An Alternative to Kuomintang-Communist Collaboration: Sun Yat-Sen and Hong Kong, January-June 1923 Author(s): F.

Gilbert Chan Source: Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 13, No. 1 (1979), pp. 127-139 Published by: Cambridge University Press Stable URL: Accessed: 20/11/2009 10:47
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1 For the complete text of the manifesto. Acknowledgments are due to Professors C. 1973). On January 26. Oxford. Printed in Great Britain. and Allen S.Ohio SUN Yat-sen arrived in Shanghai in August I922 after suffering a humiliating defeat at the hands of his former ally.00 ?I979 Cambridge University Press 127 .). Moreover.d. the Soviet Communists continued to negotiate with Peking for diplomatic recognition. His effort was fruitful. pp. His rapprochement with Hong Kong during the first half of 1923 was illustrative of this attitude. pp. 1976). 863.). W. until after the latter's violent suppression of the February 7 strike in 1923. who assured the Chinese revolutionary leader-in the name of the 'Russian people'-of their 'warmest sympathy for China' and their 'willingness to lend support. Chinain the I92os: Nationalismand Revolution (New York: New View2 Odoric Y. 'Sun Yat-sen and the Origins of the Kuomintang Reorganization. In the next five months.ModernAsianStudies. In a slightly modified form. in spite of Sun Yat-sen's inauguration in March as Generalissimo of the Canton government. November 28. Gilbert Chan and Thomas H. University Press.13.'1 With no specific promise of Soviet material assistance. p. K. 1975. 1923. I9I7-I924 (New York: Columbia points. a powerful militarist. Ltd. see H. 1953). n. the Sun-Joffe Manifesto was mostly symbolic. 15-37. Ch'en Chiung-ming. 'Wu P'ei-fu and the Communists' (preliminary report to University Seminar on Modern China. The evolution of the Kuomintang-Russian alliance is discussed in my article. this paper was presented to the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Ohio Academy of History on April 26. I924-5 (Tientsin: Tientsin Press. Martin Wilbur of Columbia University and Lloyd E. however. Whiting. GILBERT CHAN Miami University. pp. Etzold (eds). he negotiated with Russian and Chinese Communists for their collaboration with the Kuomintang.' in F. G. Wou. Eastman of the University of Illinois at Urbana for their constructive criticisms. I (X979). Collaboration: 1923 January-June F. The Chinarear Book.2 Similarly. he issued a joint manifesto with the Soviet emissary. I am also appreciative of the valuable suggestions for improvement made by my colleagues in the History Department Faculty Seminar at Miami University. Russia maintained strong interest in Wu P'ei-fu. Sun did not permit his agreement with Moscow to interfere with his endeavors to seek support from other foreign powers. Woodhead (ed. Soviet Policies in China. An Alternative to Kuomintang-Communist Sun Yat-senand Hong Kong. AdolfJoffe. 127-I39. Columbia University. 0026-749X/79/0200-0903 $02. 208-35.

1912. they reflected the bitter dissension among party veterans over the decision to solicit aid from Soviet Communists. See Chung-gi in China. Vol. and June 24. In the pre-IgII years. An expanded version of the paper was delivered at the Ohio East Asian Seminar. it was 'only natural' that Russia should be 'anxious' to align itself with the Kuomintang. It emphasizes the factional rivalries within the Kuomintang. Congress of Human Sciences in Asia and North Africa. I912. pp. June I5. M. 1912. No.3 Such analyses fail to take into consideration Sun's reservations about Marxism as an answer to China's problems. I (October I959). Rhoads. as Chung-gi Kwei (Ch'ung-chi Kuei) insists.I922-I949 (The Hague: Martinus Kwei. 'Henry George on Two Continents: A Comparative Study in the Diffusion of Ideas. endeavored to put into practice Henry George's single-tax theory. China'sRepublican Kwangtung.5 In 1917. The search for an alternative to Sun's pro-Russian policy ended temporarily in June 1923. I975). See ibid. 'Revolutionary Leadership in Transition: Sun Yat-sen and His I905-I925' (unpublished paper presented to the 30th International Comrades. pp. I8 and 20. August 3. By using his courtship with Hong Kong as an example. I895-I9I3 5 Min-li (Cambridge: June Harvard University Press. whose political leaning was often dictated by self-interest.' ComparativeStudies in Society and History. They further underrate the opposition of some of his comrades to the alliance with the Communists. 1976). 20. this paper demonstrates the flexibility of Sun's relations with Russia. 4 F. For Henry George's influence on the Chinese intellectuals. many scholars invest the collaboration with an development of the Kuomintang-Communist aura of inevitability. who was then Commissioner of Finance in Canton. Schiffrin and Pow-key Sohn. he chose Kwangtung as the site for his separatist government. 1912. when Sun started his 'constitution protection movement' against the warlords in Peking. 1976.I28 F. Sun and many of his closest comrades were natives of Kwangtung. the province was an important base for their anti-Manchu movement. had aspirations for the vice-presidency of the Peking 3 For example. see Edward J. Sun pao (Shanghai). This coincided with the decline of the anti-Communist leaders in the party. Liao Chung-k'ai. see Harold Z. June endorsed Liao's reform program in a meeting with the provincial leaders in Canton. Mexico City. To a considerable extent. Sun vowed to turn Kwangtung into a 'model province'. 1970).. Gilbert Chan. 85-109. . Lu Jung-t'ing. The Kuomintang-Communist Struggle Nijhoff. For a revisionist study of the Chinese revolution in Revolution:The Case of Kwangtung. November 13. after Hong Kong's refusal to extend to the Kuomintang the financial support it badly needed. II. 23. Sun's claim to national leadership depended on the support of the southern militarists. a formidable ally in Kwangsi. GILBERT CHAN Probably influenced by historical hindsight.4 After his resignation as Provisional President of the new republic in 1912.

