How to save energy and money

Guide Book 1
THE 3E STRATEGY

STRATEGY

ENERGY EFFICIENCY EARNINGS

3E

STRATEGY

Netherlands Ministery of Economic Affairs

RA

LS

AND

EN

Technical Services International

TSI

EUROPEAN COMMISSION

E

RG

MI
N

Y

E

HOW TO SAVE ENERGY AND MONEY: THE 3E STRATEGY
This booklet is part of the 3E strategy series. It provides advice on practical ways of how to save energy and money in companies and the ways of going about it. Prepared for the European Commission DG TREN by: The Energy Research Institute Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Cape Town Rondebosch 7701 Cape Town South Africa www.eri.uct.ac.za This project is funded by the European Commission and co-funded by the Dutch Ministry of Economics, the South African Department of Minerals and Energy and Technical Services International, with the Chief contractor being ETSU. Neither the European Commission, nor any person acting on behalf of the commission, nor NOVEM, ETSU, ERI, nor any of the information sources is responsible for the use of the information contained in this publication The views and judgements given in this publication do not necessarily represent the views of the European Commission

HOW TO SAVE ENERGY AND MONEY: THE 3E STRATEGY

co.3e.ac. for permission to use information from the ªEnergy Efficiency Best Practiceº series of handbooks.za Website: http://www.uct. The IEA CADDET Energy Efficiency ªEnergy Management in Industryº booklet is a major source for this guide. Mines and Resources. . Department of Energy.HOW TO SAVE ENERGY AND MONEY: THE 3E STRATEGY Other titles in the 3E strategy series: HOW HOW HOW HOW HOW HOW TO TO TO TO TO TO SAVE SAVE SAVE SAVE SAVE SAVE ENERGY ENERGY ENERGY ENERGY ENERGY ENERGY AND AND AND AND AND AND MONEY MONEY MONEY MONEY MONEY MONEY IN IN IN IN IN IN STEAM SYSTEMS ELECTRICITY USE BOILERS AND FURNACES COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEMS REFRIGERATION INSULATION SYSTEMS Copies of these guides may be obtained from: The Energy Research Institute Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Cape Town Rondebosch 7701 Cape Town South Africa Tel No: ‡27 (0)21 650 3892 Fax No: ‡27 (0)21 686 4838 Email: 3E@eng. .za).za ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Energy Research Institute would like to acknowledge the following for their contribution in the production of this series of guides: . Wilma Walden for graphic design work (Walden@grm.uct.ac. . Energy Conservation Branch. Canada. . UK. Energy Technology Support Unit (ETSU).

..............................................3 Liquid Oil Products .............. 3....................................................... 4................................1 Invoice Data .5. 3. 2.........................................................................................................................................2 Fuel Purchase and Tariffs ....................................1 Fee Based Consultants ...................... 3......4 Coal ................................... 2................................................................................4 Achieving the Savings: In-house Expertise and Consultants ........................... 2......... 3....................................2.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Diagnostic Audit ........................................................................................................................................................ 3.........................................................................................................................................5 Energy Audits ................ 3...................................................................................................................3 Instrumentation and Closer Investigation ..........1 Uneven Distribution of Knowledge ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5 2...................... 2..........................................1 Pipe Line Gas .............................................................................................5 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............................2...................4................... 2..................................................... 4.................................................................................. 6 6 6 6 6 7 9 9 9 9 9 10 11 11 11 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 16 17 24 ..........................................3 Approximating Multivariable Situations ............1........................................................ 2.................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Characteristics of Processes Determined from M&T Data ................................................................. 4........ 3.........................2 Annual Energy Input and Site Performance Indicators .................. 2............................................................................................................................ 4.................. 3..........................................................................3 Cost Reduction Programme ....................................................................2 Common problems associated with Energy Cost Reduction Programmes ..... 2........................................................................................1 Consumption and Costs .....................2...................................................... A COMPANY 3E STRATEGY ..................... 2...............................................................2..................................................................1 Commitment and Organisation ............ MONITORING AND TARGETING (M & T) ................... INTRODUCTION .. 3..............................2 Process Energy Linked to Production ....................................................................................................................................................................1...........5........................................................................................................................................ 2......................................................................................................................2.......................................2 Lack of Accountability ...............................................................2 Performance Based Consultants ..............................................Table of Contents 1............... 2.4.. ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND COSTS ............1 Walk Through Audit ...........................................2......... 3....................................................................................................................................................1.........................2.............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3.....2 Electricity ....................................................

......................... 44 6......................4....................................................4 Chilled and Cooling Water .........................................................................................7 Monitoring Data as an Indicator of Efficiency ...................................................................................3 Application of CUSUM .............................. 46 .......................................... 41 5.............................................................................................................................................. 28 4........................... 44 6............................................................ USING INFORMATION ON ENERGY USE FOR MANAGEMENT CONTROL ......................2............................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Degree Days ...........................3............................. 45 6......... 37 5..........................1.....................................................................................6 Processes with No Relation to Other Variables or Time .........7......................1 Motors and Drives ............. 43 6.................... 45 6................................................ 41 6...........................................................................................................................................................2 Refrigeration Cold Stores ......................... FACTORY SERVICES .................................................................................................................................1 Check List ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Check Lists ....................................................... 25 4.........................................................................................................................................4...3 Refrigeration ...............................1 The Control Chart .................................................................................3................. 43 6.......................................4 Building Heating linked to Degree Days .............................................1...............................................................2....2 Building Cooling linked to Degree Days ...........................................................................2 CUSUM Technique .........................................................................................................7....2 Non-parametric Forms of CUSUM and Control Chart ................................................................................................................................................................ 25 4.................................................................. 28 4.................................5 Processes linked to Time Through Activities ......2 Production-related Efficiency ..................................................2 Compressed air ......................................................................... 36 5...... 32 4.......................................................................................2 Production-related Efficiency ...................... 31 4.....................1 Check List .................................. 39 5................................................................ 36 5......................2................................................................ 43 6................................................7..................................................................... 30 4......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Introduction . 33 5...........................................1..3 Building Heating Efficiency ........................................................................................................................1 Non-productive and Activity-unrelated Energy Consumption .......................................................................................................1 Non-productive Consumption .......... 36 5......... 30 4........................ 44 6.......................................................4............4...2.................................................................................. 45 6............................................................ 36 5..........................................................1 Check Lists ................

..................3............................................................... CAPITAL EXPENDITURE ............................................................... INDUSTRIAL HEATING PROCESS ....................................................................................3 Hot Water and Water Supply .................................. 53 .............................................................................. 53 9...........1 Check List ............................. 7........4................................. 8.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................1........................................................................... 8.......................................... 8........................................................ 8.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7................................................................... 8.........3 Low Temperature Processes ............... 8.......................................................................1.................................................................................3..........................................2 High Temperature Processes .............................2.........................................................................................................................................2 Air Conditioning and Ventilation ..............................................................4 Lighting ...... 47 47 48 48 49 49 49 50 50 50 51 51 51 51 51 52 9........................................... 7.....................................................................1 Check List .....1 Check List ...................................1 Boilers and Boilerhouse Management .......... 8.................................................................................................................................................2................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7...................................................................................................................................................... 53 9...............................................1 Check List .......... 7....................................... 8........................................................................ 8........................................................................1 Check List ......................................1 Check List ...............1 Check List ..... 7............................................................................................................................................................................................ BUILDING SERVICES ...................................1 Space Heating ................................................................................ 7..........................1 Financial Criteria ............................................................................................................................2 Raising Capital .........................

.

and Engineering Managers to make savings in site energy costs. In this way. The benefits are reflected directly in an organization's profitability but they also contribute to improving the global environment. Accordingly the major sections are sub-divided into the smaller sub-sections: . This booklet describes the five fundamental aspects of an energy management strategy: . Section 2 details the need for a Company 3E Strategy or energy plan and outlines the basis for a cost reduction program. Energy is one of the largest controllable costs in most organizations and there is considerable scope for reducing energy consumption and hence cost. Sections 6. Energy. the audit and use of energy for typical industrial plant and processes: a checklist of potential methods for reducing costs. 7 and 8 covers savings in energy usage through positive practical methods for improving the efficiency of plant and industrial processes and Section 9 is concerned with the financial appraisal of energy efficiency. Section 4 gives the framework and methodology for monitoring and targeting energy savings. only the relevant parts need to be read in detail. Section 3 relates to purchase and cost control as well as a consumption audit of primary energy usage. INTRODUCTION The 3E's are 'Energy Efficiency Earnings' and this booklet lays out the ªhow toº of implementing the strategy in companies. This booklet is intended to act as a practical manual to enable Works Engineers. . An energy audit is an essential activity for any organisation wishing to control energy and utility costs. The essentials of implementing the 3E strategy are detailed in what follows. depending on individual experience and site requirements. 5 . . .1. . .

2 LACK OF ACCOUNTABILITY It is often the case that strategies to save energy are not considered by all the sections of a factory. A COMPANY 3E STRATEGY A Company's 3E strategy or energy plan forms the basis for minimizing purchase costs and use of energy and related utilities such as water. as middle and top management are not aware of the potential energy and cost savings.2. and management style. This can vary from a committee or working party approach to the assignment of additional responsibilities to specific staff. A utilities section is responsible for supplying various forms of energy elsewhere on a plant for production. to provide finance. including: company size. The organisation of an energy management plan can then be determined. 2. to utilise people skills. The main organizational aspects are outlined below while the technical and practical aspects are detailed in the remainder of the booklet. 2. motivation. 6 . This knowledge. The important aspect is that energy is integrated as a management function and is managed in the same way as any other resource in the company. most important. These savings may not interfere with the process or outputs.2 COMMON PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH ENERGY COST REDUCTION PROGRAMMES UNEVEN DISTRIBUTION OF KNOWLEDGE 2. Technical and engineering staff are often aware of effective energy and cost saving measures.2.1 Effective energy management requires the commitment of senior management.1 COMMITMENT AND ORGANISATION 2. Figure 1 overleaf represents a typical situation. often does not get implemented by operational staff. other resources and. They are in many cases not considered because there is an absence of an energy and cost reduction programme that involves various levels of management and plant sections involved. large savings can very often be made. telecommunications and transport. The energy programme will depend on a number of factors.2. By simple changes in production or maintenance. This provides the authority to take action. relative importance on energy costs. technical expertise.

