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HEALTH FOOD: New Innovation to Therapy

Dr. Rajesh Kumar


Ph.D (Dairy Microbiology)
Molecular Biology Unit
Dairy Microbiology Division
N.D.R.I
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INTRODUCTION
Diet is a major focus of public health strategy aimed at
maintaining optimum health throughout life, preventing early
onset of chronic diseases as well as promoting healthier
ageing.

The growing demand for ‘healthy’ foods is stimulating the


innovation and new product development internationally.

Food industry has a central role in facilitating healthier


eating practices through the provision and promotion of
healthy foods.

Continuously increasing consumers’ health consciousness


and expenditure are socio-economic factors responsible for
the expanding worldwide interest in functional foods.
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Cont…
The functional food concept has, in recent years, moved
progressively towards the development of dietary supplement
that may affect the intestinal microbial composition and
activities.

Probiotic strains can be successfully manufactured and


incorporated into highly acceptable food products.

Food, Medicine or What?


Foods provide energy, nutrition, organoleptic enjoyment and
in many cases a mode of social interaction.

Functional foods do all of the above and also have a


preventive effect.
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Difference between food, functional food and medicine

Foods – parts of a Functional Food – Medicine –


healthy life style prevent illnesses cure illnesses

Food, Health Food and Drug market


Global Food Market Global Health Food Market Global Drug Market

Professional demand
US $ 2,000 billlion/1997 US $ 33 billlion/2000 US $ 300 billlion/1997
Consumer demand

Conventional Nutraceuticals OTC Drugs


Foods
Functional Prescription
Health Foods Foods Drugs

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What is a Functional Food?
“Foods or dietary components that may provide a
health benefit beyond basic nutrition.”

Biologically active components impart health benefits or


physiological effects.
Includes both functional attributes of conventional foods
and new redesigned food products.
•Whole food, components/ingredients of food.
•Natural or formulated food.

Focus is on preventative health benefits rather than cure.

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Potential targets for functional food development
Correlation between Diet and Disease

Top 10 causes of Death Diseases Most Affected


Cancer by Diet
Ischaemic Heart Disease Cancer
Pneumonia High Cholesterol
Cerebrovascular Diseases (Stroke) Coronary Heart Diseases
Accidents, Poisoning & Violence Atherosclerosis
Other Heart Diseases Stroke
Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Hypertension
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes (type II)
Urinary Tract Infections Gastrointestinal Disorders
Nephritis, Nephrotic Syndrome & Osteoporosis
Nephrosis

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Established relationship between diet and health

Health Problem Well-established relationship with…


Obesity Energy content
Cholesterol level Fat
Blood pressure Salt
Arteriosclerosis Omega-3-fatty acids
Constipation Dietary Fiber
Osteoporosis Calcium
Caries Easily fermentable carbohydrates
Iron deficiency Iron

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Classification of Functional Foods
Functional Foods

From Plant sources Designer Foods From Animal Sources


(Nutraceutical incorporated

Foods)


Bran:- oats, wheat.
Vitamin pills
Fiber:- soluble, insoluble.
Mineral pills
Soy proteins
Herbal pills/supplements
Grains:- Buckwheat, Quinoa
Oil gel caps


Lentils, chickpea, peas, beans
Phytochemicals
Hemp, Flaxseed
Antioxidant
Tomatoes, cruciferous vegetables Fish:- Omega- 3(n-3) Fatty acids.
Citrus fruits, wine/grape, garlic. Beef:- Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
Modified oils:- high oleic, low saturated
Dairy based:-
1. Probiotic (+Prebiotic = Synbiotic)
2. Bioactive Milk Components.
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3. Bioactive peptides
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Functional Food Ingredient
Functional Ingredient Source Potential Benefit
CAROTENOIDES
á-carotene carrots Neutralize free radicals,
â- carotene fruits, vegetables which may cause
damage to cells
Lutein green vegetables Reduce risk of macular
degeneration
Lycopene tomato products Reduce risk of prostate
(ketchup, sauces) cancer
DIETARY FIBRE
Soluble Fibre wheat bran Reduce risk of breast or
colon cancer
Insoluble Fibre oats Reduce risk of
â-Glucan psyllium cardiovascular disease

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Cont…

FATTY ACIDS
Omega-3-Fatty Acids fish oils Reduce risk of
cardiovascular disease
Improve mental, visual
Functions
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) cheese, meat Improve body composition
products Decrease risk of certain
cancers
FLAVONOIDS
Anthocyanidins Fruits Neutralize free radicals;
Reduce risk of cancer
Catechins Tea
Flavanones Citrus
Flavones Fruits/Vegetables
PLANT STEROLS
Stanol ester Corn, soy, wheat, Lower blood cholesterol
wood oils levels by inhibiting
cholesterol absorption
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SOY PROTEINS: PHYTOESTROGENS
Isoflavones: soybeans and Menopause symptoms,
Daidzein soy-based foods such as hot flashes
Genistein Protect against heart
disease and some
cancers; lower LDL and
total cholesterol.