see Jean Chesneaux. and later China Weekly Review in June 1923. December I. 'The Ideas and Ideals of a Warlord: Ch'en Chiung-ming (1878-1933). and he resigned as its Generalissimo in May I918. Harvard 1962). Ch'en's image of a treacherous warlord. 1920-3. .00/2724. 1965). Reinsch to Secretary of State. 91 7. Department of State. needs reevaluation. While Ch'en labored for 'the immediate welfare of Kwangtung. 1966). I917. See Winston Hsieh. 6 7 North ChinaHerald (hereafter abbreviated as NCH). i. XVI (December Rise of Chiang Kai-shek. p. Ch'en had been Sun's 'follower for more than ten years. and Walter E. 1922. 192-252. For the Chinese federalist movement. p. When Sun returned to Kwangtung in November I920 to revive the regime he had abandoned thirty months before. The Political Historyof China. IX:544. Indeed. (Taipei: Chung-hua min-kuo ko-chieh chi-nien kuo-fu pai-nien tan-ch'en ch'ou-pei wei-yuan-hui. p.. in United States Vol. however. 'The Federalist Movement in China. 96-I37. Yet his immediate concern was the reconquest of Kwangtung. and his views on provincialism were 'altogether incompatible' with Sun's constitutionalism.' in Jack Gray (ed. Records Relatingto InternalAffairsof China. trans. 1956). 584. his relations with Ch'en were by no means intimate. 8 Quoted from Sun's letter to his party comrades.). III. Van Nostrand Co. A member of the T'ungmeng-hui. While he was conferring with Russian envoys. Gourlay.). he relied primarily on Ch'en Chiung-ming's military support. December 8. See also Li Chien-nung. 'The Kuomintang and the I920-1924' (unpublished Ph. and Millard's Reviewof theFar East (renamed Weekly Paul S. January 8. the campaign for a federalist government in China attracted Ch'en's attention. 893. 192I. September 27. he regarded this as an important step in the revitalization of his anti-warlord revolution. 94. 384-8. Review of the Far East in June 192 I. His entente with Soviet and Chinese Communists represented only a part of his overall strategy against the warlords in Peking. Sun never wavered from his determination to reunite China under his leadership. in Kuomintang Archives (ed. I840-I928.'9 Their fragile alliance ended with Sun's expulsion from Canton in June 1922. Sun complained that he had not been 'taken with sufficient seriousness by any of the southern leaders. 'Sun Yat-sen and the Origins of the Kuomintang Reorganization. he also worked hard for the reorganization of the Kuomintang.. Kuo-fuch'uan-chi. by Ssu-yu Teng and Jeremy Ingalls (Princeton: D.KUOMINTANG - COMMUNIST COLLABORATION I29 regime.I9Io-29 (hereafter cited as USDS). hereafter cited as CWR). In spite of Sun's claim. See Chan. I6.' p. pp. as projected by Kuomintang historians. dissertation. There was a 'fundamental difference in political objectives' between the two leaders.6 As early as December 1917. Inc. I917. ModernChina's Search for a PoliticalForm (London: Oxford University Press. University.D. pp.' Sun championed 'the cause of the national revolution. September I8.'7 He was unable to sustain his feeble command of the government in Canton. Vol. p.' in Papers on China (Harvard University). p.'8 Nonetheless. I969). I6. His political exile in Shanghai notwithstanding. 9 NCH. pp.

