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The Universal Bible:
the universal truth of the Bible

The Prehistoric Eden

The Moral Covenant

The Harmonious Covenant

The Universal Bible: the universal truth of the Bible
Contents
Abstract Diagrams Introduction 4 5 8 10 11 11 12 13 18 19 21 29 30 30 31 31 35 40 41 41 42 42 42 44 46 46 46 47 47 49 49 51 53 55 56 57 57 61 65 66 66 69

1. The Six-Day Creation: the six days in Genesis

1.1. The First Day: the light universe and the dark universe Scripture Introduction 1.1.1 The Strong Pre-Universe 1.1.2. The Gravitational Pre-Universe 1.1.3. The Charged Pre-Universe 1.1.4. The Current Universe 1.1.5. Summary 1.2. The Second Day: baryonic matter and dark matter Scripture Introduction 1.2.1 The Separation between Baryonic Matter and Dark Matter 1.2.2. The Formation of the Inhomogeneous Structures 1.2.3. Summary 1.3. The Third Day: the star formation Scripture Introduction 1.3.1. The Star Formation under the Normal Force Fields 1.3.2. The Extreme Force Fields 1.4. Summary Scripture Introduction 2.1.Personality: The Social-Information Personality System 2.1.1. The Social Relation Type 2.1.2. The Information Process Type 2.1.2.1. Admission: Sensitivity and Assertiveness 2.1.2.2. Resolution: Distinctiveness and Network 2.1.2.3. Action: Goal and Context 2.1.2.4. Openness: Persistence and Updating 2.1.3. The Big Five 2.2. Social Lives 2.2.1. The Social Lives for the Primate Social Structures 2.2.2. The Human Instincts and Social Lives 2.2.3. The Harmonious Social Life 2.2.3.1. Cooperation - The Hyper Friendly Instinct 2.2.3.2. Detection – The Detective instinct 2.2.3.3. The Conscience Instinct

2. The Original Humans: the sixth day in Genesis

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3.

4.

5.

6. 7.

71 71 72 72 73 75 75 The Prehistoric Eden: the Garden of Eden 83 Scripture 83 Introduction 83 3.1. Supernatural Selection 84 3.2. The Garden of Eden 86 The Moral Covenant: the Old Testament 89 Scripture 89 4.1. The Exit from the Prehistoric Eden 91 4.2. The Abstract Morality 93 The Harmonious Covenant: the New Testament 96 Scripture 96 5.1 The Abstract Rebirth 97 5.2 The Transformation Principle 98 5.3. The Conversion to the Harmonious Social Life 99 5.4. The Postmodern Kingdom of God as the Harmonious Society of God 113 5.4.1. The Harmonious Society of God 113 5.4.2. Human 113 5.4.3. The Interaction 113 5.4.4. The Organism Structure of the Harmonious Society of God 114 5.4.5. The Harmonist Manifesto for the Harmonious Society of God114 5.5. The End Time 116 5.6. This Life and Afterlife 118 Conclusion: the universal truth and the identity 120 Reference 122 einsnewt@yahoo.com http://sites.google.com/site/einsnewt/ http://www.scribd.com/einsnewt

2.3. Ape Evolution 2.3.1. The Original Ape: the solitary ape 2.3.2. The First Split: the peacemaking ape 2.3.3. The Second Split: the loyal ape 2.3.4. The Third Split: the harmonious ape 2.3.5. The Fourth Split: the aggressive ape 2.4. Hominid Evolution

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Abstract
The Universal Bible is the universal truth of the Bible in science and religion. It provides the answers to many major problems in science and religion today. On the surface, the Bible reveals the special truth to a specific society at specific time and place, but below the surface, the Bible reveals the universal truth. The special truth is the shadow of the universal truth. The Universal Bible can be applied to anywhere in the universe. The Universal Bible is divided into five periods: the six-day creation, the original humans, the Prehistoric Eden, the Moral Covenant, and the Harmonious Covenant for the six days of the creation in Genesis, the sixth day of the creation in Genesis, the Garden of Eden, the Old Testament, and the New Testament, respectively, in the Bible. The six-day creation can be explained scientifically. The first day corresponds to the emergence of the current asymmetrical dual universe of the observable light universe with light and the hidden dark universe without light from the simple and dark pre-universe. The dark universe coexisting with the observable light universe later becomes dark energy connecting with the light universe. The second day corresponds to the separation of incompatible dark matter and baryonic matter for the formation of galaxies. The third day corresponds to the separation of interstellar medium and star with planet where organisms were developed. The fourth day, the fifth day, and the sixth day corresponds to the solar system formation, the primitive organism formation, and the advanced organism formation, respectively. The six-day creation provides the answers for cosmology, the unified theory, dark energy, dark matter, the galaxy formation, and human evolution. The original humans created on the sixth day were unique among all creatures. The uniqueness of the original humans in the image of God is explained by human social lives. The three basic human social lives are yin, yang, and harmony for feminine collective wellbeing, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The harmonious social life transcends yin yang and exists only in humans. Human social lives were derived from human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was the harmonious society. Through the supernatural miracle (the non-representation of the natural physical laws), the supernatural selects the human harmonious society to survive by the supernatural revelation of the abstractness (the non-representation of the expression of the natural human mind). During the Upper Paleolithic Period, the supernatural revealed the abstract bond for bonding the isolated social groups to survive the harsh environment. The emergence of civilization by the Neolithic Revolution of the agricultural-nomad society caused the exit from the Garden of Eden by taking the fruit of the knowledge of civilization. God provides the abstract morality to prevent the activated dehumanized prey-predator instinct in the civilized society, resulting in the Moral Covenant between God and the chosen moral civilized society, Israel. God provides the abstract rebirth for the civilized people to return to the harmonious social life and society, resulting in the Harmonious Covenant between God and the chosen harmonious society, the Christian church. The Postmodern Unified Society fulfills the end time prophecy for the end of the old divided society and the beginning of the new unified society. The followers of harmony continue to exist in afterlife. The Universal Bible provides the universal meaning to the global human race, history, and society. In this way, the Universal Bible can be applied to anywhere in the universe.

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The Diagrams for the Universal Bible
The Five Periods
the six-day creation (the six days of creation)

the original humans (the sixth day of creation) the Upper Paleolithic Revolution The Prehistoric Eden: the prehistoric harmonious society with the abstract bond the Neolithic Revolution the civilized society The Moral Covenant between God and Israel with the abstract morality The Harmonious Covenant between God and the Christian church with the abstract rebirth

The First-Day Genesis Cosmology the 11D membrane universe (the mutltiverse background)

the 10D string universe

the10D antistring universe

the positive energy 10D particleantiparticle light universe quick transformation the inflation the expanding observable 4D light universe slow stepwise transformation

The negative energy 10D particleantiparticle dark universe slow stepwise transformation

the deflation quick transformation

the contracting hidden the hidden expanding the contracting observable 4D light dark > 4D universe dark > 4D universe universe the accelerated expanding observable 4D universe with dark energy

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PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES PSYCHOLOGY
the brain structure–neurotransmitters for socialization and information processing PERSONALITY

admission resolution socialization (sensitivity(distinctiveness– (bonding relation– assertiveness) network) free relation)

action (goal– context)

openness (persistence– updating)

• • •

yin (network-bonding relation-context = collective wellbeing) and yang (distinctiveness-free relation-goal = individualistic achievement) passive (sensitivity) – active (assertiveness) intragroup interaction harmony = high openness (updating) to transcend yin-yang and passive-active the social instincts SOCIAL LIFE

yin passive social life (amiable)
bonding + freezing instincts

yin active social life (expressive)
nurturing + manipulative instincts

harmonious social life

yang active social life (driver)

yang passive social life (analytical)
systemizing + addictive instinct

conscience instinct = dominative + hyper friendly instinct predatory + detective instinct instincts

SOCIAL STRUCTURES
the loose the tight collective collective society society the harmonious society the tight individualistic society the loose individualistic society

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Ape Evolution and Social Structures
orangutan-like common ancestor (loose society)
13 million years ago (Ma)

orangutan (loose society) bonobo-like common ancestor (matriarch collective)
7 Ma

gorilla (patriarch collective society) human (harmonious society)

6 Ma 2 Ma

chimpanzee (patriarch individualistic society) bonobo (matriarch collective society)

Hominid Evolution: The Evolution of the Conscience Instinct
walking hands
bipedalism (6-2Ma)

free hands for gestural language as the hyper friendly instinct
1.8-1Ma

manipulative hands for gestural language and tool(Homo habilis)
1.5-0.3Ma

manipulative hands and spoken voice for gestural/ spoken language and tool (Homo erectus) hyper friendly instinct detective instinct = theory of mind conscience instinct
extra prefrontal cortex (0.2Ma)

enhanced conscience instinct (Homo sapiens) conscience intelligence conscience will

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Introduction
The Bible was written to be understood and practiced by a real society, so on the surface it reveals the special truth to a specific society at specific time and place. Below the surface, the Bible contains the universal truth in science and religion. The special truth is the shadow of the universal truth. The universal truth in the Bible is ahead of the contemporary understanding, and provides the answers to the major problems in science and religion. Standard science today, particularly physics, faces many unsolved major problems, such as cosmology, the unified theory, dark energy, dark matter, and the galaxy formation. Standard religion of the postmodern period with the global perspective seeks the meaning of global human history, and searches for the universal truth of religions. The Universal Bible is the universal truth of the Bible in science and religion to provide the answers to many major problems in science and religion today. The Universal Bible is divided into five periods: the six-day creation, the original humans, the Prehistoric Eden, the Moral Covenant, and the Harmonious Covenant for the six days of the creation in Genesis, the sixth day of the creation in Genesis, the Garden of Eden, the Old Testament, and the New Testament, respectively, in the Bible. The six-day creation (Chapter 1) can be explained scientifically. The first day corresponds to the emergence of the current asymmetrical dual universe of the observable light universe with light and the hidden dark universe without light from the simple and dark pre-universe. The dark universe coexisting with the observable light universe later becomes dark energy connecting with the light universe. The second day corresponds to the separation of incompatible dark matter and baryonic matter for the formation of galaxies. The third day corresponds to the separation of interstellar medium and star with planet where organisms were developed. The fourth day, the fifth day, and the sixth day corresponds to the solar system formation, the primitive organism formation, and the advanced organism formation, respectively. The six-day creation provides the answers for cosmology, the unified theory, dark energy, dark matter, the galaxy formation, and human evolution. The original humans (Chapter 2) created on the sixth day were unique among all creatures. The uniqueness of the original humans in the image of God is explained by human social lives. The three basic human social lives are yin, yang, and harmony for feminine collective wellbeing, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The harmonious social life transcends yin yang and exists only in humans. Human social lives were derived from human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. The harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was the harmonious society. The Prehistoric Eden (Chapter 3) explains the Garden of Eden where the prehistoric human society interacted with the supernatural. Through the supernatural miracle (the non-representation of the natural physical laws), the supernatural selects the human harmonious society to survive by the supernatural revelation of the abstractness (the nonrepresentation of the expression of the natural human mind), including the abstract bond, the abstract morality, and the abstract rebirth. During the Upper Paleolithic Period, the supernatural revealed the abstract bond for bonding the isolated social groups to survive the harsh environment. The emergence of civilization by the Neolithic Revolution of the

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agricultural-nomad society caused the exit from the Garden of Eden by taking the fruit of the knowledge of civilization. God provides the abstract morality to prevent the activated dehumanized prey-predator instinct in the civilized society, resulting in the Moral Covenant (Chapter 4) between God and the chosen moral civilized society, Israel. God provides the abstract rebirth for the civilized people to return to the harmonious social life and society, resulting in the Harmonious Covenant (Chapter 5) between God and the chosen harmonious society, the Christian church. The Universal Bible provides the universal meaning to the global human race, history, and society. In this way, the Universal Bible can be applied to anywhere in the universe.

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1. The Six-Day Creation: the six days in Genesis
Verses in Genesis Chapter 1 The first day 1-5 The second day 6-8 The third day 9-13 The fourth day 14-19 The fifth day 20-23 The sixth day 24-31 The formation Universe formation Galaxy formation Star formation Solar system formation Primitive organism formation Advanced organism formation

The scientific sequence of the six days in the creation is the universe formation, the galaxy formation, the star formation, the solar system formation, the primitive organism human formation and the advanced organism formation. The cosmology model in agreement with the interpretive description of the first three days in Genesis is called “Genesis Cosmology”. 1,2 This chapter deals with primarily Genesis Cosmology. The first three days are the days for the divisions, corresponding to the periods for the divisions in Genesis Cosmology. Genesis 1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters. And God said, "Let there be light," and there was light. God saw that the light was good, and He separated the light from the darkness. God called the light "day," and the darkness he called "night." And there was evening, and there was morning—the first day. And God said, "Let there be an expanse between the waters to separate water from water." So God made the expanse and separated the water under the expanse from the water above it. And it was so. God called the expanse "sky." And there was evening, and there was morning—the second day. And God said, "Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry ground appear." And it was so. God called the dry ground "land," and the gathered waters he called "seas." And God saw that it was good. Then God said, "Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds." And it was so. The land produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good. And there was evening, and there was morning—the third day. And God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark seasons and days and years, and let them be lights in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth." And it was so. God made two great lights—the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the night. He also made the stars. God set them in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth,

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18 to govern the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness. And God saw that it was good. And there was evening, and there was morning—the fourth day. And God said, "Let the water teem with living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the expanse of the sky." So God created the great creatures of the sea and every living and moving thing with which the water teems, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. God blessed them and said, "Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the water in the seas, and let the birds increase on the earth." And there was evening, and there was morning—the fifth day. And God said, "Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: livestock, creatures that move along the ground, and wild animals, each according to its kind." And it was so. God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the livestock according to their kinds, and all the creatures that move along the ground according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good. Then God said, "Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground." So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. God blessed them and said to them, "Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air and over every living creature that moves on the ground." Then God said, "I give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the whole earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food. And to all the beasts of the earth and all the birds of the air and all the creatures that move on the ground—everything that has the breath of life in it—I give every green plant for food." And it was so. God saw all that he had made, and it was very good. And there was evening, and there was morning—the sixth day.

1.1. The First Day: the light universe and the dark universe

Scripture In Genesis, the first day involves the emergence of the separation of light and darkness from the formless, empty, and dark pre-universe, corresponding to the emergence of the current asymmetrical dual universe of the observable light universe with light and the hidden dark universe without light from the simple and dark pre-universe in Genesis Cosmology. The light universe is the current observable universe, while the dark universe

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coexisting with the light universe is first separated from the light universe and later connected with the light universe as dark energy. The original Genesis 1 In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. 2 Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters. 3 And God said, "Let there be light," and there was light. 4 God saw that the light was good, and He separated the light from the darkness. 5 God called the light "day," and the darkness he called "night." And there was evening, and there was morning—the first day. The Universal Genesis 1 At the beginning of the creation of heaven and earth a, 2 when the pre-universe was simple, darkness b was over the surface of the deep vacuum energy c, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the cosmic fluids d. 3 And God said, "Let there be light," and there was light in the light universe e. 4 God saw that the light was good, and He separated the light universe from the dark universe f. 5 God called the light "day," and the darkness he called "night." And there was the first period.
a. b. c. The ambiguity of the Hebrew grammar brings about the alternative translation, in which "heaven and earth" already existed as in the New JPS Translation of the Torah. The pre-universe does not have light and kinetic energy, while our observable universe has light and kinetic energy. Vacuum energy is the energy below the detectable energy. Our observable universe has zero vacuum energy, while the pre-universe has high vacuum energy. The cosmic fluids are various different pre-universes. The light universe is the observable universe with light and kinetic energy. Coexisting with the light universe, the dark universe without light and kinetic is first separated from the light universe and later connected with the light universe as dark energy.

d.
e. f.

Introduction Our observable universe is a complex universe. It has at least four force fields; the strong, the gravitational, the electromagnetic (charged), and the weak force fields. It has at least four different materials and energies: cosmic radiation, dark energy, dark matter, and baryonic matter. It has numerous elementary particles, including six leptons, six quarks, and gauge bosons. So far, there is no viable unified theory in physics to unify specifically all these different phenomena. The cosmology model from Genesis can point out the direction for the unified theory. The cosmology model in agreement with the interpretive description of the first three days in Genesis is called “Genesis Cosmology”. This chapter compares the first day in Genesis with the first period in Genesis Cosmology. The ambiguity of the Hebrew grammar brings about the alternative translation in which "heaven and earth" already existed in a "formless and empty" state, to which God brings form and order 3. The existing universe before the form and order is called the “preuniverse”. Therefore, the first day involves the emergence of the current universe from the pre-universe that was simple as described in Genesis 1:2 as formless, empty, and dark with the surface of the deep. According to Genesis Cosmology as discussed later, the pre-universe is simple, dark without light and kinetic energy, and deep with high vacuum energy. Vacuum energy is the energy below the surface of detectable energy. The pre-universe has high vacuum energy, while our observable universe has zero vacuum energy. Therefore, the description of the pre-universe in Genesis is in agreement with the description of the pre-universe in Genesis Cosmology.

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The following sections describe the first day Genesis Cosmology. Before the current universe, the pre-universe is in the three different stages in chronological order: the strong pre-universe, the gravitational pre-universe, and the charged pre-universe. The strong pre-universe has only one force: the strong force. The gravitational pre-universe has two forces: the strong and the gravitational forces. The charged pre-universe has three forces: the strong, the gravitational, and the electromagnetic forces. All three forces in the preuniverses are in their primitive forms unlike the finished forms in our observable universe. The asymmetrical weak interaction comes from the formation of the current asymmetrical dual universe: the observable light universe with light and the hidden dark universe without light from the simple and dark pre-universe. Such 4-stage cosmology for our universe explains the origin of the four force fields in our observable universe. 1.1 .1 The Strong Pre-Universe Force Dual universe Object structure Space structure No 11D membrane attachment space pre-strong Many different universes can emerge from the multiverse background, which has the simplest and most primitive structure 1, 2. As in Einstein’s static universe, the time in the multiverse background has no beginning. Different parts of the background have potential to undergo local inhomogeneity to develop different universes with different object structures, space structures, and vacuum energies. The multiverse background is the strong pre-universe. It is the homogeneous static universe, consisting of 11D (spacetime dimensional) positive energy membrane and negative energy anti-membrane, denoted as 311 3 -11, as proposed by Mongan 4. The only force among the membranes is the pre-strong force, s, as the predecessor of the strong force. It is from the quantized vibration of the membranes to generate the reversible process of the absorption-emission of the massless particles among the membranes. The pre-strong force mediates the reversible absorption-emission in the flat space. The pre-strong force is the same for all membranes, so it is not defined by positive or negative sign. It does not have gravity that causes instability and singularity 5, so the initial universe remains homogeneous, flat, and static. This initial universe provides the globally stable static background state for an inhomogeneous eternal universe in which local regions undergo expansion-contraction 5. All universes are governed by the two physical structures 1, 2. Different universes are the different expressions of the same two physical structures. The two physical structures are the space structure and the object structure. The first part of the two physical structures is the space structure. The space structure 1, 6, 7 consists of attachment space (denoted as 1) and detachment space (denoted as 0). Attachment space attaches to object permanently with zero speed or reversibly at the speed of light. Detachment space irreversibly detaches from the object at the speed of light. Attachment space relates to rest mass, while detachment space relates to kinetic energy. Different stages of our universe have different space structures. All three pre-universes and the dark universe of the cosmic evolution of our universe do not have detachment space. The cosmic origin of detachment space is the cosmic radiation from the particle-antiparticle annihilation that is a part of the inflation as shown later. Some objects in 4D-attachment space, denoted as 14, convert into the cosmic

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radiation in 4D-detachment space, denoted as 04. Cosmic radiation cannot permanently attach to a space. some objects in 1 4  → the cosmic radiation in 0 4 (1)

The combination of attachment space (1) and detachment space (0) brings about three different space structures: miscible space, binary partition space, and binary lattice space for four-dimensional space-time as below.
combination (1 ) attachment space + (0 ) det achment space    → n n (1 0) binary lattice space , miscible space , or (1) (0 ) binary partition space n n n

(2)

Binary lattice space, (1 0)n , consists of repetitive units of alternative attachment space and detachment space. Thus, binary lattice space consists of multiple quantized units of attachment space separated from one another by detachment space. In miscible space, attachment space is miscible to detachment space, and there is no separation of attachment space and detachment space. Binary partition space, (1)n(0)n, consists of separated continuous phases of attachment space and detachment space. Binary lattice space consists of multiple quantized units of attachment space separated from one another by detachment space. Binary lattice space slices an object into multiple quantum states separated from one another by detachment space. Binary lattice space is the space for wavefunction. In wavefunction, n Ψ = ∑ c φ i i i =1 , (3)

Each individual basis element, φ i 〉, attaches to attachment space, and separates from the adjacent basis element by detachment space. Detachment space detaches from object. Binary lattice space with n units of four-dimensional, (0 1)n, contains n units of basis elements. Neither attachment space nor detachment space is zero in binary lattice space. The measurement in the uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics is essentially the measurement of attachment space and momentum in binary lattice space: large momentum has small non-zero attachment space, while large attachment space has low non-zero momentum. In binary lattice space, an entity is both in constant motions as wave for detachment space and in stationary state as a particle for attachment space, resulting in the wave-particle duality. Detachment space contains no object that carries information. Without information, detachment space is outside of the realm of causality. Without causality, distance (space) and time do not matter to detachment space, resulting in non-localizable and non-countable space-time. The requirement for the system (binary lattice space) containing non-localizable and non-countable detachment space is the absence of net
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information by any change in the space-time of detachment space. All changes have to be coordinated to result in zero net information. This coordinated non-localized binary lattice space corresponds to nilpotent space. All changes in energy, momentum, mass, time, space have to result in zero as defined by the generalized nilpotent Dirac equation by B. M. Diaz and P. Rowlands 8.
(mk∂ / ∂t ± i∇ + jm) (± ikE ± ip + jm) exp i ( − Et + p r ) = 0

.

,

(4)

where E, p, m, t and r are respectively energy, momentum, mass, time, space and the symbols ± 1, ± i, ± i, ± j, ± k, ± i, ± j, ± k, are used to represent the respective units required by the scalar, pseudoscalar, quaternion and multivariate vector groups. The changes involve the sequential iterative path from nothing (nilpotent) through conjugation, complexification, and dimensionalization. The non-local property of binary lattice space for wavefunction provides the violation of Bell inequalities 9 in quantum mechanics in terms of faster-than-light influence and indefinite property before measurement. The non-locality in Bell inequalities does not result in net new information. In binary lattice space, for every detachment space, there is its corresponding adjacent attachment space. Thus, no part of the object can be irreversibly separated from binary lattice space, and no part of a different object can be incorporated in binary lattice space. Binary lattice space represents coherence as wavefunction. Binary lattice space is for coherent system. Any destruction of the coherence by the addition of a different object to the object causes the collapse of binary lattice space into miscible space. The collapse is a phase transition from binary lattice space to miscible space. Any destruction of the coherence by the addition of a different object to the object causes the collapse of binary lattice space into miscible space. The collapse is a phase transition from binary lattice space to miscible space.

(( 0 )( 1 )) n

→ 

collapse

miscible space

(5)

binary lattice space
Another way to convert binary lattice space into miscible space is gravity. Penrose 10 pointed out that the gravity of a small object is not strong enough to pull different states into one location. On the other hand, the gravity of large object pulls different quantum states into one location to become miscible space. Therefore, a small object without outside interference is always in binary lattice space, while a large object is never in binary lattice space. The information in miscible space is contributed by the combination of both attachment space and detachment space, so detachment space with information can no longer be non-localize. Any value in miscible space is definite. All observations in terms of measurements bring about the collapse of wavefunction, resulting in miscible space that leads to eigenvalue as definite quantized value. Such collapse corresponds to the appearance of eigenvalue, E, by a measurement operator, H, on a wavefunction,Ψ. HΨ = E Ψ , (6)

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In miscible space, attachment space is miscible to detachment space, and there is no separation of attachment space and detachment space. In miscible space, attachment space contributes zero speed, while detachment space contributes the speed of light. A massless particle, such as photon, is on detachment space continuously, and detaches from its own space continuously. For a moving massive particle consisting of a rest massive part and a massless part, the massive part with rest mass, m0, is in attachment space, and the massless part with kinetic energy, K, is in detachment space. The combination of the massive part in attachment space and massless part in detachment leads to the propagation speed in between zero and the speed of light. To maintain the speed of light constant for a moving particle, the time (t) in moving particle has to be dilated, and the length (L) has to be contracted relative to the rest frame.

t = =t

0 L = L0 / γ ,

1 −υ 2 / c 2 = t γ ,
0

(7)
0 0

E = K + m c2 = γ m c2
where γ = 1 / 1 − υ 2 / c 2 is the Lorentz factor for time dilation and length contraction, E is the total energy and K is the kinetic energy. Binary partition space, (1)n(0)n, consists of separated continuous phases of attachment space and detachment space. It is for extreme force fields under extreme conditions such as near the absolute zero temperature or extremely high pressure. It will be discussed later to explain extreme phenomena such as superconductivity and black hole. The second structure of the two physical structures is the object structure. The object structure consists of 11D membrane (311), 10D string (210), variable D particle (14 to 10), and empty object (04 to 11). Different universes and different stages of a universe can have different expressions of the object structure. For an example, the four stages in the evolution of our universe are the 11D membrane universe (the strong universe), the dual 10D string universe (the gravitational pre-universe), the dual 10D particle universe (the charged pre-universe), and the dual 4D/variable D particle universe (the current universe), involving 11D membrane, 10D string, 10D particle, and 4D/variable ≤ 10 D particle, respectively. The transformation among the objects is through the dimensional oscillation3 that involves the oscillation between high dimensional space-time and low dimensional space-time. The vacuum energy of the multiverse background is about the Planck energy. Vacuum energy decreases with decreasing dimension number. The vacuum energy of 4D space-time is zero. With such vacuum energy differences, the local dimensional oscillation between high and low space-time dimensions results in local Eternal expansion-contraction is like harmonic eternal expansion-contraction11, 12, 13. oscillator, oscillating between the Planck vacuum energy and the lower vacuum energy. For the dimensional oscillation, contraction occurs at the end of expansion. Each local region in the universe follows a particular path of the dimensional oscillation. Each path is marked by particular set of force fields. The path for our universe is marked by

16

the strong force, gravity-antigravity, charged electromagnetism, and asymmetrical weak force, corresponding to the four stages of the cosmic evolution. The vacuum energy differences among space-time dimensions are based on the varying speed of light. Varying speed of light has been proposed to explain the horizon problem of cosmology 14,15. The proposal is that light traveled much faster in the distant past to allow distant regions of the expanding universe to interact since the beginning of the universe. Therefore, it was proposed as an alternative to cosmic inflation. J. D. Barrow 16 proposes that the time dependent speed of light varies as some power of the expansion scale factor a in such way that
c(t ) = c0 a n

(8)

where c0 > 0 and n are constants. The increase of speed of light is continuous. In this paper, varying dimension number (VDN) relates to quantized varying speed of light (QVSL), where the speed of light is invariant in a constant space-time dimension number, and the speed of light varies with varying space-time dimension number from 4 to 11. cD = c / α D − 4 , (9) where c is the observed speed of light in the 4D space-time, cD is the quantized varying speed of light in space-time dimension number, D, from 4 to 11, and α is the fine structure constant for electromagnetism. Each dimensional space-time has a specific speed of light. (Since from the beginning of our observable universe, the space-time dimension has always been four, there is no observable varying speed of light in our observable universe.) The speed of light increases with the increasing space-time dimension number D. In special relativity, E = M 0 c 2 modified by Eq. (9) is expressed as
E = M 0 ⋅ (c 2 / α 2 ( D − 4 ) ) = (M 0 / α
2 ( d − 4)

(10a) (10b)

) ⋅c .
2

Eq. (10a) means that a particle in the D dimensional space-time can have the superluminal speed c / α D − 4 , which is higher than the observed speed of light c, and has the rest mass M 0 . Eq. (10b) means that the same particle in the 4D space-time with the observed speed of light acquires M 0 / α 2 ( d − 4 ) as the rest mass, where d = D. D in Eq. (10a) is the space-time dimension number defining the varying speed of light. In Eq. (10b), d from 4 to 11 is “mass dimension number” defining varying mass. For example, for D = 11, Eq. (10a) shows a superluminal particle in eleven-dimensional space-time, while Eq. (10b) shows that the speed of light of the same particle is the observed speed of light with the 4D space-time, and the mass dimension is eleven. In other words, 11D space-time can transform into 4D space-time with 11d mass dimension. 11D4d in Eq. (10a) becomes 4D11d in Eq. (10b) through QVSL. QVSL in terms of varying space-time dimension number, D, brings about varying mass in terms of varying mass dimension number, d.

17

The QVSL transformation transforms both space-time dimension number and mass dimension number. In the QVSL transformation, the decrease in the speed of light leads to the decrease in space-time dimension number and the increase of mass in terms of increasing mass dimension number from 4 to 11,

cD = cD − n / α 2 n , M 0, D , d = M 0, D − n, d + nα 2 n ,
QVSL D, d   → (D m n), (d ± n) 

(11a) (11b) (11c)

where D is the space-time dimension number from 4 to 11 and d is the mass dimension number from 4 to 11. For example, in the QVSL transformation, a particle with 11D4d is transformed to a particle with 4D11d. In terms of rest mass, 11D space-time has 4d with the lowest rest mass, and 4D space-time has 11d with the highest rest mass. Rest mass decreases with increasing space-time dimension number. The decrease in rest mass means the increase in vacuum energy, so vacuum energy increases with increasing space-time dimension number. The vacuum energy of 4D particle is zero, while 11D membrane has the Planck vacuum energy. Such vacuum energies are the alternatives for the Higgs bosons, which have not been found. The decrease in vacuum energy is equivalent to the absorption of the Higgs boson, while the increase in vacuum energy is equivalent to the emission of the Higgs boson. Since the speed of light for > 4D particle is greater than the speed of light for 4D particle, the observation of > 4D particles by 4D particles violates casualty. Thus, > 4D particles are hidden particles with respect to 4D particles. Particles with different spacetime dimensions are transparent and oblivious to one another, and separate from one another if possible. 1.1.2. The Gravitational Pre-Universe Dual universe dual Object structure 10D string Space structure attachment space Forces pre-strong, pre-gravity

In certain regions of the 11D membrane universe, the local expansion takes place by the transformation from 11D-membrane into 10D-string. The expansion is the result of the vacuum energy difference between 11D membrane and 10D string. With the emergence of empty object (011), 11D membrane transforms into 10D brane (string) warped with virtue particle as pregravity.