Often the money saved through options (i) to (iii) can finance (iv). Simply improved housekeeping. (iv) Major Capital expenditure. making sure that equipment operates properly.Figure 1: Effective use of information. The basis for reducing site energy costs is shown in flow chart form in Figure 1. This is the most costly option and should only be considered last. .3 COST REDUCTION PROGRAMME Energy saving projects may be divided into four categories: (i) Housekeeping. (iii) Retrofits. Monitoring provides management control of utility costs in the same way as control of labour or raw material costs. Factory services and industrial processes The understanding of energy use in industrial processes can be assisted by preparing an energy flow diagram as part of an audit based on examining current practices and patterns of use. 4 and 5. 7 . (ii) Low Cost. Many energy improvements may be made with low cost modifications and improvements. (source: CADDET) 2. together with a reference to the relevant part of this booklet for each stage. Retrofitting existing systems with new parts and equipment can bring great benefits in energy efficiency. Energy consumption and costs Auditing and monitoring are linked as components of an overall strategy for effective energy management and these are discussed in Sections 3. cleaning fouled surfaces and pipes and having regular maintenance can save much energy and money. . In effect this preliminary audit is to identify the main areas of expenditure and to minimize utility purchase costs.

7 and 8.In this way improvement in operation and the potential for energy saving projects can be identified. Opportunities for cost savings with the main industrial processes and factory services are presented in checklists in Sections 6. (source: ETSU) 8 . Figure 2: Flow chart for energy audits.

4 ACHIEVING THE SAVINGS: IN-HOUSE EXPERTISE AND CONSULTANTS With the relevant staff. using a member of a recognized body. with all fees coming from savings achieved.. or may be concentrated on specific pieces of process equipment or piping systems. An overview of cost/benefit analysis is given in Section 9 together with alternative means of financing projects such as leasing and Contract Energy Management. most savings can be achieved in-house. 2.5 ENERGY AUDITS An energy audit involves the identification of areas throughout a facility where energy may be wasted because of nonexistent. Proposals for high levels of capital expenditure should conform to the Company's accepted methods of financial appraisal. This should include: . In addition to day rates. which is a tour through the facility looking for obvious signs of energy waste. 2. or inadequate insulation. Contracts are usually fairly long term. Performance Contracts need to be checked in the same way as those for fee based work. The walk through audit is generally more meaningful if an individual who. . The main consideration is to ensure clear terms of reference. though not associated with the facility operation. performance based on savings achieved Whichever option is chosen it is worth carrying out simple checks to ensure value for money. time and work delivered need to be carefully controlled. If in-house manpower is not available consultants can be employed. asking for and taking up references. The audit may be applied to the facility as a whole.2 PERFORMANCE BASED CONSULTANTS 2. fee based . .1 WALK THROUGH AUDIT This has been the traditional way of employing energy consultants. The fees are usually based on a percentage of savings for an agreed period of time. time and expertise. although the daily rates may be double. typically from five to ten years. and who is familiar with both the subject of process insulation 9 . Some consultants now work on a performance basis.4. Capital investment and project implementation staff will undertake work in far less time than inexperienced staff.4. In the area of cost reduction paying for consultants generally falls into two categories: . Experienced and competent The initial action is a Walk Through Audit. 2. usually on a fixed fee basis but sometimes on a day rate.1 FEE BASED CONSULTANTS 2. meeting the engineers or at least obtaining CVs.5. . typically 50% for periods ranging from one year to five years. however well qualified. Contract Energy Management (CEM) companies generally provide finance for capital intensive work as well as management of site utility services. obtaining more than one quotation.

2. hot or cold surfaces. gaps in insulation at expansion/contraction joints. With this information. Typical items which could be noticed during a walk through audit would include missing or damaged insulation. a diagnostic audit is required to 10 . excessive heat radiating from insulated surfaces and other similar items. missing or damaged vapour retarders. The reduction in energy consumption establishes the rand savings.2 DIAGNOSTIC AUDIT Once items have been identified in the walk through audit.and the concept of energy management conducts it. wet insulation.5. the reduction in energy loss which would result if new or additional insulation or covering were installed and the installed cost of the added material. determine the existing energy loss. deteriorating insulating coverings or protective finishes. simple payback calculations can establish the financial viability of the opportunity.

energy and utility management must address three essential areas: . Note any estimated readings. Management control is an essential element in any cost reduction programme. 11 A seasonal or cyclical pattern could indicate major seasonal loads such as space heating. production information. electricity and water for at least one year. electricity and water showing consumption and costs. additional earlier invoices should be collected for comparison if there are more than one or two estimates in the audit period. . In this way variations during the year can be seen and the trend examined to determine any untoward pattern of consumption. 3. This Section covers the first two areas. This includes fuel oil. A summary table should then be prepared for each fuel. vehicle fuel usage. The monthly trends in consumption are correspondingly plotted. coal. The numbers required are energy units for each month as well as tariff charges and structure. It is pointless investing capital in engineering projects unless the energy or utility is being bought at the right price. Purchasing. .3. ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND COSTS To be effective. Having completed this analysis it is then essential to investigate whether the utilities are being purchased competitively.1. .1 CONSUMPTION AND COSTS It is necessary to obtain an accurate picture of current consumption: how much is spent on energy . utility invoices for fuel. what it is used for. . in different forms and the unit costs. . The first step in identifying areas for potential savings is to establish the quantity and cost of the energy and utilities used on the site. gas and electricity but also water and. on some sites.1 INVOICE DATA Data should be checked carefully to ensure that there is a complete record and that it can be identified with known supply points. Apart from the need to monitor and maintain savings brought about by improved purchasing and engineering projects. 3. They could also be attributed to changes in operating practice. there are often savings available simply by managing resources more effectively using standard monitoring and targeting techniques. site energy records and sub metering. Management. . General upward or downward trends can reflect changes in load or efficiency. This information should be obtained from the following: . Engineering. which uses are essential and which are not.

which can then be audited separately to establish consumption and costs. refrigeration etc. After calculating the percentage breakdown of total energy consumption and cost of energy type. usually due to domestic hot water. but actual settings will depend on production and process plant.g. The next stage is to obtain information on energy use by the various types of activity in the organization. 3. These indices provide useful guidance in setting priorities. . Where boiler plant serves a mixed load. (source: ETSU) 12 . to assess the energy performance and indicate whether there is likely to be a good opportunity for improvement. compressed air.1. GJ) using the conversion factors in Appendix 1. a table can be prepared. factory services (e. Effort can then be directed to the major areas and opportunities for savings can then be more carefully examined.2 ANNUAL ENERGY INPUT AND SITE PERFORMANCE INDICATORS The total annual energy use on a site can be used to calculate a Performance Index. The lack of a clear pattern where variations are normally expected might suggest a lack of control. gigajoules. The first step is to establish a list of main services and/or end users.. standing losses and any continuous process load. motive power. as set out in Sections 6. Figure 3: Simple energy account for a small factory. The annual consumption for each energy type should be converted to a standard unit (e. 7 and 8.). a steady base load can be identified.g. Try to identify specific areas of consumption such as: .

.

.

heating processes (boilers; furnaces; kilns etc.); building services (space heating; domestic hot water; lighting etc.).

of the efficiency of the plant can be obtained. The cost of submetering can usually be justified on major loads, particularly where little information on energy use is currently available. Once installed, meters should read on a regular basis to establish trends. The impact of energy saving initiatives, or process changes, can then readily be determined.

Initially consumption and, therefore, costs can be estimated on the basis of installed load, operating hours and utilization factor. Consumption information can be presented in the form of a Sankey diagram, as illustrated in Figure 3. A Sankey diagram is useful in that it gives an immediate visualization of energy flows and thus enables priority areas to be identified and tackled.

3.2

FUEL PURCHASE AND TARIFFS

3.1.3

INSTRUMENTATION AND CLOSER INVESTIGATION

Obtaining the best energy price depends on market knowledge and negotiating skills. If in-house expertise is not available there are numerous consultants and advisers able to assist.

More detailed information on consumption can be obtained in a number of ways:

3.2.1
. .

PIPE LINE GAS

demand profile recording; metering selected items of plant/factory areas.

There is usually a great deal to be learnt from a study of the energy profile. Initially meters can be read manually, but the use of instrumentation makes data collection more straightforward. Electrical demand profiles can be monitored with clip-on instrumentation and this may well identify scope for savings through the control of Maximum Demand. Gas and water meters without built-in pulsed outputs can be read automatically using optical couplers. Data transfer to a personal computer and the use of a spreadsheet or similar program will ease analysis. Installation of meters on an area or individual plant basis can be used to record consumption. By comparing energy use and production, an analysis

Currently pipeline gas is sold by SASOL. Various tariffs are available subject to consumption volumes. While not yet in place, it is likely that imported natural gas will supplement the existing network and new networks may be installed in Cape Town. Large boiler plant can operate on dual-fuel supplies and it is important to ensure that the most cost competitive fuel is used, wither interruptible gas or fuel oil.

3.2.2

ELECTRICITY

The electricity market is becoming more complex with a range of fixed tariff options available for consumers. Contracts can be on a fixed unit cost basis, similar to tariff structures, or electricity can be purchased on a pool-based contract with prices

13

varying throughout the day, depending on supply and demand. In this climate, market intelligence and negotiating skills are essential and companies must keep in touch with what is on offer. When large load shifts to off-peak tariff times are possible, they may be made more viable by renegotiating the time of use tariff. This may be beneficial to the supplier as it would increase off peak demand and help increase his load factor.

3.2.4

COAL

It is important that coal prices are assessed on the basis of delivered energy and not weight when comparing competitive quotes. Bulk purchases can provide additional savings.

3.2.5

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES

3.2.2.1

ELECTRICITY TARIFF ASSESSMENT

Butane or propane can be bought from various suppliers either on a fixed price or on an indexed, variable, basis. Again, knowledge of market conditions is important in the purchasing process. For sites with a large water use it is essential to carry out a detailed mass balance to identify both supply and effluent volumes and ensure that charges are correct, and also to detect wastage, particularly at weekends when production is not occurring. On water systems there are often large savings available from preventing leaks and wastage. Initially, monitoring of use should be carried out through hourly readings. Where a water borehole is available this is generally the cheapest means of supply. It can also be cost effective to install an effluent treatment plant as a means of reducing overall disposal costs.