however. . pp. See Shirley. Gilbert Chan. they turned to the West for help. Cf. GILBERT CHAN Among party members. graduated from University of London. Ma Ch'ao-chun. Vol. I2. See F. dating from the founding of the T'ung-meng-hui in I905. The Rise of the Chinese CommunistParty. Ke-ming wen-hsien (Taipei: Chung-yang wen-wu ). Instead of relying on Soviet Russia. III. p. '93-4. Ma Ch'ao-chunhsien-shengyen-lun hsuan-chi (Taipei: Chung-kuo lao-kung fu-li ch'u-pan-she. who tried to seek an alternative to the policy of Kuomintang-Communist entente. 1953became acquainted with Sun through Hu's introduction. I92IVolume One of the Autobiographyof Chang Kuo-t'ao (Lawrence: University Press I927: of Kansas. had intimate family connections in Hong Kong. and they supported Sun's plan for the military reunification of China. I970). who had been active in labor organizations. Vol. held eight meetings with Sun after the latter's arrival in Shanghai to voice the serious misgivings of the workers about Marxism. they had been influential in the municipal administration of 10 While Liao's association with Sun began in I903. 236-7. 1922.130 F. Meanwhile. Wang kung-ying-she. Some of them. I923.' p. p. p. and Wang Ching-wei were perhaps the staunchest advocates of Sun's program for national regeneration. Hu met the latter for the first time in I905. In September I922. According to James R. 267. Many of Sun's comrades. He did not return to China until the end of March. C. II. Liao Chung-k'ai. See Gourlay. 11 The effort of these leaders did not prevent Sun from reaching an agreement with Joffe in January I923. 1962). Liao accompanied AdolfJoffe to Japan to discuss the details of the Kuomintang-Communist rapprochement.' in Essays in Chinese Studies Presented to Professor Lo Hsiang-lin on His Retirementfrom the Chair of Chinese. University of California. Each married a daughter of Ho Kai. Chang Kuo-t'ao. Wu (Wu Ch'ao-shu) and Fu P'ing-ch'ang. Berkeley. the first Chinese knighted in the British colony of Hong Kong. Vol. Fu P'ing-ch'ang was a graduate of University of Hong Kong. p. 'Political Conflict in the Kuomintang: The Career of Wang Ching-wei to 1932' (unpublished Ph. dissertation. I. Shirley.10 In the early 1920S they formed the core of the Elders Faction (yuan-lao p'ai) of the Kuomintang. C.' in Kuomintang Archives (ed. son of Wu T'ing-fang. I67. 12 While C. Chang Chi signified his opposition to the admission of Chinese Communists to the Kuomintang. 'Liao Chung-k'ai (1878-1925): The Career of a Chinese Revolutionary. University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong. Chung-kuo lao-kung yun-tung shih (Taipei: Chung-hua ta-tien pien-yin-hui. Hu Han-min. pp. 1971). 325. and Hu Han-min.12 Prior to Ch'en Chiung-ming's coup on June I6. Wu. 'The Kuomintang and the Rise of Chiang Kai-shek.). as well as his alliance with Soviet Russia. 11 Ma Ch'ao-chun. On January 28. They had been Sun's close associates for at least seventeen years. there was a small yet significant group of party veterans. 386. and Ma Ch'ao-chun et al. 1966). 'Hu Han-min tzu-chuan. 1967). notably C.. with Sun Fo as the central force. questioned the wisdom of his collaboration with the Communists.D.