311 s + 011

←→ 210 s 11 = 210 s g +

(12)

where 311 is the 11D membrane, s is the pre-strong force, 011 is the 11D empty object, 210 is 10D string, 11 is one dimensional virtue particle as g, pre-gravity. Empty object corresponds to the anti-De Sitter bulk space in the Randall-Sundrum model 17. In the same way, the surrounding object can extend into empty object by the decomposition of space dimension as described by Bounias and Krasnoholovets 18 , equivalent to the

18

Randall-Sundrum model. The g is in the bulk space, which is the warped space (transverse radial space) around 210. As in the AdS/CFT duality 19, 20, 21, the pre-strong force has 10D dimension, one dimension lower than the 11D membrane, and is the conformal force defined on the conformal boundary of the bulk space. The pre-strong force mediates the reversible absorption-emission process of membrane (string) units in the flat space, while pregravity mediates the reversible condensation-decomposition process of mass-energy in the bulk space. Through symmetry, antistrings form 10D antibranes with anti-pregravity as 2 −10 g , where g is anti-pregravity. 3 −11 s + 0 −11 ← → 2 −10 s 1−1 = 2 −10 s g − (13)
-

Pregravity can be attractive or repulsive to anti-pregravity. If it is attractive, the universe remains homogeneous. If it is repulsive, n units of (210)n and n units of (2-10)n are separated from each other. + − ( ( s 210 ) g ) ( g ( s 2 −10 )) n (14)
n

The universe with pregravity and anti-pregravity is the dual 10D string universe, which leads to the evolution of our observable universe. The dual 10D string universe consists of two parallel universes with opposite energies: 10D branes (strings) with positive energy and 10D antibranes (antistrings) with negative energy. The two universes are separated by the bulk space, consisting of pregravity and anti-pregravity. Such dual universe separated by bulk space appears in the ekpyrotic universe model 22, 23.
1.1.3. The Charged Pre-Universe

Dual universe dual

Object structure 10D particle

Space structure Attachment space

Forces pre-strong, pre-gravity, preelectromagnetic

When the local expansion stops, through the dimensional oscillation, the contraction begins to force the dual 10D string universe to contract to the original state, resulting in the coalescence of the two universes. The coalescence allows the two universes to mix. The first path of such mixing is the brane-antibrane annihilation, resulting in disappearance of the dual universe and the return to the multiverse background. The outcome is the completion of one oscillating cycle. The second path allows the continuation of the dual universe in another form without the mixing of positive energy and negative energy. Such dual universe is possible by the emergence of the pre-charge force, the predecessor of electromagnetism with positive and negative charges. The mixing becomes the mixing of positive charge and negative charge instead of positive energy and negative energy, resulting in the preservation of the dual universe with the positive energy and the negative energy. Our universe follows the second path as described below in details.

19

During the coalescence for the second path, the two universes coexist in the same space-time, which is predicted by the Santilli isodual theory 24 . Antiparticle for our positive energy universe is described by Santilli as follows, “this identity is at the foundation of the perception that antiparticles “appear” to exist in our space, while in reality they belong to a structurally different space coexisting within our own, thus setting the foundations of a “multidimensional universe” coexisting in the same space of our sensory perception” (Ref. 24, p. 94). Antiparticles in the positive energy universe actually come from the coexisting negative energy universe. The mixing process follows the isodual hole theory that is the combination of the Santilli isodual theory and the Dirac hole theory. In the Dirac hole theory that is not symmetrical, the positive energy observable universe has an unobservable infinitive sea of negative energy. A hole in the unobservable infinitive sea of negative energy is the observable positive energy antiparticle. In the dual 10D string universe, one universe has positive energy branes with pregravity, and one universe has negative energy antibranes with anti-pregravity. For the mixing of the two universes during the coalescence, a new force, the pre-charged force, emerges to provide the additional distinction between brane and antibrane. The precharged force is the predecessor of electromagnetism. Before the mixing, the positive energy brane has positive pre-charge (e+), while the negative energy antibrane has negative pre-charge (e ). During the mixing when two 10D string universes coexist, a half of positive energy branes in the positive energy universe move to the negative energy universe, and leave the Dirac holes in the positive energy universe. The negative energy antibranes that move to fill the holes become positive energy antibranes with negative pre-charge in the positive energy universe. In terms of the Dirac hole theory, the unobservable infinitive sea of negative energy is in the negative energy universe from the perspective of the positive energy universe before the mixing. The hole is due to the move of the negative energy antibrane to the positive energy universe from the perspective of the positive energy universe during the mixing, resulting in the positive energy antibrane with negative precharge in the positive energy universe. In the same way, a half of negative energy antibranes in the negative energy universe moves to the positive energy universe, and leave the holes in the negative energy universe. The positive energy branes that move to fill the holes become negative energy branes with positive pre-charge in the negative energy universe. The result of the mixing is that both positive energy universe and the negative energy universe have branes-antibranes. The existence of the pre-charge provides the distinction between brane and antibrane in the brane-antibrane. At that time, the space (detachment space) for radiation has not appeared in the universe, so the brane-antibrane annihilation does not result in radiation. The braneantibrane annihilation results in the replacement of the brane-antibrane as the 10D stringantistring, (210 2-10) by the 10D particle-antiparticle (110 1-10). The 10D particlesantiparticles have the multiple dimensional Kaluza-Klein structure with variable space dimension number without the requirement for a fixed space dimension number for stringantistring. After the mixing, the dual 10D particle-antiparticle universe separated by pregravity and anti-pregravity appears as below.

20

(( s 110 e

+ _ + e 1−10 s ) g )

n

− + _ ( g ( s 110 e e 1−10 s ))

n

,

(15)

where s and e are the pre-strong force and the pre-charged force in the flat space, g is pregravity in the bulk space, and 110 1-10 is the particle-antiparticle. The dual 10D particle universe has particles, while the multiverse background (11D- membrane universe) has membranes, so the multiverse background and the dual 10D particle universe are completely transparent and oblivious to each other. The result is the free charged dual 10D particleantiparticle universe. The dual 10D particle universe consists of two parallel particle-antiparticle universes with opposite energies and the bulk space separating the two universes. There are four space regions: the positive energy particle-antiparticle space region, the pregravity bulk space region, the negative energy particle-antiparticle space region, and the anti-pregravity bulk space region. 1.1.4. The Current Universe The light universe The dark universe Object structure 4D particle variable D between 4 and 10 particle Space structure attachment space and detachment space attachment space Forces strong, gravity, electromagnetic, and weak Pre-strong, gravity, preelectromagnetic

The formation of our current universe follows immediately after the formation of the charged pre-universe through the asymmetrical dimensional oscillations, leading to the asymmetrical dual universe consisting of the light universe with kinetic energy and light and the dark universe without kinetic energy and light. Our observable universe is the light universe, whose formation involves the immediate transformation from 10D to 4D, resulting in the inflation as shown later. The formation of the dark universe involves the slow dimensional oscillation between 10D and 4D. The asymmetrical dual universe is manifested as the asymmetry in the weak interaction in our observable universe as follows.
+ + − _ + − + + − _ (( s 1 4 e w e w 1− 4 s ) g ) n ( g ( s 1≤10 e w e w 1≥ −10 s )) n

(16)

where s, g, e, and w are the strong force, gravity, electromagnetism, and weak interaction, respectively for the observable universe, and where 141-4 and 1≤101≥-10 are 4D particleantiparticle for the light universe and variable D particle-antiparticle for the dark universe, respectively. In summary, the whole process of the local dimensional oscillations leading to our observable universe is illustrated as follows.

21

betwwen 11D and 10 D coalescence, annihilation membrane universe ←        → dual string universe ←        → 311 s s 3−11
+ − ( ( s 210 ) g ) ( g ( s 2 −10 )) n n

between 10 D and 4 D dual 10 D particle universe ←        → 
+ _ + − + _ (( s 110 e e 1−10 s ) g ) n ( g ( s 110 e e 1−10 s )) n

dual 4 D / var ible D particle universe

+ + − _ + − + + − _ (( s 14 e w e w 1− 4 s ) g ) n ( g ( s 1≤10 e w e w 1≥ −10 s )) n

where s, e, and w are in the flat space, and g is in the bulk space. Each stage generates one force, so the four stages produce the four different forces: the strong force, gravity, electromagnetism, and the weak interaction, sequentially. Gravity appears in the first dimensional oscillation between the 11 dimensional membrane and the 10 dimensional string. The asymmetrical weak force appears in the asymmetrical second dimensional oscillation between the ten dimensional particle and the four dimensional particle. Charged electromagnetism appears as the force in the transition between the first and the second dimensional oscillations. The cosmology explains the origins of the four forces. To prevent the charged pre-universe to reverse back to the previous pre-universe, the charge pre-universe and the current universe overlap to a certain degree as shown in the overlapping between the electromagnetic interaction and the weak interaction to form the electroweak interaction.
Four-Stage Universe Strong PreUniverse Gravitational Pre-Universe Charged PreUniverse Current Universe light universe Universe Object Space Structure Structure 11D membrane attachment space 10D string attachment space 10D particle attachment space Force

single dual dual dual

pre-strong pre-strong, pregravity pre-strong, pregravity, preelectromagnetic strong, gravity, electromagnetic, and weak pre-strong, gravity, pre-electromagnetic

4D particle

dark universe

variable D between 4 and 10 particle

attachment space and detachment space attachment space

The formation of the dark universe involves the slow dimensional oscillation between 10D and 4D. The dimensional oscillation for the formation of the dark universe involves the stepwise two-step transformation: the QVSL transformation and the varying supersymmetry transformation. In the normal supersymmetry transformation, the repeated application of the fermion-boson transformation carries over a boson (or
22

fermion) from one point to the same boson (or fermion) at another point at the same mass. In the “varying supersymmetry transformation”, the repeated application of the fermion-boson transformation carries over a boson from one point to the boson at another point at different mass dimension number in the same space-time number. The repeated varying supersymmetry transformation carries over a boson Bd into a fermion Fd and a fermion Fd to a boson Bd-1, which can be expressed as follows M d, F = M d, B α d, B , (17a) (17b)

M d − 1, B = M d, F α d, F ,

where Md, B and Md, F are the masses for a boson and a fermion, respectively, d is the mass dimension number, and α d, B or α d, F is the fine structure constant that is the ratio between the masses of a boson and its fermionic partner. Assuming α d, B or α d, F , the relation between the bosons in the adjacent dimensions or n dimensions apart (assuming α’s are the same) then can be expressed as 2 M d, B = M d +1, B α d + n . (17c)
2n M d, B = M d + n, B α d + n .

(17d)

Eq. (18) show that it is possible to describe mass dimensions > 4 in the following way F5 B5 F6 B6 F7 B7 F8 B8 F9 B9 F10 B10 F11 B11 , (18)

where the energy of B11 is the Planck energy. Each mass dimension between 4d and 11d consists of a boson and a fermion. Eq. (19) shows a stepwise transformation that converts a particle with d mass dimension to d ± 1 mass dimension. stepwise varying supersymmetry D, d ←             → D, (d ± 1)  (19)

The transformation from a higher mass dimensional particle to the adjacent lower mass dimensional particle is the fractionalization of the higher dimensional particle to the many lower dimensional particle in such way that the number of lower dimensional particles becomes n d-1 = n d / α 2 . The transformation from lower dimensional particles to higher dimensional particle is a condensation. Both the fractionalization and the condensation are stepwise. For example, a particle with 4D (space-time) 10d (mass dimension) can transform stepwise into 4D9d particles. Since the supersymmetry transformation involves translation, this stepwise varying supersymmetry transformation leads to a translational fractionalization and translational condensation, resulting in expansion and contraction. For the formation of the dark universe from the charged pre-universe, the negative energy universe has the 10D4d particles, which is converted eventually into 4D4d stepwise and slowly. It involves the stepwise two-step varying transformation: first the QVSL transformation, and then, the varying supersymmetry transformation as follows.

23

stepwise two - step varying transform ation QVSL (1) D, d ← → (D m 1), (d ± 1) varying supersymme try (2) D, d ←          → D, (d ± 1) 

(20)

The repetitive stepwise two-step transformations from 10D4d to 4D4d are as follows.
The Hidden Dark Universe and the Observable Dark Universe with Dark Energy 10D4d → 9D5d → 9D4d → 8D5d → 8D4d → 7D5d → • • •• → 5D4d → 4D5d → 4D4d a the hidden dark universe ←a dark energy ←

The dark universe consists of two periods: the hidden dark universe and the dark energy universe. The hidden dark universe composes of the > 4D particles. As mentioned before, particles with different space-time dimensions are transparent and oblivious to one another, and separate from one another if possible. Thus, > 4D particles are hidden and separated particles with respect to 4D particles in the light universe (our observable universe). The universe with > 4D particles is the hidden dark universe. The 4D particles transformed from hidden > 4D particles in the dark universe are observable dark energy for the light universe, resulting in the accelerated expanding universe. The accelerated expanding universe consists of the positive energy 4D particles-antiparticles and dark energy that includes the negative energy 4D particles-antiparticles and the antigravity. Since the dark universe does not have detachment space, the presence of dark energy is not different from the presence of the non-zero vacuum energy. In terms of quintessence, such dark energy can be considered the tracking quintessence 25 from the dark universe with the space-time dimension as the tracker. The tracking quintessence consists of the hidden quintessence and the observable quintessence. The hidden quintessence is from the hidden > 4D dark universe. The observable quintessence is from the observable 4D dark universe with 4D space-time. For the formation of the light universe, the dimensional oscillation for the positive energy universe transforms 10D to 4D immediately. It involves the leaping two-step varying transformation, resulting in the light universe with kinetic energy. The first step is the space-time dimensional oscillation through QVSL. The second step is the mass dimensional oscillation through slicing-fusion. leaping two − step varying transformation QVSL (1) D, d ←  → (D m n), (d ± n)  slicing - fusion (2) D, d ←    → D, (d ± n) + (11 − d + n) DO' s (21)

24

The Light Universe quick QVSL transforma tion slicing with det achment space , inf lation  10D4d            → 4D10d                 → dark matter ( 4 D10 d + 4 D 9d + 4 D8d + 4 D 7 d + 4 D 6 d + 4 D 5d) + baryonic matter ( 4 D 4 d) + cosmic radiation → thermal cos mic exp ansion (the big bang )

In the charged pre-universe, the positive energy universe has 10D4d, which is transformed into 4D10d in the first step through the QVSL transformation. The second step of the leaping varying transformation involves the slicing-fusion of particle. Bounias and Krasnoholovets 26 propose another explanation of the reduction of > 4 D space-time into 4D space-time by slicing > 4D space-time into infinitely many 4D quantized units surrounding the 4D core particle. Such slicing of > 4D space-time is like slicing 3space D object into 2-space D object in the way stated by Michel Bounias as follows: “You cannot put a pot into a sheet without changing the shape of the 2-D sheet into a 3-D dimensional packet. Only a 2-D slice of the pot could be a part of sheet”. The slicing is by detachment space, as a part of the space structure, which consists of attachment space (denoted as 1) and detachment space (denoted as 0) as described earlier. Attachment space attaches to object permanently with zero speed or reversibly at the speed of light. Detachment space irreversibly detaches from the object at the speed of light. Attachment space relates to rest mass, while detachment space relates to kinetic energy. The slicing of dimensions is the slicing of mass dimensions. 4D10d particle is sliced into seven particles: 4D10d, 4D9d, 4D8d, 4D7d, 4D6d, 4D5d, and 4D4d equally by mass. Baryonic matter is 4D4d, while dark matter consists of the other six types of particles (4D10d, 4D9d, 4D8d, 4D7d, 4D6d, and 4D5d) as described later. The mass ratio of dark matter to baryonic matter is 6 to 1 in agreement with the observation 27 showing the universe consists of 23% dark matter, 4% baryonic matter, and 73% dark energy. Detachment space (0) involves in the slicing of mass dimensions. Attachment space is denoted as 1. For example, the slicing of 4D10d particles into 4D4d particles is as follows.

(14 + 6 )i

→ 

slicing

> 4d attachment space

1 4d core attachment space

( 14 )i

+

6

(( 04 )( 14 ))j,6
6 types of 4d units

(22)

The two products of the slicing are the 4d-core attachment space and 6 types of 4d quantized units. The 4d core attachment space surrounded by 6 types of many (j) 4D4d quantized units corresponds to the core particle surrounded by 6 types of many small 4d particles. Therefore, the transformation from d to d – n involves the slicing of a particle with d mass dimension into two parts: the core particle with d – n dimension and the n dimensions that are separable from the core particle. Such n dimensions are denoted as n “dimensional orbitals”, which become gauge force fields as described later. The sum of the number of mass dimensions for a particle and the number of dimensional orbitals

25

(DO’s) is equal to 11 (including gravity) for all particles with mass dimensions. Therefore, Fd = Fd − n + (11 − d + n) DO' s (23) where 11 – d + n is the number of dimensional orbitals (DO’s) for Fd - n. Thus, 4D10d particles can transformed into 4D10d, 4D9d, 4D8d, 4D7d, 4D6d, 4D5d, and 4D4d core particles, which have 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 separable dimensional orbitals, respectively. Dark matter particle, 4D10d, has only gravity, while baryonic matter particle, 4D4d, has gravity and six other dimensional orbitals as gauge force fields as below. The six > 4d mass dimensions (dimensional orbitals) for the gauge force fields and the one mass dimension for gravity are as in Figure 1.

Figure 1. The seven force fields as > 4d mass dimensions (dimensional orbitals). The dimensional orbitals of baryonic matter provide the base for the periodic table of elementary particles to calculate accurately the masses of all 4D elementary particles, including quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons as described later. The lowest dimensional orbital is for electromagnetism. Baryonic matter is the only one with the lowest dimensional orbital for electromagnetism. With higher dimensional orbitals, dark matter does not have this lowest dimensional orbital. Without electromagnetism, dark matter cannot emit light, and is incompatible to baryonic matter, like the incompatibility between oil and water. The incompatibility between dark matter and baryonic matter leads to the inhomogeneity (like emulsion), resulting in the formation of galaxies, clusters, and superclusters as described later. Dark matter has not been found by direct detection because of the incompatibility. In the light universe, the inflation is the leaping varying transformation that is the two-step inflation. The first step is to increase the rest mass as potential from higher space-time dimension to lower space-time dimension as expressed by Eq. (24a) from Eq. (11b). QVSL D, d   → (D m n), (d ± n)  V D , d = VD − n, d + n α 2 n

ϕ = collective n' s

(24a)

V (ϕ ) = V4 D10 dα − 2 ϕ ϕ ≤ 0 from − 6 to 0 where α is the fine structure constant for electromagnetism. The ratio of the potential energies of 4D10d to that of 10D4d is 1/α12. ϕ is the scalar field for QVSL, and is equal to collective n’s as the changes in space-time dimension number for many particles. The increase in the change of space-time dimensions from 4D decreases the potential as the rest mass. The region for QVSL is ϕ ≤ 0 from -6 to 0. The QVSL region is for the conversion of the vacuum energy into the rest mass as the potential. The conversion of
26

vacuum energy into potential is equivalent to the absorption of the Higgs boson, while the conversion of potential into vacuum energy is equivalent to the emission of the Higgs boson. The second step is the slicing that occurs simultaneously with the appearance of detachment space that is the space for cosmic radiation (photon) as the particleantiparticle annihilation. Potential energy as massive 4D10d particles is converted into kinetic energy as cosmic radiation and massive matter particles (from 10d to 4d). It relates to the ratio between photon and matter in terms of the CP asymmetry between particle and antiparticle. The slight excess particle over antiparticle results in matter particle. The equation for the potential (V) and the scalar field (φ) is as Eq. (24b) from Eq. (35) that expresses the ratio between photon and matter. slicing D, d   → D, (d − n)  (24b) 2φ V (φ ) = V4 D10 d α , where φ ≥ 0 from 0 to 2 The ratio is α4, according to Eq. (35). The region for the slicing is φ ≥ 0 from 0 to 2. The slicing region is for the conversion of the potential energy into the kinetic energy. The combination of Eq. (24a) and Eq. (24b) is as Eq. (24c). V (ϕ , φ ) = V4 D10 d (α − 2 ϕ + α 2 φ ), where ϕ ≤ 0 and φ ≥ 0 The graph for the two-step inflation is as Figure 2. V
V4D10d

(24c)

ϕ

φ

Figure 2. the two-step inflation At the transition (V4D10d) between the first step (QVSL) and the second step (slicing), the scalar field reverses its sign and direction. In the first step, the universe inflates by the decrease in vacuum energy. In the second step, the potential energy is converted into kinetic energy as cosmic radiation. The resulting kinetic energy starts the big bang, resulting in the expanding universe. Toward the end of the cosmic contraction after the big crunch, the deflation occurs as the opposite of the inflation. The kinetic energy from cosmic radiation decreases, as the fusion occurs to eliminate detachment space, resulting in the increase of potential energy. At the end of the fusion, the force fields except gravity disappear, 4D10d particles appear, and then the scalar field reverses its sign and direction. The vacuum energy increases as the potential as the rest mass decreases for the appearance of

27

10D4d particles, resulting in the end of a dimensional oscillation as Figure 3 for the twostep deflation. V
V4D10d

ϕ φ Figure 3. the two-step deflation The end of the two-step deflation is 10D4d, which is followed immediately by the dimensional oscillation to return to 4D10d as the “dimensional bounce” as shown in Figure 4, which describes the dimensional oscillation from the left to the right: the beginning (inflation as 10D4d through 4D10d to 4D4d), the cosmic expansion-contraction, the end (deflation as 4D4d through 4D10d to 10D4d), the beginning (inflation), the cosmic expansion-contraction, and the end (deflation). . V

inflation

expansioncontraction

deflation inflation dimensional bounce

expansioncontraction

deflation

time

Figure 4. the cyclic observable universe by the dimensional oscillation The hidden dark universe with D > 4 and the observable universe with D = 4 are the “parallel universes” separated from each other by the bulk space. When the slow QVSL transformation transforms gradually 5D hidden particles in the hidden universe into observable 4D particles, the observable 4 D particles become the dark energy for the observable universe starting from about 5 billion years ago. At a certain time, the hidden universe disappears, and becomes completely observable as dark energy. The maximum connection of the two universes includes the positive energy particle-antiparticle space region, the gravity bulk space region, the negative energy particle-antiparticle space region, and the anti-gravity bulk space region. Through the symmetry among the space regions, all regions expand synchronically and equally. (The symmetry is necessary for the ultimate reversibility of all cosmic processes.) The minimum observable universe has only one of the four space regions before the emergence of dark energy, when the light universe and the dark universe are separated from each other by the bulk space. The present observable universe about reaches the maximum (75%) at the observed 73% dark energy 27, about equal to the three additional space regions to the one original space region. The calculated result from this model at the maximum dark energy gives the universe made up of 75% dark energy, 21.4% dark matter, and 3.6% ordinary matter.

28

After the maximally connected universe, 4D dark energy transforms back to > 4D particles that are not observable. The removal of dark energy in the observable universe results in the stop of accelerated expansion and the start of contraction of the observable universe. The end of dark energy starts another “parallel universe period”. Both hidden universe and observable universe contract synchronically and equally. Eventually, gravity causes the observable universe to crush to lose all cosmic radiation, resulting in the return to 4D10d particles under the deflation. The increase in vacuum energy allows 4D10d particles to become positive energy 10D4d particles-antiparticle. Meanwhile, hidden > 4D particles-antiparticles in the hidden universe transform into negative energy 10D4d particles-antiparticles. The dual universe can undergo another cycle of the dual universe with the dark and light universes. On the other hand, both universes can undergo transformation by the reverse isodual hole theory to become dual 10D string universe, which in turn can return to the 11D membrane universe as the multiverse background as follows. The First-Day Genesis Cosmology the 11D membrane universe (the mutltiverse background) .

the 10D string universe

the10D antistring universe

the positive energy 10D particleantiparticle light universe quick transformation the inflation the expanding observable 4D light universe slow stepwise transformation

The negative energy 10D particleantiparticle dark universe slow stepwise transformation

the deflation quick transformation

the contracting the contracting hidden the hidden observable 4D light dark > 4D universe expanding dark > 4D universe universe

the accelerated expanding observable 4D universe with dark energy Figure 5. The First-Day Genesis Cosmology

1.1. 5. Summary

29

The first day involves the emergence of the separation of light and darkness from the formless, empty, dark, and deep pre-universe, corresponding to the emergence of the light universe and the dark universe from the simple and dark pre-universe with deep vacuum energy in Genesis Cosmology. Different universes are the different expressions of the same twoe physical structures. The two physical structures are the space structure and the object structure. The space structure includes attachment space (1) and detachment space (0). The space structure consists of the three different combinations of attachment space and detachment space, describing three different phenomena: quantum mechanics, special relativity, and the extreme force fields. The object structure consists of 11D membrane (311), 10D string (210), variable D particle (1≤10), and empty object (0). The transformation among the objects is through the dimensional oscillation that involves the oscillation between different space-time dimensional with different vacuum energies. There are three stages of pre-universes in chronological order: the strong preuniverse, the gravitational pre-universe, and the charged pre-universe. The multiverse background is the strong pre-universe with the simplest expression of the two physical structures. Its object structure is 11D membrane and its space structure is attachment space only. The only force is the pre-strong force without gravity. The transformation from 11D membrane to 10D string results in the gravitational pre-universe with both prestrong force and pre-gravity. The repulsive pre-gravity and pre-antigravity brings about the dual 10D string universe. The coalescence and the separation of the dual universe result in the dual charged universe as dual 10D particle universe with the pre-strong, pregravity, and pre-electromagnetic force fields. The asymmetrical dimensional oscillations result in the asymmetrical dual universe: the light universe with light and kinetic energy and the dark universe without light and kinetic energy. The asymmetrical dimensional oscillation is manifested as the asymmetrical weak force field. The light universe is our observable universe. The dark universe is sometimes hidden, and is sometimes observable as dark energy. The dimensional oscillation for the dark universe is the slow dimensional oscillation from 10D and 4D. The dimensional oscillation for the light universe involves the immediate transformation from 10D to 4D and the introduction of detachment space, resulting in light and kinetic energy.
1.2. The Second Day: baryonic matter and dark matter

Scripture

In Genesis, the second day involves the separation of waters from above and below the expanse, corresponding to the separation of dark matter and baryonic matter from above

30

and below the interface between dark matter and baryonic matter for the formation of galaxies in Genesis Cosmology. The original Genesis 6 And God said, "Let there be an expanse between the waters to separate water from water." 7 So God made the expanse and separated the water under the expanse from the water above it. And it was so. 8 God called the expanse "sky." And there was evening, and there was morning—the second day. The Universal Genesis 6 And God said, "Let there be an interface between the matters to separate matter from matter." 7 So God made the interface and separated baryonic matter g under the interface from dark matter h above it. And it was so. 8 God called the interface "sky." And there was the second period.
g. h. We live in the world of baryonic matter. Dark matter is incompatible to baryonic matter. It exists predominately outside of galaxies.

Introduction

The current observable universe contains dark energy, dark matter, and baryonic matter. As mentioned in the previous section, dark energy is from the dark universe to accelerate the expansion of the observable universe. Dark matter have different mass dimension from the baryonic matter. We live in the world of baryonic matter. The second day involves the separation of waters from above and below the expanse in Genesis, corresponding to the separation of dark matter and baryonic matter from above and below the interface between dark matter and baryonic matter for the formation of galaxies in Genesis Cosmology. The second day is the separation of dark matter and baryonic matter for the formation of galaxies. The following section will describe the separation of matters as the separation of waters in Genesis. The first part will be the separation of dark matter and baryonic matter, and the second part will be the formation of the inhomogeneous structures in our observable universe.
1.2.1. The Separation of Baryonic Matter and Dark Matter

Dark matter has been detected only indirectly by means of its gravitational effects astronomically. Dark matter as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) has not been detected directly on the earth 28. The previous section proposes that the absence of the direct detection of dark matter on the earth is due to the incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter, analogous to incompatible water and oil. The previous papers provide the reasons for the incompatibility and the mass ratio (6 to 1) of dark matter to baryonic matter. Basically, during the inflation before the big bang, dark matter, baryonic matter, cosmic radiation, and the gauge force fields are generated. There are six types of dark matter with the “mass dimensions’ from 5 to 10, while baryonic matter has the mass dimension of 4. As a result, the mass ratio is 6 to 1 as observed. Without electromagnetism, dark matter cannot emit light, and is incompatible to baryonic matter. Like oil, dark matter is completely non-polar. The common link between baryonic matter and dark matter is the cosmic radiation resulted from the annihilation of matter and antimatter from both baryonic matter and dark matter. With the high concentration of cosmic radiation at the beginning of the big bang, baryonic matter and dark matter are completely compatible. As the universe ages and expands, the concentration of cosmic concentration decreases, resulting in the
31

increasing incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter until the incompatibility reaches to the maximum value with low concentration of cosmic radiation. The incompatibility is expressed in the form of the repulsive MOND (modified Newtonian dynamics) force field. MOND 29 proposes the deviation from the Newtonian dynamics in the low acceleration region in the outer region of a galaxy. This paper proposes the MOND forces in the interface between the baryonic matter region and the dark matter region 30 . In the interface, the same matter materials attract as the conventional attractive MOND force, and the different matter materials repulse as the repulsive MOND force between baryonic matter and dark matter.

Baryonic matter region (Newtonian regime) a >> a , a = a Interface (MOND regime) ai << a0 , ai = (aNa0)1/2 Dark matter region (Newtonian regime) Figure 6: the interfacial region between the baryonic and the dark matter regions
In Figure 6, the inner part is the baryonic matter region, the middle part is the interface, and the outer part is the dark matter region. The MOND forces in the interface are the interfacial attractive force (conventional MOND force), Fi-A, among the same matter materials and the interfacial repulsive force (repulsive MOND force), Fi-R, between baryonic matter material and dark matter material. The interfacial repulsive force enhances the interfacial attractive force toward the center of gravity in terms of the interfacial acceleration, ai. The border between the baryonic matter region and the interface is defined by the acceleration constant, a0. The interfacial acceleration is less than a0. The enhancement is expressed as the square root of the product of ai and a0. In the baryonic matter region, ab is greater than a0, and is equal to normal Newtonian acceleration as Eq. (32).

a0 << ab, a0 >> ai ,

ab = a N in the baryonic matter region ai = a N a0 in the int erfacial region

(32)

The interfacial attractive force in the interface with the baryonic matter region is expressed as Eq. (43) where m is the mass of baryonic material in the interface.

32

F i − A = ma N
=m

a i2 , a0

(33)

The comparison of the interfacial attractive force, Fi-A, and the non-existing interfacial Newtonian attractive force, Fi-Newton in the interface is as Eqs. (34), (35), and (36), where G is the gravitation constant, M is the mass of the baryonic material, and r the distance between the gravitational center and the material in the infacial region.

F i− A =

GMm r2 =m

a2 , a0

(34)

F i − Newton =

GMm r2 = ma

ai =

GMa0 r GM ai− Newron = 2 , r

(35)

m GMa0 r mGM Fi− Newron = , r2 Fi− A =

(36)

The interfacial attractive force decays with r, while the interfacial Newtonian force decays with r2. Therefore, in the interface when a0 >> ai, with sufficient dark matter, the interfacial repulsive force, Fi-R, is the difference between the interfacial attractive force and the interfacial Newtonian force as Eq. (37).

a0 >> ai , in the int erfacial region Fi− R = Fi− A − Fi− Newton = m( GMa0 GM − 2 ) r r
(37)

The same interfacial attractive force and the interfacial repulsive force also occur for dark matter in the opposite direction. Thus, the repulsive MOND force filed results in the separation of baryonic matter and dark matter.

33

The acceleration constant, a0, represents the maximum acceleration constant for the maximum incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter. The common link between baryonic matter and dark matter is cosmic radiation resulted from the annihilation of matter and antimatter from both baryonic matter and dark matter. With the high concentration of cosmic radiation at the big bang, baryonic matter and dark matter are completely compatible. As the universe ages and expands, the concentration of cosmic concentration decreases, resulting in the increasing incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter. The incompatibility reaches maximum when the concentration of cosmic radiation becomes is too low for the compatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter. Therefore, for the early universe before the formation of galaxy when the concentration of cosmic radiation is still high, the time-dependent Eq. (32) is as Eq. (38).

ai =

a N a0t for t0 ≥ t , t0

(38)

where t is the age of the universe, and t0 is the age of the universe to reach the maximum incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter. The distance, r0, from the center to the border of the interface is as Eq. (39). r0 = GM/a 0 (39)

In the early universe, r0 decreases with the age of the universe as Eq. (40).

r0

=

GMt 0 a 0t

(40)

The decreases in r0 leads to the increase in the interface where the interfacial forces exist. The interfacial forces also increase with time.

a0 >> ai , in the int erfacial region Fi− R = Fi− A − Fi− Newton = m( GMa0t / t0 GM − 2 ) r r
(41)

To minimize the interface and the interfacial forces, the same matter materials increasingly come together to form the matter droplets separating from the different matter materials. The increasing formation of the matter droplets with increasing incompatibility is similar to the increasing formation of oil droplets with increasing incompatibility between oil and water. Since there are more dark matter materials than baryonic matter materials, most of the matter droplets are baryonic droplets surrounded by dark matter materials. The early universe is characterized by the increases in the size and the number of the matter droplets due to the increasing incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter.

