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Fire Protection System

Protecting Property, Saving Life

EDD Development Program


presented by: Engr . Bernabe Salazar Jr
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Aftermath of fire the cost of failing to manage fire

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Aftermath of fire the cost of failing to manage fire

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Aftermath of fire the cost of failing to manage fire

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Aftermath of fire the cost of failing to manage fire

ber.salazar.jr

Aftermath of fire the cost of failing to manage fire

ber.salazar.jr

Aftermath of fire the cost of failing to manage fire

ber.salazar.jr

Aftermath of fire the cost of failing to manage fire

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Aftermath of fire the cost of failing to manage fire

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Aftermath of fire the cost of failing to manage fire

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Fire
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Section Objectives
You will be able to identify and explain: What a fire is Necessary elements for a fire to occur Characteristics and types of fuel classes Characteristics and types of ignition sources Characteristics of flammable liquids How heat is transferred during a fire Products of combustion

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FIRE
What is Fire?
Fire is rapid, self-sustaining oxidation accompanied by the evolution of varying intensities of heat and light. This definition indicates that fire is a chemical process of decomposition in which the rapid oxidation of a fuel produces heat and light.

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ELEMENTS OF FIRE
Fire TRIANGLE

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ELEMENTS OF FIRE
Fire SQUARE

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Classification of Fires RA 9514


Class Type of Fire Symbol Class A Fires involving ordinary combustible Fires materials such as wood,

cloth, rubber and plastics.

Class B Fires involving flammable liquids and Fires gases. Class C Fires involving energized electrical Fires equipment. Class D Fires involving combustible materials, such Fires as sodium,magnesium, potassium, and

other similar materials.

Class K Fires in cooking appliances that involve Fires combustible cooking media (vegetable or

animal oils and fats).

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Classes of Fire

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METHODS OF EXTINGUISHING FIRE


Starving Smothering Cooling Inhibition or retarding the combustion reaction

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IGNITION SOURCES
heat-producing action mechanical
(friction,compression)

electrical
(resistance, arcing, static, lightning)

chemical
(combustion,decomposition, spontaneous heating, solution)

nuclear reaction
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FIRE IN ENCLOSED SPACE

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FIRE GROWTH GRAPH

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HEAT TRANSFER

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HEAT TRANSFER

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HEAT TRANSFER

What type of heat transfer is this?

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HEAT TRANSFER

What type of heat transfer is this?


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HEAT TRANSFER
Flashover

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HEAT TRANSFER
Backdraft

If a door or window is opened and a fresh supply of oxygen is introduced at the right (wrong) time, all of the built up CO will explode with devastating results.
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Products of Combustion
Flame

Heat

Smoke Gases
CO2, CO-flammable SO2, NO2, Hydrogen Cyanide Acrolein
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Types of Sprinkler System


1. Wet Pipe System 2. Dry Pipe System 3. Deluge System 4. Preaction System

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Sprinkler system : basic configuration


1.main water tank 2.main water pump 3.main pilot valve (dry) 4. pilot valve (wet) 5. sprinkler head - standing configuration 6.sprinkler head - hanging configuration 7.pressure tank 8.testing piping 9.testing piping 10.filling piping 11.compressor 12.alarm bell 13.fire central 14. alarm bell 15..pressure gauge 16. switchboard
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Hydrant system : basic configuration

1. Fire Pump 2. Hydrant 3. Fire Hose cabinet 4. Fire Hose 5. Portable Water Monitor 6. Fix Water Monitor 7. Indoor Hydrant Box 8. Control Panel
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Sprinkler system : basic configuration

1. Fire Pump 2. Cistern tank 3. Pressure Tank 4.Flow Meter 5.Non-rise temperature Device 6. Alarm valve unit 7. Sprinkler Head 8. Test Valve 9. Fire department Connection 10. Water Tank 11. Control Panel 12. Alarm Panel 13.Alrm Siren 14. Level switch
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Sprinkler system : basic configuration

1. CO2 Cylinder 2. Manifold 3. Selection Valve 4.Actuating Cylinder Box 5.Discharge Nozzle 6. Pressure Switch 7. Control Panel 8. Battery Panel 9.Discharge Lamp 10.Alarm 11. Manual Operation Box 12. Detector

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Sprinkler system : basic configuration

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Sprinkler system : basic configuration

Wet Pipe System. A sprinkler system employing fusible element sprinklers attached to a piping that contain water and connected to a water supply so that water discharges immediately from sprinklers head opened by heat from a fire.
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Sprinkler system : basic configuration