Supply capacity, Maximum Demand and, where appropriate, power factors should be checked to ensure that these costs are minimized. The tariff structure most appropriate to the site operating pattern should be selected. The demand profile should be monitored and the various tariff options costed to determine the optimum choice.

3.2.3 LIQUID OIL PRODUCTS
Liquid fuels are available from a number of suppliers, and it is therefore possible to negotiate for the best deal. Prices depend primarily on market conditions, but also vary with quantity purchased, season and supplier. For example, if storage facilities are adequate, oil can be purchased at lower costs during the summer months for use at the start of the winter season.

14

4. MONITORING AND TARGETING (M & T)

The initial energy audit provides information on consumption and costs on the site and can also highlight areas where savings can be made. M & T is a disciplined approach to energy management, which ensures that energy resources are used to the maximum, as well as monitoring savings brought about by improved purchasing and through energy saving investments. At its simplest, monitoring involves the systematic and regular measurement and recording of the energy consumption of the whole organization. The principles necessary for forming a monitoring and targeting program are loosely pictured in Figure 4. Commitment, understanding and motivation for

the implementation of the M & T part of a 3E program are essential in order obtain success. Upon these the data that has been gathered must be presented to management together with proposed improvements. This data can be obtained in a variety of ways ± for example, from fuel invoices, which might require adjustment to allow for different reading dates, or from metering. It is important that the monitoring process is tied in with other company review processes, such as monthly financial and production figures, so that information on energy flows can be meaningfully related to other performance data.

Figure 4: Monitoring and Targeting action steps. (source: ETSU)

15

evaporation). i. etc. refrigeration and compressed air). how much energy is used and to what extent the process transforms the product. size reduction. melting. conveying. all chemical and electrochemical processes. 2. industrial processes divide into two groups: 1. 16 . and some processes requiring physical work such as the compression of gases and vapours (for example. Processes in which physics provides a poor indication of the energy needs or of the extent of the process ± most of these processes are mechanical in nature and comprise processes such as cutting. Processes where energy use is largely determined by the physics of the process.e. mixing. (source: CADDET) 4.Figure 5: Information flows necessary for successful monitoring and targeting.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF PROCESSES DETERMINED FROM M & T DATA From an M & T standpoint. This group comprises all heat-based processes (heating.

Fortunately. In the second group. Within the second group there are three forms of energy. [te ˆ metric tonnes] Figure 6: Energy vs. .All the processes in the first group are sufficiently consistent in their energy behaviour to make M&T easily applicable: success depends mainly on the skill with which it is applied. the first requirement is to establish the nature of the link.2 PROCESS ENERGY LINKED TO PRODUCTION In processes where there is a strong link to production. 4. for a very wide range of processes there is already some established basis on which measured energy use could be used for management control. production scatter graph. and much of the Statistical Process Control (SPC) element of quality management has been developed to handle processes in the second group. This is easiest to consider in the form of an energy vs. whether or not M & T has a place depends on how far energy consumption can be meaningfully related to some measure of production. energy consumption. So. . vehicle fuel. (source: ETSU) 17 . energy consumption associated with activities linked to time rather than production ± this applies to many of the nonproduction uses of electricity. or whether another system of performance evaluation can be found. which are difficult to handle: . production for a glass melting furnace ± the common form of graph. a very large proportion of industrial energy use comes into the first group. which is not linked to production but to the weather ± space heating and space cooling.

An intercept (the point where a best fit line through the data cuts the energy axis at zero (production) ± this is the energy that would be required if this process ran but did not produce anything.5MWh/day and m is 1. It has an intercept on the energy axis. 3. the line is straight over the whole range of production.5 18 . (source: ETSU) Figure 6 represents a basic pattern to which the behaviour of most processes can be related. A slope ± the amount of energy required at any given level of production to process each additional unit of production.185  production (te/day)} ‡ 71.185MWh/te so the pattern is: energy (MWh/day) ˆ {1.Figure 7: Energy vs. 2. It is also energy consumption that continues while production is in progress but does not contribute to production. 4. The type of pattern found in a given factory is determined mainly by the industry sector. In this case. This tends to be governed by operational factors. whether fitting a line to the data by eye or calculating it from the data). Figure 6 is taken from a glass furnace. The best-fit line to the data can be formulated as: Energy ˆ (m  production) ‡ c Where c and m are empirical coefficients (empirical means they are determined from the data. Such a graph contains three elements: 1. production for an electric arc furnace ± a special case where the line passes through 0. c is 71. there is not much scatter. The pattern in Figure 6 is the most commonly observed. The scatter ± the amount by which the energy used for any one level of production varies from one period to another. and production covers a wide range.0. Figures 7 ± 13 show examples of other common types of pattern. although this does not imply that it is the most likely for any specific factory or sector. The efficiency of the process can be established from the slope.

it is a straight line that. i. it is usual to assume a relationship of this kind.e. passes through the origin (0 production. This example is for an electric arc furnace melting steel for continuous casting. It would be possible to represent this pattern by the formula: Energy ˆ m  production Where m is an empirical constant and the c coefficient from the previous example is 0. this should not be assumed unless there is a good physical case for it. This is true for this and only one other of the known patterns. In Figure 8. In general. production for an extrusion-blow moulding machine ± an example of a very high production-unrelated demand. It is generally rare for this to be the case. in this case 0. Figure 7 is similar to Figure 6 but has no intercept. ovens.Similar patterns are found for most furnaces (for heating or melting). and statement of the specific energy without reference to the production rate is meaningless in management terms.511 MWh/te. the expected value of energy/ production (specific energy) is a constant. some dryers and many more processes. Our knowledge of physics leads us to expect the line to pass through the origin. Figure 8: Energy vs. (source: ETSU) 19 . In the absence of other indications. kilns. specific energy depends on the level of production. when extrapolated. 0 energy). In all other cases. This example is for a machine for extrusion-blow moulding of thermoplastic resins. the intercept is overwhelmingly more important than the slope of the line. It happens to be an important case because rearranging the formula leads to: energy ˆm production In other words.

g. For the first two cases. In the third case. processes with variable output driven by fixed-speed motors also often show a high intercept (although the line may be curved). It is a process with a fixed productive capacity producing an essentially uniform product. 3. 20 . the specific energy is more closely related to production rate than is energy consumption. the actual process is the evaporation of water and the machine has an essentially fixed evaporative capacity. is appropriate. The process has innate characteristics that give it a high standing consumption but low additional consumption for each unit of production. monitoring will be worthwhile only if there is a change in the way the production variable is measured. 2. Figure 9 is similar to the third variant of the previous case. so both the energy use and production fall consistently within a narrow range. energy ˆ (m  production) ‡ c. The process does not have a naturally high standing consumption but a fault is causing a high and continuous energy loss. although in the second case the cause of the high standing loss needs investigation.Figure 9: Energy vs. Note that. An example is paper production where this shape of graph appears when steam is plotted against weight of paper produced. faulty steam traps on steam-heated equipment such as sterilizes or rubber tyre moulding presses. in this case. Work-based processes in the production of plastic extrusions are a good example. In paper machines. e. Variations in production rate represent the different amounts of water that are evaporated for the range of paper types produced on the same machine. production for an electric arc furnace ± an example of the impact of a very narrow range of production There are three common circumstances which give rise to this pattern: 1. Processes where the energy consumption is representative of a fixed duty and the production variable used does not take adequate account of the real duty. In addition. the simple intercept formula.

a combination of a seasonally dependent production rate and space heating. or by calculation of m. the data refer to the whole factory and production at different levels is achieved by a changing mix of plant of different efficiencies: the data refer to a part of the factory or accounting centre which covers more than one use of energy. This is for a milk manufacturing plant making butter and milk power. production for a milk manufacturing depot ± an example of a curved chart created by plant with different efficiencies being operated in a merit order. Figure 10 is a pattern in which the line is curved. c may be difficult to determine empirically from the data ± the long extrapolation back to zero production makes any error in the slope too significant in determining the value of the intercept by purely statistical means. In this case.g. . and using this to estimate c. Increasing slope means that the energy consumption per additional unit of output rises with production. The most common causes of this shape of chart are when: . If there is significant scatter. and there is a relationship between these which is not a simple ratio. which is common in breweries. The dotted line can only be established either by specific tests to establish c and find m.Figure 10: Energy vs. consideration may need to be given as to whether the variables being used. as in this example. with the slope rising as consumption increases. although the data should fit a straight line of the form energy ˆ (m  production) ‡ c. especially for production. (source: ETSU) This example is for another arc furnace for steel. 21 . e. are appropriate.

accounted for by each item of plant. production for a shaft furnace ± an example of a curved chart caused by efficiency varying with throughput due to internal recycling of heat. the range of production that produces this effect is rarely encountered in practice.. are empirical constants specific to those items. etc. etc. F2. In Figure 11 the graph curves with reducing slope to become straight at higher production rates.. In the straight section of the line. In a single process. and in multiple processes it implies that most inefficient plant has priority. this is less effective at low throughput. A useful modification of the formula that achieves a good empirical fit for most circumstances is: energy ˆ (1 À expÀk  production)  (m  production ‡ c) Where m is the slope of the straight section of the chart. The precise relationship in the curved section is usually not known. the relationship is exactly the same as for Figure 1. Figure 11: Energy vs. (source: ETSU) 22 . Note: (1 ± expÀk  production) is a common mathematical expression for approximating curves. m2. This data is taken from a shaft furnace used for melting aluminium. A feature of the process is the way heat in the exhaust is recovered to preheat the material entering the process. or not easily calculated. This tends to be rather unusual.)  production} ‡ c Where F1. are the fractions of the production in each period. and m1.A suitable formulation of the pattern is then: energy ˆ {(m1F1 ‡ m2F2 ‡ m3F3 . c is the intercept found by extrapolating the straight section to zero production and k is an empirical constant (sometimes called an approach coefficient).

volume of compressed air in a hot rolling steel mill ± an example of poor control. 2. 3. so there is a mismatch in the periods covered by the data.0) and the process is really the type shown in Figure 4. It is usually possible. It has not been noticed that the energy and/or production scale does not extend to the origin (0. the greater the impact. The shorter the data collection interval. by further analysis. 5. The data (Figure 12) are actually for compressed air compared to production in a steel rolling mill. (source: ETSU) In Figure 12 the scatter is so great that it overwhelms an underlying pattern.Figure 12: Compressor power vs. 4. More commonly. In physical terms. to obtain a clearer picture of the factors at work and attribute the chart to another type. The characteristic feature of Figure 13 is a negative slope. the times at which energy meter readings and production records are taken are different. so it is most common in systems that use daily or weekly data. however. There are five common reasons for this type of chart: 1. The metered energy is serving more uses than just that measured by the production variable chosen ± this is not unusual when energy includes building heating as well as productionrelated energy. The variable used to represent production is entirely inappropriate ± explore other variables. A combination of the above factors is involved. The data cover a long period of time and there has been a steady change in the energy required for a given range of production over time. which has not been taken into account. it is far more significant because of the interpretation of the 23 .