34

1.2.2 The Formation of the Inhomogeneous Structures

The Inflationary Universe scenario 31 provides possible solutions of the horizon, flatness and formation of structure problems. In the standard inflation theory, quantum fluctuations during the inflation are stretched exponentially so that they can become the seeds for the formation of inhomogeneous structure such as galaxies and galaxy clusters. This paper posits that the inhomogeneous structure comes from both quantum fluctuations during the inflation and the repulsive MOND force between baryonic matter and dark matter after the inflation. As mentioned in the previous section, the increasing repulsive MOND force field with the increasing incompatibility in the early universe results in the increase in the size and number of the matter droplets. For the first few hundred thousand years after the Big Bang (which took place about 13.7 billion years ago), the universe was a hot, murky mess, with no light radiating out. Because there is no residual light from that early epoch, scientists can't observe any traces of it. But about 400,000 years after the Big Bang, temperatures in the universe cooled, electrons and protons joined to form neutral hydrogen as the recombination. The inhomogeneous structure as the baryonic droplets by the incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter is observed 32 as anisotropies in CMB (cosmic microwave background). As the universe expanded after the time of recombination, the density of cosmic radiation decreases, and the size of the baryonic droplets increased with the increasing incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter. The growth of the baryonic droplet by the increasing incompatibility from the cosmic expansion coincided with the growth of the baryonic droplet by gravitational instability from the cosmic expansion. The pre-galactic universe consisted of the growing baryonic droplets surrounded by the dark matter halos, which connected among one another in the form of filaments and voids. These dark matter domains later became the dark matter halos, and the baryonic droplets became galaxies, clusters, and superclusters. When there were many baryonic droplets, the merger among the baryonic droplets became another mechanism to increase the droplet size and mass. When three or more homogeneous baryonic droplets merged together, dark matter was likely trapped in the merged droplet (C, D, E, and F in Fig. 10). The droplet with trapped dark matter inside is the heterogeneous baryonic droplet, while the droplet without trapped dark matter inside is the homogeneous baryonic droplet.

A

B

C

D

E

F

Fig. 10: the homogeneous baryonic droplets (A, and B), and the heterogeneous baryonic droplets (C, D, E, and F)

In the heterogeneous droplets C, D, E, and F, dark matter was trapped in the cores of the baryonic droplets. Because of the prevalence of dark matter, almost all baryonic

35

droplets were the heterogeneous droplets. There were the dark matter core, the baryonic matter shell, and the dark matter halo around the baryonic droplet, resulting in two repulsive forces as the pressures between the dark matter core and the baryonic matter shell and between the baryonic shell and the dark matter halo. In the equilibrium state, the internal pressure between the dark matter core and the baryonic matter shell was same as the external pressure between the baryonic shell and the dark matter halo. When the temperature dropped to ~ 1000°K, some hydrogen atoms in the droplet paired up to create the primordial molecular layers. Molecular hydrogen cooled the primordial molecular layers by emitting infrared radiation after collision with atomic hydrogen. Eventually, the temperature of the molecular layers dropped to around 200 to 300°K, reducing the gas pressure and allowing the molecular layers to continue contracting into gravitationally bound dense primordial molecular clouds. The diameters of the primordial could be up to 100 light-years with the masses of up to 6 million solar masses. Most of baryonic droplets contained thousands of the primordial molecular clouds. The formation of the primordial molecular clouds created the gap in the baryonic matter shell. The gap allowed the dark matter in the dark matter core to leak out, resulting in a tunnel between the dark matter core and the external dark matter halo. The continuous leaking of the dark matter expanded the tunnel. Consequently, the dark matter in the dark matter core rushed out of the dark matter core, resulting in the “big eruption”. The ejection of the dark matter from the dark matter core reduced the internal pressure between the dark matter core and the baryonic matter shell. The external pressure between the baryonic matter shell and the dark matter halo caused the collapse of the baryonic droplet. The collapse of the baryonic droplet is like the collapse of a balloon as the air (as dark matter) moves out the balloon. The collapse of the baryonic droplet forced the head-on collisions of the primordial molecular clouds in the baryonic matter shell. In the center of the collapsed baryonic droplet, the head-on collisions of the primordial molecular clouds generated the shock wave as the turbulence in the collided primordial molecular clouds. The turbulence triggered the collapse of the core of the primordial cloud. The core fragmented into multiple stellar embryos, in each a protostar nucleated and pulled in gas. Without the heavy elements to dissipate heat, the mass of the primordial protostar was 500 to 1,000 solar masses at about 200°K. The primordial protostar shrank in size, increased in density, and became the primordial massive star when nuclear fusion began in its core. The massive primordial star formation is as follows.
combinatio n incompatib le dark matter and baryonic matter  → homogeneou s baryonic droplets      →heterogene ous the cooling eruption , collapse , and collision baryonic droplet      → molecular clouds in baryonic matter shell              →   nuclear fusion protostar       → massive primordial star

The intense UV radiation from the high surface temperature of the massive primordial stars started the reionization effectively, and also triggered further star formation. The massive primordial stars were short-lived (few million years old). The explosion of the massive primordial stars was the massive supernova that caused reionization and triggered star formation. The heavy elements generated during the primordial star formation scattered throughout the space. The dissipation of heat by heavy elements allowed the normal rather than massive star formation. With many ways to trigger star formation, the rate of star formation increased rapidly. The big eruption

36

that initiated the star formation started to occur about 400 million years after the big bang, and the reionization started to occur soon after. The rate of star formation peaked about 2 billion years after the big bang33. Since the head-on collision of the molecular clouds took place at the center of the collapsed baryonic droplet, the star formation started in the center of the collapsed baryonic droplet. With other ways to trigger star formation, the star formation propagated away from the center. The star formation started from the center from which the star formation propagated, so the primordial galaxies appeared to be small surrounded by the large hydrogen blobs. The surrounding large hydrogen blobs corresponds to the observed Lyman alpha blobs of Lyman alpha (Lya) emission by hydrogen, which have been discovered in the vicinity of galaxies at early cosmic times. The amount of hydrogen in the blobs was also increased by the incoming abundant intergalactic hydrogen. The repulsive dark matter halos prevented the hydrogen gas inside from escaping from the galaxies. Dijkstra and Loeb 34 posited that the early galaxies grew quickly by the cold accretion mode from the observed Lyman alpha blobs. The growth by the merger of galaxies was too slow for the observed fast growth of the early galaxies. If there was small dark matter core as in the heterogeneous baryonic droplet (C in Figure 10), the big eruption took relatively short time to cause the collapse of the baryonic droplet. The change in the shape of the baryonic droplet after the collapse was relatively minor. The collapse results in elliptical shape in E0 to E7 elliptical galaxies, whose lengths of major axes are proportional to the relative sizes of the dark matter core. Because of the short time for the collapse of the baryonic droplet, the star formation by the collapse occurred quickly at the center.

ejection of dark matter

collapse

Most of the primordial stars merged to form the supermassive center, resulting in the quasar galaxies. Such first quasar galaxies that occurred as early as z = 6.28 were observed to have about the same sizes as the Milky Way35. This formation of galaxy follows the monolithic collapse model in which baryonic gas in galaxies collapses to form stars within a very short period, so there are small numbers of observed young stars in elliptical galaxies. Elliptical galaxies continue to grow slowly as the universe expands. If the size of the dark matter core is medium (D in Fig. 10), the collapse of the baryonic droplet caused a large change in shape, resulting in the rapidly rotating disk as spiral galaxy. The rapidly rotating disk underwent differential rotation with the increasing angular speeds toward the center. After few rotations, the structure consisted of a bungle was formed and the attached spiral arms as spiral galaxy as Fig. 11.

ejection of dark matter

collapse

differential rotation

37

Fig. 11: the formation of spiral galaxy

The spiral galaxy took longer time to erupt and collapse than the elliptical galaxy, so the star formation was later than elliptical galaxy. Because of the large size of the dark matter core, the density of the primordial molecular clouds was lower than elliptical galaxy, so the rate of star formation in spiral galaxy is slower than elliptical galaxy. During the collapse of the baryonic droplet, some primordial molecular clouds moved away to form globular clusters near the main group of the primordial molecular clouds. Most of the primordial massive stars merged to form the supermassive center. The merge of spiral galaxies with comparable sizes destroys the disk shape, so most spiral galaxies are not merged galaxies. When two dark matter cores inside far apart from each other (E in Fig. 10) generated two openings in opposite sides of the droplet, the dark matter could eject from both openings. The two opening is equivalent to the overlapping of two ellipses, resulting in the thick middle part, resulting in the star formation in the thick middle part and the formation of barred spiral galaxy. The differential rotation is similar to that of spiral galaxy as Fig. 12.

ejection of dark matter

collapse

differential rotation

Fig. 12: the formation of barred spiral galaxy

As in normal spiral galaxy, the length of the spiral arm depends on the size of the dark matter core. The smallest dark matter core for barred spiral galaxy brings about SBa, and the largest dark matter core brings about SBd. The stars form in the low-density spiral arms much later than in the nucleus, so they are many young stars in the spiral arms. In barred spiral galaxy, because of the larger dark matter core area than normal spiral galaxy, the star formation occurred later than normal spiral galaxy, and the rate of star formation was slower than normal spiral galaxy. If the size of the dark matter core was large (F in Fig. 10), the eruption of the dark matter in the dark matter core occurred easily in multiple places. The baryonic matter shell became fragmented, resulting in irregular galaxy. The turbulence from the collapse of the baryonic droplet was weak, and the density of the primordial molecular clouds was low, so the rate of star formation was slow. The star formation continues in a slow rate up to the present time. At the end of the big eruption, vast majority of baryonic matter was primordial free baryonic matter resided in dark matter outside of the galaxies from the big eruption. This free baryonic matter constituted the intergalactic medium (IGM). Stellar winds, supernova winds, and quasars provide heat and heavy elements to the IGM as ionized baryonic atoms. The heat prevented the formation of the baryonic droplet in the IGM.

38

Galaxies merged into new large galaxies, such as giant elliptical galaxy and cD galaxy (z > 1-2). Similar to the transient molecular cloud formation from the ISM (interstellar medium) through turbulence, the tidal debris and turbulence from the mergers generated the numerous transient molecular regions, which located in a broad area 36. The incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter transformed these transient molecular regions into the stable second-generation baryonic droplets surrounded by the dark matter halos. The baryonic droplets had much higher fraction of hydrogen molecules, much lower fraction of dark matter, higher density, and lower temperature, and lower entropy than the surrounding. During this period, the acceleration constant reached to the maximum value with the maximum incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter. The growth of the baryonic droplets did not depend on the increasing incompatibility. The growth of the baryonic droplets depended on the turbulences that carried IGM to the baryonic droplets. The rapid growth of the baryonic droplets drew large amount of the surrounding IGM inward, generating the IGM flow shown as the cooling flow. The IGM flow induced the galaxy flow. The IGM flow and the galaxy flow moved toward the merged galaxies, resulting in the protocluster (z ~ 0.5) with the merged galaxies as the cluster center. Before the protocluster stage, spirals grew normally and passively by absorbing gas from the IGM as the universe expanded. During the protoculster stage (z ~ 0.5), the massive IGM flow injected a large amount of gas into the spirals that joined in the galaxy flow. Most of the injected hot gas passed through the spiral arms and settled in the bungle parts of the spirals. Such surges of gas absorption from the IGM flow resulted in major starbursts (z ~ 0.4) 37. Meanwhile, the nearby baryonic droplets continued to draw the IGM, and the IGM flow and the galaxy flow continued. The results were the formation of high-density region, where the galaxies and the baryonic droplets competed for the IGM as the gas reservoir. Eventually, the maturity of the baryonic droplets caused a decrease in drawing the IGM inward, resulting in the slow IGM flow. Subsequently, the depleted gas reservoir could not support the major starbursts (z ~ 0.3). The galaxy harassment and the mergers in this high-density region disrupted the spiral arms of spirals, resulting in S0 galaxies with indistinct spiral arms (z ~ 0.1 – 0.25). The transformation process of spirals into S0 galaxies started at the core first, and moved to the outside of the core. Thus, the fraction of spirals decreases with decreasing distance from the cluster center. The static and slow-moving second-generation baryonic droplets turned into dwarf elliptical galaxies and globular clusters. The fast moving second-generation baryonic droplets formed the second-generation baryonic stream, which underwent a differential rotation to minimize the interfacial area between the baryonic matter and dark matter. The result is the formation of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCD), such as NGC 2915 with very extended spiral arms. Since the star formation is steady and slow, so the stars formed in BCD are new. The galaxies formed during z < 0.1-0.2 are mostly metal-rich tidal dwarf galaxies (TDG) from tidal tails torn out from interacting galaxies. In some cases, the tidal tail and the baryonic droplet merge to generate the starbursts with higher fraction of molecule than the TDG formed by tidal tail alone 38.

39

When the interactions among large galaxies were mild, the mild turbulence caused the formation of few molecular regions, which located in narrow area close to the large galaxies. Such few molecular regions resulted in few baryonic droplets, producing weak IGM flow and galaxy flow. The result is the formation of galaxy group, such as the Local Group, which has fewer dwarf galaxies and lower density environment than cluster. Clusters merged to generate tidal debris and turbulence, producing the baryonic droplets, the ICM (intra-cluster medium) flow, and the cluster flow. The ICM flow and the cluster flow directed toward the merger areas among clusters and particularly the rich clusters with high numbers of galaxies. The ICM flow is shown as the warm filaments outside of cluster 39 . The dominant structural elements in superclusters are single or multi-branching filaments 40. The cluster flow is shown by the tendency of the major axes of clusters to point toward neighboring clusters 41 . Eventually, the observable expanding universe will consist of giant voids and superclusters surrounded by the dark matter halos. In summary, the whole observable expanding universe is as one unit of emulsion with incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter. The five periods of baryonic structure development are the free baryonic matter, the baryonic droplet, the galaxy, cluster, and the supercluster periods as Fig. 10. The first-generation galaxies are elliptical, normal spiral, barred spiral, irregular, and dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The second-generation galaxies are giant ellipticals, cD, evolved S0, dwarf ellipticals, BCD, and TDG. The universe now is in the early part of the supercluster period. baryonic droplets the firstgeneration galaxies IGM galaxy clusters with the secondgeneration galaxies ICM cluster superclusters

baryonic matter expansion

cosmic

big

free baryonic eruption matter pre-galactic

merge r

merge superclusters

beginning

Fig. 10: the five levels of baryonic structure in the universe 1.2.3. Summary

The second day involves the separation of waters from above and below the expanse in Genesis, corresponding to the separation of dark matter and baryonic matter from above and below the interface between dark matter and baryonic matter for the formation of galaxies in Genesis Cosmology. The force involved is MOND (modified Newtonian dynamics). It is proposed that the MOND forces in the interface between the baryonic matter region and the dark matter region. In the interface, the same matter materials attract as the conventional attractive MOND force, and the different matter materials repulse as the repulsive MOND force between baryonic matter and dark matter. The source of the repulsive MOND force field is the incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter, like water and oil. The incompatibility does not allow the direct detection of dark matter. Typically, dark matter halo surrounds baryonic galaxy. The

40

repulsive MOND force between baryonic matter and dark matter enhances the attractive MOND force of baryonic matter in the interface toward the center of gravity of baryonic matter. The enhancement of the low acceleration in the interface is by the acceleration constant, a0, which defines the border of the interface and the factor of the enhancement. The enhancement of the low gravity in the interface is by the decrease of gravity with the distant rather than the square of distance as in the normal Newtonian gravity. The repulsive MOND force is the difference between the attractive MOND force and the nonexisting interfacial Newtonian force. The repulsive MOND force field results in the separation and the repulsive force between baryonic matter and dark matter. The repulsive MOND force field explains the evolution of the inhomogeneous baryonic structures in the universe. Both baryonic matter and dark matter are compatible with cosmic radiation, so in the early universe, the incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter increases with decreasing cosmic radiation and the increasing age of the universe until reaching the maximum incompatibility. The repulsive MOND force field with the increasing incompatibility results in the growth of the baryonic matter droplets. The three periods for the baryonic structure development in the early universe are the free baryonic matter, the baryonic droplet, and the galaxy. The transition to the baryonic droplet generates density perturbation in the CMB. In the galaxy period, the first-generation galaxies include elliptical, normal spiral, barred spiral, irregular, and dwarf spheroidal galaxies. After reaching the maximum incompatibility, the growth of the baryonic droplets depends on the turbulence, resulting in the baryonic structure development of the cluster and the supercluster. In the cluster period, the second-generation galaxies include modified giant ellipticals, cD, evolved S0, dwarf elliptical, BCD, and tidal dwarf galaxies. The whole observable expanding universe behaves as one unit of emulsion with incompatibility between baryonic matter and dark matter through the repulsive MOND force field.
1. 3. The Third Day: the star formation

Scripture

In Genesis, the third day involves the separation of sea and land where organisms appeared, corresponding to the separation of interstellar medium and star with planet where organisms were developed in Genesis Cosmology. The original Genesis 9 And God said, "Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry ground appear." And it was so. 10 God called the dry ground "land," and the gathered waters he called "seas." And God saw that it was good. 11 Then God
41

said, "Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds." And it was so. 12 The land produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening, and there was morning—the third day. The Universal Genesis 9 And God said, "Let baryonic matter under the sky be gathered to one place, and let the highly dense baryonic matter appear." And it was so. 10 God called the highly dense baryonic matter "star," and the dilute baryonic matter he called "interstellar medium". And God saw that it was good. 11 Then God said, "Let the star with planets produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds." And it was so. 12 The star with planets produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good. 13 And there was the third period.
Introduction

The third day involves the separation of sea and land where organisms appeared in Genesis, corresponding to the separation of interstellar medium and star with planet where organisms were developed in Genesis Cosmology. The third day is for the formation of stars with planets in general. Under the normal condition, stars and planets are developed under the normal force fields as discussed in the first section below. Under extreme condition such as near zero absolute temperature or extremely high pressure, superconductivity and the alternative for black hole appear under the extreme force field as discussed in the second section below.
1.3.1 The Star Formation under the Normal Force Fields

About 300,000 years after the Big Bang, the universe remained an enormous cloud of hot expanding gas. When this gas had cooled to a critical threshold, neutral molecules by the combination of electrons and hydrogen and helium nuclei started to form. It contained slight irregularities. The pull of gravity exerted its influence to amplify the slight irregularities, resulting in pockets of gas. As the universe expanded, pockets of gas became more and more dense, forming proto-stars. During this period, the universe was quite dark until about one billion years after the Big Bang, stars ignited within these pockets. Groups of stars then became the earliest galaxies. Once the star-making machinery got going it seems to have generated stars at a prodigious rate. From one billion to three billion years after the big bang many galaxies resembling spirals and elliptical galaxies started to form. Often black hole alternatives (gravastars) were formed. The gas falling into these black hole alternatives (gravastars) became hot enough to glow brightly before it disappeared. Such galaxies are quasars. The ultraviolet light from the falling gas changed the gas (hydrogen and helium) from a neutral state to a nearly fully ionized one. This was the era of reionization. About three billion years after the big bang, the era of quasars ended. According to current model of star formation, cores of molecular clouds become gravitationally unstable, and begin to collapse through the influences of some turbulence. When the density and

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temperature are high enough, deuterium fusion ignition occurs. This is the model for the star formation under normal force fields. The formation of stars with planets allows the formation of organism.
1.3.2. The Extreme Force Fields

Under extreme conditions such as the absolute zero temperature or extremely high pressure, binary lattice space for a gauge force field undergoes a phase transition to become binary partition space for the extreme force fields 3, 7. At zero temperature or extremely high pressure, binary lattice space for a gauge force field undergoes a quantum space phase transition to become binary partition space. In binary partition space, detachment space and attachment space are in two separate continuous regions as follows.
k ( 14 )m + ∑ (( 0 4 )( 14 ))n, k k =1

  → 

( 14 )m +


k =1

k

( 0 4 ) ( 14 )
n,k

n ,k

particle

boson field in binary lattice space

hedge particle hedge boson field in binary partition space

(42)

The force field in binary lattice space is gauge boson force field, the force field in binary partition space is denoted as “hedge boson force field”. The detachment space in hedge boson field is the vacuum core, while hedge bosons attached to attachment space form the hedge boson shell. Gauge boson force field has no boundary, while the attachment space in the binary partition space acts as the boundary for hedge boson force field. Hedge boson field is like a bubble with core vacuum surrounded by membrane where hedge bosons locate. The overlapping (connection) of two hedge bosons from two different sites results in “hedge bond”. The product is “hedge molecule”. An example of hedge molecule is Cooper pair, consisting of two electrons linked by hedge bond. Another example is superfluid, consisting of molecules linked by hedge bonds. Hedge bonds can be also formed among the sites in a lattice, resulting in hedge lattice. Hedge lattice is superconductor. Hedge boson force is incompatible to gauge boson force field. The incompatibility of hedge boson force field and gauge boson force field manifests in the Meissner effect, where superconductor (hedge lattice) repels external magnetism. The energy (stiffness) of hedge boson force field can be determined by the penetration of boson force field into hedge boson force field as expressed by the London equation for the Meissner effect. ∇ 2 H = − λ− 2 H , (43)
where H is an external boson field and λ is the depth of the penetration of magnetism into hedge boson shell. This equation indicates that the external boson field decays exponentially as it penetrate into hedge boson force field. Under extreme conditions, such as the zero temperature and extremely high pressure, the extreme force fields as hedge boson force fields form. The formation of the

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hedge molecule (the Cooper pair) and the hedge lattice provides the mechanism for the phase transition to superconductivity, while the formation of hedge atom with electronhedge boson provides the mechanism for the phase transition to the fractional quantum Hall effect. The formation of the hedge gluon force field provides the mechanism for the phase transition to gravastar (the true form of black hole) from a collapsing star. Gravastar consists of the lepton composite-hedge gluon force field core and the matter shell. Unlike black holes, gravastars continue to appear as neutron stars and the sources for gamma ray bursts. Neutron star is a remnant gravastar after the explosion (supernova) of a large gravastar. A supermassive gravastar with cracks undergoes the “volcano eruption” as gamma ray bursts.
1.4. Summary

Genesis Cosmology is the cosmology model based on the interpretive description of the first three days in Genesis. Genesis Cosmology is based on the unified theory that unifies various phenomena in our universe. In Genesis, the first day involves the emergence of the separation of light and darkness from the formless, empty, dark, and deep preuniverse, corresponding to the emergence of the light universe and the dark universe from the simple and dark pre-universe with deep vacuum energy in Genesis Cosmology. All universes are governed by the two physical structures. Different universes are the different expressions of the same two physical structures. The two physical structures are the space structure and the object structure. Relating to rest mass, attachment space attaches to object permanently with zero speed or reversibly at the speed of light. Relating to kinetic energy, detachment space irreversibly detaches from the object at the speed of light. In our observable universe, the space structure consists of three different combinations of attachment space and detachment space. The space structure consists of the three different combinations of attachment space and detachment space, describing three different phenomena: quantum mechanics, special relativity, and the extreme force fields. The object structure consists of 11D membrane (311), 10D string (210), variable D particle (14 to 10), and empty object (04 to 11). The space structure includes attachment space (1) and detachment space (0). The transformation among the objects is through the dimensional oscillation that involves the oscillation between high dimensional space-time with high vacuum energy and low dimensional space-time with low vacuum energy. Our observable universe with 4D space-time has zero vacuum energy. In the beginning, the static multiverse background consists of 11D membranes with the Planck energy vacuum energy and only the strong force field. For our universe, gravity appears in the first dimensional oscillation between the 11 D membrane and the 10 D string. The asymmetrical weak force appears in the asymmetrical second dimensional oscillation between the 10D particle and the 4D particle. Electromagnetism appears as the force in the transition between the first and the second dimensional oscillations. The asymmetrical dimensional oscillations result in the asymmetrical dual universe: the light universe with light and kinetic energy and the dark universe without light and kinetic energy. The asymmetrical dimensional oscillation is manifested as the asymmetrical weak force field. The formation of the observable light involves detachment space that allows the immediate transformation from 10D to 4D, resulting in

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the inflation described by the quintom model. The formation of the dark universe does not involve detachment space. It is a gradual dimensional oscillation between 10D and 4D, resulting in sometimes hidden and sometimes observable as dark energy. For baryonic matter, the incorporation of detachment space for baryonic matter brings about “the dimensional orbitals” as the base for the periodic table of elementary particles for all leptons, quarks, and gauge bosons. The differences in dimensional orbitals result in incompatible dark matter and baryonic matter. The second day involves the separation of waters from above and below the expanse in Genesis, corresponding to the separation of dark matter and baryonic matter from above and below the interface between dark matter and baryonic matter for the formation of galaxies in Genesis Cosmology. The MOND force exists in the interface between dark matter and baryonic matter to separate dark and baryonic matter, resulting in the inhomogeneous structures in the observable universe. The third day involves the separation of sea and land where organisms appeared in Genesis, corresponding to the separation of interstellar medium and star with planet where organisms were developed in Genesis Cosmology. Under the normal condition, stars and planets are developed. Under extreme conditions, such as the zero temperature and extremely high pressure, the extreme force fields as hedge boson force fields form. The first three days in Genesis constitute Genesis Cosmology. Genesis Cosmology provides the base for the unified theory of physics.

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2. The Original Humans: the sixth day in Genesis

Scripture

On the sixth day (Genesis 1: 24-31), God created humans as the image of God. And God said, "Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: livestock, creatures that move along the ground, and wild animals, each according to its kind." And it was so. God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the livestock according to their kinds, and all the creatures that move along the ground according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good. Then God said, "Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground." So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. God blessed them and said to them, "Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air and over every living creature that moves on the ground." Then God said, "I give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the whole earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food. And to all the beasts of the earth and all the birds of the air and all the creatures that move on the ground—everything that has the breath of life in it—I give every green plant for food." And it was so. God saw all that he had made, and it was very good. And there was evening, and there was morning—the sixth day. (Genesis 1:24-31)
Introduction

In the Bible, God created humans twice. The first time is in Chapter 1 of Genesis. “So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. (Genesis 1:27)” The second time is in Chapter 2 of Genesis. “The LORD God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being. Now the LORD God had planted a garden in the east, in Eden; and there he put the man he had formed. (Genesis 2: 7-8)” The original humans that God created were the original humans. The way God created the original human was like the way God created everything else. In the second time, the way that God created humans was special. God directly interacted with the

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human by breathing nostrils the breath of life, and placed the human in the Garden of Eden. The original humans became the religious humans. This chapter deals with the original humans, and the next chapter deals with the religious humans. In the Bible, God created the original humans in God’s own image. No other creatures were created in God’s own image, so the original humans obviously were unique among all creatures. The original humans were unique for the harmonious social life. The three basic human social lives are yin, yang, and harmony for feminine collective wellbeing, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious connection, respectively. The harmonious social life transcends yin yang and exists only in humans. The theory of human social lives is the combination of the three popular theories, including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Big Five, and the Merrill-Reid social style theory. The theory starts with the personality system based on the brain structure and neurotransmitters. Human social lives are derived from the personality system and the instincts. Human social lives were derived from human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. During ape evolution, the harmonious social life started to emerge. During hominid evolution, the harmonious social life based on the conscience instinct was fully developed. The harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was the harmonious society.
2.1. Personality: The Social-Information Personality System

There are many personality theories. The two popular theories are the Big Five42 and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)43 derived from Carl Jung's personality type44. The five factors in the Big Five are openness to experience (appreciation for unusual ideas, imagination, and curiosity), conscientiousness (tendency to act dutifully rather spontaneously), extraversion (to seek the company of others), agreeableness (tendency to be compassionate and cooperation rather than suspicious to others), and neuroticism (a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily). These factors are also referred to as the OCEAN model of personality. MBTI includes four factors: Introvert-extrovert, sense-intuition, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceiving. The personality system matches these two popular personality theories. The proposed personality system is the social-information personality system. The two general types of personality involve the social relation type and the information process type. Human is a social animal, so the social relation type deals with the two different types of social relation. The human brain also processes information, so the information process type deals with how the human brain process information like a computer. There are four different factors in the information process type. These four factors correspond approximately to the four factors in MBTI. These four factors in additional to the social type correspond the five factors in the Big Five.
2.1.1. The Social Relation Type Social Relation Personality system Personality Type (MBTI) The Big Five

Commitment High Bonding relation (B) Low Free relation (F)

Agreeable (A)

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Sociability is a function of all social animals. Committed sociability is bonding relation (denoted as B), while non-committed sociability is free relation (denoted as F). The most famous experiment to distinguish bonding relation and free relation was done by Insel and Winslow45. They looked at two closely related but have different social organization: the prairie vole with strong male-female pair bonding and the montane vole, which is promiscuous without strong bonding male-female pair bonding. They found that oxytocin (a hormone) attaches to receptors in reward-related areas of the brain in the pairbonding prairie vole but not in the non-bonding montane vole. When prairie voles intercourse, two hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin, are released. If the release of these hormones is blocked, prairie voles become like montane voles. An injection of the hormones can invoke pair bonding without intercourse. Oxytocin sometimes is called “cuddle chemical” that builds bonds between mates, mother-child, and social members. Oxytocin and vasopressin are complementary in such way that oxytocin processes reward and vasopressin processes focus attention to the individuals for the bonding. Vasopressin is responsible for creating intense loving memories during passionate situations. Edorphin is a social neurotransmitter that response to touch and pleasing visual stimulus (such as smile). According the study by Pollack46 and his colleagues, infants raised in the uncaring environment of some Eastern European orphanages ended up with a long-lasting deficit in oxytocin and vasopressin. The deficits in oxytocin and vasopressin persisted even after the children were removed from the orphanages and placed with loving and stable families, resulting in the difficulties in forming social bonds. Bonding relates to empathy and trust. Like bonding, empathy and trust increase with oxytocin. Before committed social bonding, empathy is required to start social bonding. It was found that oxytocin helps empathy47 in terms of reading the mind of others. The maintenance of bond requires trust. Trust has relaxed emotion and malleable cognition. Thus, bonding relation (B) has relaxed emotion and malleable cognition. Oxytocin was found by Kosfeld to increase trust 48 , and by Light to decrease blood pressure 49 . Distrust, on the contrary, has heightened emotion and narrow cognition. Thus, free relation (F) has heightened emotion and narrow cognition. Committed and non-committed relation can be pleasurable, but only committed relation has trust in terms of relaxed emotion and malleable cognition. A genetic example of free relation is autism, which has genetic impairment in forming social bonding. The people with autism have heightened emotion and narrow cognition. It was found that individuals with autism have lower level of oxytocin50. A genetic example of bonding relation is Williams Syndrome, which has genetic impairment to process visual–spatial information for independent living, but has unusually cheerful talkative demeanor and ease with strangers. Individuals with Williams Syndrome, however, have higher amount of fear with non-social encounter, and poor performance in non-social information, such as drawing. According to Simon Baron-Cohen51, the essential difference between the female brain and the male brain is that the average female brain favors slightly empathy, and the average male brain favors slightly in non-social information. Instead of social contact, the average male brain finds pleasure in systematizing non-social information. The overlapping of the male brain and the female brain is significant.