Dry Pipe System. A sprinkler system employing fusible head sprinklers attached to a piping system containing air or nitrogen under pressure, the release of which (as from the opening of a sprinkler) permits the water pressure to open a valve known as a dry pipe valve. The water then flows into the piping system and out the opened sprinklers.
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Sprinkler system : basic configuration

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Sprinkler system : basic configuration

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Sprinkler system : basic configuration

Preaction System. A sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers attached to a piping system containing air that may or may not be under pressure, with a supplemental detection system installed in the same areas as the sprinklers. Actuation of the detection system opens a valve that permits water to flow into the sprinkler piping system and to be discharged from any sprinklers that are open.
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Sprinkler system : basic configuration

Deluge System. A sprinkler system employing open sprinklers attached to a water supply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detection system installed in the same areas as the sprinklers. When this valve opens, water flow into the piping system and discharges from all sprinklers attached thereto.

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Sprinkler system : basic configuration

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Myths and Facts About Sprinkler Systems


Water damage from a sprinkler system will be more extensive than fire damage Fact: Water damage from a sprinkler system will be much less severe than the damage caused by water from fire-fighting hose lines and fire damage if the fire goes unabated. Quick response sprinklers release 8-24 gallons of water per minute compared to 50-125 gallons per minute released by a fire hose

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Myths and Facts About Sprinkler Systems


When a fire occurs, every sprinkler head goes off Fact: Sprinkler heads are individually activated by fire. . 90% of all fires are controlled with six or fewer heads and a study conducted in Australia and New Zealand covering 82 years of automatic sprinkler use found that 82% of the fires which occurred were controlled by two or fewer sprinklers.

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Myths and Facts About Sprinkler Systems


A smoke detector provides enough protection

Fact: Smoke detectors save lives by providing a warning system but can do nothing to extinguish a growing fire .

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Myths and Facts About Sprinkler Systems


Sprinklers are designed to protect property, but are not effective for life safety Fact: Sprinklers provide a high level of life safety. Statistics demonstrate that there has never been any multiple loss of life in a fully sprinklered building. Property losses are 85% less with fire sprinklers compared to those without sprinklers. The combination of automatic sprinklers and early warning systems in all buildings could reduce overall injuries, loss of life and property damage by at least 50%.
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Sprinkler section : flow control

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Types of Sprinkler Heads

Conventional

Upright

Pendent

Horizontal Sidewall

Vertical Sidewall

Recessed Pendent

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Types of Sprinkler Heads

Recessed Pendent

Concealed Pendent

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Sprinkler Heads Parts


Frame or casting Deflector Fusible element or frangible bulb Pip Cap Pintle Screw Belleville Spring
The Bellville Spring seals the water way of the sprinkler. This metal to metal sealing mechanism allows the waterway to clear even when no pressure is on the inlet of the sprinkler head.

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Sprinkler Heads Fusible Element

Ordinary RED
68 0C 155 0F 38 0C 100 0F

Intermediate YELLOW
79 0C 175 0F

High BLUE
141 0C 286 0F

Exra High MAUVE


182 0C 360 0F

Ultra High BLACK


260 0C 500 0F 240 465 0F
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GREEN
100 0C 212 0F

Maximum Ceiling Temperature 65 0C 107 0C 149 Standard Response Elements 5mm bulb 150 0F 225 0F 300 0F

Sprinkler Heads Fusible Element

Ordinary RED 68 0C 155 0F 38 0C 100 0F

Intermediate YELLOW 79 0C 175 0F 65 0C GREEN 100 0C 212 0F

High BLUE 141 0C 286 0F 107 0C 225 0F


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Maximum Ceiling Temperature

150 0F Fast Response Elements 3mm bulb

Sprinkler Head Response

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Classification of Occupancy
RA: 9514 ; Rule 10: Fire Safety Measure , Division 3 : Classification of Occupancy 1. Assembly 2. Educational 3. Healthcare 4.Detention and Correctional 5. Residential 6. Mercantile 7. Business 8. Industrial 9. Storage 10. Mixed Occupancies 11. Miscellaneous

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Classification of Occupancy
RA: 9514 ; Rule 10: Fire Safety Measure , Division 3

1. Assembly 2. Educational 3. Healthcare 4.Detention and Correctional 5. Residential

6. Mercantile
7. Business 8. Industrial 9. Storage 10. Mixed Occupancies 11. Miscellaneous
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Classification of Occupancy
MERCANTILE Mercantile occupancies include stores, markets, and other rooms, buildings, or structures for the display and/or sale of merchandise. Mercantile occupancies include: malls; supermarkets; department stores; shopping centers; flea markets; public/private dry and wet markets; water refilling stations; drugstores; hardwares/construction supplies; showrooms; and auction rooms.

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