This is the clue to understanding this behaviour ± it normally involves some heat recovery or recycling of heat. DD stands for degree days (a measure of the weather) and d is an empirical coefficient. although it can involve a reduction in the extent of processing as production throughput increases. This example is for a brewery and shows the total fuel used compared to total throughput. refer to the other production or other parameters and m1. two dimensional graph. are constants related to these parameters. it may even be worthwhile extending this formulation to: energy ˆ (h1  H1) ‡ (m1  P1) ‡ (h2  H2) ‡ (m2  P2) ‡ (d  DD) ‡ c Figure 13: Energy vs. therefore. If the usage pattern of plant is very variable. Similar behaviour is found in the injection moulding of polymers. less energy is required and it appears. A common. production for a brewery ± an example of a line of negative slope. As production increases.3 APPROXIMATING MULTIVARIABLE SITUATIONS If there are more variables controlling the energy use than are incorporated in the x-variable then it is not possible to represent these adequately on a Where H is the productive hours in the period and h is an empirical coefficient. however. more generally representative. P2 etc. It is. formulation is: energy ˆ (h  H) ‡ (m1  P1) ‡ (m2  P2) ‡ (m3  P3) ‡ (d  DD) ‡ c 4. m1 and P1 have the same meanings as before. m2 etc. (source: ETSU) 24 . still possible to formulate energy mathematically as: Energy ˆ (m1  P1) ‡ (m2  P2) ‡ (m3  P3) ‡ c Where P1.slope. that marginal increases of production could be producing energy.

5oC for heating applications). the external temperature has fallen below set base temperatures (normally 18oC or 15.1 DEGREE DAYS Degree days are a measure of the variation of outside temperature and enable building designers and users to determine how the energy consumption of a building is related to the weather. 4. They quantify how far. shown in Figures 14 to 17. 4. There are four common base patterns found in industrial buildings.4. This daily data can then be totalled for any required period ± a week. and compared with energy data. and therefore shows little scatter. the method of residuals or sometimes by statistical factorisation methods. Approaches of this kind have been developed for textile finishing. and for how long. This example is for a textile spinning mill with close control of the environmental conditions.Where the h1 and H1 refer to individual processes. This is exactly analogous to the process case of a straight line with a positive intercept. Figure 14: Energy vs. These coefficients can be determined by multiple regression. but with heating degree days as the x-variable. degree days for a textile spinning mill ± an example of a chart for well-controlled heating.4 BUILDING HEATING LINKED TO DEGREE DAYS The most appropriate measure of the weather for monitoring the heating and cooling needs of buildings is the degree day. (source: ETSU) 25 . etc. month. year. The basic pattern is shown in Figure 14. and in the paper industry where one machine produces many grades of paper. They may also be based on standard values ± an approach used successfully in the Flowline method in textile finishing.

either: . which maintains the temperature. degree days for a building in which the line is curved and levels out to horizontal at extreme degree days.g. e.Figure 15: Energy vs. (source: ETSU) It is adequately represented by the expression: Energy ˆ (m  degree days) ‡ c pattern. Both of these are common circumstances in buildings and this is a frequently encountered for degree days > DD0 days) ‡ C where DD0 is the intercept on the degree day axis and c will be negative. in this case. process plant. which has the intercept on the degree day axis. At the point where the line is horizontal.g. 26 . As degree days increase. the building is receiving heat from elsewhere. process plant or other machinery. Figure 16 shows energy vs. the heating system is not accepting more fuel. This is interpreted as indicating that energy is not required until the outside temperature falls to a certain level of degree days. the building is maintained at a lower internal temperature than the degree day base temperature or . degree days for an engineering works ± an example of the effect of an internal temperature maintained below the degree day base temperature or where the building gains heat from elsewhere. e. For M&T purposes it is represented by the expression: for degree days < DD0 energy ˆ 0 energy ˆ (m  degree The pattern in Figure 15 is a variant. despite falling outside temperatures (usually because it is working at full capacity).

It is common in dispatch warehouses. these divide into two groups: . The simplest mathematical representation of this pattern is: Energy ˆ c ‡ (Emax À c)(1 À eÀk  degree days In this particular case. which is the commonest form of curvature in this direction.) Figure 17 shows curvature in the opposite direction.01) or directly by mathematical techniques. energy is a good fit to: Energy ˆ C ‡ m  (degree days)2 and is due to temperature stratification in the building ± cold air ingress forcing warm air to rise and temperatures in the roof of the building becoming much warmer than at floor level. It is a convenient formula because it contains only three empirical constants. degree days for a building with limited heating capacity. (This curve is not amenable to evaluation by least squares regression. patterns which arise from a combination of a weather-unrelated demand and one of the patterns already discussed: . Emax and c are interpolated directly from the chart. 27 . k tends to have a value between 0. Broadly.Figure 16: Energy vs. Detailed discussion of these is beyond the scope of this Guide. patterns in which the me followed by the points on the graph changes with season ± ) which is easily formulated on computer spreadsheets. There are other patterns relating to building heating and degree days. k is obtainable either by successive approximations on a spreadsheet (to produce a curvature recognisable as this case within a range of 500 degree days. To use this formulation in an M&T system it must be programmed into the software.002 and 0. (source: ETSU) so more heat is added which results in a falling internal temperature.

5 For cooled buildings. degree days for a building in which temperature stratification is occurring. however. Some processes. 4. Time can therefore be used as the comparator to identify characteristic patterns. are associated with activities that are strongly linked to time. however. It is not necessary to know what the activity is in order to use time as a basis for monitoring. means that this curve can be straightened by the simple expedient of using degree days to a different base temperature.so that the line moving from winter to summer or summer to winter produces loops when the individual points are joined up in time series order.4. which can be shown to be a good fit to: Energy ˆ (1 À expÀk degree days)  degree days PROCESSES LINKED TO TIME THROUGH ACTIVITIES )  (c ‡ m  This is exactly analogous to the curve in Figure 6 but with cooling degree days substituted for production. solar gain causes a curve. (source: ETSU) 28 . At precisely the right cooling degree day base temperature. A fortunate coincidence in this For some processes it is difficult to establish an independent variable (such as production or degree days) against which to monitor energy consumption. relationship and a rule associated with changes in the case temperature for degree days. behaviour is not quite the same as for heated buildings.2 BUILDING COOLING LINKED TO DEGREE DAYS 4. Figure 17: Energy vs.

which are repeated each day without much variation. There are clear features in the profile on weekdays. The normal format for this information at the whole-site level is as a 48 Â 365 array (365 days and half-hourly energy data sometimes shown pictorially as ªcontour mappingº). . What causes the differences from day to day? Why does the afternoon demand on Friday tail off early? Why is the lunchtime dip not more noticeable? What activities are being supported by the load at night and over weekends? There is a wide range of techniques for handling this information and this is only one form of presentation of data for one week. It is not necessarily very easy to establish all of these. . on the nature of the load and on road conditions. In Figure 18 there is clearly a pattern which is seasonally dependent and which offers a basis for comparison of one period with another in a previous year. (source: ETSU) Example Figure 18 shows the fuel use in a large vehicle fleet. This kind of information is now available routinely at the whole-site level for large numbers of industrial sites. In the specific case of Figure 19. Without restructuring the array in any way it is possible to compare one day with another. . Figure 19 shows a half-hour electricity demand profile for a factory producing domestic consumables. and there is justification in extending it selectively to the sub-meter level now that the cost of metering technology has reduced.Figure 18: Fuel consumption in vehicles as an example of a seasonal pattern which is not related directly to temperature. However. The fuel consumption of vehicles depends on environmental conditions. a range of questions of interest to management are raised by the profile: . compare one time over many days and compute averages on an hourly. daily or weekly basis. 29 . the data require processing to produce a chart like Figure 19.

4.000 kWh ± worth £1. True examples of this type of behaviour are found from time to time in energy management.580 a year. They are usually due to machinery that is running uncontrolled and therefore left running when not needed ± a source of immense waste. On-off controls and simple alarms are usually cheaper than fitting meters and collecting data. Timers to shut down pumps reduced running hours of 20 kW motors from 90 to 55 hours a week. which seem to have no relation to other variables or time lead to an expectation of the same value each time they are measured. they are a standard case within the scope of Statistical Process Control and can be treated as an extreme case with zero slope. used to remove stray fibre from the machines. reducing annual consumption by 35. was found not to vary at all.6 PROCESSES WITH NO RELATION TO OTHER VARIABLES OR TIME Processes. There is no need to discuss the analysis of these in detail in this Guide. measurement of the electricity consumption of vacuum pumps. Example In a textile spinning mill. 4.7 MONITORING DATA AS AN INDICATOR OF EFFICIENCY Monitoring data is both a useful indicator of the efficiency of processes and a means to gauge the scale of potential savings. (source: ETSU) 30 . Figure 19: The half-hour electricity demand profile of a factory making domestic consumables.

i. the ducts between the glass furnace and the regenerators were found to be contributors to non-productive heat loss. Insulating the ducts reduced heat loss by 1.185  production) ‡ 71. So proportion of non-productive energy ˆ 71:5 71:5 ‡ …1:185Â107† ˆ 0:360 ˆ 367 This is a key element of the Avoidable Waste style of approach. The first step is to quantify non-productive energy. the point where the line is extrapolated back to zero production. represents energy. Example A glass melting furnace comprises a refractory-lined insulated tank of molten glass which is kept constantly topped up with raw material as molten glass is pulled from one end. On a chart of the form: Energy ˆ (m  production) ‡ c the non-productive energy is the intercept divided by the total for average production: proportion of non-productive energy ˆ c  1007 m  average production Figure 20: Combustion air fan power compared to gas consumption for a steel reheat furnace showing the high production-unrelated demand of a fixed-speed drive. In this furnace.4. production. The same applies to nighttime electricity loads in factories that do not operate at night. (source: ETSU) 31 .1 NON-PRODUCTIVE AND ACTIVITY-UNRELATED ENERGY CONSUMPTION In Figure 1 the best fit to the data is: Energy ˆ (1. It is a fair question to ask how much of this is necessary. which the process uses even though it produces nothing.5 and the average production is 107 te a day. and a system of large tower regenerators for recovering heat from the hot exhaust gases.e.7.3 MWh/week. The intercept on a chart of energy vs.