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2.1.2. The Information Process Type

In the information process type, the human mind is like computer. The human mind or computer is to process information, which can be compared with the personality types from Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) derived from Carl Jung's personality type. The combination of the information process type and the social information type can be compared with the Big Five personality model. Four important functions in the information process in human mind or computer are admission (the selection of the input data), resolution (the details of data), action (the format of the process program), and openness (the updating of the process program). In each of the process functions, there are two levels: high and low. These the information process types then are compared with the personality types from Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) derived from Carl Jung's personality type. The following table lists the information process type and its comparison with MBTI personality types. The information process type
Information Function Admission Resolution Action Openness Process The information process type High Low High Low High Low High Low Sensitivity (S) assertiveness (A) distinctness (D) Network (N) goal (G) context (C) Updating (U) Persistence (P) Personality Type (MBTI) introvert (I) extrovert (N) sense (S) intuition (N) thinking (T) feeling (F) perceiving (P) judging (J)

2.1.2.1. Admission: Sensitivity and Assertiveness Information Process Personality system Personality Type (MBTI) The Big Five

Admission

High Low

Sensitivity (S) Assertiveness (A)

introvert (I) extrovert (N)

Extrovert (E)

The admission of each set of input data can be high or low. In computer, program is written to recognize and admit a part of each set of input data. If every detail in a set of input data is important, the admission of data is high. In this case, under limited computer capacity, only few sets of data can be accepted. In the human mind, the perceived degree of harm determines the degree of admission. The high perceived degree of harm leads to the importance of every detail in a set of data, resulting in sensitivity (represented by S). The low perceived degree of harm leads to the importance of only few details, resulting in assertiveness (represented by A). The person of assertiveness has a low dose of stimulus for each encounter of stimulation source. The person of sensitivity has high dose of stimulus for each encounter of stimulation source. To maintain an optimal level of stimulation, the person

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of assertiveness requires numerous sources of stimulation sources. According to H. J. Eysenck 52, extroverts have persistently low cortical arousal and seek stimulation. The personality of assertiveness therefore is the personality of extrovert as described in MBTI and by Eysenck. On the other hand, the personality of sensitivity is introvert in MBTI. Introverts have persistently high arousal and avoid stimulation. Admission is like the gate for the entry of incoming information. It is the first reaction to the incoming information by opening or closing the gate. It is also the last reaction to the incoming information by closing the gate. Processing information requires energy and space, so it is necessary to keep incoming information minimum, just enough only for survival and reproduction. When survival and reproduction is secure, the admission of information can be low that leads to assertive. On the other hand, when survival and reproduction is insecure, the admission of information is high that leads to sensitivity. Therefore, security is the condition for assertiveness, and insecurity is the condition for sensitivity. Personality type is an adaptation to certain conditions during evolution and during personal development. Personality type that we were born with is an adaptation to certain conditions by our ancestors. Personality type that we develop later in life is an adaptation to certain condition we encounter. For human who is capable of the integration of various events, condition can also be belief system, a central theme for the past, the current, and the future events. In some cases, a new belief system can completely replace an actual condition. Under different conditions (belief systems), different behaviors appear. The behaviors resulted from normal and excessive conditions are normal and excessive behaviors. . Under the condition of insecurity for sensitivity, the normal behavior is association, incorporating stimuli as a part of experience. Under extreme condition of insecurity, the extreme behavior is freezing, a behavior of total avoidance. Under the condition of security for assertiveness, the normal behavior is disregard, excluding input information. Under condition of extreme security, the extreme behavior is inactivity, complete disregard. The personality in terms of social inhibition for a child older than 10 months can be predicted by the behavior of the child before four months old53. Four-months-olds who cry, fuss, or fret often in response to a novel stimulus, such as a brightly colored mobile or a whiff of an alcohol swab, are more likely end up being socially inhibited. This shows that a baby who has an especially low threshold for activation ends up being introvert. The behavior is facilitated by neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters facilitate communication between neurons (nerve cells). Different neurotransmitters enhance different personality types. Serotonin (5-HT) enhances the assertiveness type. The effect of serotonin is aided by drugs such as SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). This drug was popularized in the book, “Listening to Prozac” by Peter D. Kramer 54. It minimizes impulses and obsession, such as social fear shyness and eating disorders, because it decouples association from previous association learning. If excessive amount of serotonin is in the brain, the brain can become too selective, expressing as repetition or inactivity. This excessive behavior of assertiveness is different from the normal behavior, disregard.

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Serotonin is the oldest neurotransmitter. It is the index for perceived social security. In the study of crayfish 55, the winner in a fight between two crayfishes appears to have a higher amount of serotonin than the loser has. The winner perceives social security, while the loser perceived social insecurity. The loser has a quick response from the touch of tail, while the winner does not have this quick response. In social group of monkey, the leaders have the highest levels of serotonin reflecting the perceived security, while those on the bottom of have the lowest levels reflecting perceived insecurity. Assertiveness is more suitable strategy in a perceived secure environment to preserve energy, while sensitivity is more suitable strategy in a perceived insecure environment to enhance vigilance. Acetylcholine (Ach) is the neurotransmitter to enhance sensitivity. Acetylcholine provokes fear and withdrawal (freezing). Acetylcholine decreases in Alzheimer’s dementia, so the patient with Alzheimer’s dementia has trouble in association in terms of memory. During dream in the rapid eye movement period, there are large increase in acetylcholine, and large decrease in serotonin. It is why there is virtually free association during dream without inhibition. Such free association is necessary to reinforce the learning of association during waking. The source of Ach and 5-HT is the brain stem, the primitive part of the brain. Ach has another source near amygdala, the center for fear. They distribute widely in the brain.
2.1.2.2. Resolution: Distinctiveness and Network Information Process Resolution High Low Personality system Distinctness (D) Network (N) Personality Type (MBTI) sense (S) intuition (N) The Big Five

Consciousness (C)

When computer processes video pictures, it can have many pictures with coarse details (low resolution) or few pictures with distinct details (high resolution). The human brain has the same kind of trade-off. In some part of human brain such as the part for speech, there is distinctness with high resolution, but this part of the brain cannot cover many different areas of information at the same time. In another part of the brain, many areas of information can be covered at the same time, but distinctness is poor. The information process type with the high resolution is Distinctness (represented by D), while the information process type with low resolution and high connection is Network (represented by N). According to MBTI, a person with the personality type of sensing (represented by S) is a specialist, concerning with concrete details, facts, precision, single idea in depth, and step by step method. This sensing personality matches with the distinctness type in the information process type. According to MBTI, a person with the personality type of intuition (N) is a generalist, concerning with whole picture, speculation, many alternative ideas, and inventive ideas. The intuition type matches with the network type. Resolution is the detailed processing of information, which requires energy and space. With the same energy and space, high-resolution process can process a small picture with lots of distinctive details, while low-resolution process can process a large picture with few distinctive details. High-resolution process results in distinctiveness, and low resolution

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process leads to network. When the brain stores a number of pictures, Distinctiveness keeps maximum adjacent connections in the same picture and minimum broad connections among different pictures. Network keeps maximum broad connections among different pictures and minimum adjacent connections in the same picture. When the condition requires precision or single-minded approach, Distinctiveness is needed. Some tasks, such as fine motor movement and speech, require a series of distinctive space-time. When specific precise information is needed, the behavior is focus by inhibiting or disconnecting all other possible interference from other sources. Focus involves a specific task by a series of distinctive and small neural assembly. In multiple tasks, Network is needed to connect various tasks at the same time. The outer part of the brain is the cortex. The cortex consists of four lobes: the frontal cortex (motor cortex), parietal cortex (somatosensory cortex), temporal cortex (auditory cortex), and occipital cortex (visual cortex). The lobe other than the frontal cortex is called posterior cortex. The primary zone of the cortex receives input from the sense organs. The secondary zone receives input from the primary zone to integrate information from different primary zones. The association area receives information from the secondary zones, so it has the highest integration not only from the rest of the cortex but also from the subcortex. The frontal cortex has the largest area for the association area. It has the broadest connection to different parts of the brain. Therefore, the frontal cortex is the area for the overall distinctiveness or the excessive network involving the large areas, while the posterior cortex is the area for the specific distinctive or the normal network involving small specific areas. Mood involves overall distinctiveness and network, so the recognition of mood takes place in the frontal cortex. The cortex is divided into the left cortex and the right cortex. The left cortex, which expresses language, is the cortex for distinctness, while the right cortex, which is good in orientation, is the cortex for network56. S. H. Woodward 57 proposed the left cortex and the right cortex use different neuron connections. The cortical neurons are organized in columns. Neurons are connected vertically and horizontally. Woodward proposed that left cortex processing relies primarily on tight connections between vertical columns of neurons, whereas right cortex processing depends on weaker and longer horizontal connections. Vertical cortical circuitry provides distinctness, and horizontal cortical circuitry provides network. Woodward proposed that vertical circuitry carries inhibitory signals to the right cortex by the corpus collosum (the part dividing the right cortex and the left cortex), so the right cortex does not rely on vertical cortical circuitry. The left brain contains greater cell density and more gray nonmyelinated fibers for short distant neural messages. The right brain, in contrast, contains ore areas of "associative" with white myelinated fibers for long distant neural messages (higher integrative level)58. A number of neurotransmitters are unequally distributed in the right and left hemispheres. Dopamine is distributed more extensively in the left hemisphere. It was found that rather than signaling pleasure as previously thought, dopamine may be released by brain neurons to highlight significant stimuli 59. Significant stimuli are distinctive stimuli. Dopamine has been implicated in the controlled of fine motor movement. The patient with Parkinson’s disease, which is deficient in dopamine, cannot control fine motor movement. Excessive dopamine, on the other hand, brings about unrealistically excessive focus. The social relation affects the brain structure involving network. The bonding relation type requires extensive social network resulting the brain structure

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with extensive network. As discussed before by Simon Baron-Cohen, woman is more social relation type than man, so the female brain has more network than the male brain. It is shown in the thicker corpus collosum that connect the right brain and the left brain, more dendritic connections between brain cells, and more evenly distributed language centers in the brain for better communication. Therefore, for woman, the brain is wired more for the bonding relation type and the network type, and for man, the brain is wired more for the free relation type and the distinctiveness type. The mental disorders involving Distinctiveness and Network deal with the extreme presence or absence of Distinctiveness and Network. The extreme presence of Distinctiveness involves Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) characterized by perfectionism, orderliness, adherence to rules, exercise of control, hoarding and problems with personal relationships. The extreme absence of Distinctiveness involves diseases, such as in Parkinson’s disease.
2.1.2.3. Action: Goal and Context Information Process Action High Low Personality system Goal (G) Context (C) Personality Type (MBTI) thinking (T) feeling (F) The Big Five

Neuroticism (N)

In a computer, each information process goes through an operating system that control the flow of information processing in terms of priority and scheduling of different information processes. A simple operating system put all information processes in a context from which priority and scheduling are determined. Thus, each information process has a specific goal to reach, while each simple operating system has a context to arrange all information processes. In terms of action for actual information output, information process has much higher action than operating system. In the human mind, there is also Goal (represented by G) for information process and Context (represented by C) for operation system. Goal is action-oriented resulting in the measurable intentional change. Context is option-oriented resulting in the context for possible action. The evolutionary origin of Goal and Context is the first difference between male and female animals. Male animal carries extremely high number of sperms, while female animal carries limited number of eggs. During the mating session, the presence of a female animal with eggs triggers the desire of action in a male animal. Such action can result in a measurable intentional goal in terms of mating. On the other hand, to a female animal, the presence of a male animal is merely an option for which a context is set for possible action. Such context can be the show of strength, superiority, and affection. The context is for possible action. A female animal has much less drive for action, and much higher ability for the discernment for possible actions. Another important action in Goal is problem solving in terms of removing obstacle during courtship and mating, such as chasing off another male competitor. Context is emotion with option, and Goal is emotion with action. The free-bonding relation type is closely connected with the goal-context type because the man-woman difference. For man, the combination of free relation type and the goal type results in the thinking type (T) for MBTI. According to MBTI, The

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thinking type (T) has characteristics of theoretical, rational, analytical, purposive, logic, and unconcerned with people's feeling. In terms of Goal, the thinking type is essentially the action of problem solving to remove an obstacle in terms of solving a problem. It has a definitive goal to make a measurable intentional change. Since the goal is combined with the free relation type, it does not concern with people’s feeling. For woman, the combination of the context type and the bonding relation type results in the feeling type in MBTI. According to MBTI, the feeling type (F) has characteristics of passionate, warm, personal, artistic, and concerned with people's feelings. In the Context, the feeling type does not have a particular propose to make a measurable intentional change. It is merely to discern the situation. Since the context type is combined with the bonding relation type, it concern with people’s feeling. On average, the female human brains have a larger deep limbic system than males. The larger deep limbic brain allows women more in touch with their feelings to prioritize all possible options. When the brain at rest without consciously thinking of anything, men, on average, had higher brain activity in the more ancient and primitive regions of the limbic system, the parts that are more involved with action. Women, on average, had more activity in the newer and more complex parts of the limbic system, which are involved in feelings60. The hypothalamus, which is a tiny structure at the base of the brain, regulates many basic functions, such as eating, sleeping, temperature control, and reproduction. One part of the hypothalamus responsible for sexual behavior is larger in male brains than in female brains, in human and non-human animals. In total Goal for nonhuman, the goals of life come from predominately biological self, the integration of biological parts to determine the boundary of biological self. It includes hunger, thirst, and sex etc. For human, the goals of life come from not only biological self but also autobiographic self in the form of life story. Autobiographic self is self-knowledge as described by Nancy Cantor61 and Hazel Markus62 for cognition and motivation. Autobiographic self is from episodic memory, which is different from semantic memory. Semantic memory refers to one’s stored knowledge of facts, concepts, and general principles of how the world operates. Semantic memory is the essential memory used to live in the world. Episodic memory, on the other hand, is not essential, and more or less serves as the map for semantic memory. It is an autobiographic store of life experiences. The prefrontal cortex in the human brain is large. The prefrontal cortex has a high number of connections with different parts of the brain. Consequently, the large prefrontal cortex in human is capable to integrate the autobiographic store of life experiences into autobiographic self in the form of the life story. Other animals do not have such autobiographic self. All animals have biological self, the integration of biological parts to determine the boundary of biological self. Only human has a strong autobiographic self to determine the boundary of experiential self. Only human has both biological self and autobiographic self. Autobiographic self in the form of life story brings about path, meaning, and goal of life. The path of life allows human to map the past, the present, and the future experiences. The meaning of life lets human to know the experiential position in the world. The goal of life permits human to prioritize life. Because of the changes in life experiences and life expectation, the life story is in a continuous process of revision, resulting in the continuous changes in path, meaning, and goal of life.

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The mental disorders involved are the extreme Goal and the extreme Context The extreme Goal is the extreme action-oriented without stopping, resulting in manic. Manic can lead to psychopath, seeking the unstopping thrill of action. The extreme Context is the extreme option-oriented without any possible action, resulting in depression. Depression can result in suicide, terminating all possible action. Both extremes are the results of chronic stress in terms of pain and loss.
2.1.2.4. Openness: Persistence and Updating Information Process Personality system Personality Type (MBTI) The Big Five

Openness

High Low

Updating (U) Persistence (P)

perceiving (P) judging (J)

Openness (O)

An elaborate operating system for a computer not only schedules information processes but also manipulate and update information from different information processes. For the human mind, the simple operating system corresponds to emotion, while the elaborate operating system corresponds to cognition for more elaborate manipulation and updating. In the human brain, the part involved in the update is the prefrontal cortex. The large size of the prefrontal cortex in human is an important difference between human and other apes. The opposite of update is persistence which keeps the program constant. The information process type for the low openness is persistence (represented by P), and for the high openness is updating (represented by U). According to MBTI, the judging type has characteristics of planned, orderly way, settled, organized, decisive, closeness, and finishing things. The judging type matches the Persistence type. The perceiving type has characteristics of flexible, spontaneous, flexible, tolerant, open option, understand life rather than control it. This perceiving type matches the Updating type. Updating is a change in information in order to be adaptable to the current situation. The change of information involves manipulation of several sets of information, including old sets of information, possible new sets of information, and the final set of information. The manipulation of several sets of information requires the involvement of the prefrontal cortex. It involves in new combination and arrangement of information. The prefrontal cortex has multiple components: working memory buffers and a “central executive,” the manager that manipulates and coordinates information stored in the buffers for updating 63. Working memory is a “blackboard memory” operating over mere seconds. The process includes moving information into working memory, updating what is already there, and using it to select a final updating. The whole updating process involves both the prefrontal cortex and the rest of the cortex. The prefrontal cortex has extensive connections to various parts of the brain. Neuroscientist Edmund Rolls 64 found that the prefrontal cortex in a monkey had fired strongly immediately before the monkey changed the behavior in behavior to a changing circumstance. The prefrontal cortex allows a quick switch of strategy in behavior to a change of circumstance. The reason for such a quick switch of strategy is that the prefrontal cortex has ample free neuron network which provides the space to construct a new strategy one after another free of previous experience and memory. The people with damage in the

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prefrontal cortex cannot construct a new strategy one right after another. They tend to construct one strategy, and stay with the same strategy over and over again even there is a need for another strategy. They fail to select the most current strategy for their action. The people with damage in the prefrontal cortex may also persistently follow whatever command given to them without change. The damage in the prefrontal cortex is the example for the extreme case of persistence. The prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain that has expanded the most in primates. The large human prefrontal cortex provides human a very large space to construct new strategy in terms of new combination and arrangement of information. The large prefrontal cortex in human also provides an area to construct strategy overcoming salient and concrete experiences. Glutamate is the neurotransmitter for long-term potent (LTP) which is necessary for the working memory, which in turn is important for updating. Dopamine enhances the activity of few selective neurons by inhibiting the activity all other unrelated and unneeded neurons. Both glutamate and dopamine work together to accomplish updating. The mental disorders involved are the extreme Persistence without Updating. The extreme Persistence is impulsiveness without considering any possible consequences. One of such disorders is schizophrenia. The extremes are the results of chronic anxiety in terms of uncertainty. 2.1.3. The Big Five The most popular model of personality is the Big Five. The five factors in the Big Five are openness to experience (appreciation for unusual ideas, imagination, and curiosity), conscientiousness (tendency to act dutifully rather spontaneously), extraversion (to seek the company of others), agreeableness (tendency to be compassionate and cooperation rather than suspicious to others), and neuroticism (a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily). These factors are also referred to as the OCEAN model of personality. Openness correlates to Updating in persistence-updating for the propensity for adapting to changing information. Conscientiousness relates to Distinctiveness in distinctiveness-network for the care for focusing attention. Extrovert corresponds to Assertiveness in sensitivity-assertiveness for the easy to receive incoming information. Agreeable corresponds to bonding relation in bonding relation-free relation in the way of social life for the propensity to form trust for social bonding. Neuroticism corresponds to Context in goal–context for emotion.

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Information Process Admission

Personality system

Resolution Action Openness

High Low High Low High Low High Low

Sensitivity (S) Assertiveness (A) Distinctness (D) Network (N) Goal (G) Context (C) Updating (U) Persistence (P) Bonding relation (B) Free relation (F)

Personality Type (MBTI) introvert (I) extrovert (N) sense (S) intuition (N) thinking (T) feeling (F) perceiving (P) judging (J)

The Big Five

Extrovert (E) Consciousness (C)

Neuroticism (N) Openness (O)

Social Relation Commitment High Low

Agreeable (A)

2.2. The Social Lives

The human social lives are derived from the personality system and the instincts.
2.2.1. The Social Lives for the Primate Social Structures

The combination of the factors in the personality system results in the feminine yin personality and the masculine yang personality for collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement, respectively. The social lives are the combination of the yinyang personalities and the active-passive intragroup interactions among the basic social units. The combination results in yin passive, yin active, yang passive, and yang active, corresponding to Amiable, Expressive, Analytical, and Drive in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory. The harmonious social life is the unique new human social life that no other organisms have. The instinct for the harmonious social life (harmonious) is the conscience instinct that is the combination of the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct, resulting in maximum eager cooperation without lie. The social lives are derived from the personality system. The social lives for the primate social structures consist of three parts: the yin-yang personality, the intragroup interaction among basic social units, and the degree of openness. (1) Yin-Yang Personality (BNC-FDG) The feminine yin personality is the combination of the bonding relation type (B), the network type (N), and the context type (C), while yang is the combination of the free relation type (F), the distinctiveness type (D), and the goal type (G). For the yin personality (BNC) type, the combination leads to “collective wellbeing”, where collective means B and N, and wellbeing does not involve a specific action. For the masculine yang personality (FDG) type, the combination brings about “individualistic achievement”, where individual means F and D, and achievement involves a specific goal. Collective wellbeing deals with mainly people, while individual achievement deals with primarily with task. Therefore, yin represents people, while yang represents task. The society with the yin personality is the collective society, while the society with the yang personality is the individualistic society.
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(2) Passive-Active Intragroup Interaction (S-A) The social lives for primates are the combination of the yin-yang personalities and the active-passive intragroup interactions among the basic social units (subgroups) within a social group. The basic social units (subgroups) can be single female and her offspring, monogamous family, polyandrous family (one-female-several-male group), polygynous family (one-male-several-female group), and multimale-multifemale group (noncommittal male-female). The intragroup interaction among the subgroups can be passive or active interaction, corresponding to introvert (Sensitivity) or extrovert (Assertiveness). The passive intragroup interaction leads to a loose social group where the intragroup interaction in not active. The active intragroup interaction leads to a tight social group. The tight social group helps to provide protection against predators. It also helps to protect scarce food resources. This is especially true for non-human primates when the food is fruit. Leaf-eaters, such as colobus monkeys and langurs, tend to form smaller loose social groupings since there is little competition for their food. The very few nocturnal species of primates are mostly small, relatively solitary hunters. In general, a social group under the condition of sufficiency resource and security leads typically to a loose social group, while a social group under the condition of insufficient resource and insecurity results typically in a tight social group. The combination of the yin-yang personalities and the active-passive intragroup interactions leads to yin passive, yin active, yang passive, and yang active. The loose collective society and the tight collective society come from the yin passive and the yin active social lives, respectively, while the loose individualistic society and the tight individualistic society come from the yang passive and yang active social lives, respectively. In the tight collective society, the active intragroup interaction produces the group wellbeing that promotes care about all members of the group and the group identity in addition to basic collective wellbeing. In the tight individualistic society, the active intragroup interaction produces the group hierarchy that promotes individual strength and effort as well as the submission to the leader of group in addition to basic individualistic achievement. The tight collective society is more egalitarian than the tight individualistic society. In general, the tight individualistic society is under the condition of less sufficient resource and security than the tight collective society. The reason is that the competitive hierarchy social structure, like an army, is more suitable to overcome the difficulties in insufficient resource and insecurity than the group wellbeing social structure. A typical example in ape is the different social structures of chimpanzees and bonobos. Bonobos live in the tropical rain forests with relatively sufficient food and security. Chimpanzees live in the tropical woodland savannah around the equatorial portion of Africa. Chimpanzees travel around 3 miles a day for food and water, whereas bonobos have hardly been noted to travel more than 1.5 or 2 miles a day. Bonobos have the female-centered collective society with the group wellbeing, while chimpanzees have the male-centered individualistic society with the competitive hierarchy. A primate society has typically more than one type of society. For example, the society of female mouse lemurs found in the Island of Madagascar as described by Robert Russell 65 is the tight collective society, and solitary male mouse lemurs have the loose individualistic society. Six to twenty female mouse lemurs form a lifelong social group. The basic lifelong unit of the social group is mother-daughter, so there are several units of

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mother-daughter from the same neighborhood. Mother and daughter have mutual growth relation. Mother takes care of daughter, and teaches her all skill of life. Daughter stays with her mother. About three to ten pairs of mother-daughter form a social group. They have a centrally located communal sleeping hollow for their daytime rest. The social group provides lifelong warmth, stimulation, shared experiences, and warning system for protection from the intrusion of predators. This form of social group increases greatly the chance of survival for female mouse lemurs. The ratio of adult females to adult males exceeds four females for every one male. For orangutans, there are the loose collective society for single female and her offspring and the loose individualistic society for solitary males. For chimpanzees, male chimpanzees have the tight individualistic society, while female chimpanzees have loose individualistic society. Female bonobos, on the other hand, have the tight collective society, while male bonobos have the loose individualistic society. Female bonobos as a group overpower male bonobos. From of the perspective of acquisition instead of condition, the tight individualistic society can acquire resource and security better than the tight collective society, and the tight society acquire resource and security better than the loose society. On the other hand, from the perspective of the cost for individuals in terms of energy and time spend in intragroup interaction, the tight individualistic society is more costly than the tight collective society, and the tight society is more costly than the loose society. The social structure of non-human primates is the balance among condition, acquisition, and cost.
Tight individualistic Society 4 1 4 Tight collective Society 3 2 3 Loose individualistic society 2 3 2 Loose collective society 1 4 1

Condition Acquisition Cost

1 = under most abundant resource and security condition 1 = acquire most resource and security 1 = least costly for individuals in the intragroup interaction

Humans, on the other hand, have tendency and capability for accumulation (greed) rather than mere survival and reproduction, so humans allow high cost for individuals, such as stress and anxiety. (3) The Degree of Openness (P-U) The additional social life is the harmonious social life for harmonious cooperation that exists only in human that has the much larger prefrontal cortex responsible for the high openness in terms of Persistence-Updating in the personality system. The high openness allows the harmonious social life to transcend yin-yang and passive-active. Consequently, the society with the harmonious social life maximizes acquisition, and minimizes the cost for individuals in the intragroup interaction, resulting in the most successful society. However, the harmonious social group size has to be small. The description and the evolution of harmonious cooperation social life and harmonious society will be discussed in details in the next sections.

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The social life system consists of five different combinations of the factors in the personality system as in the following table. The Social lives Primate for Social Structures
Social lives yin (BNC ) –yang passive-active (introvert(FDG) or harmonious extrovert) or flexible cooperation (high Intragroup interaction openness) among basic social units Yin Passive Yang Yin Yang Harmonious cooperation Passive Active Active flexible Primate Social Structures Characteristics Merrill-Reid Social lives

the loose collective society the loose individualistic society the tight collective society the tight individualistic society the harmonious society

passive collective wellbeing passive individualistic achievement active collective wellbeing active individualistic achievement harmonious cooperation

Amiable Analytical Expressive Driver

Merrill-Reid Social Style

The Yin Yang Social Life

control emotion analytical ask amiable expressive emote driver tell yang passive passive yin passive

yang yang active active yin active yin

The social life system is similar to the Merrill-Reid social style theory 66 , consisting of amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver social lives. According to the Merrill-Reid theory, the four social lives are described below. • Amiable: Place a high priority on friendships, close relationships, and cooperative behavior. They appear to get involved in feelings and relations between people. • Expressive: Appear communicative, warm approachable and competitive. They involve other people with their feelings and thoughts. • Analytical: Live life according to facts, principles, logic and consistency. Often viewed as cold and detached but appear to be cooperative in their actions as long as they can have some freedom to organize their own efforts. • Driver: Give the impression that they know what they want, where they are going, and how to get there quickly.