KUOMINTANG - COMMUNIST COLLABORATION I3I Canton. on January 15. in view of his previous educational experience in Hong Kong. and further suggested the possibility of cooperation with the Kuomintang. the struggle between these two cliques centered upon the party policy of befriending Russian and Chinese Communists.0o/4823. Gourlay. This was hardly surprising. was Mayor of Canton in I921-22. p. p. they often came into conflict with the Kuomintang Elders. Known collectively as the Prince Faction (t'ai-tzu p'ai). 1923. Liao Chung-k'ai to support Sun Yatsen's military ventures against the Peking government. According to Fu P'ing-ch'ang.13 Partly because of this. say. In their meeting. the Kuomintang military allies succeeded in driving Ch'en Chiung-ming out of Canton. the eldest child of Sun Yat-sen. receive an invitation from the government of Hong Kong until February I923. Walter Gourlay interviewed Fu P'ing-ch'ang in Taipei on July 27. 16 NCH. Sun apparently did not Besides.' in Sun rat-sen. Sun Fo and his Prince Faction had endeavored to press Sun Yat-sen to abandon his Soviet orientation in favor of an alliance with the British government in Hong Kong. in USDS. 269. . January 13. In the first months of I923.' I966). Even before the Sun-Joffe discussions. they tended to be more concerned with the provincial interests of Kwangtung than with national issues. On January 7. 'The Kuomintang and the Rise of Chiang Kai-shek. he had emphasized China's strong opposition to Communist philosophy. 73. For instance. vospominanii i materialov (Moscow: Glavnaia redaktsiia vostochnoi literatury izdatel'stvo 'Nauka. He also had grave doubts about Communism. Sun had actually taken a more active interest in the negotiations with the British diplomats than Fu intimated. The Soviet emissary later complained that Sun had treated him with 'a certain amount of distrust. p.' p. Stubbs. 1965.'15 Moreover. eleven days before the announcement of the Sun- Joffe agreement.14 This narrative. I866-1966. he went to the British colony 'toward the end of 1922' to confer with Governor Reginald E. 1923.16 Sun planned to travel to the 13 Sun Fo. January 27. As documents of the Foreign Office in London indicate. exaggerates in it errs factual details. as reported by Walter E. and were less inclined than. Stubbs allegedly extended to Sun Yat-sen an official invitation to visit Hong Kong. The military successes did not really surprise Sun Yat-sen. I68. See the record of his interview in NCH. Fu's role in the attempt to solicit British assistance. During his meetings with Serge Dalin in April-June 1922. I923. 15 Dalin. He left the city after Ch'en Chiung-ming's June i6 coup of 1922. K stoletiiu so dnia rozhdeniia: Sbornik statei. he had confidently predicted that he would soon return in triumph to Canton. See also American Minister in China to Secretary of State. 893. I923. 'Velikii povorot: Sun Yat-sen v I922g. 14 Gourlay. January I8. 2 8.

noted that Sun had twice sent Eugene Ch'en to call on him.' Vol. I35. British Foreign Secretary. but preceded Sun's agreement with Adolf Joffe. 500. Wu to confer with Macleay in Shanghai.l8 During the first twelve days of February. he had tea with Sir Robert Ho-tung. February 24. 1923. Since Sir Ronald Macleay. was then in the colony on his way to Peking. Barton transmitted the information to him. 'Confidential Print. Ch'en hinted that the Kuomintang leader would welcome a reception by Governor Stubbs of Hong Kong. Sir Sidney Barton. he attended an 'informal' luncheon at Government House as a guest of Governor Stubbs.' See South China Morning Post (Hong Kong). to speak to an audience of three hundred professors and students. C. 19 Great Britain Foreign Office. Ch'en's two visits on January II and 19 occurred after Fu P'ingch'ang's conference with Stubbs.'21 The highlight of Sun's visit took place on February 20. 236. in ibid. Sun landed in Hong Kong on February 17. 893. . Sun Yat-sen later claimed that his meeting with Governor Stubbs 'augured well for future relationships between Hong Kong and Canton. February 24. 1976). F I 107/12/10 (report 462). February 24. Sun entertained Joffe at a dinner. and stayed there for four days.19 On his way to Canton. See Chan. p.00/4936. the newly appointed British Minister to China. and USDS. FO 37I/918I/F 649 [F 649/12/10]. 20 NCH. Sun Tat-sen: Frustrated Patriot (New York: Columbia University Press. and his second dispatch. The warm reception extended to him symbolized an entente between the Kuomintang and the British government in the colony. 1923. 18 While Joffe had sent an aide to call on Sun in Shanghai as early as August 25. I923. On January I8. the Soviet emissary did not come to the city until January 7 of the following year.I32 F. and a rapprochement with the British government in Hong Kong would strengthen his position in Kwangtung. 1923. a prominent industrialist who was 'believed to be closely associated with the Hong Kong government. Office.' p. After this meeting. 1922. Macleay stressed Sun's 'alleged desire to improve his relations with the British authorities' in China and Hong Kong. 1923. British Consul General in Shanghai. 893. his alma mater. 33. 21 NCH. January in Great Britain Foreign 17. and C. dated January 22. and American Consul in Charge (Canton) to Secretary of State. He described the island as his 'intellectual birthplace' 17 Barton's first dispatch to Peking. when he returned to the University of Hong Kong. 500. the two leaders conferred repeatedly at Sun's residence in the French Concession. Martin Wilbur.. FO 37I/918I/F 946 [F 946/12/IO]. In the two dispatches submitted to his superiors in Peking in January I923. a day prior to Eugene Ch'en's second visit to Barton. Further CorrespondenceRespecting China. Sun sent Eugene Ch'en and C.20 Shortly afterward. p. A day after his arrival. 'Sun Yat-sen and the Origins of the Kuomintang Reorganization. in USDS. February 22.oo/4936.l7 Significantly. 'General Correspondence' series. In his February 28 message to Lord Curzon. GILBERT CHAN south soon. 1923. p.