Alcock and Spencer's Materials Thermochemistry. Boiler efficiency can be evaluated from a graph of steam output vs. Installing variable-speed control on the motor matches the speed to the load and. production chart means the energy required to process one additional unit weight of material is the same over the whole range of output. evaporation processes are often engineered to recycle heat. the specific heat capacity of a vapour (or gas) depends on its pressure. Two particular considerations are that: . and not a substitute. or to use mechanical vapour or thermo-recompression. This is because.Figure 20 shows an example of electricity use in a combustion air fan. This can be used to estimate the efficiency of the process. achieved a reduction in standing consumption of 100 kW. e. In Figure 20 the total electricity consumption for the week was 227 850 kWh. but it is fair to ask what is the difference in activity that accounts for the difference in baseload and why it takes so long to run down on Saturday. boiler fuel. so. in this case. drying. In some industrial processes there is a need to include other energy inputs.g. 4. This temperature varies a little but variations between 5oC and 30oC are small compared to the 600oC rise to melt it. These are usually described in specialist texts on the industry. . over a number of effects. Extrapolation of electricity consumption shows a production-unrelated demand of 300 kW. This is an adjunct to monitoring the efficiency from tests on the boiler flue composition and temperature. output temperature and composition of the metal are always the same. The metal that enters the furnace is always aluminium at about ambient temperature. which requires a melt at a consistent temperature for its pouring and solidification characteristics. the particular transformation from raw material to product is very much the same for every kilogram or tonne of material passing through. and the efficiency with which this is achieved is the same ± irrespective of the rate of throughput. both of which involve vaporisation of water. It is unreasonable to assume that the whole baseload can be eliminated. the efficiency 'e' may be greater than 1 and provides a measure of the amount of heat being recycled.) In processes which involve heat recovery. although this is a variable load application. for most industrial processes. the motor attached to the fan is a fixed-speed motor in which variable air flow was achieved by throttling using a damper. Two of the most important vaporisation processes occur in boilers and drying. glass. The same evaluation procedure can be applied to evaporation and distillation processes. chemicals and some other processes there are chemical reactions to take into account.7. the input temperature. In bricks. Straight lines with low scatter are encountered frequently because. (Full data on nearly all reactions of common interest are also given in Kubaschewski. The night caseload on weekdays was 450 kW and 200 kW over the weekend. The slope of such a straight-line chart can be used to calculate the process efficiency (as shown in the box). This includes all processes that start with a liquid and involve vaporization.2 PRODUCTION-RELATED EFFICIENCY A straight line energy vs. The output is molten alloy for gravity die casting. The shaft furnace in Figure 11 is used for melting aluminium alloys. The energyrelated properties of water vapour are given steam 32 .

The commonly used units of U-values ± W/m2/oC ± can be converted to kWh/m2/degree day by multiplying by 0. and the U-value.08 0. although the detail is beyond the scope of this guide. V. degree days is equivalent to: m ˆ Where: .11 0. FÆUA ‡ ÆNVCpp e .04 0.5 1. as the indicator of the weather on the xaxis represent the difference between the building internal temperature and the outside temperature expressed as degree days.5 0. ÆN V Cp p means multiply the volume.01 33 .024. F is a dimensionless number known as the degree day correspondence factor.16 0. and add up all the results. A summary steam table is available in ªHow to save Energy and Money in Steam Systemsº guide of this series. degree days is also an important indicator. It is a measure of how far the degree days used The U-value is a measure of the thermal conductivity of a structure.7. The slope of the line of energy vs. It can be looked up in standard reference sources for all common fabric types ± for a first estimate. N. anyway). that the scope m of a line of energy vs. etc.4 0. number of air changes.6 3. e is measurable from the standard combustion tests on boilers (which should be measured routinely. A.6 6. the values in the table below can be used.03 0. The slope is measurable from the chart.4 2 o KWh/m2/degree day 0.3 BUILDING HEATING EFFICIENCY . e is the marginal efficiency of conversion of the energy recorded on the y-axis to heat (marginal means that standing losses are discounted ± in the case of fuel-fired systems this essentially means the combustion efficiency). p. for each element of the volume of the building by the density of air. ± in turn and add up all the results. . roof.tables. Cp. A and V are measurable or estimable from the dimensions of the building and Cp p has the value 0. It is possible to show. 4. Table 1: U-values for common structures in an industrial building (source: Textiles industry) U-values W/m / C Single-glazed windows Roof skylights Solid brick unplastered Brick cavity (brick unlined) Well-insulated wall Pitched tiled roof plaster-board ceiling Roof with fibreglass lining 4. of each element of the outer fabric of the building ± walls.33 kWh/m3/ hour/oC or 0.01 0. ÆUA means multiply the area. for steam heating it acknowledges the residual heat in condensate. U. windows.3 1.00792 kwh/m3/hour/degree day. and the heat capacity of air. Steam tables are widely published in textbooks on mechanical engineering and some energy management reference works.

for this the value of F is read on the right-hand axis. the outside temperature is below a fixed base temperature.e. a higher value. Figure 15 provides a chart for finding a value for F (degree day correspondence factor) as a function of the number of hours of heating. the lower the inertia. i. Therefore. . A building with a heavy structure.The degree days used by most industrial energy managers are those published for regional observing stations using a formula which measures how long in parts of a day and by how much. the appropriate value of F can be found from Figure 21. and a value for the heating inertia. F is not very sensitive to the inertia and can be estimated: . In the fortunate position of knowing the value of the heating inertia. a low value approaching 0oC/hour/oC. A light building with few barriers to air movement. How much less energy is required by an intermittently heated building depends on the number of hours a day it is heated and what is called its heating inertia ± how fast its internal temperature falls in oC/hour for a given temperature difference between inside and out. say around 0. in oC. Figure 21: Degree day correspondence factor isopleths for the appraisal of the heat balance of intermittently heated buildings.e. the faster the temperature falls. the inertia can be measured using a thermograph. many internal barriers to air movement and considerable internal mass (product in a warehouse) has a nigh inertia. If required. but as long as the working day is more than eight hours.3oC/hour/oC. For buildings that are intermittently heated it over-estimates the heat requirements. i. perhaps some mechanical ventilation and little internal mass would have a low inertia. (source: ETSU) 34 . (F ˆ 1 for a continuously heated building). find the value of F on the left-hand axis for the requisite heating hours per day.

ventilation in this building is overwhelmingly the largest energy user.807)  100 ˆ 59% 100% Clearly. is the most cost-effective element of significant heat loss to correct in industrial buildings.00792  3.567  0. In principle. and the formula becomes a method or estimating the ventilation rate.03 ˆ 275. Then: Area of wall (inc. U-values are estimated as 0. after stratification.In practice. It is usual to simplify the calculation by assuming a common air exchange rate over the entire building volume.4 ‡ 66. 120 feet wide and 60 feet high and windows represent 40% of the wall area.776 m3 ˆ 156.6  3.34/1. V From the straight-line equation: 275:2 ‡ …40:776  0:00792  N† ˆ 1:807 slope ˆ 0:75 Therefore: …1:807  0:75† À 275:2 ˆ 3.11 ˆ 156. degree days for the building has a slope of 6.9 ˆ 0 30483  (200  120  60) Volume.9 kWh/degree day 03048  (200  120)  0. therefore F ˆ 1. (2  200  60) ‡ (2  120  60) ˆ 38.567  0.4/1. 0. The building is 200 feet long.3048 m.03 for the roof.4  3.4 kWh/degree day 2 ˆ 66. and any measures applied to the building fabric would have minimal impact. windows) ˆ ˆ Heat loss from windows ˆ Heat loss from walls ˆ Heat loss from roof ˆ So: ÆUA Example The slope of energy vs. the most difficult factor to estimate in industrial buildings is the number of air changes (N).9 ‡ 51. which is commonly the highest component of building heat loss and.567m2 0.5 GJ/degree day (1.11 for the windows and 0.024 ˆ 51.9 kWh/degree day 0.9/1.2 ˆ 40.3048)2 ˆ 3.807)  100 ˆ 4% Ventilation ˆ (40.400  (0.400ft2 38. 35 .807)  100 ˆ 9% Roof ˆ (66.9/1. The boiler efficiency is known to be 7500. everything is now known except N. One foot is 0.776  0.807)  100 ˆ 3% Windows ˆ (156.34 air changes peer hour N ˆ 40:776  0:00792 From this it can be seen what proportion of the total observed weather-related energy use is lost by different components of the building fabric and operation: Boiler ˆ 25% Walls ˆ (51.807 kwh/degree day). This technique provides a means to assess the impact. The building is heated continuously.024 kwh/m2/degree day for the walls. This is not unusual in industrial buildings and a great deal of wasted energy is due to overzealous and poorly balanced mechanical ventilation.

evaporates the water that .1 NON-PRODUCTIVE CONSUMPTION At the commonest output of around 900 te/ month. based on what has been achieved historically. The success of this approach depends on being able to recognise when the difference between actual consumption and the standard in any one period is exceptional. respond to instances of unusually large differences. which cause these differences but are not controllable. statistical methods.2 PRODUCTION-RELATED EFFICIENCY 36 This example is for a fried product in which the process heats the raw material to the frying temperature of 250oC. this indicates that production-unrelated energy is: 100  1007 ˆ 307 100 ‡ …0:26  900† 5.5.1 INTRODUCTION The normal way of using information as a basis for on-going management control is to: . sometimes modified to give same 'incentive' and expressed in simple terms. calculate the difference between actual performance and this standard. These techniques will be illustrated using the data in Figure 22. the data for the particular periods ± days. . A particularly powerful method for achieving this is a combination of a technique called CUSUM and a device taken from quality management called the control chart. The smallest difference that identifies a deviation from the standard as a significant exception is called the resolution of the management system. The data for this process appear to split naturally into two groups. taken from a factory that produces a fried-food product.1. Before applying CUSUM. A best-fit line drawn by eye is: energy ('000 therms) ˆ 0. months ± that provide the best standard.1. and an understanding of the physical laws that underlie energy consumption.26  production (te) ‡ 100 5. consider the other information already apparent in the data. reduce these differences over time. The resolution can be improved by being able to select. establish a performance standard. In energy M & T historic performance is used for establishing performance standards: however. from the historic information. . following parallel lines a short distance apart. The one of greatest potential interest is the lower one. are applied to make these performance standards robust. as this appears to represent higher energy efficiency. This in turn means being able to accommodate all the factors into the calculation. USING INFORMATION ON ENERGY USE FOR MANAGEMENT CONTROL 5. weeks. .