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Amiable and Expressive have yin (female type) characteristic for collective wellbeing, while Analytical and Driver have yang (male type) characteristic for individualistic achievement. Expressive and Driver are more active in interpersonal relations than Amiable and Driver. Merrill-Reid social lives do not include harmonious cooperation. The amiable social life in the Merrill-Rein theory corresponds to the yin passive social life that involves and is keenly interested in the close relationship with people (yin) foe collective wellbeing. The expressive social life corresponds to the yin active social life that involves in both close relationships with people in the basic social unit and the intragroup in terms of group wellbeing in addition to basic collective wellbeing. The analytical social life corresponds to the yang passive social life that involves and is keenly interested in only systemizing task (yang) for individualistic achievement. The driver social life corresponds to the yang active social life that involves both the close relationships with people in the basic social unit and the intragroup in terms of group hierarchy in addition to basic individualistic achievement.
2.2.2. The Human Instincts and the Yin Yang Social Lives

The social lives are derived from the human instincts. The human instincts include the humanized instincts and the dehumanized instincts. The humanized instincts are used originally involving human. The dehumanized instincts are used originally involving nonhuman. It is quite common among social animals to behave differently toward the animals of the same species and toward the animals of different species. For examples, cannibalism and the killing among the animals of the same species are rare in social animals even during the fighting among the animals of the same species. The fighting among the animals of the same species for the purpose of domination is often ritualistic without serious injury. The harms to the infant animals from the animals of the same species are infrequent. On the other hand, as predators, animals kill preys of different species without hesitation. As a prey, an animal makes a manipulative strategy to escape from a predator of different species. Animals make a clear distinction between the animals of different species and the animals of same species. The humanized instinct consists of the female-male instincts involving human. People possess all of the female-male instincts. The female instincts are in average stronger in women, while the male instincts are in average stronger in men. However, the overlap is large, so it is common for some men to have stronger female instincts, and for some women to have stronger male instincts. The female instincts include the bonding instinct to bond with other human and the nurturing instinct to nurture the love ones. The male instincts include the systemizing instinct to systemizing various objects into a system and the dominative instinct to have domination in social hierarchy. The dehumanized instincts involving nonhuman are the prey-predator instincts. The prey instincts include the freezing instinct to minimize the activity in the presence of strong nonhuman predator and the manipulative instinct to play tricks to a strong nonhuman predator for the protection of self and love ones. The predatory instincts include the addictive instinct to have obsession in terms of task and the predatory instinct to over-control a weak nonhuman prey. Such prey-predator instincts are for nonhuman, but in the large complicate civilized society where people relations are complicate, people misuse the prey-predator

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to subhuman that is defined as human who is treated as nonhuman. In an extreme case, a person regards all people as subhuman that activates the prey-predator instincts in the person, resulting in mental disorders, such as depression, borderline personality disorder, obsession, and psychopath. The prey instincts closely relate to the female instincts, while the predatory instincts closely relate to the male instincts. The human social lives are listed in the following table. The Positive Negative Yin Yang Social Lives
Social life Origin Description Perceived Condition Perceived Mechanism Merrill-Reid Instinct Behavior Role Idealized SelfImage POSITIVE YIN POSITIVE YANG Humanized female-male instincts involving human collective wellbeing in mostly people individual achievement in mostly task abundant resource and security deficient resource and security offensive mechanism for connecting people PASSIVE amiable bonding kindness friend loyalist ACTIVE expressive nurturing nurturing nurturer peacemaker defensive mechanism for survival PASSIVE analytical systemizing discipline systemizer idealist ACTIVE driver dominative strength leader hero

Origin Description Perceived Condition Perceived Mechanism Merrill-Reid Instinct Behavior Role Idealized SelfImage Mental Disorder

NEGATIVE YIN NEGATIVE YANG dehumanized prey-predator instincts involving subhuman Cool manipulation in mostly people obsessive over-control in mostly task deficient resource and security abundant resource and security defensive mechanism for protection PASSIVE amiable freezing withdraw prey loner depression ACTIVE expressive manipulative manipulation manipulator strategist borderline personality disorder offensive mechanism for hunting PASSIVE analytical addiction obsession addict specialist obsession ACTIVE driver predatory over-control predator master psychopath

As in the table above, the positive yin social life and the positive yang social life are derived from the humanized female instinct and male instinct, respectively. The general description of the positive yin social life from the female instincts is collective wellbeing in mostly people. The best perceived condition to have collective wellbeing is abundant resource and security. It is hard to have collective wellbeing under deficient resource and security. Under such abundant resource and security, the mechanism is the active offensive mechanism to connect with people instead of passively connecting with
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people. The general description of the positive yang social life from the male instincts is individual achievement in mostly task. The best perceived condition to have individual achievement is deficient resource and security. The deficient resource and security motivate an individual to achieve in order to survive and prosper. Under the deficient resource and security, the mechanism is passive defensive mechanism to achieve in order to survive and prosper. The positive yin passive social life (amiable) involves and is keenly interested in close relationships with people, so the instinct is the bonding instinct. The corresponding behavior is kindness toward people. The role for the yin passive social life is friend. A person with the role of friend can idealize (exaggerate) the role as loyalist. The positive yin active social life (expressive) involves in both basic social unit and intragroup. The instinct is the nurturing instinct in addition to the bonding instinct. The nurturing instinct’s involvement is active and broad. The role for the yin active social life is nurturer. A person with the role of nurturer can idealize in terms of exaggeration the role as peacemaker to provide the peaceful environment for nurturing all love ones. The positive yang passive social life (analytical) involves and is keenly interested in only task. The instinct is the systemizing instinct for the intrinsic human capability and desire to make a system out of various objects. The corresponding behavior is discipline to follow a well-developed system. The role for the yang passive social life is systemizer. A person with the role of systemizer can idealize in terms of exaggeration the role as idealist to have the idealistic system. The positive yang active social life (driver) involves in the basic social unit and intragroup. The instinct is the dominative instinct in addition to the systemizing instinct. The dominative instinct’s involvement is active and broad. The corresponding behavior is mental and physical strength. The role for the yang active social life is leader to provide the best (dominating) condition to survive and prosper. A person with the role of leader can idealize in terms of exaggeration the role as hero who will fight for survival and prosperity. As in the table, the negative yin social life and the negative yang social life are derived from the dehumanized prey instinct and predatory instinct, respectively. The general description of the negative yin social life from the prey instincts is cool manipulation in mostly people. The perceived condition to have cool manipulation is deficient resource and security. Under the deficient resource and security, the mechanism is passive defensive mechanism to stay away and to manipulate in order to survive. The general description of the negative yang social life from the predatory instincts is obsessive over-control in mostly task. The perceived condition to have obsessive overcontrol is abundant resource and security. Under such abundant resource and security, the mechanism is the active offensive mechanism to obsess and to over-control. The negative yin passive social life is derived from the dehumanized prey instinct that is the freezing instinct to avoid the contact with strong subhuman predator as much as possible. The corresponding behavior is to withdraw (coolness) involving subhuman predator. It involves only subhuman. The role for the yin passive social life is passive prey. A person with the role of passive prey can rationalize the role as loner to avoid detestable people. In the extreme case, the person can regard all people as subhuman

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predator, resulting in the destruction of the intrinsic brain structure to distinguish human and nonhuman. The result of the extreme case is the mental disorder of depression. The negative yin active social life is derived from the dehumanized prey instinct that is the manipulative instinct in addition to the freezing instinct. The corresponding behavior is manipulation involving subhuman predator. Manipulation can be very deceptive as the broken wing trick that a mother bird plays to lead a predator away from the baby birds. It is the origin of the asymmetrical warfare. It involves both subhuman and task needed to carry on manipulation. The role for the yin active social life is manipulator. A person with the role of manipulator can rationalize the role as strategist to protect the person and the love ones from strong opponents. The result of the extreme case is the mental disorder of borderline personality disorder. People with borderline personality disorder frequently have unstable relationships, fly into rages inappropriately, or become depressed and cannot trust the actions and motives of other people67. In the study, directed by neuroscientist Brooks King-Casas68, people with borderline personality disorder played a "trust" game involving sending money and receiving money. They play the game while their brains are scanned by functional MRI. The fMRI shows areas of activities in parts of the brain during the game. In this study, in the normal people, a part of the brain showed activity that responded in direct proportion to the amount of money sent and the money received. However, in people with borderline personality disorder, that part of the brain responded only to sending the money, not to the money received. The interpretation in term of the preypredator relation is that money represents resource. In a prey-predator relation, a prey wants to protect its resource by measuring how much resource (money) that it gives away. It does not expect any resource from a predator. There is no mutuality in the preypredator relation. Most of people with borderline personality disorder are women. The negative yang passive social life is derived from the dehumanized predator instinct that is the addictive instinct. The corresponding behavior is obsession to do a very specific task all the time. It involves only task. The task can be an obsessive professional task for excessive wealth or an obsessive hobby task for excessive adventure. The role for the yin passive social life is addict. A person with the role of addict rationalizes the role as specialist. The result of the extreme case is the mental disorder of obsession. The negative yang active social life is derived from the dehumanized predatory instinct that is the predatory instinct in addition to the additive instinct. The corresponding behavior is over-controlling of weak subhuman prey. It involves both task and subhuman prey. The role for the yin active social life is predator to weak subhuman prey. A person with the role of predator can rationalize the role as master who controls an inferior person. The mental disorder in the extreme case is psychopath. People with psychopath are very egocentric individuals with no empathy for others, and they are incapable of feeling remorse or guilt. Psychopath is a combination of dominant and cold interpersonal characteristics Most of people with psychopath are men. In an fMRI study by neuroscientist Kent Kichl69, a certain part of the brain in criminal psychopaths showed much less activity in responses to emotional charged words like blood, sewer, hell, and rape than the normal people. It shows that psychopaths are relatively insensitive to the cruelty involving human.

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2.2.3. The Harmonious Social Life and Society

The yin social lives in general require long social memory of the special features and behaviors of friends, nurturers, and the one to be nurtured. With the dominative instinct, the yang social life produces dominance hierarchy. Yin (female) and yang (male) are distinctively different in the gender dichotomy. Long social memory, dominance hierarchy, and gender dichotomy are important to maintain a social structure, but they form the social barrier that hinders the free cooperation among the members of society. Cooperation is important in survival strategies as described by Axelrod and Hamilton's evolution of cooperation70. To find different strategies for cooperation, they devised the prisoner's dilemma. The prisoner's dilemma refers to an imaginary situation in which two individuals are imprisoned and are accused of having cooperated to perform some crime. The two prisoners are held separately, and attempts are made to induce each one to implicate the other. If neither one does, both are set free. This is the cooperative strategy available to both prisoners. In order to tempt one or both to defect, each is told that a confession implicating the other will lead to his or her release and, as an added incentive, to a small reward. If both confess, each one is imprisoned. But if one individual implicated the other and not vice versa, then the implicated partner receives a harsher sentence than if each had implicated the other. Among all strategies, TIT FOR TAT is the best strategy. On the first move cooperate. On each succeeding move do what your opponent did the previous move. Thus, TIT FOR TAT was a strategy of cooperation based on reciprocity. From the further analysis of TIT FOR TAT, four features of TIT FOR TAT emerged: 1. Never be the first to defect: indicate eager cooperate 2. Retaliate only after your partner has defected: important to detect defection 3. Be prepared to forgive after carrying out just one act of retaliation: minimum social memory 4. Adopt this strategy only if the probability of meeting the same player again exceeds 2/3: essentially a strategy for a small social group. A distinctive character in TIT FOR TAT is eager cooperation as in the first feature above. It always cooperates first. Such eager cooperation has minimum social memory to forgive the past defection as in the third feature above. Such eager cooperation generates a large cohesive domain, resulting in the best strategy. However, if defection has no consequence as in a large group, TIT FOR TAT does not work as in the fourth feature above. TIT FOR TAT works only in a small group. In the yin and yang social lives, the high social barrier from long social memory, dominance hierarchy, and gender dichotomy excludes eager cooperation in TIT FOR TAT strategy. To carry out TIT FOR TAT strategy, the evolution of human social life produced two additional new instincts. The two additional new instincts are the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct. The hyper friendly instinct allows human to cooperate eagerly, while the detective instinct allows human to detect defection. The combination of the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct brings about the conscience instinct. The conscience instinct is the base for the harmonious social life.

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The following sections describe the hyper friendly instinct, the detective instinct, and the conscience instinct. The Harmonious Social Life
Social life Description HARMONIOUS COOPERATION maximum eager cooperation without lie: harmonious cooperation (mutual empathy and empowerment) hyper friendly Detective Instinct eager cooperation theory of mind Behavior Harmonist Idealized Self-Image

2.2.3.1. Eager Cooperation - The Hyper Friendly Instinct

Long social memory, dominance hierarchy, and gender dichotomy are important to maintain a social structure, but they form the social barrier that hinders the free eager cooperation among the members of society. To promote eager social cooperation, it is necessary to minimize such social barrier. One way for the minimization is the hyper friendly instinct. Through the hyper friendly instinct, the hyper friendly act minimizes the social barrier. One example of the hyper friendly instinct is the frequent sexual activities among all members of bonobo social group71. The sexual activities can be between couples regardless of ages and genders. They do sexual contacts to greet, to avoid social conflicts, and to reconcile after conflicts. The hyper friendly act minimizes the social barrier, and enhances social cooperation. For an example, bonobos engage in sexual activities before eating to avoid conflict during eating. Comparing to chimpanzees, bonobos are much more peaceful and egalitarian because of this hyper friendly instinct. Another example of the hyper friendly instinct is expressed in very enthusiastic greeting from dogs. This hyper friendly instinct is inherited from wolfs that form highly cooperative society. The domestication of dog for thousands years has enhanced the hyper friendly instinct, resulting in the high cooperation between dog and human. In human, the hyper friendly instinct is expressed as language. Language as an instinct was proposed by experimental psychologist Steven Pinker 72 . The verbal communication minimizes effectively social barrier. Human learns language quickly and early. The human brain encourages language by rewarding language. For an example, the extremely hyper friendly people are the people with Williams Syndrome, which has unusually cheerful talkative demeanor and ease with strangers. They have excellent verbal skills, superior and precocious musical ability, perfect pitch and a good memory for names and faces. Individuals with Williams Syndrome, however, have higher amount of fear with non-social encounter. The highly developed human language instinct indicates the highly developed human hyper friendly instinct.
2.2.3.2. Detection – The Detective instinct

In the advanced stage of verbal communication, a verbal statement can express an event occurred elsewhere. Since the event occurs elsewhere, a listener has to determine if the expressed statement is a truth or a lie. The detective instinct for detecting a lie in a verbal statement is necessary for the advanced stage of verbal communication. The detective instinct is for subtle lie instead of conspicuous lie, which can be detected easily

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without the new detective instinct. The neural network for the detective instinct is called the lie detection neural network. The neural network has been described by Hiram Brownell and Richard Griffin73 as the neural network for theory of mind. The network consists of the left brain, the right brain, and the prefrontal cortex as follows.
The Lie Detection Neural Network

left brain questionable statement 1

right brain internal alternative statement 1

expression

statement 1

prefrontal cortex statement 2 questionable statement 2 internal alternative statement 2

prefrontal cortex repeat or conclusion When a speaker expresses a statement, which describes an event occurred elsewhere, the statement is registered in the right brain and the left brain. The left brain has greater cell density and the more gray nonmyelinated fibers for short distant neural messages, so the left brain can have a good copy of the statement consciously from the speaker. The right brain, in contrast, has more areas of "associative" with more white myelinated fibers for long distant neural message. In the right brain, instead of the exact copy, the statement becomes a questionable statement waiting to be verified. The questionable statement triggers automatically an internal alternative statement that relates the event occurred elsewhere. The association of the original statement and the alternative statement can be very weak. In the right brain, the questionable statement and the alternative statement coexist. The prefrontal cortex examines the coexisting statements along with other information to determine the correct statement. The correct statement is realized by the left brain consciously as the statement 2. The statement 2 can undergo lie detection again or can become the conclusion. The reverse of the lie detection neural network is the lie making neural network as below.

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The Lie Making Neural Network

left brain changeable statement 1

right brain internal alternative statement 1

statement 1

prefrontal cortex statement 2 Changeable statement 2 internal alternative statement 2

prefrontal cortex expression repeat or conclusion

In the lie making network, the statement 1 appears consciously in the left brain. The statement 1 becomes the changeable statement 1 in the right brain. The changeable statement in the right brain triggers automatically the internal alternative statement 1. The prefrontal cortex examines the coexisting statements in the right brain to determine the appropriate statement, which is realized consciously in the left brain as the statement 2. The statement 2 can undergo another lie making process or be the conclusion. The conclusion is then expressed. The lie detection neural network is for a subtle lie, and it is not needed for a conspicuous lie, which contradicts immediate observable evidences. Equally, a lie making neural network is for making a subtle lie, and it is not needed for making a conspicuous lie. Conspicuous lie can be detected and made in the left brain. The combination of the lie detection neural network and the lie making neural network brings about theory of mind that a person believes that the other people have the mind to lie and to detect a lie that the person makes. Automatic triggering of alternative statements in the right brain becomes the base for holistic thinking that requires a broad and non-obvious thinking. Automatic triggering of alternative statement in the left brain becomes the logical thinking that requires a narrow sequential thinking. The principle of humor is that subtlety in humor can be figured out by the right brain, not the left brain. When the subtlety is explained completely and logically by the left brain, the humor is no longer funny. Autism and schizophrenia are the two extremes in the detective instinct. Both of them have problems in bonding with people as indicated by that the people who have autism and schizophrenia are mostly men. Autism represents the inactive detective instinct, resulting in the theory of mind impaired74. People with schizophrenia have an overactive detective instinct. The prefrontal cortex is not able to sort out so many

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ridiculous alternative statements, so people with schizophrenia also are not capable of subtle sensible deception. The deficiency in the detective distinct, however, can lead to the very logical mind, while the excess in the detective distinct can lead to very creative mind. 2.2.3.3. The Conscience Instinct Theory of mind derived from the detective instinct is that a person believes that the other people have the mind to lie and to detect a lie that the person makes. The combination of the hyper friendly instinct and theory of mind derived from the detective instinct brings about the conscience instinct that is the instinct for maximum eager cooperation without lie that takes advantage of cooperation for selfish reason. People feel guilty about cooperation with lie, and feel other people should feel guilty about cooperation with lie. The conscience instinct as the self-regulation of cooperation results in maximum eager cooperation without lie, leading to harmonious cooperation (mutual empathy and empowerment). Mutual empathy is love, while mutual empowerment is diligence. The result is the harmonious social life. The people with the harmonious social life are harmonists. The society with the harmonious social life is the harmonious society. This harmonious social life as the innate goodness was described by Mencius, the second most important saint in Confucianism. Mencius said: .... Everyone has the heart of sympathy, everyone has the heart of knowing shame, everyone has the heart of respect, and everyone has the heart of knowing right and wrong. The heart of sympathy is a benevolent, the heart of knowing shame is righteousness, the heart of respect is propriety, and the heart of knowing right and wrong is wisdom. Benevolent, righteousness, propriety, and wisdom that are not injected from outside were in us originally. Only we have not comprehended them. Thus, we can get them through search, and we can lose them through abandonment....” (Mengzi, chapter: human innate goodness) Benevolent and propriety come from the hyper friendly instinct of the conscience instinct, while righteousness and wisdom come from the detective instinct (theory of mind) of the conscience instinct. The summary of the social lives is as below.

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Summary of the Social Lives
Social life Instinct Bonding Nurturing Systemizing dominative freezing manipulative addictive Behavior kindness nurturing discipline strength withdrawing manipulation obsession √ Perceived Resource And Security abundant deficient √ √ √ √ √ √ Realistic Role Friend Nurturer systemizer Leader Prey manipulator Addict Idealized Self-Image loyalist peacemaker idealist hero loner strategist specialist

Positive Yin Passive (Amiable) Positive Yin Active (Expressive) Positive Yang Passive (Analytical) Positive Yang Active (Driver) Negative Yin Passive Negative Yin Active Negative Yang Passive Negative Yang Active Harmonious

predatory

over-control

Predator

master

conscience

initial eager cooperation without lie

harmonist

harmonist

The chart for the summary of the relationship between psychology in terms of personality and social life and social structure is as below.

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PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES PSYCHOLOGY
the brain structure–neurotransmitters for socialization and information processing PERSONALITY

admission resolution socialization (sensitivity(distinctiveness– (bonding relation– assertiveness) network) free relation)

action (goal– context)

openness (persistence– updating)

• • •

yin (network-bonding relation-context = collective wellbeing) and yang (distinctiveness-free relation-goal = individualistic achievement) passive (sensitivity) – active (assertiveness) intragroup interaction harmony = high openness (updating) to transcend yin-yang and passive-active the social instincts SOCIAL LIFE

yin passive social life (amiable)
bonding + freezing instincts

yin active social life (expressive)
nurturing + manipulative instincts

harmonious social life

yang active social life (driver)

yang passive social life (analytical)
systemizing + addictive instinct

conscience instinct = dominative + hyper friendly instinct predatory + detective instinct instincts

SOCIAL STRUCTURES
the loose the tight collective collective society society the harmonious society the tight individualistic society the loose individualistic society

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2.3. Ape Evolution Human social lives are derived from human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. During ape evolution, the harmonious social life started to emerge. During hominid evolution, the harmonious social life based on the conscience instinct fully developed. Early apes evolved during the Miocene epoch from 25 Ma (million years ago) to 5 Ma. Miocene warming began 21 Ma allowed tropical forests to prevail in Eurasia and Africa. The early ancestors of apes migrated to Eurasia from Africa about 17 Ma. Apes evolved in Eurasia. Miocene warming continued until 14 Ma, when global temperatures took a sharp drop. As a result, some apes migrated south into tropical forests in Africa. By 8 Ma, temperatures dropped sharply once again. Consequently, apes became extinct except in tropical forests in Southeast Asia and Africa. In Africa, the climate got even cooler and dryer and the forest patches shrank. By the end of the Miocene, East Africa had become mostly open grassland. About 2 Ma, a significant drying occurred in Africa. Cooling and drying cause the change in the density and type of trees in forest and the changes from forest to woodland, grassland, and desert. The difference between woodland and dense forest is in the canopy. Forest trees are tall and dense enough to hide most of the sky, while woodland trees are sparse enough for the sky to be visible and grass and brush to grow on the ground. Grassland has tall grass with few trees. Eventually, tropical forests are limited to a tight band around the equator. The original apes were arboreal animals in dense forest, adapting to life in the trees in dense forest that provided both food resource and security. Different apes evolved to adapt to the changes in environments. The family Hominidae (great apes) includes five apes: orangutans, bonobos, gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans. The most recent common ancestor of the Hominidae lived some 13 Ma, when the ancestors of the orangutans by the analysis of DNA diverged from the ancestors of the other four apes, which are in the subfamily Homininae. About 7 Ma, the ancestors of gorillas diverged from the ancestors of the three other apes, which are in the tribe Hominin. About 6 Ma, the ancestors of humans diverged from the other two apes, which are in the genus Pan. About 2 Ma, bonobos and chimpanzees diverged. The divergences in DNA coincide with the significant changes in climate.
2.3.1. The Original Ape: the solitary ape

The original great ape existed before 13 Ma, when the warm and wet climate allowed tropical forest to prevail in Eurasia. It was the orangutan-like common ancestor with the best food resource and security from dense forest. The orangutan-like common ancestor did not migrate to Africa. Apes evolved a new way of moving around in the trees – brachiation that is arm-over-arm swinging from one branch to another. Brachiation evolved as a way to get at fruits that were at the very tips of branches. This allows apes to get at fruits that a monkey cannot reach. Apes have larger brains than monkeys. Gestural communication is virtually limited to great apes. As the orangutan-like common ancestor, current orangutan is the solitary ape that has the loose social structure without the need of the support of tight social group. They are currently found only in rainforests on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. Orangutan is the largest arboreal animals in forest, adapting to life in the trees in dense forest that provides

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both food resource and security. Orangutans are the most arboreal of the great apes, spending nearly all of their time in the trees. Every night they fashion sleeping nests from branches and foliage. They are more solitary than other apes; males and females generally come together only to mate. There is significant sexual dimorphism. Orangutans primarily eat fruit.
2.3.2. The First Split: the peacemaking ape

The Miocene warming began 21 Ma and continued until 14 Ma, when global temperatures took a sharp drop. About 13 Ma, the slight decrease in of tree-density in forest by climate change caused the first split from the orangutan-like common ancestor to produce the bonobo-like common ancestor with the second best food resource and security. It was necessary to have the support of social group for the procurement of food and for protection in this environment. With the support of social group, food and security posted no serious problems without the strong need to fight for food in a social group. As a result, as the bonobo-like common ancestor, bonobo is the peacemaking ape that has the matriarch collective society for collective wellbeing. Bonobos are now found in the wild only in the dense tropical forest south of the Congo River. Genetically modern bonobo is exactly as close to modern human as modern chimpanzee. For peacemaking, bonobo has “hyper friendliness” as shown in the frequent sexual activities among all members of bonobo social group75. The sexual activities can be between couples regardless of ages and genders. They do sexual contacts to greet, to avoid social conflicts, and to reconcile after conflicts. The hyper friendly act minimizes the social barrier, and enhances social cooperation. For an example, bonobos engage in sexual activities before eating to avoid conflict during eating. On the other hand, De Waal pointed out that 'sex for peace' precisely because bonobos have plenty of conflicts. There would obviously be no need for peacemaking if they lived in perfect harmony. Bonobo walks upright approximately 25% of the time during ground locomotion. Its quadrupedal ground locomotion generally is characterized by forelimb 'palm walking', similar to orangutans and in contrast to the predominant use of knuckles as characteristic of gorillas and the chimpanzees. Like human, bonobo has relatively small canines. These physical characteristics and its posture, give bonobo an appearance more closely resembling humans than that of chimpanzee.
2.3.3. The Second Split: the loyal ape

By 8 Ma, temperatures dropped sharply once again. The further decrease in treedensity in some forests by further temperature drop caused the second split from the bonobo-like common ancestor to produce gorilla in diverse forests in about 7 Ma. In some regions in Africa, dense forest turned into diverse forest with various tree-densities. Gorilla is the loyal ape that has the patriarch collective society for collective wellbeing with strong loyalty to the dominatingly large male leader for protection. Gorillas are the largest of the living primates. Instead of relying trees for protection, gorillas rely on their physical sizes for protection. Relying on physical size for protection was adaptable to diverse forests with various tree-densities. Large gorillas could not climb trees easily, so gorillas were ground-dwelling. Gorillas move around by knuckle-walking.

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Gorillas are shy and peaceful vegetarians. Diverging from the bonobo-like common ancestors, early gorillas ancestors were basically the dominatingly large bonobos. Gorillas today live in tropical or subtropical forests in different parts of Africa. In social group, a silverback is the strong, dominant troop leader. He typically leads a troop (group size ranges from 5 to 30) and is in the center of the troop's attention, making all the decisions, mediating conflicts, determining the movements of the group, leading the others to feeding sites and taking responsibility for the safety and well-being of the troop. All members of a social group are loyal to the dominatingly large silverback.
2.3.4. The Third Split: the harmonious ape

The progressive drying and cooling turned parts of forests in Africa into woodlands. The appearance of woodland caused the third split from the bonobo-like common ancestor to produce the bipedal human ancestor, who used free hands for the improvement in gestural communication to survive in hospitable woodland. Early human ancestors were basically bipedal bonobos whose habitat changed from hospitable forest to hospitable woodland. Free hands from bipedalism allowed continuous gestural communication during walking. The improvement in communication led eventually to the harmonious society. Human was the harmonious ape. Ardi (Ardipithecus ramidus) 76, the oldest human skeleton discovered, lived in 4.4 Ma. Similar to other apes, Ardi's skull encased a small brain – 300 to 350 cc. Ardi’s feet had a stout opposable big toe for climbing trees. She lived in grassy woodland with patches of denser forest and freshwater springs. Woodland allowed increasingly amount of food from bushes and low branches, which could be seen and reached from the ground. Chimpanzees today move on two legs most often when feeding on the ground from bushes and low branches. In the same way, feeding on fruits from bushes and low branches, Ardi moved on two legs often. When chimpanzees today are under duress from a poor fruit season, they break up into smaller foraging units that scour the environment more thoroughly. In the same way, Ardi and the members of her social group fanned out to find food. Individuals could communicate with one another by vocal/gestural communication. Bipedal Ardi’s free hands allowed individuals from the searching group to communicate continuously and precisely during walking. (Without bipedalism, apes cannot walk and do gestural communication at the same time continuously.) Such effective coordination by vocal/gestural communication allowed them to find food efficiently. The effective coordination also allowed them effectively escaping from predators. They climbed trees mostly at night, for high branch fruits, and for safety. The tree-density was high enough, so they had easy access to trees to escape from predators, and did not need the rapid movement of quadrupedal locomotion, such as knuckle walking, to escape from predators. This initial woodland habitat was quite hospitable for early bipedal hominid. Bipedalism might possibly happen in a number of locations with similar hospitable woodland environment. Early human ancestors were basically bipedal bonobos whose habitat changed from hospitable forest to hospitable woodland. Gorillas did not develop bipedalism, because instead of searching for high quality food, such as fruits, gorillas today eat abundant low quality foods such as leaves, when high quality is not readily available. Gorillas today do not break up into smaller foraging

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units that scour the environment more thoroughly. As seen later, chimpanzees did not develop bipedalism, because they needed knuckle walking to escape from predators and for the large foraging ranges in inhospitable woodland as the initial habitat. In inhospitable woodland, bipedal walking initially was not fast enough to escape from predators, and initially was not efficient enough for the large foraging ranges to survive. The continuous gestural communication allowed improved explanation gestural communication for improving mutual understanding and the improved cooperative gestural communication for establishing elaborate social rules. The improvement in communication reduced conflicts by the improvement of understanding among them and the establishment of some elaborate social rules. The primitive gestural communication emerged first involved the primitive natural gestures of pointing and pantomiming. Such primitive gestural communication did not require the large expansion of the brain. What robust vocal/facial/gestural communication needed was pleasure connecting with vocal/facial/gestural communication. For bonobos, hyper friendliness for peacemaking is expressed by causal sexual contact that gives them pleasure. Unlike other apes, humans, including babies, enjoy gestural/facial/vocal communication, such as dancing, singing, and talking. The pleasurable vocal/facial/gestural communication of early human ancestors gradually replaced pleasurable casual sexual contact of the bonobo-like common ancestors as pleasurable way to bond with one another. By the time of Ardi, pleasurable causal sexual contact disappeared, and replaced by pleasurable vocal/facial/gestural communication. Instead of group sex for peacemaking, human ancestors, like Ardi, had group dancing and group singing for peacemaking. The disappearance of casual sexual contact allowed human ancestors to develop monogamy for pair bonding. Communication became not only useful but also pleasurable. Communication became frequent. Communication became sharing information both related and unrelated physical needs. The human ancestors, like Ardi, evolved from the merely peacemaking bonobo-like common ancestors to the harmonious hominids as shown in the absence of large sharp canine teeth (fangs) for fighting. Other apes, particularly males, have thick, projecting, sharp canines that they use for displays of aggression and as weapons to defend themselves. Such harmonious coherent social group improved its ability to find and collect food and to fend off predators, resulting in improved chance for survival in woodland. The human ancestors inherited good gestural communication from the bonobolike common ancestors as shown by Amy Pollick and Frans de Waal in “Ape Gestures and Language Evolution” 77 . Gestural communication is virtually limited to the Hominoidea (great apes). Chimpanzees beg other chimpanzees for food by approaching them with open hands. Gestures seem less closely tied to specific emotions, hence they permit greater cortical control than other forms of communication. They compared bonobos and chimpanzees. They found that facial/vocal displays were used very similarly by both ape species, but bonobos showed greater flexibility in gestural communication than chimpanzees and were also the only species in which multimodal communication (i.e., combinations of gestures and facial/vocal signals) added to behavioral impact on the recipient. The bonobos' variable gestural repertoire and high responsiveness to combinatorial signaling indicate that the human ancestors came from the bonobo-like common ancestors. The development of free hands for the improvement

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of gestural communication was a natural extension of the gestural communication from the bonobo-like common ancestors. The connection between human communication and human cooperative infrastructure is shown by Michael Tomasello in “Origins of Human Communication” 78 Tomasello proposes that the most fundamental aspects of uniquely human communication are biological adaptations for cooperative social interaction. The cooperative infrastructure in human hominid ancestors was inherited from the bonobolike common ancestors who were the peacemaking apes. Gestural communication by free hands from bipedalism improved greatly such cooperative infrastructure. No other animals develop such human-like communication. Gestural communication served as a stepping stone for the evolution of human symbolic communication. Gesture production in humans is so automatic that it is relatively immune to audience effects: blind subjects gesture at equal rates as sighted subjects to a known blind audience. Gestural communication as gestural language is the predecessor of spoken language79. The generally right-handed dominant hominid caused the development of the gestural language area (Broca’s area) in the left-brain that eventually developed into the part for the spoken language later. In the study by Hickok, Bellugi and Klima80 , the impairment for sign language patients was identical with that of speaking patients. At the hemispheric level the neural organization of sign language is indistinguishable from that of spoken language.
2.3.5. The Fourth Split: the aggressive ape

Near the central Africa about 2 million years ago, the inhospitable woodland from the further decrease in tree-density caused the fourth split from the bonobo-like common ancestor to produce chimpanzee. Chimpanzee is the aggressive ape that has the patriarch individualistic society with individual and group aggression to survive in inhospitable woodland. The initial tree-density in the initial habitat of chimpanzees was the lowest among the five apes. Anatomical differences between chimpanzee and bonobo are slight, but in sexual and social behaviors there are marked differences. Bonobos live in the tropical rain forests with relatively sufficient food and security. Chimpanzees live in the tropical woodland savannah around the equatorial portion of Africa. Chimpanzees travel around 3 miles a day for food and water, whereas bonobos have hardly been noted to travel more than 1.5 or 2 miles a day. Individual and group aggression of male chimpanzees became the mean to survive in such inhospitable woodland. Chimpanzees cannot abandon quadrupedal locomotion and its speed advantages because of their large foraging ranges and susceptibility to predation. Diverging from the bonobo-like common ancestors, early chimpanzee ancestors were basically the aggressive bonobos whose habitat changed from hospitable forest to inhospitable woodland. Chimpanzees have the patriarch individualistic society with the competitive hierarchy. Primatologist Frans de Waal described male chimpanzees in Chimpanzee Politics81. The male chimpanzees fight to be the number one. A leader is under constant challenge. A leader is deposed after the other male chimpanzees have formed alliance and ganged up against the leader. In the wild, male chimpanzees are extraordinarily hostile to males from outside of the social group. Male patrolling chimpanzees attack and

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often kill the neighboring male chimpanzee outsider who might be traveling alone. On the contrary, bonobo males or females prefer sexual contact over violent confrontation with outsiders. In summary, the decrease of tree-density of dense forest in Africa by climate change generated the environments for ape evolution. The decrease of tree-density decreased food resource and security for apes. The orangutan-like common ancestors had the best food resource and security in dense forest. The bonobo-like common ancestors compensated the decreased food resource and security from the decreased treedensity with the support of the peacemaking social group. Gorilla compensated the further decreased food resource and security by following dominatingly large male leader for protection. Humans compensated the further decreased food resource and security with improved gestural communication by free hands from bipedalism. Chimpanzees compensated the further decreased food resource and security with individual and group aggression of male chimpanzees. Each species of apes made its initial niche divergence from the previous species to fit its initial environment. Each species stays the same, continues to evolve, diverges, or becomes extinct in the subsequent environment. The diagram and the table of ape evolution and social structures are listed below.