26 American Consul in Charge (Canton) to Secretary of State. n.' In the midst of 'deafening cheers. Post. he informed a public gathering in Canton of 'the loans now under negotiation. 1954). March 13. I923. and Lo Hsiang-lin.26 Meanwhile. regained the mayoralty of Canton. 23 South China Morning. I. W. R. C. was evidently happy with the results of his pro-British overtures. Sun Fo.' he lauded the British parliamentary system. 1923. and he rewarded its leaders with important positions in his newly established government. an American diplomat in South China. the Kuomintang leader had visited Jamieson on the afternoon of March . Tenney. March 3. Hornell. p.' and vowed to 'bring about the prosperity and development' of Kwangtung 'by means of good understanding and cooperation' with both Hong Kong and Macao. While his son. Furthermore. p. Jamieson. p. Fu P'ing-ch'ang became Commissioner of Foreign Affairs and concurrently Superintendent of Customs. 27-65. and urged his audience to 'carry the example of good government to all parts of China. 24 CWR. . 337.'24 Sun. P. The University of Hong Kong: Its Origins and Growth (Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong. On March 20. See W.25 In a dispatch to the Secretary of State. and Wilbur. W. 893. esp. breaking new ground to the great benefit of both. likewise reported on Sun's cordial relations with J. 787. 25 NCH. 63. pp. In response to an invitation to tea. I. While he was still in the colony. Jamieson courteously paid a return call on the Chinese revolutionary. March 24. this friendly 'one of gesture was-to quote a weekly periodical in Shanghai-truly the most significant things occurring in South China affairs. Wu as Minister of 22 USDS. too. 1923.' Apparently.KUOMINTANG - COMMUNIST COLLABORATION I33 where he had learned his 'revolutionary and modern ideas. an influential local newspaper suggested that he might need 'some Hong Kong financial and other help. 1923. I925).00/4936.'22 Contemporary pro-British publications in China were generally enthusiastic about Sun's trip to Hong Kong. February 20. Kuo-fu ta-hsueh shih-tai (Taipei: Commercial Press. on April I5.oo/4950. Sun was appreciative of the assistance of the Prince Faction. Sun Tat-sen.6. 893.' It predicted: 'The colony may at no distant date find itself working in close cooperation with the neighboring province. On March I8. He noted that Sun's attempt to raise funds in Hong Kong 'may be successful. p. two days after Sun's public expression of optimism. British Consul General in Canton. The university was named Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese when Sun was a student there. this observation was not groundless.'23 In view of the hostile confrontation between the Kuomintang and Hong Kong during the seamen's strike in 1922. Sun Yat-sen appointed C. in USDS.

GILBERT CHAN Foreign Affairs. For some time. and praised him for having had the courage to resist the severe opposition of his comrades. I. 225. with 27USDS. 1923. 958. p.' in Ke-ming wen-hsien.'28 Coupled with Liao Chung-k'ai's stay in Japan. he reaffirmed his backing of the program of Kuomintang-Communist collaboration. When he recounted to Sun the details of his discussions with Adolf Joffe in Japan. Liao's challenge of the pro-British policy aggravated the power struggle between the Elders and the Prince Faction. in Vol. I. which the Prince Faction eagerly filled. XX. Liao returned to Canton toward the end of March. Soon afterward.'30 Yet.00/4950. 28 KFNP.27 This ascendancy of the Prince Faction was largely responsible for the temporary eclipse of the Kuomintang Elders. Wang Ching-wei verified Liao's faith in the alliance with the Communists. their departure left a power vacuum in Canton.' See Sharman. pp. 958-9 and 963. pp. Lyon Sharman labels Liao 'Joffe's disciple. 1965). To emphasize the element of Soviet influence. May 19. and Lu-hai-chun ta-yuan-shuai ta-pen-ying kung-pao. as proved by subsequent events. 29Wang Ching-wei. 30 Hua-tzujih-pao (Hong Kong). 3856. As early as February 28. II.). No. Kuo-fu nien-p'u tseng-ting-pen. 1923. Vol. March 9. much of Lo Chia-lun (ed. 893. and adversely affected Sun's entente with Hong Kong.I34 F. 