2.4 te of water and. the heating of only 0 4 te of oil. about 1 kJ/kg/oC.6 te of raw material. Each te of product therefore contains 0. The production-related efficiency of the process is the theoretical energy required to process 1 te of product. The energy required to evaporate water from liquid at 30oC to steam not under pressure at 250oC can be looked up in standard engineering steam tables for superheated steam ± the value is 2. From Figure 22 we know that the slope of the line 5 260 therms/te. the production of which involves evaporation of four times as much mass of water (80%:20% ratio). i. i. production for a cooker/fryer in the food industry. information 37 .2 CUSUM TECHNIQUE CUSUM stands for the CUmulative SUM of differences and is a technique for measuring bias in equal interval time series data. in an ideal process. One therm is 105. The specific heat of the cooking oil was obtainable from the supplier as 2 kJ/kg/oC.e. The accuracy of specific heats of solid materials in this case (and most cases involving evaporation of water) is not found to be critical and the effect of temperature on specific heat.870 kJ/kg (it is important to use the right steam table). (source: ETSU) makes up 80% of the mass of the raw material and replaces this with cooking oil that makes up 40% of the product.5 MJ.e. is negligible.Figure 22: Fuel vs.e. i. The specific heat of the other solid material is not known but it is a carbohydrate with a rigid structure and so cannot be far from that of wood or polystyrene. in this case. 5. divided by the actual energy used per te: Efficiency ˆ f…2:870  2:400† ‡ …2  400 ‡ 1  600†  …240 À 30†g 260  105:5  1:000  1007 ‡ 267 This is poor efficiency performance for this kind of process.

If this is the normal variation in these data. In fact.04 176. Subtract the predicted consumption from the actual to obtain a difference for each week. energy consumption seems to vary between about 290.. The resultant accumulation of these differences. CUSUM is a technique that can take account of this.66 If something happens which changes the pattern of consumption moves to a pattern for which the constants in the best fit relation are different from those in the prediction then the differences will not be random: they will be biased positive or negative and CUSUM will track up or down from the time of that event. week. and organised in the same time order as it was measured (which is the way most of most industry collects information anyway). The first three of these steps are usually carried out in adjacent columns of a spreadsheet (or database if proprietary software is used). In the example of the cooker/fryer. production. Lengths 38 . month etc. Actual gas Predicted gas ('000 therms) ('000 therms) 334 371 288 332 332. CUSUM would then track horizontally on this chart. The differences added are those between the actual energy used and the energy predicted by the best-fit line on the chart of energy vs.000 and 400. At around 900 te/month. would also be random and not far from zero. The CUSUM chart therefore consists of a series of straight sections separated by kinks.04 À 3.of the same kind gathered at the same time each day.04 ‡ 11. then this is about the limit of resolution of any system based on it. 896 1. Use this formula to obtain a predicted energy use for each week from the production for that week.96 374. for any given production rate there is a wide range of energy consumption in the data. This result is shown calculated in the table below. 2. If the entire scatter on the CUSUM chart were only random about the best-fit line. CUSUM. Plot a graph of CUSUM against time. it is not representative of the true week-to-week variation at least some of this apparent scatter is due to the way the process has changed over time. Table 2: CUSUM data for cooker/fryer Production (Tons) Feb 1992 March April May June July Aug The resulting chart is shown in Figure 23.26  production in te) ‡100 Calculating CUSUM from this involves four steps: 1. Add up the differences from the first week to each week in turn to obtain CUSUM.94 CUSUM ‡ 1.72 ‡ 38.054 678 781 The prediction formula calculated previously was: energy ('000 therms) ˆ (0. the compiled differences would also be randomly positive and negative. 3.000 therms/month a variation of ‡/-16%.28 303.06 Difference ‡ 1.72 ‡28.00 ‡ 9.04 À 2. each kink representing a change in pattern. 4.

which run parallel to one another. from August to November 1997. from December 1992 to August 1998. indicate the same process behaviour pattern being followed. from January 1999 onwards. . Figure 23. from September10 December 1998. identifies two clear patterns: 1. Discussing the CUSUM chart with various managers in the factory brings out an explanation for the two patterns. When the line runs horizontal which is: .Figure 23: The CUSUM graph for the cooker/fryer. A few years previously the cooker had been fitted with a heat recovery system.1 THE CONTROL CHART 39 The control chart is already a familiar concept in organisations that use any form of statistically based quality control. . 5. . When the line runs upward which is: . from May to July 1992.2. (source: ETSU) of the CUSUM chart. partly on economic grounds and partly to reduce the visible plume of steam over the factory from the evaporated water. picked up this poor performance of the heat recovery equipment during an energy survey in early 1993 when the system was cleaned on his recommendation. 2. The CUSUM graph. . up to April 1997. . The upward trend in early 1994 occurred because management did not realise that the deterioration in the performance of the heat recovery system was not a one-off problem ± repeated cleaning at intervals would be necessary to maintain the higher performance. An energy consultant had in fact. The rising trend in the CUSUM chart could be attributed to a reduction in the performance of the neat recovery equipment.

Regression produces a best-fit line to these data of: energy ('000 therms/month) ˆ (0. The control band needs to be sufficiently narrow to indicate to the process operators that there is supervision of the process. calculate a new control prediction from this pattern for the actual production in each month. over a recent period. if the energy use goes outside this level. . calculate the difference between the actual consumption and the control prediction: plot these differences against time as shown in Fig 24: decide on a control and such that. someone is required to account for it. recalculate the best fit formula for all the data identified from the CUSUM chart as belonging to a workable standard and.28  production (te)) ‡ 84 and a correlation coefficient of 0. . is a good indicator of the improvement in data used to predict energy use on the control chart. The correlation coefficient for all of the data was 0.8. although there are also formal statistical methods available for deciding .To calculate a control chart: . (source: ETSU) 40 . if possible. . easily calculable on a computer spreadsheet. The correlation coefficient. The horizontal periods on the CUSUM graph represent the periods with the heat recovery Figure 24: The control chart for the cooker/fryer. but wide enough not to alert too many exceptions and thereby produce no response. system working properly. Band width can be decided by simple reasoned judgement.96.

the average for all the Mondays. In this. e. By eye. require a different variant of CUSUM ± the recurrent form. In recurrent CUSUM the prediction is cased on calculating the average values of each time interval in the cycle. . o as reports which indicate only the data for the immediate previous week or shift: o as look-up tables which enable the user of the information to deduce that energy consumption is outside acceptable levels. the calculation of the forecast consumption. The form of CUSUM. Parameters. which applies to parameters that are not expected to vary over time. all the Tuesdays.3 APPLICATION OF CUSUM The control chart can be used practically to raise awareness in various ways. The control band can be based on absolute differences (in energy units) or as a percentage. all the steps are the same except in making the prediction. ovens. Weekly data and more sophisticated analysis can improve this. but this means circulating an entire sheet of paper to highlight only the last point on the chart. mass of material processed. the resolution is 7%. This form of CUSUM is a recent innovation and is also not necessarily familiar to energy managers. Although it has been a familiar feature of energy management for some years and is a common feature of dedicated M&T computer software. it is not well known in other management disciplines.2. Control charts are often useful when displayed on company CUSUM analysis and control charts can be applied to a wide range of process and production parameters. 5. too few data to decide this statistically. Data can be provided to the responsible departments in the factory in several ways: o as charts which display the immediate last period and previous periods. it is a good start ± it picks up the most immediate threat to performance. 25. There are various styles of application for this simple principle: .000 therms that correspond to the average production of 900 te/ month. including: . notice boards or circulated through an electronic notice board or computer system. Nonetheless. along with the interpretation of the CUSUM chart and setting up of the control chart remain the same. for daily intervals in a weekly cycle. One way is to circulate a paper copy of the chart to relevant staff. kilns and furnaces ± fuel consumption. The remaining steps. In this case there are.2 NON-PARAMETRIC FORMS OF CUSUM AND CONTROL CHART . in either case the differences are calculated on the same oasis (if percentage control levels are being used. At the 336. etc. running hours.000 therms/ month is enough to detect deterioration in the heat recovery system. calculate the differences as percentages too). which follow recurring patterns over time.this. temperature in and temperature cut. which is familiar to quality managers. The form of CUSUM described is called the parametric form because it examines specifically how the relationship between variables or parameters changes over time. as yet. 41 .g. 5. is the univariant.2. difference and control limit for the immediate past interval can be added to a spreadsheet and used as the basis for discussion at production control and planning meetings. At factory level.

cutting machinery electricity consumption. even if all the information is not routinely circulated. . Such is the ease of calculation of control charts that it should be feasible to maintain them on all of these parameters. volume delivered. . air compressors electricity consumption. pumps electricity consumption. kilometres per litre. degree days. . air delivered. process running hours. . 42 . boilers fuel consumption and steam generated: building space heating fuel consumption. product weight. electrode wear. pulverisers electricity consumption. fuel consumption. heating and cooling. rolling machinery. . melting furnaces ± material melted. fans electricity consumption. production. oxygen supplied. volume delivered (often as some other variable such as furnace throughput). . leak rate. . vehicle fuel tonne miles. inert gases gas usage. mass of material worked ± work done. degree days. electrolytic and electroplating processes ± electricity consumption. new materials added. material deposited. energy input. mass of water evaporated. journey times. . . evaporator load. coke additions. alloying and other additives. recycled material. voltage. mixers. refrigeration electricity consumption. ovens and cookers ± fuel consumption. . ..