Ape Evolution and Social Structures
orangutan-like common ancestor (loose society)
13 million years ago (Ma)

Family Hominidae Subfamily Homininae
7 Ma

orangutan (loose society) bonobo-like common ancestor (matriarch collective)

gorilla (patriarch collective society) human (harmonious society)

Tribe Hominin
6 Ma 2 Ma

Genus Pan

chimpanzee (patriarch individualistic society) bonobo (matriarch collective society) Ape Evolution
History the original ape (> 13 Ma) the first split ( 13 Ma) the second split ( 7 Ma) the third split (6 Ma) the fourth split (2 Ma) Initial Habitat (1 = best food resource and security) dense forest/tree (1) dense forest/tree (2) diverse forest/ground (3) hospitable woodland/ground (4) Inhospitable woodland/tree (5) Characteristic the solitary ape the peacemaking ape the loyal ape the harmonious ape the aggressive ape Social Structure loose society matriarch collective society patriarch collective society harmonious society patriarch individualistic society

Orangutan Bonobo Gorilla Human Chimpanzee

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2.4. Hominid Evolution

Human social lives are derived from human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. During ape evolution, the harmonious social life started to emerge. During hominid evolution, the harmonious social life based on the conscience instinct was fully developed. Human is Homo sapiens, which is the only non-extinct species of hominids. Hominid evolution started from woodland in Africa. From 6 Ma to 2 Ma, the drier and cooler climate progressed slowly. By around 6 Ma to 2 Ma in Africa, an apelike species had evolved with two important traits that distinguished it from apes: (1) bipedalism and (2) small canine teeth. The two most complete skeletons for early hominids are Ardi and Lucy (Australopithecus afarensis) 82. Ardi (45% complete skeleton) is estimated to be 4.4 million years ago. (Similar to other apes, Ardi's skull encased a small brain – 300 to 350 cc.) She lived in grassy woodland with patches of denser forest and freshwater springs. The further decrease in temperature and rain decreased food resource and security as shown in Lucy (40% complete skeleton) in 3.2 million years ago. (The brain size is 450-530cc.) The environmental pressure led to the small expansion of the brain as shown in the larger brain in Lucy than in Ardi. After about 2.8 Ma, in East Africa east of the African Rift System, the environment pressure came from the climate fluctuation and significant drying. During this period, parts of forest and woodland turned to grassland. Without the protection of forest, the bipedal hominid in the open grassland faced predators from both large dangerous animals 83 and intense inter-group competition. The climate fluctuation and open grassland forced hominids to evolve quickly in terms of the brain size to thrive in diverse environments including forests, woodlands, and grassland savannas. It involved the usage of tools and the emergence of the highly efficient cooperative harmonious society based on the conscience instinct as the combination of hyper friendliness and theory of mind for social cooperation. The usage of tools and the highly efficient cooperative harmonious society allowed human to thrive in diverse environments. With bipedalism, the walking hands turned into free hands that allowed the potential for many usages. For the Australopithecines, the usage is gestural language to improve communication for survival as discussed previously. The brain size was only slightly larger than other apes. In the next 2 million years, the Australopithecine evolved into the Homo with larger brain than its predecessor. The next most significant gradual change of hominid evolution is the conversion of free hands into manipulative hands with precision grip resulting in the acquisition of tool-use and making. The most primitive stone tool-use hominid family is Homo habilis in about 2.2-1.6 Ma. (The brain size is 750-850cc.) Because tool-use and making required thinking and precision manipulation, the competitive advantage of the tooluse and making resulted in the rapid expansion of the brain for tool-use and making. The use of tools allowed hominids to hunt and butcher animals which provided the nutrients for the brain. Eventually, (1.9-0.1 Ma), Homo erectus had not only perfected stone tools considerably but had also learned how to control and use fire. (Homo habilis and Homo

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erectus coexisted. The brain size is 1000-1250 cc.) The hearth for fire and the gathering for cooperative tool manufacture promoted the development of social organization. The competitive advantage of social organization resulted in the rapid development of spoken language to aid gestural language in the same area of the brain. The bone structures of Homo erectus showed signs for commanding speech. For speech, Homo erectus had a larynx with an equivalent position to that of an 8-year-old modern child 84. Both brain-size and the presence of the Broca's area also support the use of articulate language85. The competitive advantage of the spoken language led to theory of mind as mentioned before. Ardi already had vocal/facial/gestural communication as hyper friendliness. The combination of hyper friendliness and theory of mind from theory of mind led to the conscience instinct that is maximum eager cooperation without lie. The social life is the harmonious social life in the harmonious society. Homo erectus was probably the first hominid to live in small, familiar band-societies similar to modern hunter-gatherer bandsocieties86. Language alone cannot solve all social conflicts to achieve maximum eager cooperation without lie, so it is necessary to control social conflicts by will. The social behaviors were still affected greatly by the instincts from the old non-harmonious social lives that hinder frequently maximum eager cooperation without lie. The competitive advantage of the harmonious society (TIT FOR TAT strategy as the best strategy) resulted in the expansion of the prefrontal cortex to control the non-harmonious instincts. As the brain had tripled in size during human evolution, the prefrontal cortex had increased in size six fold. The prefrontal cortex in humans occupies a far larger percentage of the brain than any other animal. Adult humans with injure in the prefrontal cortex know what to do for socialization, but do not have the will to do for socialization. Therefore, the conscience instinct can be divided into the conscience intelligence for the knowledge of socialization and the conscience will to control the non-harmonious instincts to achieve maximum eager cooperation without lie. A large part of the prefrontal cortex is for the conscience will connecting emotion and instinct areas in the brain. The competitive advantage of the harmonious society filtered out the less harmonious people and social groups (trouble makers) who were marginalized or forced to move out of the harmonious society. The remaining people with the harmonious social life continued to evolve into even more harmonious social life, and the less harmonious people and groups continued to be marginalized or move out. The technological and social 87 selections generated the unusually fast evolution of the hominid brain. Eventually, the most technologically advanced and harmonious hominid, Homo sapiens, emerged in Africa where the harmonious society originated. This social movement follows exactly the outcome for the TIT FOR TAT strategy as the best strategy to defeat all other strategies. The earliest Homo sapiens found in Ethiopia were dated to be about 200,000 years old. (The brain size is 1,350 cc.) The brain of Homo sapiens reaches the maximum efficiency in terms of size and complexity. Any additional size and complexity to achieve higher harmonious social life are counter-productive88, so Homo sapiens have the maximum harmonious social life rather than the ideal harmonious social life. The genetic psychological reinforcement of the harmonious social life is achieved by both the positive good feeling in practicing the harmonious social life and the negative bad feeling in violating conscience for the harmonious social life. For the detection

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instinct in conscience, the automatic emergence of shame and uneasiness in lying is the negative bad feeling in violating conscience. Such bad feeling of lying moves people toward honesty. For hyper friendliness in conscience, the automatic emergence of miserable feeling in loneliness steers people toward social connection. Psychologist John Cacippo 89 finds that prolonged loneliness can be as harmful to health as smoking or obesity. Since conscience involves significantly the prefrontal cortex, loneliness impairs the performance of the prefrontal cortex, such as in logical reasoning90. Such harmful and miserable effect of loneliness indicates the strong preference of social connection through the harmonious connection in a social group for our primitive ancestors. In summary, walking hands turned into free hands by bipedalism. Free hands allowed improved gestural language that became the expression of hyper friendliness. Such evolution took place in woodland without the requirement of additional brain expansion for intelligence. In the highly impoverished and insecure open grassland, the brain started to expand as free hands evolved into manipulative hands to make improved tools. The appearance of very useful spoken language greatly accelerated the expansion of the brain. The spoken language became the expression of theory of mind as theory of mind that exists only in human. The combination of hyper friendliness and theory of mind resulted in the conscience instinct. The enhanced conscience instinct came from the expansion of the prefrontal cortex to control the non-harmonious instincts. Hominid evolution is the evolution of the conscience instinct. Hominid evolution as the evolution of the conscience instinct is as follows.

Hominid Evolution: The Evolution of the Conscience Instinct
walking hands (bonobo-like common ancestor)
bipedalism

free hands for gestural language as hyper friendliness (non-Homo hominids 6-1 Ma) manipulative hands for tool (Homo habilis 2.2-1.6 Ma) speech for theory of mind (Homo erectus 1.9-0.1 Ma)

hyper friendliness

theory of mind (detective instinct) conscience instinct
extra prefrontal cortex

enhanced conscience instinct (Homo sapiens <0.2 Ma) conscience intelligence conscience will

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The prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society as maximized eager for the prehistoric primitive hunters and gatherers, social connection through the harmonious human relation instead of the accumulation of wealth, fame, pleasure, organization, and power was essential for human survival. The harmonious hunter-gatherer society as maximum eager cooperation without lie is egalitarian, democratic, and peaceful. The hunter-gatherers were averaged 6 inches taller than agricultural peoples up to 100 years ago. Each person lived adequately. Today, we are now as tall as we once were. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society may be similar to the modern Bushman in African’s Kalahari Desert as described by Marshall Sahlins’ “The Original Affluent Society”91. The hunter-gatherer society in small groups (about 20-35 people) adjusts its daily needs and desires with what is available to them. The period between childbirths is four to five years by the long prolonged lactation, so the population growth is very slow. Available food is actually fairly adequate for their modest need without population pressure. Without material accumulation, they work only for daily needs, so only the able-bodied work no more than 19 hours only a week, and 40% of people do not need to work. Without clear property lines, they welcome all visitors. They do not have to permanently stay in one social group. A great deal of evidence suggests that the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was much less war-like than later peoples. Archaeological studies throughout the world have found hardly any evidence of warfare the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. Many of the world’s cultures have myths that refer to an earlier time when life was the balance way of social life. In classical Greece and Rome this was known as the Golden Age; in China it was the Age of Perfect Virtue, in India it was the Krita Yuga (Perfect Age), while the Judeo-Christian tradition has the story of the Garden of Eden92. The harmonious social life is the origin of the uniquely human social life. The harmonious prehistoric society was based on the conscience instinct without external artificial rules, identities, and desires for wealth. For Judaism, Islam, and Christianity, the harmonious social life is the human original life created by God in the image of God. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. (Genesis 1:27) The harmonious social life is based on conscience for all people as described by Paul in the Bible. Indeed, when Gentiles, who do not have the law, do by nature things required by the law, they are a law for themselves, even though they do not have the law, since they show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts now accusing, now even defending them. (Romans 2:14-15) The goal of this command is love, which comes from a pure heart and a good conscience and a sincere faith. (1 Timothy 1:5) For Zen Buddhism, the harmonious social life as the original human social life is the Buddha nature that all people have in them. Everyone can achieve the Buddha nature.

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As mentioned before, Mencius, a great Confucian teacher, described the human innate goodness. He believed everyone could be Yao and Yu (the Chinese ancient mystic saintemperors). The imitation of the prehistoric harmonious society was described by Laozi, a founder of Daoism, as a small state with few people. Let the states be small and people few. Have all kinds of tools, yet let no one use them. Have the people regard death gravely and do not migrate far. Though they might have boats and carriages, no one will ride them; through they might have weapons, no one will display them. Have the people return to knotting cords (for their records) and using them. They will relish their food, regard their clothing as beautiful. Feel safe and secure in their homes. Delight in their customs. Neighboring states might overlook one another and the sounds of chickens and dogs might be overheard; yet the people will arrive at old age and death with no comings and going between them. (Dao De Jing: Chapter 80) For Laozi, there are two different ways, the Way (Dao) and the civilized way. The Way was practiced by the prehistoric harmonious society based on the harmonious social life with the conscience instinct. The civilized way is practiced by the civilized society based on the non-harmonious lives with external artificial rules, identities (names), and desires for wealth. The two different ways are described in the first chapter of Dao De Jing. The way can be spoken of is not the constant Way; the name can be named is not the constant Name. The nameless is the beginning of all things; the name is the mother of all things. Therefore, the one without constant desire will perceive its subtleties; the one with constant desire will perceive its boundaries. These two are the same in source but different in name. Both of them are called the mystery. It is the mystery of mysteries. It is the gateway to all subtleties. (Dao De Jing: Chapter 1) In the Chapter I of Dao De Jing, the Way (the harmonious social life) includes the constant Way, the constant Name, the nameless, and the one without constant desire. The civilized way (the non-harmonious lives) includes the way, the name, the name, and the one with constant desire. The Way and the civilized way come from the same source in the mysterious and subtle human mind.

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3. The Prehistoric Eden: the prehistoric harmonious society

Scripture

The Prehistoric Eden explains the Garden of Eden where the prehistoric human society interacted with the supernatural in the Chapter 2:7-8. The Original Bible Genesis 2 7 the LORD God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being. 8 Now the LORD God had planted a garden in the east, in Eden; and there he put the man he had formed. The Universal Bible Genesis 2 7 the LORD God formed the human from the natural (hunter-gatherer) society and breathed into human nostrils the abstract bond a, and the human became a religious being. 8 Now the LORD God had planted a religion; and there he put the human he had formed.
a. an non-representation of the expression of natural human mind

The Prehistoric Eden explains the Garden of Eden where the prehistoric human society and human brain were evolved and chosen by the supernatural. The Original Bible Genesis 2 7 the LORD God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being. 8 Now the LORD God had planted a garden in the east, in Eden; and there he put the man he had formed. The Universal Bible Genesis 2 7 the LORD God formed the human from the natural (hunter-gatherer) society and breathed into human nostrils the abstract bond a, and the human became a religious being. 8 Now the LORD God had planted a religion; and there he put the human he had formed.
a. an non-representation of the expression of natural human mind

Introduction

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In the Bible, God created humans twice. The first time is in Chapter 1 of Genesis. “So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. (Genesis 1:27)” The second time is in Chapter 2 of Genesis. “The LORD God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being. Now the LORD God had planted a garden in the east, in Eden; and there he put the man he had formed. (Genesis 2: 7-8)” The original humans that God created were the original humans. The way God created the original human was like the way God created everything else. In the second time, the way that God created humans was special. God directly interacted with the human by breathing nostrils the breath of life, and placed the human in the Garden of Eden. The original humans became the religious humans. The last chapter deals with the original humans, and this chapter deals with the religious humans. The interaction between God and humans involves supernatural selection. In supernatural selection, the supernatural selects the harmonious society as the chosen society. Through the supernatural miracle (the non-representation of the natural physical laws), the supernatural selects the human harmonious society to survive by the supernatural revelation of the abstractness (the non-representation of the expression of the natural human mind). During the Upper Paleolithic Period, the supernatural revealed the abstract bond for bonding the isolated social groups to survive the harsh environment in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society.
3.1. Supernatural Selection

Human as a species evolves through natural selection. In natural selection, the nature selects the fittest species to survive by natural competition. Religion evolves through supernatural selection. In supernatural selection, the supernatural selects human as the chosen species, the harmonious social life as the chosen social life, and the harmonious society as the chosen society. Through the supernatural miracle (the nonrepresentation of the natural physical laws), the supernatural selects the harmonious society to survive by the supernatural revelation of the abstractness (the nonrepresentation of the expression of the natural human mind), including the abstract bond, the abstract morality, and the abstract rebirth. The harmonious society is not the fittest society under all natural conditions, so in natural selection, the harmonious society may not survive under certain natural conditions. In the different human societies in need, the supernatural has appeared in different functions to preserve the harmonious society and the harmonious social life. For about 160,000 years, when the harmonious society and the harmonious social life prevailed, the supernatural did not appear explicitly and directly in the human society. In the harsh environment of the Upper Paleolithic Period about 40,000 years ago, the supernatural became the supernatural bonder for the abstract bond bonding the isolated social groups to survive the harsh environment. The abstract bond results in the Prehistoric Eden corresponding to the Garden of Eden and Symbolic Religion. For the immoral yin-yang civilized society, God became the supernatural authority for the abstract morality to prevent the destructive dehumanized prey-predator instincts. The abstract morality leads to the Moral Covenant corresponding to the Old Testament and the moral religion. For the civilized people, God also became the supernatural liberator for the abstract rebirth to

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return to the harmonious social life. The abstract rebirth brings about the Harmonious Covenant corresponding to the New Testament and the harmonious religion.
Supernatural Symbol supernatural bonder Supernatural authority Supernatural liberator Abstractness Abstract bond Abstract morality Abstract rebirth Periods Prehistoric Eden Moral Covenant Harmonious Covenant The Bible Garden of Eden Old Testament New Testament Religion Symbolic Moral Harmonious

The abstractness will be discussed in details later. The human brain is uniquely equipped to accept the abstractness from the supernatural. The three reasons are that the human brain is capable of theory of mind, autobiographic self in the form of life story, and the maintenance of the abstractness. Only human has theory of mind, that is, a person older than about 3 or 4 years old has the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others and to understand that others have mental states that are different from one's own. Nonhumans do not have theory of mind. Based on theory of mind, people can develop theory of supernatural mind, that is, a person can believe in invisible living supernatural that has its own mental state that is different from human mental state, and can directly relate to supernatural. Theory of mind allows human to imagine supernatural. The second unique human characteristic for the acceptance of the supernatural is autobiographic self in the form of life story. This capacity is from episodic memory, which is different from semantic memory. Semantic memory refers to one’s stored knowledge of facts, concepts, and general principles of how the world operates. Semantic memory is the essential memory used to live in the world. Episodic memory, on the other hand, is not essential, and more or less serves as the map for semantic memory. It is an autobiographic story of life experiences. The prefrontal cortex in the human brain is large. The prefrontal cortex has a high number of connections with different parts of the brain. Consequently, the large prefrontal cortex in human is capable to integrate the autobiographic story of life experiences into autobiographic self in the form of the life story. Other animals do not have such autobiographic self. All animals have biological self, the integration of biological parts to determine the boundary of biological self. Only human has a strong autobiographic self to determine the boundary of experiential self. Only human has both biological self and autobiographic self. Autobiographic self in the form of life story brings about path, meaning, and purpose of life. The path of life allows human to map the past, the present, and the future experiences. The meaning of life lets human to know the experiential position in the world. The purpose of life permits human to prioritize life. Because of the changes in life experiences and life expectation, the life story is in a continuous process of revision, resulting in the continuous changes in path, meaning, and purpose of life. The integration of experiences leaves many gaps in terms of the unusual and the unexplainable. Since human is capable of theory of mind that allows an imaginary entity with its own mind, autobiographic self often incorporates the supernatural to fill the gaps in order to complete the life story in an integrate form. Autobiographic self attributes anything unusual and unexplainable to the supernatural. The supernatural becomes the essential part of autobiographic self. The third unique human characteristic for the acceptance of the abstractness from the supernatural is the maintenance of the abstractness. The maintenance of abstractness
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comes from the prefrontal cortex that can inhibit the concrete mind. The prefrontal cortex has a high number of interconnections both between the instinctive part and the emotional part of the brain. As a result, the prefrontal cortex can control instinct and emotion. When the supernatural reveals the abstractness that is outside of the expression in the natural instincts to human, the large human prefrontal cortex is able to inhibit the expression in the natural instincts and to add the abstractness from the supernatural into the natural instincts on the free will. It is difficult for nonhumans to overcome the strong expression in the natural instincts on their free will.
3.2. The Garden of Eden

The the prehistoric Symbolic Religion is the Garden of Eden. For about 160,000 years, the livestyle as the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society society remained mostly unchanged until the Upper Palaeolithic Revolution about 40,000 years ago. The major human social life during this period was the harmonious social life. The natural biological instincts were adequate for the human survival. Similarly to the Industrial and Neolithic Revolutions, the Upper Paleolithic Revolution represents a short time span when numerous inventions appeared and cultural changes occurred. The revolution comprised new religions, technologies, hunting techniques, human burials, and artistic work. The Upper Paleolithic period extended from about 40,000 to between 10,000 and 15,000 years ago. The reasons for these changes in human behavior have been attributed to the changes in climate during the period which encompasses a number of sudden global temperature drops, meaning a worsening of the already bitter climate of the last ice age. A number of sudden temperature drops reduced significantly the area for forest in Europe and Asia. The reduction of forest reduced the food supply, usable timber, and other nonfood materials. The same climate change caused the extinction of Neanderthals, who had survived since 200,000 years ago, and had similar intelligence as Homo sapiens. Homo sapiens faced the same fate of extinction as Neanderthals. One distinct difference between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals during the Upper Paleolithic Revolution is the appearance of the new Homo sapiens’ religion, which saved Homo sapiens from extinction. At the time of the Upper Paleolithic Period, the supernatural was immanent supernatural that appeared everywhere as a part of all objects in the world. Anything unexplained or unusual was attributed to the supernatural. The society was democratic and egalitarian, so there was no authoritative transcendental gods to be worshiped. Everyone and everything was equally an avatar, the incarnation of the supernatural. Such concept of immanent supernatural was prevalent before the Upper Paleolithic Revolution. The symbols for the immanent supernatural were typically the exaggerated and distorted representation of the real natural objects to represent the unexplained and unusual characteristics of the immanent supernatural, so the symbols represented partly the natural and partly the supernatural. (Symbol is the result of the exaggeration of a specific feature of a real object.) Such symbols brought the immanent supernatural to help people. They did not worship such symbols, because there was no concept of worshipping anything authoritative.

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During the harsh time in the Upper Paleolithic Period, the social group that was preoccupied with fertility and vitality for women and men, respectively, and had strong faith in the immanent supernatural had better chance to survive the harsh environment. The common symbols of the immanent supernatural for fertility were the exaggerated and distorted female figurines. In most cases, the female figurines are miniature sculptures of well-rounded female nudes with an overemphasis of the fleshy parts of the body (buttocks, stomach and chest). The sexual accent on the female breasts and the posterior are assumed by many to connote signs of fertility. The head and arms are mostly absent with the stress on the middle of the torso. Thighs tend to be exaggerated tapering into smaller legs. The head has no face. These distorted and exaggerate form of female body represents the immanent supernatural in a natural female body. These religious female figurines were valuable bringing the immanent supernatural to help fertility in the sense of bringing good luck to child birth. Another group of religious symbols is the cave paints for the immanent supernatural to achieve vitality. During the Upper Paleolithic Revolution, the harsh environment prompted people to find alternate mental states to revitalize. The alternate mental states involved hallucinatory or trance states by drugs or repetitive rhyme. The belief in the immanent supernatural within a person made the entrance into the alternate state easy and inevitable. The whole process was manifested in the Paleolithic cave paintings as described by David Lewis-Williams93. In the cave paints, the animals were mystic large strong animals or mystic animals with horns that symbolized maturation and strength. The mystic animal pictures were conceived during the trance states. The mystic powerful animal cave paintings were presented as evidence of spirit journeys previously undertaken. The difference in the religious practice during the Upper Paleolithic Revolution is the increasingly shared religious symbols for the immanent supernatural among different social groups. The enormous distribution of these female figurines implied a ritualistic exchange system with the figurines playing a central role in inter-group relations 94 . Practicing alternate states of the mind also became community rituals among different social groups, often led by shaman inside or outside of caves. The practicing of the alternate state of mind together promoted unity among different social groups. The sharing of the religious symbols brought about the sharing of survival information and resource among different social groups. The sharing could actually improve the fertility and vitality of the groups involved, resulting in the validation of the power of the religious symbols. The result was the rise of the female figurine and cave painting religion. People spent much more energy and time to develop and make such religious symbols for the immanent supernatural, resulting in rapid development and spread in religious art and the involved skills. In terms of theology, when human faced the possibility of extinction in the harsh environment, God initiated the supernatural miracle by Symbolic Religion for fertility and vitality in the forms of female figurines and cave paintings, respectively. Through sharing religious symbols among different social groups by the hyper friendly instinct, the religious symbols were blessed by God with the supernatural miracles. The religious symbols really worked miraculously. Different social groups identified with the common religious symbols, forming the social bond. The religious symbols become the abstract bond outside of the natural mind that relies on actual concrete human interaction. In

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other words, the religious symbols instantly evoke social bond without actual concrete human interaction. This abstract bond is revealed through the supernatural miracle. Bounded by the blessed religious symbols, different social groups worked together to overcome the harsh environment, avoiding extinction. After providing the way for the abstract bond among different social groups to avoid extinction, the supernatural miracle became increasingly unnecessary. Neanderthals never conceived of an "alternate reality”. From the perspective of Neanderthals, Homo sapiens were delusional to believe in the religious symbols of the immanent supernatural. Without bonding different social groups to overcome the harsh environment, Neanderthals became extinct in about 20,000 BC when Symbolic Religion in terms of female figurines and cave painting was popular. In the Bible, God breathed the abstract bond into Adam to form the religious being to be placed in the Garden of Eden as the first religion as follows. The Original Bible Genesis 2 7 the LORD God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being. 8 Now the LORD God had planted a garden in the east, in Eden; and there he put the man he had formed. The interpretive Bible Genesis 2 7 the LORD God formed the human from the natural (hunter-gatherer) society and breathed into human nostrils the abstract bond a, and the human became a religious being. 8 Now the LORD God had planted a religion; and there he put the human he had formed.
a. a non-representation of the expression of natural human mind

Symbolic Religion in the Upper Paleolithic Revolution started the culture of symbols and rituals to form social bonds. Later, religious symbols and rituals for social bonds expanded to ancestors and particular landmarks, such as mountain and lake. Without symbols and rituals, the human society as we know today cannot exist. The abstract bond has been firmly established in the human society. Gradually, people used symbols for reality other than social bonds. In human language, symbols are used ubiquitously to signify reality.

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4. The Moral Covenant: the Old Testament

Scripture

The emergence of civilization by the agricultural-nomad society caused the exit from the Garden of Eden by taking the fruit of the knowledge of civilization as follows. Original Genesis 3-4 2 The woman said to the serpent, "We may eat fruit from the trees in the garden, 3 but God did say, 'You must not eat fruit from the tree that is in the middle of the garden, and you must not touch it, or you will die.' “4 "You will not surely die," the serpent said to the woman. 5 "For God knows that when you eat of it, your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil." 6 When the woman saw that the fruit of the tree was good for food and pleasing to the eye, and also desirable for gaining wisdom, she took some and ate it. She also gave some to her husband, who was with her, and he ate it. 7 Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they realized they were naked; so they sewed fig leaves together and made coverings for themselves. 1 Adam lay with his wife Eve, and she became pregnant and gave birth to Cain. She said, "With the help of the LORD I have brought forth a man." 2 Later she gave birth to his brother Abel. Now Abel kept flocks, and Cain worked the soil. Universal Genesis 3-4 2 The woman said to the serpent, "We may accept any knowledge on the earth, 3 but God did say, 'You must not accept the knowledge of civilization, and you must not touch it, or you will die.' “4 "You will not surely die," the serpent said to the woman. 5 "For God knows that when you accept the knowledge of civilization, your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil." 6 When the woman saw that the knowledge of civilization was good for food and pleasing to the eye, and also desirable for gaining wisdom, she took some knowledge of civilization. She also gave some to her husband, who was with her, and he took some. 7 Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they realized they could not express openly their real selves; so they made masks, and covered themselves. 1 Adam lay with his wife Eve, and she became pregnant and gave birth to Cain. She said, "With the help of the LORD I have brought forth a man." 2 Later she gave birth to his brother Abel. Now Abel kept flocks in the nomad society, and Cain worked the soil in the agricultural society.

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Exodus, the second book in the Bible, showed a representative civilized domination society consisting of the ruling class (Egyptians) and the slave class (Israelites). This civilized society was very much different from the egalitarian natural (hunter-gatherer) society. The slaves cried for help. During that long period, the king of Egypt died. The Israelites groaned in their slavery and cried out, and their cry for help because of their slavery went up to God. (Exodus 2:23) When God listened to the cry, and recruited Moses to lead the slaves to freedom, God was the authoritative transcendental supernatural, instead of the friendly immanent supernatural. As the society evolved from the harmonious society into the civilized society, God evolved from the egalitarian immanent supernatural into the authoritative transcendental supernatural. Now Moses was tending the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian, and he led the flock to the far side of the desert and came to Horeb, the mountain of God. There the angel of the LORD appeared to him in flames of fire from within a bush. Moses saw that though the bush was on fire it did not burn up. So Moses thought, "I will go over and see this strange sight—why the bush does not burn up." When the LORD saw that he had gone over to look, God called to him from within the bush, "Moses! Moses!" And Moses said, "Here I am." "Do not come any closer," God said. "Take off your sandals, for the place where you are standing is holy ground." Then he said, "I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob." At this, Moses hid his face, because he was afraid to look at God. The LORD said, "I have indeed seen the misery of my people in Egypt. I have heard them crying out because of their slave drivers, and I am concerned about their suffering. So I have come down to rescue them from the hand of the Egyptians and to bring them up out of that land into a good and spacious land, a land flowing with milk and honey—the home of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites. And now the cry of the Israelites has reached me, and I have seen the way the Egyptians are oppressing them. So now, go. I am sending you to Pharaoh to bring my people the Israelites out of Egypt." (Exodus 3:1-10) The ruling class, Egyptians, had a king, the king-god, equivalent to the transcendental supernatural. God wanted to be God for the slaves who cried out for God’s help. After struggles, Egyptians let Israelites go. God spoke to Israelites. And God spoke all these words: "I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery. (Exodus 20:1-2) God became the high ruler for Israelites. God did not return them to the harmonious society. God led them to a place, Canaan, for civilization as a part of the covenant between God and Israelites.