'Tui Chung-kuo kuo-min-tang ti-erh-tz'u ch'uan-kuo taipiao ta-hui cheng-chih pao-kao. 1969). the Kuomintang rapprochement with Soviet and Chinese Communists seemed to be in jeopardy. I973). 'The Death of a Revolutionary: Liao Chung-k'ai's Assassination' (unpublished paper presented to Midwest Regional Seminar on China. p.29 Indeed. The success of Sun Fo and his clique in winning Sun Yat-sen's confidence resulted mostly from their promise to bring to Canton the financial resources of the Hong Kong merchants and possibly of the British government. His father's pronouncement on March I8 exhibited genuine optimism. . reprinted in 12 volumes in 1969 by the Kuomintang Archives in Taipei). I923. a Hong Kong newspaper declared that the Prince Faction had successfully cemented a coalition with 'the capitalists. and Lu-hai-chun ta-yuan-shuai ta-pen-ying kung-pao (Canton. Vol. p. in Vol. Vol. see F. At this critical juncture. p. hereafter cited as KFNP. March 9. Gilbert Chan. 58. 58-9. Sun Fo's impressive performance in the Canton municipal administration during 1921-22 had gained the admiration of many merchants in the neighboring colony. Sun had dispatched Hu Han-min and Wang Ching-wei to Shanghai to work for the 'peaceful reunification of China. i. Sun rat-sen. II. April 9. and he appeared likely to earn their support in I923. In the Political Report given to the Second Party Congress in January 1926. additions by Huang Chi-lu (Taipei: Kuomintang Archives. For further discussion of Liao's attitude toward the KuomintangCommunist alliance. His Life and Its Meaning: A Critical Biography (Hamden: Archon Books.

to the resurgence of the Kuomintang Elders. Besides being obligated to pay taxes regularly in advance. In order to secure the support of the non-Cantonese militarists. On March 2. Sun Yat-sen had named him Minister of Finance of the military government. 787. Upon his arrival in Canton at the end of the month. A contemporary source maintained that the opium traffic alone yielded an average of 800. 32 May I8. and the merchants were obvious victims of its financial extortions.000 yuan a month. May Io. was therefore demonstrative of the victory of the Elders over Sun Fo and his clique in the factional struggle. he had tried to eradicate these two vices from the province. in part. This was a concession the Elders stubbornly refused to make. Liao found the city in grave financial difficulties. 1923. On one occasion. The loans that Sun had anticipated from the Hong Kong merchants were not forthcoming. p.March 30. Consequently. Sun Fo could only deliver the cash if the Kuomintang would agree to surrender its control over Canton finances to the creditors. Liao Chung-k'ai's appointment to the governorship on May 7 to replace Hsu Shao-chen. a favorite of the Hong Kong merchants. 1923. 1923. and Hua-tzujih-pao. There were other methods with which the Kuomintang exacted money from the populace. . the merchants of the colony insisted that Sun Yat-sen should designate men of their choice to fill such important government positions as provincial Commissioner of Finance.33 Nevertheless.' pp. Hence. when Ch'en Chiung-ming was in control of Kwangtung. p. May I7. Sun defended the legalization of gambling as 'a necessity. and May I923. prior to Liao's return from Japan. these financial policies of Sun and Liao fatally undermined their previous claim to transform Kwangtung into a 'model province'. 396. CWR. and he expected his son to obtain this from the Hong Kong merchants. But.31 For instance. Sun Yat-sen needed an almost inexhaustible supply of money. 1923.KUOMINTANG - COMMUNIST COLLABORATION 135 the optimism was premature. and he had received little help from his erstwhile supporters. the government had to depend on gambling and opium traffic for its major income. they frequently had to make substantial contributions to 31 See Gourlay's interview with Fu P'ing-ch'ang in 'The Kuomintang and the Rise of Chiang Kai-shek. March 24.'32 These expedient measures were financially productive. The Cantonese were openly critical of their restoration by the Kuomintang government. 174-6. the overseas Chinese. I924. and the inability of the Prince Faction to fulfill its promise led. I9. 33 J.CH.