CHECK LIST Ensure that a high standard of maintenance is undertaken on all drive systems. This is a maximum. For long running hours high efficiency motors should be used. compressed air. The efficiency of a motor declines as the load falls. Motor efficiencies at various loads can be taken from the manufacturer's data sheets.6. it is necessary to determine the motor duty cycle. Where significant load or speed variations occur. when used in conjunction with any site kWh meters. . but can also be obtained from selective spot measurements. Ensure that motors are not left idling for long periods ± make use of load sensors. 43 . allow the calculation of a comprehensive audit of the energy consumption of site drive systems. most motors run at around 65% of full load. Use variable speed drives (VSDs) where appropriate. it will operate most efficiently between 75% and full load. The primary factors affecting the efficiency of a well maintained electrical motor are its loading and the efficiency of the design of the motor when supplied. This makes the assessment of the performance and energy consumption of these units somewhat time consuming.) Motor and drive systems usually consume the majority of the electrical energy at industrial sites. . FACTORY SERVICES This chapter gives an outline of energy saving opportunities for the following services: motors and drives. The measurement of motor power consumption should. . select a correctly sized motor. This is best achieved by continuous monitoring of power consumed. switch off motors when not needed. providing the operating cycle of the unit is known. However the cost saving potential means that the effort should be worthwhile. Energy saving opportunities can be broadly categorized as follows: . To assess the loading of an electric motor it is necessary to have some measure of the power being consumed. Where a motor is driving a fan or pump. i. Full load power consumption can normally be found on the motor nameplate. Ensure motor efficiency.1 MOTORS AND DRIVES (This topic is dealt with in more detail in the booklet ªHow to save energy and money in electricity useº. 6. which is required to deliver a varying flow.e. Typically. 6.e.1.1 . Practice good housekeeping. These can provide significant savings opportunities where fan or pump loads vary. refrigeration and chilled cooling water. there will be a large number of comparatively small units scattered throughout the complex. on average 65% of the total. i. the use of a VSD can save up to 80% of the power consumed compared with using mechanical flow.

but it is an expensive service and efficient utilization is important. though only about 5% of the energy consumed by compressing air is actually available for work at the point of use. . A planned maintenance programme to cover the air distribution system is useful. Make sure that the intake air is cool and clean.. . Consider the use of high efficiency motors for units running at high loads for long periods. 6.2. Compressed air is used extensively in industry. If only one air user in the system requires high quality air. remaining energy consumption will be related to usage. in particular for fans and pumps. consider treatment of that air at the point of use. but it can also be derived from hours run and ammeters. measured by production rate or site activity. . The performance of a compressed air system is heavily dependent on the level of air leakage. . . Ensure the plant is well maintained in line with the maker's recommendations. When motors are operating for long periods at less than full loads consider the use of motor (voltage) controllers. Recover the heat of compression where possible. Compressor energy consumption is best obtained from a kWh meter. Ensure that the design of the compressed air distribution systems does not produce an excessive pressure drop between generation plant and end user. CHECK LIST Rationalise the system by removing or isolating dead legs and minimizing pressure drops.2 COMPRESSED AIR (This topic is dealt with in more detail in the booklet ªSaving Energy and Money in Compressed Air Systemsº). . where installed. . Generate compressed air at the lowest possible pressure that will meet site requirements. . Minimise the air leakage rate. Use outside air for compression where possible. 6. The rate of energy consumption during these periods is the base load of the system and can only be reduced by limiting air leakage. It is usually possible to save 10-20% of the energy running costs of a compressed air system with little capital outlay. The . .1 . This can be assessed by measuring the energy consumption of the plant during periods when there is no demand for air.3 REFRIGERATION (This topic is dealt with in more detail in the booklet ªSaving Energy and Money in Refrigerationº). or continuous running on a star connection. 6. Investigate the possibility of sequencing multi-unit plant. Check that the motor is not excessively oversized. There is a tendency to believe that compressed air is cheap. . 44 . or installing more efficient compressor plant. Ensure that the control systems installed result in efficient operation. Most compressor systems are volume controlled so it is important to remember that plant tends to operate for long periods at less than full load. typically at weekends of during shift changes. Keep air quality to the minimum possible. In variable load systems the possible application of variable speed motors and drives should be considered.

. Ensure that the cooling load is kept to a minimum. .2 . Suitable electricity submeters can be installed for this purpose. Check thermostat settings. For an accurate assessment of refrigeration performance it is important that sufficient monitoring equipment is installed on the plant. Centralised chilled water services consume large amounts of energy in their refrigeration plants. retrofit plant with more energy efficient components. Improve thermal insulation. . evaporator pumps (typically 15%). Once the system performance has been established it is useful to identify the contribution of each plant component to the total system power input. . . . compressors (typically 65%). . This should allow the loads that significantly affect costs to be highlighted. The distribution system itself will contain circulating pumps consuming electrical energy. Investigate the possibility of improving control functions. condenser fans (typically 10%).g. condenser pumps (typically 5%). lights (typically 5%). in conjunction with information on the overall running time of the installation. Refrigeration efficiency is usually expressed as the coefficient of performance (COP). 45 . . Make sure that fouling of primary and secondary refrigeration circuits is kept to a minimum. defined as: COP ˆ Cooling effect …kW† Power input to compressor …kW† .3.4 CHILLED AND COOLING WATER 6. For real systems the power input should include the compressor and all other auxiliary equipment. .1 . This would normally be assessed using ammeter readings. Use thermal inertia to reduce running costs by operating at full load during low rate electricity periods at night and at weekends. The next stage is to divide the total cooling load amongst the various process requirements. It is therefore not unusual for plant to be operating at less than optimum efficiency. Avoid blockage of air flow through and around heat exchanges (e. such as pumps. . . Fit automatic closure devices to doors and minimize door opening times. .3. Utilise waste heat where possible. evaporators and condensers). 6. fans. cooling . Avoid operating refrigeration plant under part-load conditions.#260 6. . However for the non-specialist it can be somewhat complex to evaluate their performance. . CHECK LISTS Ensure that these is good and regular maintenance of all equipment. However. lights. Maintain isolation standards where appropriate. etc. dealt with in Section 4. Review energy efficiency when replacing CFC with ozone benign refrigerants. .3 of this booklet. The main contributors are normally: . Where appropriate. The overall energy consumption should be directly related to cooling demand. REFRIGERATION COLD STORES Minimise defrost cycles. Keep operating hours to a minimum.Refrigeration systems are used widely in industry. .

. Ensure system does not run unnecessarily 46 . Ensure that there are no leaks from the system. i. Control pump operation effectively ± avoid throttling with valves by using VSDs. the use of variable speed drives (VSDs) should be considered. Ensure system does not run unnecessarily. . . Use thermostats to control cooling tower fans. Isolate equipment when not in use. Check that the system is not oversized.1 CHECK LISTS CHILLED WATER . Ensure that the temperature of the chilled water is optimised.4.systems have a large fixed element to their energy usage. . . COOLING WATER . . As with other plant. . it is important to ensure plant is turned off when no cooling is required. .e. not too low. Insulate the distribution system to a high standard. For variable loads. 6. . Ensure there are no water leaks. Always use closed circuit systems. Control pump operation effectively ± avoid throttling with valves by using VSDs. .

The frequency of checks will depend on the plant and manpower availability. .: Methods. heat output. . . flue gas losses. amongst other things. i. such as fluid temperatures. . fuel consumption. INDUSTRIAL HEATING PROCESS (This topic is dealt with in more detail in the booklet ªSaving Energy and Money in Boilers and Furnacesº). flue gas conditions. This is the ratio between useful heat production and energy consumed. though indirect measurements. the economic use of oil-fired. There should be a comprehensive boilerhouse logging programme in place. particularly before and after maintenance.1 BOILERS AND BOILERHOUSE MANAGEMENT The boilerhouse is very often the largest single user of energy on a site. An important measure of the performance of a boiler plant is the specific boiler efficiency. which includes the monitoring of the following parameters: . In addition it is always worth undertaking a more comprehensive boilerhouse audit. Heat transferred to heating medium: …usually steam or water †  1007 Fuel input The heat transferred to the heating medium cannot normally be determined directly. blowdown losses. The main heat losses for a typical installation. Electronic combustion analysers can be used to check efficiencies and monitor trends. and it is important that its performance is under constant review. are detailed in ªSaving Energy and Moneyº booklets. are: . 7. heat losses from boiler shell. . but weekly or preferably daily checks should be made. heat losses from boilerhouse heat distribution system. make-up water consumption. to highlight heat losses and take into account subsidiary energy usage. An important class of energy consuming activities includes the production and distribution of heat. pressure and volume flow rates can be used. which can be used to assess these losses. gas-fired and coal-fired boiler plant respectively. subsidiary electricity consumption. .e.7. which cover. The biggest part of this exercise is to assess the portion of the primary fuel energy lost in the boilerhouse. . in order of importance. 47 . . Boilers and furnaces are discussed in this chapter. fuel heating (oil-fired plant). ash losses (coal-fired plant). .

heat loss to charging equipment and mechanisms. . . Recover heat from flue gas and boiler blowdown whenever possible.1. . . the feasibility of combined heat and power (CHP) should be investigated. 7. . structural heat losses. . such as furnaces and kilns. The more scatter on the graphical plot the worse the process control. typically in excess of 5 000 hours/annum. represents the level of standing losses. Recovery of uncontaminated condensate on steam systems should be maximized. CHECK LIST Maintain efficient combustion. In a well controlled plant there should be a good correlation between energy consumption and production rate. a specific efficiency for the process plant can be calculated but it is more usual to use the specific energy consumption: Specific energy consumption ˆ Energy consumption Product throughput This gives a good measure of the relative plant performance. saving on energy.A significant amount of electrical energy is used in the typical boilerhouse for circulating pumps. Insulate oil tanks and keep steam or electric heating to the minimum required. 48 . water and chemicals.e. Valve off idle boilers to reduce radiation losses. heat loss by radiation from openings. . . as in figures 7 and 8 in Section 3. heat loss to conveyers. 7. . Attempt to match boilers to heat demand. . Ensure as much condensate as practicable is recovered from steam systems. combustion fans. are used in a variety of industries. . Ensure good operational control and consider sequence control for multi-plant installations. flue gas losses (except on electrically operated plant). the basis under which an energy audit is undertaken on all high temperature processes is very similar. Ensure that boilers and heat distribution systems are adequately insulated.2 HIGH TEMPERATURE PROCESSES High temperature process plant. i. However. Maintain good water treatment. In addition the data can be used to compare energy consumption at different production rates. . . though an estimate of electricity consumption can be determined from motor duties and running hours if necessary. the energy consumption at zero production. There is a wide range of plant used. and it may be of a continuous or batch nature. The offset on the graph. . etc. These are typically made up of: . . loss of furnace gases at openings. As with boilers. Use flue dampers where appropriate to minimize flue losses when plant not firing. rollers. etc. Where there are significant year round requirements for process heating. Make-up water consumption should be monitored to give early warning of system leaks. . Blowdown steam boilers only when necessary. Repair water and steam leaks. heat removed by cooling circuits. Where a dedicated kWh meter is installed for the boilerhouse this should be read regularly. and requires only good production records and energy consumption figures to be kept.1 .3 on Monitoring and Targeting.