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I also established my covenant with them to give them the land of Canaan, where they lived as aliens. (Exodus 6:4) The Israel society became the moral civilized society with God as the authoritative transcendental supernatural. The covenant includes God’s words in the Ten Commandments. Then the LORD said to Moses, "Write down these words, for in accordance with these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israel." Moses was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights without eating bread or drinking water. And he wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant—the Ten Commandments. (Exodus 34:27-28) Then he took the Book of the Covenant and read it to the people. They responded, "We will do everything the LORD has said; we will obey." (Exodus 24:7) Under the Ten Commandments, everyone was equal. No one, including human ruler, was greater than God’s words. God was the high ruler.
4.1. The Exit from the Prehistoric Eden

The Neolithic Revolution as the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering to the cultivated crops and domesticated animals for their subsistence was first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies about 10,000 years ago. The Neolithic Revolution may be caused by climatic change from the retreat of the glaciers at the end of the last Ice Age at about 12,000 BC. These climatic shifts prompted the migration of many big game animals to new pasturelands in northern areas. They left a dwindling supply of game for human hunters in areas such as the Middle East. Climatic shifts also led to changes in the distribution and growing patterns of wild grains and other crops on which hunters and gatherers depended. These changes forced people to systematic cultivation of plants and domestication of animals as the supplement for the undependable source of food by gathering and hunting. As cultivated crops and domesticated animals improved, people depended on cultivated crops and domesticated animals as the main food source. The first society resulted from the Neolithic Revolution is the horticulturalpastoral society95. Horticulture is agriculture before the invention of the plow. In simple horticultural societies, the gardeners used their hands assisted by digging sticks. Advanced horticultural societies used the hoe. They grew enough to support their families and local group but not enough to produce surpluses to sell to non-agricultural peoples. Because horticulture required more labor, to have more children became necessity. Women therefore had more children with shorter lactation period, and became less available in production. In horticulture, women were still able to farm and be productive while maintaining their reproductive roles. Gender inequality was not severe. The main source of food supply in pastoral societies was by domestication of animals. These societies were typically found in mountainous regions and in areas with

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insufficient rainfall to support horticultural societies. In desert areas they travel from water hole to water hole. In mountain areas they move up and down the terrain as the weather changes. The increase in population in the horticultural society forced people to use more productive method for the cultivation of crops. The method involved plow and draft animals, resulting in the agricultural-nomad society. Plowing maintained the fertility of the soil by turning topsoil. Agriculture could support population increases by more intensive use of the same piece of land. Agriculture could support a much larger population than horticulture. Farmers grew crops for sale rather than crops grown only for household use. Market became an important part of society. Surplus food production brought about non-food-producing professionals, such as religious or ruling elites. Large cities emerged. It is the start of civilization whose original meaning relates to being a citizen, who is governed by the law of one’s city, town or community. Plowing by draft animals allowed large farm far away from home. Plow technology, which required more upper body strength and allowed large farm far away from home, did not allowed women to participate in plowing the fields and rearing children at the same time. They still did much of the processing and preserving of food, but their contribution to the household was not as valued as the work that men did because they did not contribute economically by selling products. Gender inequality was severe in the agricultural society. Civilization was an irreversible process, because the large population caused by civilization had to be supported by agriculture. The reverse to the pre-agricultural-nomad society would have led to mass starvation. The agricultural society required to stay in the same place, so it was more prone to the periodic local natural disaster, unlike the hunter-gatherer society that was free to move away from local natural disaster. The constant population pressure and the periodic natural disasters caused the deficient resource and security. The hunter-gatherers were averaged 6 inches taller than agricultural peoples up to 100 years ago. Today, we are now as tall as we once were. The life expectancy in the agricultural-nomad society was actually shorter than in the hunter-gatherer society. Because one of the rules for TIT FOR TAT is the probability of meeting the same player again exceeds 2/3, the large size social group does not allow TIT FOR TAT strategy for the harmonious society. TIT FOR TAT is essentially a strategy for a small social group, like the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. The agricultural society with large size social group and deficient resource and security forced the society moving away from the original harmonious society that had small social group and adequate resource and security. A sign of immorality in the agricultural-nomad society is warfare. Cultural anthropologist, Raymond C. Kelly 96 believes that warfare originated very late in human evolution. Archaeological evidence points to a commencement of warfare that postdates the development of agriculture. This strongly implies that earlier hunter-gatherer societies were warless and that the Paleolithic was a time of universal peace. One example is Japan where the agricultural society was established very late. In Japan, intensive agriculture came in with migrants from the mainland about 2,300 years ago. Archaeologists have excavated some 5,000 skeletons that predate the intrusion, and of those only ten show signs of violent death. In contrast, out of about 1,000 post-migration

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excavated skeletons, more than a hundred show such signs. The result was the immoral yin-yang civilized society, deviated greatly from the harmonious society. Consequently, humans moved out of the Garden of Eden. In the Bible, the emergence of civilization by the agricultural-nomad society caused the exit from the Garden of Eden by taking the fruit of the knowledge of civilization. The power struggle in an enormous dominant hierarchical group in civilization deviated greatly from the human nature consisting of love and diligence in a small egalitarian social group. The emergence of civilization by the agricultural-nomad society caused the exit from the Garden of Eden by taking the fruit of the knowledge of civilization as follows. Original Genesis 3-4 2 The woman said to the serpent, "We may eat fruit from the trees in the garden, 3 but God did say, 'You must not eat fruit from the tree that is in the middle of the garden, and you must not touch it, or you will die.' “4 "You will not surely die," the serpent said to the woman. 5 "For God knows that when you eat of it, your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil." 6 When the woman saw that the fruit of the tree was good for food and pleasing to the eye, and also desirable for gaining wisdom, she took some and ate it. She also gave some to her husband, who was with her, and he ate it. 7 Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they realized they were naked; so they sewed fig leaves together and made coverings for themselves. 1 Adam lay with his wife Eve, and she became pregnant and gave birth to Cain. She said, "With the help of the LORD I have brought forth a man." 2 Later she gave birth to his brother Abel. Now Abel kept flocks, and Cain worked the soil. Universal Genesis 3-4 2 The woman said to the serpent, "We may accept any knowledge on the earth, 3 but God did say, 'You must not accept the knowledge of civilization, and you must not touch it, or you will die.' “4 "You will not surely die," the serpent said to the woman. 5 "For God knows that when you accept the knowledge of civilization, your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil." 6 When the woman saw that the knowledge of civilization was good for food and pleasing to the eye, and also desirable for gaining wisdom, she took some knowledge of civilization. She also gave some to her husband, who was with her, and he took some. 7 Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they realized they could not express openly their real selves; so they made masks, and covered themselves. 1 Adam lay with his wife Eve, and she became pregnant and gave birth to Cain. She said, "With the help of the LORD I have brought forth a man." 2 Later she gave birth to his brother Abel. Now Abel kept flocks in the nomad society, and Cain worked the soil in the agricultural society.
4.2. The Abstract Morality

The Neolithic Revolution as the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering to the cultivated crops and domesticated animals for their subsistence was first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies about 10,000 years ago. The Neolithic

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Revolution led to human civilization. Because one of the rules for TIT FOR TAT is the probability of meeting the same player again exceeds 2/3, the large size social group does not allow TIT FOR TAT strategy for the harmonious society. TIT FOR TAT is essentially a strategy for a small social group, like the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. The agricultural society with large size social group and deficient resource and security forced the society moving away from the original harmonious society that had small social group and adequate resource and security. The civilization resulted in the degradation of the society from the harmonious society with the minimum social barrier into the dominative collective society with the maximum social barrier in terms of social memory, hierarchy, and gender distinction. Initial eager cooperation without lie in the harmonious society became domination with force in the dominative collective society. The force easily degraded further into the dehumanized force from the activated dehumanized prey-predator instincts, which produced dehumanized wars and slavery system. The result was the immoral yin-yang civilized society, deviated greatly from the harmonious society. Consequently, humans moved out of the Garden of Eden. When human faced the possibility of destruction in the immoral yin-yang civilized society with the activated dehumanized prey-predator instincts, God became the supernatural authority for the abstract morality to prevent the activation of the dehumanized prey-predator instinct. Since humans by nature have both the humanized instincts and the dehumanized prey-predator instincts, the abstract morality as the prevention of the activated dehumanized prey-predator instincts is abstract outside of the expression of biological instincts. The supernatural authority rules over all human rulers with the abstract morality. The supernatural authority becomes the “High Ruler”. The religious civilized social groups that worship the authoritative transcendental supernatural as the high ruler for the abstract morality are blessed by God with the supernatural miracles. Judaism and Islam believe in one personal God or Allah, while Confucianism believes in one impersonal God (Heaven (Tian) or High Ruler (Shang-di)). Hinduism is polymorphic monotheism where one God assumes many forms. The religions of the supernatural authority for the abstract morality are blessed by the supernatural with supernatural miracles. The immoral religions that worshiped human king as in the kinggod religions perished. A typical example of the abstract morality is the Ten Commandments from Exodus 20, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Thou Shall Have No Other Gods beside Me Thou Shall Not Worship Any Graven Images Thou Shall Not Take the Name of the Lord Thy God in Vain Remember the Sabbath Day to Rest and Keep it Holy Honor Thy Father and Thy Mother Thou Shall Not Kill Thou Shall Not Commit Adultery Thou Shall Not Steal Thou Shall Not Bear False Witness Thou Shall Not Covet Anything that is Thy Neighbor's

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The first four commandments are to accept the Lord as the supernatural authority. The fifth commandment is to accept parents as the earthly authority. The rest of the commandments are for the prevention of the activation of the dehumanized prey-predator instincts, such as the addictive instinct for greed and the predatory instinct for harming people. In China, the prevalent and official version of God is one impersonal God with the interchangeable names of the Heaven and the High Ruler. The worship of the Heaven by emperors took place in the Temple of Heaven. The current Temple of Heaven was built in 1420 A.D. According to historical records, such formal worship of the Heaven can be traced back to 2000 BC. The emperors built the Temple of Heaven that demanded the highest level of skills and the perfection in the art of construction. During the worship, emperors knelled down before the Heaven like every one else. The first three Dynasties (the Xia, Shang, and Zhou) all arose in the north in the second millennium BC. The founders of Zhou believed that the Shang dynasty has lost the mandate because of its gross ritual and moral failings. They received the mandate from Heaven to rule China because of their virtue, consisting of kindness, humbleness, and just. The founders of Zhou accepted the high ruler for the abstract morality of morality. Confucius was born around 551 BC in China. The Zhou dynasty had been in power for 600 years, and was to persist until 253 BC, but the Zhou king had not been able to rule the whole China for the last 200 years. Without a centralized power, feudal states engaged in frequent and devastating wars among themselves. The wars among nobilities destroyed the framework of virtue established in early Zhou. Confucius devised a moral system for common people to claim the legitimacy of the mandate from Heaven. A person who knows the will of Heaven becomes a superior man. The Master said, "Without recognizing the ordinances of Heaven, it is impossible to be a superior man.” Analects XX: 3: 1 Confucius said, "There are three things of which the superior man stands in awe. He stands in awe of the ordinances of Heaven. He stands in awe of great men. He stands in awe of the words of sages. “ Analects XVI: 8.1 When Confucius was in danger being killed by Huan Tui, The Master said, 'Heaven produced the virtue that is in me. What can Huan Tui do to me?' (Analects VII: 22) For Confucius, the virtue of Heaven in him formed a mysterious protection over him. When Confucius was sick, one of his students wanted to pray for him. The Master said, 'My praying has been for a long time.' (Analects VII: 34) By following the will of Heaven, Confucius was in continuous contact with Heaven in a form of prayer.

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5. The Harmonious Covenant: the New Testament

Scripture

The harmonious social identity that Jesus provides is the kingdom of God. To enter into the kingdom of God requires the rebirth. In reply Jesus declared, "I tell you the truth, no one can see the kingdom of God unless he is born again." "How can a man be born when he is old?" Nicodemus asked. "Surely he cannot enter a second time into his mother's womb to be born!" Jesus answered, "I tell you the truth, no one can enter the kingdom of God unless he is born of water and the Spirit. Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives birth to spirit. You should not be surprised at my saying, 'You must be born again.' (John 3:3-7) "The time has come," he said. "The kingdom of God is near. Repent and believe the good news!" (Mark 1:15) According to Paul who experienced the rebirth, I have been crucified with Christ and I no longer live, but Christ lives in me. The life I live in the body, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me. (Galatians 2:20) A Jesus’ last command to his disciples is A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another. (John 13:34-35) The ideal society according to Jesus is the return to the harmonious society through the rebirth. Jesus found the new covenant, the Harmonious Covenant. For this reason Christ is the mediator of a new covenant, that those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance—now that he has died as a ransom to set them free from the sins committed under the first covenant. (Hebrews 9:15)
5.1. The Abstract Rebirth

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The early harmonious society was developed and separated from the early civilized society. The yin-yang civilized society deviates from the harmonious society, and the major social lives of the civilized people also deviate from the harmonious social life. The civilized social lives are likely the non-harmonious social lives, which produce high social barrier, consisting of long social memory, dominance hierarchy, the gender dichotomy, lie, cruelty, greed, and guilt, among people. With the innate hyper friendly instinct for eager cooperation at the minimum social barrier, the civilized people are uncomfortable with the high social barrier. For some people, the high social barrier is severe enough to cause disconnection and alienation to separate the people from other people. These disconnected and alienated people eager to return to the harmonious social life and society where they can again connect with people. Daoism reflects such sentiment to return to the harmonious society as the pre-civilized society. Daoism and Confucianism developed during a chaotic violence period of Chinese history. Confucius sought a return to an idealized moral civilized society as utopia. Daoism sought a return to a more remote past as utopia, the pristine times before humans had been corrupted by culture and civilization. Zhuangzi, a founder of Daoism, stated, The humans of old dwelt in the midst of crudity and chaos; side by side with the rest of the world, they attained simplicity and silence there. At that time the yin and yang were harmonious and still, ghosts and spirits worked no mischief, the four seasons kept to their proper order, the ten thousand things knew no injury, and living creatures were free from premature death. Although humans had knowledge, they did not use it. This was called the Perfect Unity. At this time, no one made a move to do anything, and there was unvarying spontaneity.97 In prehistoric past, all was in harmony and all were happy, living in a simple state of nature. Nothing and nobody died prematurely. Zhuangzi was actually correct. A great deal of evidence suggests that the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was much less warlike than later peoples. Archaeological studies throughout the world have found hardly any evidence of warfare the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. The hunter-gatherers were averaged 6 inches taller than agricultural peoples up to 100 years ago. Today, we are now as tall as we once were. The life expectancy in the agricultural-nomad society was actually shorter than in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. Zhuangzi explained how and why humans went downhill since those ancient, pristine times: The time came, however, when natural potency began to dwindle and decline, and then Suiren and Fuxi stepped forward to take charge of the world. As a result there was compliance, but no longer any unity. Natural potency continued to dwindle and decline, and then Shennong and the Yellow Emperor stepped forward to take charge of the world. As a result, there was security, but no longer any compliance. Virtue continued to dwindle and decline, and then Yao and Shun stepped forward to take charge of the world. They set about in various fashions to order and transform the world, and in doing so defiled purity and shattered simplicity. The Way was pulled apart for the sake of goodness; natural potency was imperiled for the sake of conduct. After this, inborn nature was abandoned

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and minds were set free to roam, mind joining mind in understanding; there was knowledge, but it could not bring stability to the world. After this, 'culture' was added on, and 'breadth' drowned the mind, and after this the people began to be confused and disordered. They had no way to revert to the true form of their inborn nature or to return once more to the Beginning.98 It was culture that ultimately came to stand between humans and their true nature. For the Daoism, the primitive state of nature was the high point of human development. It was a time when humans lived in accordance with the Way and their own inborn natures. Human development went steadily downhill since then. The return to the harmonious society requires the transformation from the nonharmonious social life and society into the harmonious social life and society. The harmonious religions involved in such transformation are Christianity, Buddhism, Daoism, and other spiritual religions. The religions involved in such transformation are Christianity, Buddhism, Daoism, and other spiritual religions. Both Christianity and Buddhism provide the details how the transformation takes place. The transformation can be described in principle and practice.
5.2. The Transformation Principle

The transformation is the transformation from the non-harmonious social life into the harmonious social life. The transformation involves the extinction of the nonharmonious social life and the rebirth into the harmonious social life as follows. the social life level the non-harmonious social life → the extinction of the non-harmonious social life → the rebirth into the harmonious social life On the conscious level, the social life is expressed as autobiographic self. Autobiographic self in a person is the life story of self with goal and meaning of life. In the yin-yang civilized society, it becomes the civilized autographic self through the nonharmonious social lives. The transformation from the non-harmonious social life into the harmonious social life is the transformation from the civilized autobiographic self into the harmonious autobiographic self. The transformation involves first the realization of the futility of the civilized autobiographic self in terms of the eventual appearance of the harmonious social life, so the civilized autobiographic self is actually the no civilized autobiographic self or simply the no-self. However, because self naturally is too important to be replaced, no-self is abstractness, non-representation for the expression of the natural detective instinct. The supernatural miracle reveals the abstract no-self as the alternative to the civilized autobiographic self. For Buddhism, the abstract no-self is the impermanent and imperfect illusive-self absent of reality and independence. For Christianity, the abstract the abstract no-self is the perishable sinful self. The abstract no-self is followed by the abstract self-ending that leads to the abstract rebirth to form the harmonious autobiographic self as below. the conscious (autobiographic self) level 1. the formation of the civilized autobiographic self the non-harmonious social life → the civilized autobiographic self 2. the transformation of the civilized autobiographic self

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the civilized autobiographic self → the abstract no civilized autobiographic self (the abstract no-self) → the abstract no civilized autobiographic self-ending (the abstract no self-ending) → the abstract rebirth into the harmonious autobiographic self = the harmonious social life The supernatural sent the liberators to liberate the civilized people from the bondage of the civilized autobiographic self, and to return to the harmonious society through the abstract rebirth. The harmonious religions include Christianity, Buddhism, Daoism, and other spiritual religions. For Christianity, the no-self is the perishable sinful self (flesh), the self-ending is to die on the cross with Christ, and the rebirth is to resurrect with Christ into the Kingdom of God. For Buddhism, the no-self is the impermanent and imperfect illusiveself and the self-ending is Nirvana that extinguishes the flame of life. Rebirth in the Buddhist context relates to reincarnation. For Buddhism, the abstract rebirth into the harmonious social life corresponds to the way of Bodhisattva that is a person who has achieved enlightenment has chosen to remain in this world to help those who are suffering, instead of going on to Nirvana. Therefore, for Buddhism, the abstract rebirth into the harmonious social life is the Bodhisattva Way rather than reincarnation. For Zen Buddhism, Nirvana and the Bodhisattva Way correspond to the Insight (dun wu) into the futility of the civilized nature and one’s own original nature (Buddha nature), the harmonious social life. Zen Buddhism is essentially the combination of the original Buddhism and Daoism. It has simplicity and spontaneity from Daoism, and discipline and the basic framework from Buddhism. For Daoism, no-self is no civilized self. It does not have a specific self-ending. The rebirth corresponds to the return to the nature away from the civilization.
5.3. The Conversion to the Harmonious Social Life

The civilized society is dominated by the non-harmonious evolutionary societies (the collective and the individualistic societies) that support civilization. Essentially, every civilized human grows up predominately for the non-harmonious fitness (collective wellbeing and individualistic achievement). For the individuals grown up in the nonharmonious civilized society dominated by the non-harmonious social lives, the conversion to the harmonious social life involves the three-stage conversion: the harmonious relationship, the harmonious mind, and the harmonious adaptation. The most suitable identity for the harmonious relationship is the kingdom of God from Christianity. The kingdom of God represents the kingdom of the harmonious relationship based on love. A Jesus’ last command to his disciples is love. A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another. (John 13:34-35) The kingdom of God requires the “self-ending” of the non-harmonious social lives and the “rebirth” into the harmonious social life. In the Christian terminology, the rebirth into the kingdom of God is “justification” (to make just).

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The most suitable identity for the harmonious mind is the fourfold harmonious mind from Buddhism. The harmonious mind is achieved by practicing meditation diligently. The last advice and words from Buddha is “All things are perishable. Strive with earnestness (vayadhamma sankhdra appamddena sampadetha).” The harmonious mind also requires the “self-ending” of the non-harmonious social lives and the “rebirth” into the harmonious social mind. In the Christian terminology, the rebirth into the harmonious mind is “sanctification” (to make sacred). The most suitable identity for the harmonious adaptation to the world (nonharmonious civilization) is water from Daoism. To Laozi, the adaptation of the harmonious social life to the world is like the adaptation of water to its environment. The best are like water. Water benefits all things and does not compete with them. It flows to the lowest level that people disdain. In this it comes near to the Way. (Dao De Jing Chapter 8) The three-stage conversion constitutes the seven-step conversion is as follows.
The Seven-Step Conversion: The harmonious relationship: justification 1. the harmonious relationship identity: the kingdom of God 2. the self-ending 3. the rebirth The harmonious relationship identity that Jesus provides is the kingdom of God. To enter the kingdom of God requires the self-ending of the non-harmonious social lives, which can cause disharmony. The self-ending involves first the confession of disharmony sin and then the repentance from disharmony sin. The rebirth into the spiritual harmonious society is through the acceptance of the salvation by Jesus whose forgiveness of disharmony sin allows the repentant person to have complete harmonious life. The harmonious mind: sanctification 4. the harmonious mind identity: the fourfold harmonious mind (the calm mind, the clear mind, the loving-kindness mind, and the no-self mind) 5. the self-ending 6. the rebirth The starting of sanctification as the rebirth into the harmonious mind is justification as the rebirth into the harmonious relationship. The harmonious mind identity is the fourfold harmonious mind, consisting of the calm mind, the clear mind, the loving-kindness mind, and the no-self mind to transform from the non-harmonious social lives into the harmonious social life. The meditation through the fourfold harmonious mind produces the sudden realization of the non-existence (self-ending) of the nonharmonious autobiographic self and the reappearance (rebirth) of the original human nature with the innate goodness as the harmonious social life. The harmonious adaptation: adaptation: 7. the harmonious adaptation identity: water The harmonious adaptation identity of the harmonious social life to the world (non-harmonious civilization) is non-competitive water.

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The Seven-Step Conversion: the harmonious relationship: justification Step 1: the harmonious relationship identity The harmonious relationship identity that Jesus provides is the kingdom of God. To enter into the kingdom of God requires the rebirth.

In reply Jesus declared, "I tell you the truth, no one can see the kingdom of God unless he is born again." "How can a man be born when he is old?" Nicodemus asked. "Surely he cannot enter a second time into his mother's womb to be born!" Jesus answered, "I tell you the truth, no one can enter the kingdom of God unless he is born of water and the Spirit. Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives birth to spirit. You should not be surprised at my saying, 'You must be born again.' (John 3:3-7) To Jesus, the kingdom is not of this world as the civilized society. Jesus said, "My kingdom is not of this world. If it were, my servants would fight to prevent my arrest by the Jews. But now my kingdom is from another place." (John 18:36) To Jesus, the kingdom of God is not political, and the state of the Roman Emperor was separated from the kingdom of God, as described by Jesus. Then he said to them, "Give to Caesar what is Caesar's, and to God what is God's." (Matthew 22:21) The kingdom of God is within a person as the harmonious social life. Once, having been asked by the Pharisees when the kingdom of God would come, Jesus replied, "The kingdom of God does not come with your careful observation, nor will people say, 'Here it is,' or 'There it is,' because the kingdom of God is within you." (Luke 17:20-21) According to Jesus, the kingdom of God does not belong to the kingdom of civilization as described in the parable of mustard seed and bush. Again he said, "What shall we say the kingdom of God is like, or what parable shall we use to describe it? It is like a mustard seed, which is the smallest seed you plant in the ground. Yet when planted, it grows and becomes the largest of all garden plants, with such big branches that the birds of the air can perch in its shade." (Mark 4:30-32) The kingdom of God starts small like a mustard seed, and it becomes a modest mustard bush. According to the rabbinical law, a mustard plant was forbidden in a household garden because it was fast spreading and would tend to invade the veggies. Mustard is a

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common, fast-spreading plant, which grows to about four feet in height. Garden symbolizes artificial civilization, while mustard represents a plant unlike the normal plants in the artificial civilized garden. The kingdom of God as the kingdom of mustard bush is small and ubiquitous unlike normal civilized plants, but the kingdom of God grows in the civilized garden. The kingdom of God consists of small groups of people. "Do not be afraid, little flock, for your Father has been pleased to give you the kingdom. (Luke 12:32) The civilized society has the propensity to accumulate. The kingdom of God as the harmonious society does not have the propensity to accumulate. Jesus looked at him and said, "How hard it is for the rich to enter the kingdom of God!” (Luke 18:24) Looking at his disciples, he said: "Blessed are you who are poor, for yours is the kingdom of God. (Luke 6:20) But Jesus called the children to him and said, "Let the little children come to me, and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of God belongs to such as these. (Luke 18:16) Therefore, the kingdom of God consists of ubiquitous small groups of people unlike the kingdom of civilization and without accumulation and grandiosity. The kingdom of God corresponds to the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society consisting of ubiquitous small groups of people unlike civilization and without accumulation and grandiosity. The small group of people led by Jesus followed Jesus’ command. A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another. (John 13:34-35) With love from God, the kingdom of God is harmonious as in the prehistoric kingdom of God. Finally, the people in the kingdom of God follow the will of God as Jesus said, "Not everyone who says to me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. (Matthew 7:21) The will of God is the harmonious society. The same aspiration to return to the prehistoric harmonious society is expressed in Daoism. In Daoism, the harmonious relationship identity is the “small state”. Laozi describes the small group society as following. Let the states be small and people few. Have all kinds of tools, yet let no one use them. Have the people regard death gravely and do not migrate far. Though they might have boats and carriages, no one will ride them; through they might have

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weapons, no one will display them. Have the people return to knotting cords (for their records) and using them. They will relish their food, regard their clothing as beautiful. Feel safe and secure in their homes. Delight in their customs. Neighboring states might overlook one another and the sounds of chickens and dogs might be overheard; yet the people will arrive at old age and death with no comings and going between them. (Dao De Jing: Chapter 80) This small state has no ambition to become big and grandiose. The people are plain and content. Step 2: the self-ending The complete harmonious life requires the end of the non-harmonious social lives to have the complete cessation of disharmony sin and disconnection. The end of the nonharmonious social lives involves first the confession of disharmony sin and then the repentance from the disharmonious sin. Disharmony sin is defined as disharmony against fellow humans as described by Paul in Romans 1:29-32. They have become filled with every kind of wickedness, evil, greed and depravity. They are full of envy, murder, strife, deceit and malice. They are gossips, slanderers, God-haters, insolent, arrogant and boastful; they invent ways of doing evil; they disobey their parents; they are senseless, faithless, heartless, ruthless. Although they know God's righteous decree that those who do such things deserve death, they not only continue to do these very things but also approve of those who practice them. (Romans 1:29-32) It is impossible for civilized individuals under the domination of the non-harmonious social lives to avoid all disharmony sins described by Paul. It is not surprising that all civilized humans are not righteous. There is no one righteous, not even one. (Romans 3:10) For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. (Romans 3:23) The confession of disharmony sin is followed by the repentance from disharmony sin. According to Jesus, "The time has come," he said. "The kingdom of God is near. Repent and believe the good news!" (Mark 1:15) Also, according to Peter, Repent, then, and turn to God, so that your sins may be wiped out, that times of refreshing may come from the Lord, (Acts 3:19)
Step 3: the rebirth The rebirth into the spiritual harmonious relationship requires complete harmonious life. Because of disharmony sin, humans cannot achieve complete harmonious life. Through the salvation by the sacrifice of Jesus Christ on the cross,

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disharmony sin can be forgiven. The repentant people who accept the salvation can claim complete harmonious life for the rebirth into the spiritual harmonious society. The acceptance of Jesus is the end of self. I have been crucified with Christ and I no longer live, but Christ lives in me. (Galatians 2:20a) An individual accepts the salvation to become just (righteous) as complete harmonious life which allows the rebirth with Jesus into the harmonious society, the God’s family. “This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. (Romans 3:22)”. “That if you confess with your mouth, "Jesus is Lord," and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. (Romans 10:9)”. “Consequently, you are no longer foreigners and aliens, but fellow citizens with God's people and members of God's household. (Ephesians 2:19)” “Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, one is a new creation; the old has gone, the new has come! (2 Corinthians 5:17).” Jesus represents “the last Adam, a life-giving spirit (1 Corinthians 15:45)” to bring back the original harmonious society of the Garden of Eden. Jesus found the new covenant. For this reason Christ is the mediator of a new covenant, that those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance—now that he has died as a ransom to set them free from the sins committed under the first covenant. (Hebrews 9:15) It is a tremendous life-changing experience to liberate from disharmony sin and disconnection, and to enter into the warm, loving, and egalitarian harmonious society, which is build by Jesus to fill with love. A Jesus’ last command to his disciples is A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another. (John 13:34-35) According to Paul, Christians in the church are interconnected as the body of Christ as he stated,” Now you are the body of Christ, and each one of you is a part of it. (1 Corinthians 12:27)” In terms of organization, the church in small group unit is essentially similar to the pre-historic hunter-gatherer harmonious society. the harmonious mind: sanctification: Step 4: the harmonious mind identity: the fourfold harmonious mind (the calm mind, the clear mind, the loving-kindness mind and the no-self mind) for sanctification The starting of sanctification as the rebirth into the harmonious social mind is justification as the rebirth into the harmonious relationship. The harmonious mind (social life) identity is the fourfold harmonious mind, consisting of the calm mind, the clear mind, the loving-kindness mind, and the no-self mind to transform from the non-harmonious mind into the harmonious mind. They correspond to faith, wisdom, love, and perishable flesh, respectively, in Christianity, and right concentration, right mindfulness, loving-kindness, and emptiness,

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respectively, in Buddhism. For neuroscience, the calm mind and the clear mind relate to the prefrontal cortex to control non-conscience instincts, and the loving-kindness and the no-self relate to the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct, respectively, in the conscience instinct.
Fourfold harmonious mind Christianity Buddhism Neuroscience Purposes Calm mind Clear mind loving-kindness mind Love Loving-kindness no-self perishable flesh Emptiness

Faith Wisdom right right mindfulness concentration prefrontal cortex control non-conscience instincts stress reduction anxiety reduction relaxation and emotional stability integrity and objectivity

Hyper friendly detective instinct instinct enhance conscience instinct Hyper friendly = love detection of the and kindness no-self

As mentioned before, the evolution of the conscience instinct required the expansion of the prefrontal cortex to control the old instincts from the non-harmonious social life. As the brain had tripled in size during human evolution, the prefrontal cortex had increased in size six fold. The prefrontal cortex in humans occupies a far larger percentage of the brain than any other animal. Thus, the prefrontal cortex serves as executive function for the transformation from the non-harmonious social life into the harmonious social life. The prefrontal cortex has a high number of interconnections between both drives and instincts in the brainstem's Reticular Activating System and emotion in the limbic system. As a result, the prefrontal cortex can control pleasure, pain, anger, rage, panic, aggression, fight-flight-freeze responses, and basic sexual responses. A neurological principle in sanctification is to strengthen the neural connection between the prefrontal cortex and drive, instinct, emotion, and cognition in the brain. One indication of the importance of the prefrontal cortex in sanctification is the increased thickness of areas in prefrontal regions of the cerebral cortex associated with the longterm meditation practice of Buddhist monks99. the calm mind: right concentration The calm mind is mainly for stress reduction. The calm mind is based on the prefrontal cortex and the harmonious cooperation among senses, feelings, and thoughts in the mind of person. A calm focus that is produced in the prefrontal cortex cooperates harmoniously with senses, feeling, and thoughts in the mind of a person. In other words, the calm mind is through the prefrontal cortex that concentrates non-judgmentally at one point or task. Distractive emotion is pushed gently aside. Through the prefrontal cortex, the calm mind trains the mind to focus calmly and objectively. Objectivity relates to the perception without distortion by personal emotion and instinct. Eventually, the calm mind disperses and reduces the persistently high emotion due to stress. The calm mind is faith from Christianity and right concentration from the Buddhist Noble Eightfold Path (right view, right aspiration, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right concentration, and right mindfulness). The calm mind is strengthened by meditation and prayer. The meditation for the calm mind is the concentrative meditation. In terms of meditation, the non-verbal

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method includes concentrating on the breath, movement (walking, Sufi dancing, yoga, Qi Gong, and Tai Chi), and mantra. The verbal method involves prayer. In prayer, the close relation with God as a close friend establishes the personal harmonious cooperation within the mind of the person who prays. The personal harmonious cooperation within the mind establishes the calm mind. One of the prayer methods for the calm mind is the centering prayer100 to center at a sacred word. The faith in harmonious cooperation with God during prayer allows calm and objective perception. During meditation, the brain’s activity alters significantly, as mapped by a device called an electroencephalograph (EEG). The most well-known brain waves evident during many kinds of meditation are called alpha waves. When the brain moves into an alpha wave state, many physiological changes occur, such as the parasympathetic half of the autonomic nervous system. This results in lowered blood pressure and heart rate, a reduction in stress hormones and slowed metabolism. If meditation is practiced regularly, these beneficial changes become relatively permanent. The opposition to the calm mind is ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). The common symptom is a persistent pattern of impulsiveness and inattention, with a component of hyperactivity. Typically, ADHD is a developmental disorder. In one study, the region with the greatest average delay is the middle of the prefrontal cortex101, lagged a full five years in development occurred in elementary school aged ADHD patients. The drug, Ritalin, for ADHD stimulates activity in the prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex is important for the calm mind that requires concentration through the prefrontal cortex. One of the symptoms for ADHD is the failure to follow instruction because of the deficiency in the prefrontal cortex. For adult, following instruction is important part of morality, so the calm mind as concentration is important to resist temptation as distraction from the right moral path. Alcohol is forbidden because alcohol also depresses the activity of the sophisticated prefrontal cortex, resulting in lowering the resistance against temptation. Therefore, the calm mind is for both relaxation and integrity through the prefrontal cortex. the clear mind: right mindfulness The clear mind is mainly for anxiety reduction. The clear mind is based on the prefrontal cortex and the harmonious cooperation among senses, feelings, and thoughts in the mind of person. A clear awareness that is produced in the prefrontal cortex cooperates harmoniously with senses, feeling, and thoughts in the mind of a person. In other words, the clear mind is through the prefrontal cortex that is aware clearly and nonjudgmentally of specific sense, feeling, or thought. Distractive awareness is pushed gently aside. Through the prefrontal cortex, the clear mind trains the mind to aware clearly and objectively. Objectivity relates to the perception without distortion by personal emotion and instinct. Eventually, the clear mind disperses and reduces the persistently high emotion due to anxiety. The clear mind is right mindfulness from the Buddhist Noble Eightfold Path and wisdom from Christianity. The meditation for the clear mind is called mindfulness or insight meditation. The meditators pay close attention to sensations and thoughts as they come and go each passing moment but refraining from judging or acting on those objects, thoughts and