I923. P. Sun's statements in an interview with Rodney Gilbert a year earlier reflected his views on the subject. 36 Ts'en Hsueh-lu. A veteran financier of national reputation. San-shuiLiang Ten-sunhsien-sheng nien-p'u (Taipei: Wen-hsing 34 NCH.35 When this failed. No. The merchants had to accept them at their face value. Vol. He shared with Sun a common hatred for Wu P'ei-fu and the Chihli militarists who dominated Peking at that time. July 7. as well as the argument that the end thus justified the means. F. but he contended that the 'security' for the notes 'is the work which we have done with them. in Vol. Earlier in March I923. would strengthen the Canton government. Mayers of the British and Chinese Corporation. p. Sun named Yeh his new Minister of Finance on May 7 to replace the embattled Liao Chung-k'ai. p. No. Sun had endeavored to seek the financier's help to arrange a loan with the consortium of banks. 263. I. for extraparty support. In addition. Sun requested him to serve in the Kuomintang government in an official capacity. 6 (June 1923). 373. Liang was then in political retirement in Hong Kong. May ii. KFNP. in Great Britain Foreign Office. March i6. yet he offered the aid of his two close associates. 37 35See the records of conversation in Hong Kong between Liang Shih-yi and S. 1922. See also CWR. and designated Cheng as Vice Minister. Io. p. the Provincial Bank of Kwangtung.'34 The assumption that whatever he did would ultimately benefit the Cantonese. and May 26. and China Review (New York). Lu-hai-chun ta-yuan-shuai ta-pen-ying kung-pao. 1923. 1962). Vol. . He admitted that the paper money would not be 'immediately redeemable'. 502-3. p. His pro-Russian leanings further alienated the merchants. Sun turned to Liang Shih-yi. II. I88. 1923. May 19. GILBERT CHAN the Canton government. Yeh Kung-ch'o and Cheng Hung-nien. p. p. Liao Chung-k'ai won the notoriety of a villain among the commercial interests in the province. at periodic intervals. it was 'not essential' either to provide a cash reserve for the currency or to promise to redeem it on demand.I36 F. a leader of the Communications Clique (Chiao-t'unghsi). Vol. 973. II. 255. 462. To solidify his alliance with the Communications Clique. May 6. placed large amounts of paper notes in circulation without the guarantee of proper security. FO 371/9181/F I520. As Minister of Finance in March-May 1923. whatever hope Canton might have had to obtain financial assistance from Hong Kong evaporated. As the demand for money became increasingly acute. Liang declined. According to him. I923. With him gaining influence in the government. it argued. shu-tien.36 A Shanghai periodical commended the appointments which. 37 CWR. 'General Correspondence' series. did not endear the Kuomintang to the business community of Canton. pp. I923. IV. 426.

Sun held Wu responsible for the warfare. the Peking government appointed the Kwangsi militarist on March 21 to take charge of military affairs in Kwangtung. who had encamped at Waichow since his January defeat. to drive out the oppressors of the people. p. 787. p.. 235. November 3. and October I3. CWR. 259. Shen Hungying. 12). 1923. Vol. p. II. to arrest all opponents of the tax laws on the charge of 'treason' and to release them afterward upon payment of a 'heavy bail'. a Kwangsi militarist of doubtful loyalty. and KFNP.effect a nominal reunification of China by force. CWR. 216. 350. p. Ch'en Chiung-ming. In the middle of the military crisis. p. and insisted that Peking should dismiss him. a journalist characterized Sun's regime in Canton as the 'darkest spot in China'.' The same publication considered Wu's policy 'extremely unwise. See also September 8. September 22. too. p.41 38 J\CH. Shen decided to challenge the Kuomintang rule in Canton. p. March 24. he engineered a military coup. In March.oooyuan. had been flirting with Wu P'ei-fu since January. Provoked by these abuses. I923. 6o. Without substantiating the NCH account. p. he had to buy the loyalty of his soldiers with a reported total of 26.40 In desperation.'38 Two days later. 60. I43. marched west with his troops and threatened Canton on May 30.39 Nor were the coup and the fighting that followed Sun's sole problems. p. I923. During the summer of I923. I923. I923. In a protest addressed to the northern government. In an attempt to undermine further Sun's already fragile authority in South China. the new team in the treasury never had a chance to reverse the trend of the Kuomintang toward financial bankruptcy. the Kuomintang government imposed new and often excessive taxes on the Cantonese populace.KUOMINTANG - COMMUNIST COLLABORATION I37 Because of deteriorating political and military conditions in Kwangtung. CWR described Wu's intervention as an attempt 'to. NCH reported the presence in Shen's camp of 'northern troops sent by General Wu P'ei-fu'-'men speaking a northern dialect and wearing a queue' (April 28. p. 968. p. when Ch'en Chiung-ming withdrew from Canton in defeat. 1923. 22 I). and tried in vain to persuade him to leave the province. September 8.. 40 41 . April 7. 1923.oooyuan per day. It was government policy. 39China Review. He declared on April 14 that he was 'compelled . 218. Sun gave Shen 150. 1923. it also tried to require every rich merchant to make a special war contribution. and April 28. June I923. which allegedly enjoyed Wu P'ei-fu's backing. I923. I923.' since it might unite all opposing forces in Kwangtung behind Sun (July 7.. Sun's effort to repel the attacks of both Shen and Ch'en plunged the provincial treasury into financial catastrophe. Ibid. With additional encouragement from Ts'en Ch'un-hsuan of the Political Study Society (Chenghsueh-hui). p.

