+0.5*1.226*2500 = 101325 + 1532.5 = 102857.5 N/m^2 3. Calculate the ideal lift per unit span of a thin airfoil of chord 1.2 m at 5 degrees angle of attack at a velocity of 30 m/s at sea-level standard conditions. The zero-lift angle of attack of the airfoil is 2 degrees. Ideal airfoil lift curve slope in low-speed flow is 2*Pi. So lift coefficient cl = 2*Pi*(Pi/180)*(5-(-2)). That gives 0.768 Lift per unit span is (qinfinity)*(chord)*(lift coefficient) L = 0.5*1.226*30*30*1.2*0.768 = 508.45 N/m 4. An aircraft is flying straight and level at 300 kilometers per hour at an altitude where the density is 0.9kg/m3. The ratio of lift to drag coefficients for this aircraft at this flight condition is 15. Its weight at the moment under consideration is 98,000 Newtons. The aspect ratio of the wing is 8. Wing span is 15m. Assuming spanwise efficiency of 1, what is the induced drag coefficient? Thus, what is the profile drag coefficient? 5. When an airplane weighing 10,000lb flies straight and level at a certain altitude, at its speed for minimum drag, its Lift-to-Drag ratio is 10. The dynamic pressure is 100 psf. a) If the wing planform area is 100 sq. ft, what is the lift coefficient? b) If the wing planform area is 100 sq. ft, what is the drag coefficient? c) Find the total drag equivalent flat plate surface area in sq. ft. d) Find the zero-lift drag equivalent flat plate surface area (D 0/q) in sq. ft 6. a. A leaf-blower takes in air, adds work to increase its stagnation pressure, and directs it out through a tube. The static pressure of the air at the tube exit is equal to the outside pressure of 100,000 N/m 2, and the air speed is 50m/s. The air density is 1.2 kg/m 3, and is the same outside and inside the blower. Find the stagnation pressure at the blower exhaust (the jet coming out of the tube), in N/m 2. b. Scientists report that on a newly-discovered planet, the atmosphere is pure methane (CH4). On a summer day at the equator, the surface air temperature is 300K and the pressure is 100,000 N/m2. Find the stagnation pressure at the nosetip of an SUV traveling at 100m/s along the surface there. (Hint: Molecular weight of hydrogen H 2 is 2, and that of Carbon C is 12.)