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feelings. The basic principle is labeling information. When the scan of self becomes difficult, it is necessary to return to the calm mind step. The prayer for labeling emotion is the mindfulness prayer to talk to God freely because of the personal harmonious cooperation with the Spirit. Guided by the spontaneous Spirit, the prayer is a free association private talk with God. The scan of self is through confession, thanksgiving, and supplication for thoughts and feelings of guilt, happiness, and stress-anxiety, respectively. Basically, it is a free association private talk to God about self, as Paul states. In the same way, the Spirit helps us in our weakness. We do not know what we ought to pray for, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groans that words cannot express. And he who searches our hearts knows the mind of the Spirit, because the Spirit intercedes for the saints in accordance with God's will. (Romans 8:26-27) The clear harmonious communication with God during prayer allows clear and objective perception. The study by Matthew D. Lieberman 102 showed that while the emotion part (amygdala) of the brain was less active when an individual labeled the negative feeling, the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was more active. The individuals trained in the scan of self by the mindfulness meditation have higher activity in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and lower activity in the emotional part of the brain than the individual without the training in the mindfulness meditation. Unlabeled emotional information can lead to stress-anxiety, so labeling information reduces stress-anxiety. Labeling information corresponds to the mindfulness prayer or meditation. A person experienced in the clear mind meditation or prayer can experience all things objectively, particularly during meditation or prayer, because the perception of all things involves the prefrontal cortex. It can overcome instinctive reflexes, such as startle and habituation. Paul Eckman observed and measured the ability of a seasoned meditation practitioner to suppress the startle reflex while meditating. Loud sounds went off out of view and failed to startle this individual while doing his mindfulness (open) meditation, but not during his concentrative (fixed point) meditation. He has found that in general meditators don't get as shocked as nonmeditators to such unpredictable loud sounds103. Similarly, the people with clear mind can handle shocking, unpleasant, and difficult social encounters objectively, because they are experienced in the control of emotion by the prefrontal cortex. In this way, they are able to stay in the middle-way, not psychological extreme. Therefore, the clear mind is for both emotional stability and objectivity through the prefrontal cortex. the loving-kindness mind: Loving-kindness toward all people is derived from the activation of the hyper friendly instinct of the conscience instinct. The loving-kindness is the foundation of morality. The loving-kindness mind can be practice during meditation (the Buddhist nonreferential compassion meditation 104 ) or prayer. Typical sacred verses for the lovingkindness mind from Christianity are

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For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. (John 3:16) Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. Love never fails. (1 Corinthians 13:4-8) For Buddhism, typical verses are from the Karaniya Metta Sutta (Hymn of Universal Love). Let none deceive or decry his fellow anywhere; let none wish others harm in resentment or in hate. Just as with her own life, a mother shields from hurt her own son, her only child, let all-embracing thoughts for all beings be yours. Cultivate an all-embracing mind of love for all throughout the universe in all its height, depth and breadth — Love that is untroubled and beyond hatred or enmity. As you stand, walk, sit or lie, so as long as you are awake, pursue this awareness with your might: It is deemed the Divine State here and now. the no-self mind: The no-self as no non-harmonious autobiographic self is basically derived from the non-existence of non-harmonious autobiographic self with respect to the harmonious social life that was the normal social life in the prehistoric time before the civilization. The realization of the no-self as no non-harmonious autobiographic self is derived from the activation of the detective instinct of the conscience instinct. The non-harmonious autobiographic self becomes questionable. The no non-harmonious autobiographic self along with the questionable non-harmonious autobiographic self is in the right brain. The prefrontal cortex chooses the no non-harmonious autobiographic self to represent the non-harmonious autobiographic self. For Christians, the abstract no-self is the perishable sinful self. For Christianity, “all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. (Romans 3:23), and “the wages of sin is death. (Romans 6:23a)” The self-ending is equivalent to the complete surrendering self to God for the salvation. For Buddhism, the abstract no-self is impermanent and imperfect illusive-self absent of reality and independence. The illusive civilized life is source of disconnection and suffering. For Buddhism, the self-ending is to extinct the illusive no-self. Step 5: the self-ending Nirvana For Christianity, the no-self is the perishable sinful self (flesh), the self-ending is to die on the cross with Christ, and the rebirth is to resurrect with Christ into the kingdom of God. For Buddhism, the no-self is the impermanent and imperfect illusive- self and the self-ending is Nirvana that extinguishes the flame of life. Rebirth in the Buddhist context relates to reincarnation. For Buddhism, the rebirth into the harmonious mind corresponds to the way of Bodhisattva that is a person who has achieved enlightenment has chosen to remain in this world to help those who are suffering, instead of going on to Nirvana. Therefore, for Buddhism, the harmonious mind is the Bodhisattva Way rather than reincarnation. For Zen Buddhism, Nirvana and the Bodhisattva Way correspond to the Insight (dun wu) into the futility of the civilized nature and one’s own original nature (Buddha nature), the harmonious social life.

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To reach the Insight as the transformation from the non-harmonious social life into the harmonious social life, it is necessary to have all four minds in the fourfold harmonious mind involving the conscience instinct and the prefrontal cortex. When the combined fourfold harmonious mind reaches certain critical point unconsciously, the Insight occurs suddenly. The critical point is how a person feels comfortable enough unconsciously to change the social life. The Insight consists of the sudden realization of the non-existence (self-ending) of the non-harmonious autobiographic self and the reappearance (rebirth) of the original human nature with the innate goodness. The Insight is sudden because the mind is mostly unconscious. Since the non-harmonious social life and the harmonious social life always appear and disappear, the Insight is a process rather a fixed point. For Christianity, the Insight is the spiritual Insight into the ultimate relationship between Christ and the perishable flesh from the civilized world. In the Insight for Paul in the Bible, all things are rubbish. What is more, I consider everything a loss compared to the surpassing greatness of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord, for whose sake I have lost all things. I consider them rubbish, that I may gain Christ. (Philippians 3:8) For Buddha, all things are perishable. The last advice and words from Buddha is All things are perishable. Strive with earnestness. (vayadhamma sankhdra appamddena sampadetha) To prehistoric hunters and gatherers who had very little material accumulation, it was not difficult to regard all things as rubbish and perishable. More important than all things, the harmonious social life was the best prehistoric survival strategy, the TIT FOR TAT with maximum eager cooperation without lie. The Insight consists of the self-ending and the rebirth. The self-ending is through the extinguishment of the abstract no-self. The self-ending is Nirvana in Buddhism and the death of self on the cross in Christianity. In the meditation or prayer practice, the self-ending comes from the combination of the no-self mind with any one of the three minds, the calm mind, the clear mind, and the loving-kindness mind. During such practice, self disappears. Occasionally, the self-ending comes suddenly outside of meditation and prayer. After experiential self-ending, there is a sense of letting go of self. The emotion, due to autobiographic self, loses its emotional impact as if the emotional memory of the self-identity fades away. Neurologically, the self-ending is the deliberate inhibition of biological self that determines the boundary of biological self in space and time. The self-ending is observed by the brain activity in meditation and prayer examined by neurologist, Andrew Newberg105. When the meditation by the Tibetan Buddhist monks and the prayer by Franciscan nuns reached to the “peak”, he found increase in activity in the prefrontal lobe and marked decrease in activity in the parietal lobes. The prefrontal lobe is for mental concentration. The parietal lobe is for the orientation of self in space, determining where the self ends and where the external space begins. The decrease in activity in the parietal lobes means the loss of self. At the peak, people have a loss of the sense of self and frequently experience a sense of no space and time. Therefore, the brain activity observed by Newberg corresponds to the self-ending of the biological self, which for a
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meditator is the self-ending of autobiographic self. Thus, the self-ending of autobiographic self has a real brain experience of self-ending, allowing the brain to end or minimize the non-harmonious autobiographic self. Step 6: the rebirth: the Bodhisattva Way Without self, one can feel oneness with the universe in the sense of completely harmonious cooperation with the universe without self. The self-ending leads to the rebirth into the harmonious social life, the human original social life. The harmonious social life is friendlier toward all people, calmer, more contented, more attentive, and more moral than the non-harmonious social lives. The result of sanctification is the harmonious social life with maximum tranquility and contentment. After sanctification, a person with the harmonious social life and compassion in the harmonious society and in the world is described by Paul in the Bible. Love must be sincere. Hate what is evil; cling to what is good. Be devoted to one another in brotherly love. Honor one another above yourselves. Never be lacking in zeal, but keep your spiritual fervor, serving the Lord. Be joyful in hope, patient in affliction, faithful in prayer. Share with God's people who are in need. Practice hospitality. Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse. Rejoice with those who rejoice; mourn with those who mourn. Live in harmony with one another. Do not be proud, but be willing to associate with people of low position. Do not be conceited. Do not repay anyone evil for evil. Be careful to do what is right in the eyes of everybody. If it is possible, as far as it depends on you, live at peace with everyone. (Romans 12:9-18)
The Harmonious Adaptation: Adaptation Step 7: the harmonious adaptation: adaptation
The Harmonious Adaptation: Adaptation Daoism Christianity The harmonious adaptation identity The harmonious adaptation identity The cross Water

The world as non-harmonious civilization consists of the collective and the individualistic societies. Both societies work well and consistently as large social groups in the world. There is a competition between these two societies to determine the most suitable dominant society for civilization. The harmonious society, however, does not work well and consistently as a large social group to support civilization. The harmonious society is simply not a suitable dominant society for the world, so realistically there should not be competition between the harmonious society and the world. The harmonious adaptation identity of the harmonious social life to the world is non-competitive water from Daoism. The best are like water. Water benefits all things and does not compete with them. It flows to the lowest level that people disdain. In this it comes near to the

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Way. In their dwellings, they love the earth. In their hearts, they love what is profound. In their friendship, they love humanity. In their words, they love sincerity. In government, they love good order. In business, they love ability. In their actions, they love timeliness. It is because they do not compete that there is no resentment. (Dao De Jing Chapter 8) To Laozi, the adaptation of the harmonious social life to the world (nonharmonious civilization) is like the adaptation of water to its environment. Water does not compete with its environment in terms of what form to exist. The harmonious social life simply survives whatever form that the world allows it to exist as long as there is a place for the harmonious social life that is different from the social lives of the world. Therefore, the harmonious social life does not mind to exist in the place that the world dislikes. The motivation for the harmonious society to exist is mutual empathy and empowerment, instead of winning. It is like water that benefits the world. Water is close to the Way. The ways to benefit the world is to have down-to-earth living place, thoughtful mind, loving relationship, trustworthy words, orderly government, capable business, and timely action. In the long run, the world appreciates the non-competing harmonious society. Without competing with the world, the harmonious society as Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism actually survives and thrives in the world. Laozi further described the leadership in the social life. It is also like water, soft and yielding. Nothing in the world is as soft and yielding as water, yet nothing can better overcome the hard and strong, for they can neither control nor do away with it. The soft overcomes the hard. The yielding overcomes the strong. Every person knows this, but no one can practice it. Therefore the sage declares: One who accepts the humiliation of the nation may be the priest at the altar. One who accepts the misfortunes of the nation is the Empire's Sovereign. True words are often paradoxical. (Dao De Jing Chapter 78) For Daoism, a leader of the Way accepts the humiliation and the misfortunes of the nation. For Christianity, the symbol of the humiliation and the misfortunes is the cross, and paradoxically, through the cross Jesus reaches priesthood and kinghood. The harmonious adaptation identity of the kingdom of God to the world is the cross that accepts the humiliation and the misfortunes of the world rather than the domination of the world. In the way, paradoxically, the kingdom of God as the harmonious society survives and thrives in the world. The summary of the seven-step conversion to the harmonious social life is as below.

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The Seven-Step Conversion to the Harmonious Social Life
The Harmonious Relationship: Justification 1 2 3 4
禅宗 (Zen Buddhism) Christianity The harmonious relationship identity The kingdom of God The self-ending The rebirth into the harmonious relationship The Harmonious Mind: Sanctification 和谐四心 The harmonious mind identity 镇定心, 清晰心, 仁慈心, 无我心 the fourfold harmonious mind (正定 right concentration, 正念 right mindfulness, 仁慈 the calm mind, the clear mind, the lovingkindness mind, the no-self mind (faith, wisdom, loving-kindness, 无 emptiness) love, and perishable flesh) 灭我 the self-ending 一刹那间妄念俱灭 the non-harmonious autobiographic self-ending 重生 the rebirth into the harmonious social mind 顿见真如本性

5 6 7

The Harmonious Adaptation: Adaptation Christianity Daoism The harmonious adaptation identity The harmonious adaptation identity The cross Water

The Diagrams for the Universal Bible
The Five Periods
the six-day creation (the six days of creation)

the original humans (the sixth day of creation) the Upper Paleolithic Revolution The Prehistoric Eden: the prehistoric harmonious society with the abstract bond the Neolithic Revolution the civilized society The Moral Covenant between God and Israel with the abstract morality The Harmonious Covenant between God and the Christian church with the abstract rebirth

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5.4. The Postmodern Kingdom of God as the Harmonious Society of God 5.4.1. The Harmonious Society of God

The Postmodern Revolution with the global mass telecommunication allows the harmonious society to have a global perspective. The blessed Postmodern Kingdom of God is the harmonious society of God. The three obvious elements in the harmonious society of God are human, God, the interaction between human and God.
5.4.2. Human

The human social lives and society were evolved through natural selection. The two old human social lives are yin and yang, corresponding to female and male psychological characteristics of advanced sexual organisms, corresponding to collective wellbeing, and yang stands for individualistic achievement. Because of the high social barriers for the yin and the yang social lives, eager and free cooperation among individuals is not easy. Eager cooperation among human individuals is possible because the new human social life is harmony. Harmony in terms of harmonious cooperation is the unique new human social life that no other organisms have. In terms of evolution, the departure from other apes is bipedalism, which is the oldest of all hominid characteristics. With bipedalism, the walking hands turned into free hands for enhancing gestural language. Language reduced the social barriers from the old human yin-yang social lives, resulting in the hyper friendly instinct to facilitate eager cooperation, which had evolutionary competitive advantage. In terms of human evolution, the human brain grew larger rapidly to accommodate language and socialization skill. The prefrontal cortex grew even faster to control the old human social lives. The result is the harmonious social life with the conscience instinct that is the combination of the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct for detecting lie associating with elaborate language, resulting in eager cooperation without lie. The society from the harmonious social life is the harmonious society as manifested in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. The harmonious society follows the social behaviors in Humanist Manifesto III 106 that describe what human should be. • Life’s fulfillment emerges from individual participation in the service of humane ideals. • Humans are social by nature and find meaning in relationships. • Working to benefit society maximizes individual happiness.
5.4.3. The Interaction

The supernatural is known only through the interaction of the supernatural and the human society. Beyond the interaction, the seeking for the understanding of the supernatural is unnecessary. Jesus said, “But seek first his kingdom and his righteousness (Matthew 6:33a).” The interaction is through supernatural selection. In supernatural selection, the supernatural selects human as the chosen species, the harmonious social life as the chosen social life, and the harmonious society as the chosen society. Through the supernatural

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miracle (the non-representation of the natural physical laws), the supernatural selects the human harmonious society to survive by the divine revelation of the abstractness (the non-representation of the expression of the natural human mind), including the abstract bond, the abstract morality, and the abstract rebirth. During the Upper Paleolithic Period, the supernatural revealed the abstract bond for bonding the isolated social groups to survive the harsh environment in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. Without the abstract bond (symbolized by female figurines and cave paintings), human would have become extinct like Neanderthals. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society with the abstract bond is the prehistoric harmonious society of God. The harmonious social life essentially follows essentially TIT FOR TAT, the best strategy for the game of prisoner's dilemma. TIT FOR TAT works in small social group. The harmonious social life as TIT FOR TAT does not work in a large social group. The enlargement of social group by civilization from the Neolithic Revolution caused the deviation from the harmonious social life and society. The ideal human social behaviors as described in Humanist Manifesto III do not work well the large civilized social group. To prevent the activated dehumanized preypredator instinct in the civilized society, the moral religion as the transitional harmonious society of God was established in the Old Testament with the abstract morality through the supernatural miracle. Jesus Christ initiated the harmonious society of God with the abstract rebirth.
5.4.4. The Organism Structure of the Harmonious Society of God

The basic unit of social group in the harmonious society is a small social group less than about 35 people, because the harmonious cooperation works the best in a small social group. The structure of the harmonious society is like organism consisting of single cell or multiple cells. Single cell structure is like house church that exists as one small group of people unconnected to other group. Multiple cell structure is the harmonious society consisting of many small groups as the basic units. There are connections among cell groups. There are joint activities among cell groups, but the cell group activity is the essential activity to keep harmonious cooperation as reality, because the harmonious cooperation works well in a small social group.
5.4.5. The Harmonist Manifesto for the Harmonious Society of God

The harmonious society of God is interpreted by human evolution, human history, and psychology to describe the whole human society in the past, the present, and the future. The prehistoric harmonious society of God was the Garden of Eden, which is the prehistoric harmonious society of God. It existed as the prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society. The fall of the prehistoric harmonious society of God resulted from the emergence of civilization that deviated from the harmonious society. The transitional harmonious society of God was the moral religion as Judaism where God was the high ruler. The moral religion maintained high morality in immoral civilization. Jesus Christ initiated the harmonious society of God through the sacrifice and the resurrection. The decline of the harmonious society of God later resulted from the rise of

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the state religion. The decline of the state religion resulted in the return of the harmonious society of God. The return and the future harmonious society of God is the harmonious society of God on earth in the three-branch Unified Society consisting of the collective society, the individualistic society, and the harmonious society for collective wellbeing, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The Harmonist Manifesto is as follows. 1. the name: The harmonious society of God is the harmonious society of God on earth. Jesus Christ is the head. 2. the context The harmonious society of God is the harmonious society in the Unified Society consisting of the collective society, the individualistic society, and the harmonious society for collective wellbeing, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The non-harmonious world consists of the collective society and the individualistic society. 3. the origin: The origin of the harmonious society of God is the interaction between God and humans. The interaction between humans and God is supernatural selection. Through the supernatural miracle (the non-representation of the natural physical laws), God selects the harmonious society as the chosen society by the divine revelation of the abstractness (the non-representation of the expression of the natural human mind), including the abstract bond, the abstract morality, and the abstract rebirth. The abstract rebirth leads to the harmonious society of God. 4. the admission: Unlike the non-harmonious world, the harmonious society of God has the minimum social barrier among God and all people. The minimum social barrier was achieved by the sacrifice of Jesus Christ for all people on the cross to break down the high social barrier of the non-harmonious world. Everyone who accepts the salvation of Jesus Christ can be admitted to the harmonious society of God through the confession of disharmony sins, the repentance from disharmony sins, and the acceptance of the salvation. Because of the unique salvation through Jesus Christ to minimize the social barrier among God and all people, the salvation of Jesus Christ is the path to establish the harmonious relationship in the harmonious society of God. 5. the missions: The first mission is to establish the harmonious relationship among God and all people. The second mission is to learn and practice the harmonious mind as sanctification from all sources. The third mission is to establish the harmonious adaptation that is to benefit without competing with the non-harmonious world and other religious traditions. 6. the structure The social structure is the organism structure consisting of single cell group or multiple cell groups, which are small social groups. Harmonious cooperation works well in a small social group.

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The simple foundation for the harmonious society of God is love as described by Paul in the Bible. If I speak in the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am only a resounding gong or a clanging cymbal. If I have the gift of prophecy and can fathom all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have a faith that can move mountains, but have not love, I am nothing. If I give all I possess to the poor and surrender my body to the flames, but have not love, I gain nothing. Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. 7It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. Love never fails. But where there are prophecies, they will cease; where there are tongues, they will be stilled; where there is knowledge, it will pass away. For we know in part and we prophesy in part, 10but when perfection comes, the imperfect disappears. When I was a child, I talked like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. When I became a man, I put childish ways behind me. Now we see but a poor reflection as in a mirror; then we shall see face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I am fully known. And now these three remain: faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love (1 Corinthians 13) When we start to know fully, we start to know that love is greater than the differences in religious faiths and religious hopes. The New Testament of the Bible tears down the separation between the Jewish and the Gentile (non-Jewish) religious traditions, and builds the kingdom of God based on Jesus Christ. Similarly, the Postmodern Period tears down the separation between the Christian and the non-Christian religious traditions, and builds the harmonious society of God based on Jesus Christ.
5.5. The End Time

In human society, different interactions among different entities result in different products. There are two possible interactions: the elimination interaction and the combination interaction. In the elimination interaction, the result is the elimination of entities by the other entities. In the combination interaction, the result is the interlocking product as the combination of the interacting entities balancing each other. The dualism of good and evil represents the elimination interaction, resulting in the elimination of evil by good as the ultimate product. The dualism of yin and yang represents the combination interaction, resulting in the interlocking product with both yin and yang balancing each other. There are proper places for the elimination interaction and the combination interaction. In divided society, including the divided international society, where nations fight against and eliminate each other, the concept of the elimination interaction prevails to reflect the fighting for survival in divided society. In unified society where social groups depend on each other, the concept of the combination interaction prevails to reflect the existing peaceful co-existent entities in unified society. Historically, in Europe and the Middle East for the West, many nations fought and eliminated each other as the divided society, so the concept of the elimination interaction prevailed to reflect the divided society in Europe and the Middle East. In China, India, and the Far East for the East, there was the

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reality of unified society, so the concept of the combination interaction prevailed to reflect the unified society in China, India, and the Far East. In India, the key to the unified society is connection among all things. In India, the different social classes were interlocked into the caste system through reincarnation. Millions of gods are simply connected together by reincarnations, families, and theories. India today with many different languages is held together by the concept of the unified society. For thousands years, Indians have connected all things together, so the divided society is unthinkable and foreign. In China, the key to unified society is one nation (the Middle Kingdom). The strong sense of one nation allows China to overcome divisions and absorb invading people and ideas into the Middle Kingdom. Now the East meets the West. The question now is what the postmodern society is, divided society or unified society. If the postmodern society is divided society, the elimination interaction prevails. If the postmodern society is unified society, the combination interaction prevails. Since the end of the Cold War, all major powers in the world have become increasingly interdependent in trades, goals, and many parts of life through increasingly ubiquitous global communication. For major powers in the world, the postmodern society is unified society. Therefore, in the postmodern society, the combination interaction prevails to reflect the Postmodern Unified Society. In the traditional West as divided society, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam have the prophecies about the end time, while in the East as unified society, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism do not have the end time. Without fighting for survival, Hinduism and Buddhism believe in cycles of destruction and creation. Confucianism and Daoism believe the past, the present, and the future are connected continuously in the sense that learning passes from generations to generations. In the prophecies of the West with the fighting for survival, the ultimate result of the end time is the emergence of unified society by the ultimate victory of good over evil in divided society. By the definition of divided society, there is eternal fighting for survival without ultimate victory until the end of divided society. Therefore, the end time reflects divided society, and the end of prevailing divided society is the beginning of prevailing unified society. The Postmodern Unified Society fulfills the end time prophecies of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The end time is the end time of divided society as the divided society of the West, so the end time is social-cultural-economic rather than physicalreligious as traditionally expected. It is similar to Jesus’ kingdom of God that is socialspiritual rather than political as traditionally expected. In the Bible, the unified society was described by Prophet Isaiah (in the 8th-century BC) as the unified society without the fighting for survival after the end time. “See, I will create new heavens and a new earth. The former things will not be remembered, nor will they come to mind…The wolf and the lamb will feed together, and the lion will eat straw like the ox, and dust will be the serpent’s food. They will neither harm nor destroy on my entire holy mountain,” says the LORD. (Isaiah 65: 17-25) They will beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation will not take up sword against nation, nor will they train for war anymore. (Isaiah 2:4)

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Prophet John (in the first-century AD) described the new earth as the unified society where all nations co-exist peacefully without separation after the end time. Then I saw “a new heaven and a new earth,” for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and there was no longer any sea. I saw the Holy City… The city does not need the sun or the moon to shine on it, for the glory of God gives it light, and the Lamb is its lamp. The nations will walk by its light, and the kings of the earth will bring their splendor into it. On no day will its gates ever be shut, for there will be no night there. The glory and honor of the nations will be brought into it. (Revelation 21:1-26)
5.6. This Life and Afterlife

In religions, many aspects of doctrines in afterlife are the projection of this life in terms of idealized forms of this-life. In reality, it is not easy to project this life into afterlife. When Jesus was asked about marriage in afterlife in terms of resurrection after dead, Jesus replied, “You are in error because you do not know the Scriptures or the power of God. At the resurrection people will neither marry nor be given in marriage; they will be like the angels in heaven.” (Matthew 22:29-30) To Jesus, marriage of this life cannot be projected into afterlife. Similarly, the living body and the living society of this life cannot be easily projected into afterlife. In this life, there are living physical body and living society, but in afterlife, there is no living physical body and living society that are the origin of happiness and suffering that we know in life. Happiness is the encouragement to enhance the fitness in living body and living society, while suffering is the warning about the disorder that can hurt living body and living society. There is nothing intrinsic about happiness and suffering. The differences between happiness and suffering are in small molecules (good and bad taste and odor), temperatures (comfort and pain), air pressures (music and noise), wavelengths (pleasant and unpleasant color), symmetry (beauty and ugliness), reproduction (attraction and rejection), and social support (love and loneliness). All happiness and suffering must be measured by living body and living society. Heaven and hell in afterlife associate with happiness and suffering, but without living body and living society in afterlife, happiness and suffering that we know in this life do not exist in afterlife. Without happiness and suffering that we know in this life, how can we define heaven and hell in afterlife? Since afterlife cannot be projected easily from this life, it is possible to read the religious doctrine of afterlife as the idealized this-life to teach the followers how to behave in this life. The reincarnation based on karma that teaches the followers to take the moral consequences seriously for the future life after afterlife really teaches the followers to take the moral consequences seriously for this life. The religious teaching of heaven and hell for afterlife based on how a person behaves is really the religious teaching of heaven and hell in this life based on how a person behaves. Happiness and

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suffering in afterlife are really happiness and suffering in this life. Heaven and hell in afterlife are really heaven and hell in this life. Does afterlife have happiness and suffering that we know? This life is limited, so happiness and suffering are needed to extend this life as long as long as possible in terms of survival and reproduction. Afterlife is eternal, so there is no need for happiness and suffering to extend eternal life. There is no dualism of happiness and suffering in afterlife in terms of life itself. However, if there is a purpose in afterlife, happiness is the encouragement to enhance this purpose, while suffering is the warning about the disorder that hurts this purpose. What is the afterlife purpose that we know? In natural selection in the biological evolution, fitness enhances biological survival. In supernatural selection, the supernatural selects human as the chosen species, the harmonious social life as the chosen social life, and the harmonious society as the chosen society. Harmony is the purpose of the supernatural. Human in afterlife is dependent on the supernatural, so happiness in afterlife associates with harmony, while suffering in afterlife associates with disharmony. Whoever believes in harmony and behaves accordingly continues to exist in afterlife as described in the Bible, Then the angel showed me the river of the water of life, as clear as crystal, flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb down the middle of the great street of the city… They will see his face, and his name will be on their foreheads. There will be no more night. They will not need the light of a lamp or the light of the sun, for the Lord God will give them light. And they will reign for ever and ever. (Revelation 22:1-5) The verses show that the human existences in afterlife are dependent on the harmony (the Lamb). Whoever does not believe in harmony and hurts harmony ceases to exist in afterlife as described in the Bible, For the living know that they will die, but the dead know nothing; they have no further reward, and even their name is forgotten. (Ecclesiastes 9:5)

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6. Conclusion: the universal truth and the identity
The main purpose of life in organism is the survival and reproduction of identity. Identity is, inevitably, necessary for humans. Being a book for people and society, the Bible has the identity. Therefore, the believers in the Bible follow both the universal truth and the identity as the Universal Bible and the Identity Bible. Scientists, on the other hand, follow the universal truth without explicit identity, although science may have implicit identity as paradigm in “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions”107 by Thomas Kuhn. The Bible is not a scientific book. The Identity Bible is necessary and inevitable. The identity in the Bible includes the supernatural identity, the human identity, and the social identity. The supernatural identity is the giver of the universal truth. The human identity and the social identity are the selected people and the selected societies by God to be the keepers of the universal truth. Almost all important selected people in the Bible have faults, and all selected social groups have defects. There is no glorification of the selected people and selected groups. There is no glorification of the selected identity. For the Old Testament, the universal truth is the abstract morality free of the immorality of the activated dehumanized prey-predator instinct. The selected people by God are the keepers of the moral laws. For the New Testament, the universal truth is the abstract rebirth into the harmonious society with minimum social barrier. The selected people by God are the keepers of the harmonious society with minimum social barrier. The universal truth is within us. Everyone can be a keeper of the universal truth. No one person or social group can inherit and own the selected identity without the universal truth. The universal truth defines the identity in the Bible. In the Bible, the natural identity of humans can be seen in the universal truth of the six-day creation for cosmology and the original humans for human evolution. The sixday creation can be explained scientifically. The first day corresponds to the emergence of the current asymmetrical dual universe of the observable light universe with light and the hidden dark universe without light from the simple and dark pre-universe. The dark universe coexisting with the observable light universe later becomes dark energy connecting with the light universe. The second day corresponds to the separation of incompatible dark matter and baryonic matter for the formation of galaxies. The third day corresponds to the separation of interstellar medium and star with planet where organisms were developed. The fourth day, the fifth day, and the sixth day corresponds to the solar system formation, the primitive organism formation, and the advanced organism formation, respectively. The sixday creation provides the answers for cosmology, the unified theory, dark energy, dark matter, the galaxy formation, and human evolution. The uniqueness of the original humans in the image of God is explained by human social lives. The three basic human social lives are yin, yang, and harmony for feminine collective wellbeing, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The harmonious social life transcends yin yang and exists only in humans. Human social lives were derived from human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. The harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was the harmonious society. In the Bible, the religious identity of humans can be seen in the universal truth of the Prehistoric Eden, the Moral Covenant, and the Harmonious Covenant. The Prehistoric Eden explains the Garden of Eden where the prehistoric human society interacted with the

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supernatural. Through the supernatural miracle (the non-representation of the natural physical laws), the supernatural selects the human harmonious society to survive by the supernatural revelation of the abstractness (the non-representation of the expression of the natural human mind). During the Upper Paleolithic Period, the supernatural revealed the abstract bond for bonding the isolated social groups to survive the harsh environment. The emergence of civilization by the Neolithic Revolution of the agricultural-nomad society caused the exit from the Garden of Eden by taking the fruit of the knowledge of civilization. God provides the abstract morality to prevent the activated dehumanized prey-predator instinct in the civilized society, resulting in the Moral Covenant between God and the chosen moral civilized society, Israel. God provides the abstract rebirth for the civilized people to return to the harmonious social life and society, resulting in the Harmonious Covenant between God and the chosen harmonious society, the Christian church. The Postmodern Unified Society fulfills the end time prophecy for the end of the old divided society and the beginning of the new unified society. The followers of harmony continue to exist in afterlife. The Universal Bible provides the universal meaning to the global human race, history, and society. In this way, the Universal Bible can be applied to anywhere in the universe.

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7. Reference

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