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Analysis of Fruits and Vegetable Juices.


Neil Sengupta XII-H

The project aims to analyze the nutrient content of fruit and vegetable juices and evaluate their importance.

Proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acids. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living organisms, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, replicating DNA, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids. Like other biological macromolecules such as polysaccharides and nucleic acids, proteins are essential parts of organisms and participate in virtually every process within cells. Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions and are vital to metabolism. Proteins also have structural or mechanical functions, such as actin and myosin in muscle and the proteins in the cytoskeleton, which form a system of scaffolding that maintains cell shape. Other proteins are important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, and the cell cycle. Proteins are also necessary in animals' diets, since animals cannot synthesize all the amino acids they need and must obtain essential amino acids from food. Through the process of digestion, animals break down ingested protein into free amino acids that are then used in metabolism.

A carbohydrate is an organic compound comprising only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, usually with a hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m could be different from n). Carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon; structurally it is more accurate to view them as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones. Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. Polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy (e.g., starch and glycogen), and as structural components (e.g., cellulose in plants and chitin in arthropods). The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes (e.g., ATP, FAD, and NAD) and the backbone of the genetic molecule known as RNA. The related deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Saccharides and their derivatives include many other important biomolecules that play key roles in the immune system, fertilization, preventing pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development.

Starch or amylum is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as an energy store. However, in the Asteraceae, starch is replaced by the fructan inulin. It is the most common carbohydrate in the human diet and is contained in large amounts in such staple foods as potatoes, wheat, maize (corn), rice, and cassava.

Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odorless powder that is insoluble in cold water or alcohol. It consists of two types of molecules: the linear andhelical amylose and the branched amylopectin.

Starch is processed to produce many of the sugars in processed foods. Dissolving starch in warm water gives wheatpaste, which can be used as a thickening, stiffening or gluing agent.

Many sodium compounds are useful, such as sodium hydroxide (lye) for soap-making, and sodium chloride for use as a deicing agent and a nutrient (edible salt). Sodium is an essential element for all animals and some plants. In animals, sodium ions are used against potassium ions tobuild up charges on cell membranes, allowing transmission of nerve impulses when the charge is dissipated. The consequent need of animals for sodium causes it to be classified as a dietary inorganic macro-mineral. In humans, sodium is an essential nutrient that regulates blood volume, blood pressure, osmotic equilibrium and pH; the minimum physiological requirement for sodium is 500 milligrams per day. Sodium chloride is the principal source of sodium in the diet, and is used as seasoning and preservative, such as for pickling and jerky; most of it comes from processed foods. Sodium is also important in neuron function and osmoregulation between cells and + + [53] the extracellular fluid, their distribution mediated in all animals by Na /K -ATPase; hence, sodium is the most prominent cation in extracellular fluid. In plants, sodium is a micronutrient that aids in metabolism, specifically in regeneration [55] of phosphoenolpyruvate and synthesis of chlorophyll. In others, it substitutes for potassium in several roles, such as maintaining turgor pressure and aiding in the opening and closing of stomata.]

Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19. Elemental potassium is a soft silvery-white alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and is very reactive with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite the hydrogen emitted in the reaction and burning with a lilac flame. Potassium ions are necessary for the function of all living cells. Potassium ion diffusion is a key mechanism in nerve transmission, and potassium depletion in animals, including humans, results in various cardiac dysfunctions. Potassium accumulates in plant cells, and thus fresh fruits and vegetables are a good dietary source of it. Conversely, most plants except specialist halophytes are intolerant of salt, and sodium is present in them only in low concentration. This resulted in potassium first being isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, giving the element its name. For the same reason, heavy crop production rapidly depletes soils of potassium, and agricultural fertilizers consume 95% of global potassium chemical production.

Chart illustrating Potassium content in various food items.

Calcium is the chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth-most-abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust. Calcium is also the fifth-most-abundant dissolved ion in seawater by both molarity and mass, after sodium, chloride, magnesium, and sulfate. Calcium is essential for living organisms, in particular in cell physiology, where movement of 2+ the calcium ion Ca into and out of the cytoplasm functions as a signal for many cellular processes. As a major material used in mineralization of bone, teeth and shells, calcium is the most abundant metal by mass in many animals.

Chart illustrating Potassium content in various food items.

Iron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element (by mass) forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most commonelement in the Earth's crust.

Iron plays an important role in biology, forming complexes with molecular oxygen in hemoglobin and myoglobin; these two compounds are commonoxygen transport proteins in vertebrates. Iron is also the metal used at the active site of many important redox enzymes dealing with cellular respiration and oxidation and reduction in plants and animals.