TANNINS
Proanthocyanidins cranberries, Improve urinary tract
Cranberry health
products, cocoa, Reduce risk of
Chocolate cardiovascular disease

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A Nutraceutical is a product isolated from foods but sold in
powders, pills and other medicinal forms not generally associated
with food and is demonstrated to have physiological benefits or
provide protection against chronic diseases.
(Health Canada 1998)
Goitre Prevention
Immunogenic Anti –Carcinogenic



Osteoporosis

 Anti-hypertensive
Prevention Nutraceuticals 



Reduce Allergic
Reactions Protective against
Prevent Anemia
Cardiovascular
disease

Nutraceuticals can be derived from plants (e.g., antioxidants,


echinacea, fenugreek, etc.), from animals and microorganisms (e.g. elk
velvet, essential fatty acids, enzymes, etc.) and from marine sources
(e.g., glucosamine, chitosan, fish oils, etc.) pdfMachine
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BIO-ACTIVE MILK COMPONENTS
S.No. Ingredient Potential Health Attribute
1. Casein Phosphopeptides Promotion of calcium
absorption
2. Lactoperoxidase Prevention of dental caries
3. Lactoferrin Prevention of gastro-
intestinal infection
4. Modified â-Lactoglobulin Prevents milk protein
allergies
5. Immunoglobulins Prevention of gastro-
intestinal infection
6. Calcium Promotes healthy bones and
Teeth
7. Vitamins Prevent vitamin deficiency
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SYNBIOTICS:- Probiotics + Prebiotics
Probiotics: “Living microorganisms, which upon ingestion
exert health benefits on the host”
Serum Cholesterol
Diarrhea Reduction Antioxidative



property
Stimulate Mucosal

 Lactose intolerance
Immunity Probiotics 



Reduce Allergic
Reactions Proteolytic activity
Anti-colon
Carcinogenesis
Probiotics: biotherapeutic agents.
Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria: Potent Probiotics.
Probiotic Characteristics:
 Ability to survive in GIT.
 Ability to colonize gastrointestinal epithelium.
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Harmful effects Desirable effects

Intestinal Ps. aeruginosa Inhibition of exogenous


putrefaction and harmful bacterial
Proteus sp. growth
Staphylococci

Clostridia
Digestion/absorption of
Veillonellae food ingredients and
Production of minerals
carcinogens Enterococci
E. coli

Lactobacilli Stimulate Immune


function
Diarrhoea, constipation, Streptococci
GI infection, liver Bifidobacteria Vitamin Synthesis
damage, cancer,
toxigenesis Bacteroides
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Prebiotics:- “Non-digestible dietary components that pass
through colon and selectively stimulate the proliferation and
/or activity of populations of probiotic bacteria in-situ”.
(Oligosaccharide, Fructooligosaccharides etc.)
Health benefit:-
avoid constipation, improve calcium absorption.
Synbiotic Foods:- The concept of synbiotic is in its infancy
, and is yet to be applied to the full extent in developing new
foods.
Health benefit:-
The expected benefits of probiotic and prebiotic combinantion
is improved survival of probiotic bacteria during the passage
through upper intestinal tract.
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Bioactive Peptides
Small biologically active peptides are called Bioactive
peptides.
Production of bioactive peptides:-
Bioactive peptides are inactive within the sequence of the
parent protein and can be released in three ways:
 Enzymatic hydrolysis (invitro/invivo).
 Food processing.
 Microbial Fermentation (Proteolytic lactobacilli):-
a) Dairy Products b) in a reactor
Potential Health Benefit:-
 Reduce hypertension due to ACE inhibitory action.
 Significant reduction in blood pressure.

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Product Origin Biofunctional role
Several phosphopeptides with a
ás1- and ß -casein range of properties including the
Cheddar cheese
fragments ability to bind and solubilise
minerals
Italian cheeses:
ß-CN f (58–72) ACE inhibitory
Mozzarella,
Yoghurt type ás1- , ß- and ê-CN
ACE inhibitory
products fragments
ás1-CN f (1–9), ß -CN f
Gouda cheese ACE inhibitory
(60–68)
Immunostimulatory,
ás1- and ß -casein
Emmental cheese mineral binding and solubilising ,
fragments
antimicrobial
ß-CN f (74–76, f (84–
Sour milk ACE inhibitory/ Antihypertensive
86), ê-CN f (108–111)
Dahi Ser-Lys-Val-Tyr-Pro ACE inhibitory
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Prebiotic/Probiotic Food Products
Some Functional Foods
from Sweden

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Applying scientific research to the development
of 3G functional foods .
Ist generation 2ndgeneration 3rdgeneration

Supplements Whole foods Enhanced foods


. Vitamin supplements . broccoli . novel ingredients?
. Calcium enrichment . yoghurts . novel products?
. Fibers . green tea . ??
. whole grain products
. Components with . Newly developed
established efficacy . Research based on functional ingredients /
. Research based on safety and efficacy foods based on
epidemiology assessment: mechanistically proven
. Discovery. of positive efficacy
effects of food . Research based on
Components ‘pharma’ type of
. Active component(s) screening: effect
may not have been targeted development,
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Collaborative research efforts…

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Science of nutrition and genomics driving the
emergence of functional food products ...

Study of how different foods may interact with


specific genes to prevent chronic diseases such as
type 2 diabetes, obesity, heart disease, stroke and
certain cancers. pdfMachine
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Microencapsulation offers ability to develop
innovative products…

Spray Drying
. Controlled/delayed release of active
Spray Chilling
Pan Coating ingredients
Centrifugal Extrusion . Coating liquid substances
Air-suspension . Masking flavours, smell & colour
Coating . Protecting core material
Polymerisation
. Reducing volatility
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. Stabilising to improve shelf-life
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