This seemingly provided the rationale for the tax abuses of their government. During his previous trips to China in 1921 and 1922. 48 pp. With Hong Kong turning its back on him. however. The Kuomintang was in urgent need of assistance. the Chinese revolutionary agreed that the policy of Soviet orientation would help solve his many problems. At the end of their discussions. University of Auckland. so far. Kwangtung became a pawn in the intricacies of national politics. 1968). the Soviet representative had conferred with Sun and had since been the latter's principal advocate in Moscow. Sun's hope to reassert his leadership in a national revolution rested on the support of Soviet Russia. New Zealand. Sneevliet. Thus. Maring was the pseudonym of H. 677-97. Sneevliet Strategy' (unpublished M. however. no available record to show Sun's receipt of the telegram. He was an advocate of social changes. the Chinese Communist Party held its Third Congress in Canton. Sun Yat-sen and the Kuomintang Elders were willing to sacrifice the interests of the Cantonese.' in China Quarterly. I48. Sun rat-sen. I973). the Canton regime evidently needed more help to extricate itself from the quagmire of Kwangtung politics than the Communications Clique could offer. Prompted simultaneously by the Elders. 'Further Reflections on Sun Yat-sen' (preliminary report to University Seminar on Modern China. 43 On May I. No. the Soviet leaders telegraphed Sun about their 'readiness to render necessary assistance to China. and C. and he had aspired to turn Kwangtung into a 'model province'. Sun's reliance on the militarists had not been productive. Sun cast his dice. if such sacrifice would contribute to the fulfillment of their dream to reunify China. See Wilbur. 'Revolution in China: (October-December I971). Columbia University.42 When the two leaders met again in Canton in mid-1923. In face of political reality. and Dov Bing. GILBERT CHAN Sun's third endeavor to establish a rival government in the south had. Hu Han-min. Despite the expenses involved. p. Martin Wilbur.44 42 Dov Bing.A. 44 According to Maring. In June 1923. 'Sneevliet and the Early Years of the CCP.43 Sun conversed with Maring three or four times a week. 42. Sun was busily engaged in combat with Ch'en Chiung-ming. March 21.' There is. of which he had often accused the militarists in Peking. and the Russian government had decided in March to aid its Chinese ally with a sum of approximately two million Mexico dollars. p. and Chiang Kai-shek supported him 'wholeheartedly' in his effort to guide Sun toward the policy of . been an exercise in frustration. Liao Chung-k'ai. with Maring as a participant. as proved by the coups of Ch'en Chiung-ming in 1922 and of Shen Hung-ying in 1923. Unlike Sun Fo and his Prince Faction. thesis. a Dutch Communist of the Comintern.138 F. In mid-I923. he was obliged to compromise his ideological commitment and resort to financial extortions.

the Kuomintang won a fresh lease on life. Kuomintang-Communist enige persoonlijke herinneringen. March 20. November 13. No.KUOMINTANG - COMMUNIST COLLABORATION I39 With the backing of Russia. his own son. Columbia University. See H. and this necessitated his dependence on the militarists. 1976. The excesses of his financial extortions estranged the business community and were partially responsible for the failure of his entente with Hong Kong.' Klassenstrijd (Amsterdam). his limitations as a revolutionary were attributable to his inability to mobilize the masses. It was only in the last fifteen months of his life that he learned this secret from his Soviet advisers. As a revolutionary leader. . He lacked a popular base of support. and he was keenly aware objected of the damaging effect of party dissension on his revolutionary movement. 1975). Gilbert Chan. he commanded the loyalty of but a small group of followers. Political development in Canton during the first half of I923 revealed the major weaknesses of Sun's campaign against militarism in China. 3 (March I926). Sun was a political realist with a genuine commitment to the nationalist revolution in China. This accounted for his brief flirtation with the British authorities in Hong Kong. because Russia was the only foreign country to lend him a helping hand. Sneevliet. even after the promulgation of his joint manifesto with AdolfJoffe. and this enabled Sun to make his last bid for national prominence. 'Liao Chung-k'ai and the Labor Movement in Kwangtung. I924-1925' (preliminary report to University Seminar on Modern China. Sun Fo-strongly Many of his comrades-including alliance to his with Soviet Russia. thus turning a new page in the history of the Chinese revolution. he readily pursued an alternative to his pro-Communist policy. A revised version of the paper was presented to the Annual Meeting of Association for Asian Studies. 'Met en bij Soen Yat-sen. He decided to collaborate with the Communists in spite of his ideological differences with Marxism. 45 For an analysis of the subject. see F. Most importantly.45 collaboration. Hence.

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