Chart illustrating Iron content in various food items.


Phosphorus is a nonmetallic chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15. A multivalent pnictogen, phosphorus as a mineral is almost always present in its maximally oxidised state, as inorganic phosphate rocks. Elemental phosphorus exists in two major formswhite phosphorusand red phosphorusbut due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth.

Phosphorus is essential for life. As phosphate, it is a component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and also the phospholipids that form all cell membranes. Demonstrating the link between phosphorus and life, elemental phosphorus was historically first isolated from human urine, and bone ash was an important early phosphate source. Phosphate minerals are fossils. Low phosphate levels are an important limit to growth in some aquatic systems. The chief commercial use of phosphorus compounds for production of fertilisers is due to the need to replace the phosphorus that plants remove from the soil.

Food rich in Phosphorus

Magnesium is a chemical element with the symbol Mg and atomic number 12. Its common oxidation number is +2 Magnesium is the fourth most common element in the Earth as a whole (behind iron, oxygen and silicon), making up 13% of the planet's mass and a large fraction of the planet'smantle.

In human biology, magnesium is the eleventh most abundant element by mass in the human body. Its ions are essential to all living cells, where they play a major role in manipulating important biological polyphosphate compounds like ATP, DNA, and RNA. Hundreds of enzymes thus require magnesium ions to function. Magnesium compounds are used medicinally as common laxatives, antacids (e.g., milk of magnesia), and in a number of situations where stabilization of abnormal nerve excitation and blood vessel spasm is required (e.g., to treat eclampsia). Magnesium ions are sour to the taste, and in low concentrations they help to impart a natural tartness to fresh mineral waters.

In vegetation, magnesium is the metallic ion at the center of chlorophyll, and is thus a common additive to fertilizers.

Magnesium rich food


AIM: To analyse some fruit and vegetable juices for their contents. REQUIREMENTS: Test Tubes, Burner, Litmus Paper, Laboratory Agents, Juices of
various fruits and vegetables.

Test For Acidity: Take 5ml of various fruits and vegetable juices in different test tubes and dip pH paper in them. If pH is less than 7, the juice is acidic and If it is greater than 7, then it is basic. Test for Starch: Take 2mL of the juice in a test tube and add Iodine solution. Blue color show the presence of starch. Test for proteins (Biuret test):Take about 3mL of 5% NaOH solution; add 2 drops of 1% CuSO4 solution so that permanent blue color is obtained. Add juice to it and shake it. Violet color ppt. indicates the presence of proteins. Test for Carbohydrates (Fehlings Test): To 2mL of juice add 1mL of Fehlings solution and boil it. Red ppt. indicates the presence of reducing sugars such as maltose, glucose, fructose and sucrose. Test for Minerals: The common minerals present in vegetables and fruits are Sodium, Calcium etc. Test for Sodium: Take 2mL of juices and add little KOH and boil the solution. Add potassium pyroantimonate solution. Scratch the sides of the test tube. White ppt. or milkiness shows the presence of Sodium. Test for Potassium: Take 2mL juice in a test tube and add picric acid solution. Yellow ppt. indicates the presence of K+ ions. Test for calcium: To 2ml of juice add NH4Cl and NH4OH solution. Filter the solution and to the filtrate add 2mL of ammonium oxalate solution. White ppt. indicates the presence of Ca2+ ions. Test for Magnesium: To 2mL of juice add NH4OH solution till alkaline then add excess of ammonium phosphate solution. Scratch the sides of the test tube with a glass rod. White ppt. indicates the presence of Mg2+ ions. Test for iron: To 2mL of the juice add 1 drop of conc. HNO3 and heat it. Cool and add 2-3 drops of potassium sulphocyanide solution. Blood red color shows the presence of iron. Test for Phosphorus: To 2mL of the juice in a test tube add 1 drop of conc. HNO3. Boil the solution and add few drops of ammonium molybdite solution, Heat the solution. Yellow ppt. indicates the presence of Phosphorus

S Name Acidic pH Starch Protein Carbohydrates Minerals No. of Juice Character Na K Ca Mg Fe P +ve +ve +ve +ve +ve +ve 1. Apple +ve 5 +ve +ve +ve +ve +ve +ve +ve +ve +ve 2. Mango +ve 4 -ve +ve +ve -ve -ve +ve +ve +ve +ve 3. Orange +ve 4 +ve -ve +ve +ve +ve +ve -ve -ve +ve 4. Carrot +ve 5 +ve +ve +ve +ve +ve +ve +ve +ve +ve 5. Tomato +ve 3.5 +ve +ve +ve