. The methods of evaluating performance and energy consumption of these processes is similar to those used on high temperature processes. Attempt to recover as much heat as possible from flue gases. Evaluate the opportunities for process integration and combined heat and power. 49 . Steam is a common energy transfer medium and heat is often . Review scheduling of different processes to determine whether plant operation can be concentrated into batches. Do not over-dry material. 7.1 . Maintain good control of the process. . . Consider the use of direct firing where appropriate. cascaded through the process. which results in large quantities of low grade waste heat. Ensure plant and services are adequately insulated. CHECK LIST Minimise heat losses from openings. so combined heat and power (CHP) could be applied cost effectively. Use high efficiency insulating materials to reduce losses from the plant fabric. Ensure efficient combustion of fuels where applicable. . . . 7. . Ensure there is effective control over furnace operating parameters ± computerized control should be considered for larger units. Control the use of water. . . Maximise liquid extraction by mechanical means before thermal drying.1 . including humidity control of dryers.3. . Many industries require significant year round process heating. such as doors. CHECK LIST Minimise heat losses from liquid surfaces on heated tanks.It is worth measuring or calculating the level of these heat losses to identify areas for potential improvement. There is a large variety of low temperature processes undertaken in industry. especially that used for washing. Ensure efficient combustion of fuels where applicable. Avoid excessive pressure in controlled atmosphere units. on sealed units. Reduce stock residence time to a minimum to eliminate unnecessary holding periods.3 LOW TEMPERATURE PROCESSES The low temperature process industries can be defined as those involving heat usage at generally less than 400 ± 500oC. process effluents and cooling waters.2. . . Process integration and heat recovery are important ways of improving energy efficiency. . Ensure the minimum amount of stock supporting equipment is used. The processes often include chemical reactions or manipulation of materials and mixtures in water or organic solvents. . Attempt to recover as much heat as possible from flue gases. 7. consider the use of specialized holding furnaces. The pre-heating of combustion air or stock or its use in other services such as space heating are well worth considering. . If maintaining stock at high temperature for long periods. . . . Make sure excessive cooling of furnace equipment is not occurring. The pre-heating of combustion air or stock or use in other services such as space heating are well worth considering.

domestic hot water and lighting loads generally represent a significant energy consuming requirement for many organizations As a general guide. Fit time controls to eliminate unnecessary heating. . Install optimum start control to reduce preheating times.1 . 8. . . Insulation is often best installed when work is being carried out on the building fabric. 50 .1. It is important to identify the areas of building fabric responsible for the greatest heat loss and where cost effective insulation can be installed. Investigate heat recovery possibilities. Install zone controls for areas with differing times of use or temperature requirements. minimising heat losses through ingression of cold air particularly at loading bays and large doors. roof repair/ replacement. Figure 9 indicates how energy is used for building services in a typical factory Temperature profiles can be obtained using chart recorders or data loggers (which can be hired) to identify incorrect space temperatures or operating periods and poor controls. The minimum controls required are time switches. since the additional cost will be relatively small. minimising heat losses or gains through the building fabric by insulation. Energy management for space heating is concerned with four main aspects: . . Check thermostats set correctly. . Consider a Building Energy Management System. 8. . or during building refurbishment. avoiding overheating. though on larger sites a Building Energy Management System (BEMS) is recommended. Install destratification fans in high buildings to reduce temperature gradients. . . e. Ensure regular maintenance of central boiler plant. .g. In many cases it is possible to examine the records of fuel used for heating for the previous 12 months and plot bar charts of total consumption against each month. Process or building occupancy may have changed and point-of-use equipment and/or fuel switching may offer substantial savings. CHECK LIST Minimise plant standing losses. Install automatic/fast acting doors for goods/vehicle entrances.1 SPACE HEATING The energy use for space heating can generally be assessed in a number of ways. BUILDING SERVICES Space heating. . operating plant at optimum efficiency. . .8. The system selected should be assessed in the light of current requirements and also comply with Building Regulations.

to ensure the building is cooled only when necessary and to utilize free cooling when ambient temperatures are below the building temperature.3. efficiency of generation. Savings in volume could be achieved through restrictors or automatic cutoffs and avoidance of leaks or taps left running. If standing losses are high. Provide controls to prevent simultaneous use of heating and cooling circuits in air handling units. . The main area for water savings is through reducing automatic flushes for urinals using proprietary devices either in operating on pressure drop or occupancy detection. 8.3 HOT WATER AND WATER SUPPLY The most important factors to consider with hot water supplies are the volume used and the 8. Control of leaks is an important factor for buildings on a metered supply and this can be checked through monitoring the meter during unoccupied periods. . CHECK LIST Insulate hot water storage tanks and pipework.8. . Check hot water thermostat settings are correct: 60oC is recommended to prevent Legionella growth.2 AIR CONDITIONING AND VENTILATION Air conditioning is increasingly used in high technology buildings with large solar gains and internal heat gains from occupants. The largest non-production related use of water in buildings is generally from water cisterns. This can be done through recording temperatures with a data logger or checking operating controls and setpoints where a Building Energy Management System (BEMS) is used.1 . These usually work by having a small but continuous flow of water into a small cistern.1 .4 LIGHTING Lighting is perhaps the most noticeable source of energy waste in many organizations and there are indeed many opportunities for reducing lighting 51 . Similar principles apply as for space heating. . Set the room sensor cooling temperature to 22oC or higher. Regularly check control settings and operate in accordance with occupancy requirements. Use point-of-use water heaters in summer or decentralize from main boiler plant if standing losses are high. There are other water saving devices available and the cost effectiveness depends on the application. 8. . it may be cost effective to install point of use heaters. for example in a large distribution system with low DHW usage. except that heat is gained through the fabric of the building and cooled air is lost from the building. . which empties periodically to flush urinals. Ensure the system uses free cooling effect of outside air when possible.2. 8. Install spray taps or flow restrictors. . These include tap restrictors and shower controls. Controls are generally more sophisticated and it is essential to check operation of the system carefully. CHECK LIST Reduce the air volume handled wherever possible. information technology and other electrical equipment.

There is a wide range of lamp type. It is important to relate lighting levels and lamp types to the requirements in different areas. Fully automated lighting control systems are also available. 8. the colour) also needs to be borne in mind.energy costs.g. with considerable variations in luminous efficacy (i. . though the quality of lighting provided (most importantly.4. light output per unit of energy consumption) between different types. ranging from simple manual switching to upgrading of luminaries to more efficient types. . Staff can play an important part in controlling lighting use and this is to be encouraged as part of an organisation's environmental image. . Use slimline energy efficiency fluorescent tubes in switch-start fittings. Lighting consumption can be estimated by multiplying the installed load in kW by the hours in use. Switch off unnecessary lights. Replace twin fluorescent with single tube and high efficiency reflectors. A performance index of between 10 and 20 W/m2 is typical for fluorescent lighting when the load is related to floor area served. In general it is important to select lamps with the highest efficacy. fluorescent or discharge lamps.1 CHECK LIST . . Table 5: Typical load and output of various lamps Lamp type GLS Tungsten Compact Fluorescent Lamp Mercury Vapour 38mm Fluorescent Tube 26mm Fluorescent Tube High Pressure Sodium SON Low Pressure Sodium SOX Size 100 W 16 W 80 W 1500 mm 1500 mm 70 W 55 W Circuit load (Watt) 100 20 93 78 71 81 68 Output (Lumens) 1200 700 3800 4900 4900 5500 7300 Efficacy (Lumens/watt) 12 35 41 63 69 68 107 52 . daylight or occupancy detection.e. to give the consumption in kWh. Convert to more efficient installation where appropriate e. Table 5 gives examples of some of the most common lamp types and sizes. Install automatic lighting controls ± time. The load can be determined be estimating the number of fittings and identifying their rating.

particularly as energy saving investments are usually viewed as 'non-core' business activity. Payback ˆ .9. i. All other initial and ongoing costs would normally be taken into account. particularly in terms of size and timing of cash flows. 9. . . In its simplest form the payback is the initial cost divided by the net annual savings generated less any additional maintenance costs. Total capital cost of project Net annual saving Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) In this analysis the rate of savings generated by the project are calculated on a year by year basis. It is important that any application for capital is consistent with the system used in a particular company. These are outlined below: .e. DCF provides more information than payback. CAPITAL EXPENDITURE During the course of the audit energy cost saving projects requiring capital expenditure are almost certain to be identified. The payback is defined as the time period that will lapse before the accumulated savings will be sufficient to cover the initial expenditure. which may be used for raising capital for projects. so that: . It is important that a detailed analysis is undertaken of the financial viability of these projects. Your company accountant can advise you on how to carry out a discounted cash flow analysis. Payback This is the simplest and most widely used criterion and can be used for an initial assessment. The main techniques in common use are discussed in the following text. discounted back to the present time. over the whole life of the equipment.1 FINANCIAL CRITERIA Different organizations will have different financial criteria for assessing the viability of capital projects.2 RAISING CAPITAL There are a number of methods. Some organizations allocate an 53 . the true benefit of the project is identified.: Internally Capital can be raised by an organization from its normal capital budgets. The economic case will have to be good for projects to win out against other demands for capital. the project can be 'sold' internally within the organization. This will allow accurate decisions as to whether the project should go ahead and when. There will always be other demands on capital. . The return on assets shows the potential pre-tax cost benefits of a project against the initial depreciated capital. Net return on assets 9.

They would then charge to host company a service charge and for fuel. who are also paid a proportion of the savings generated.annual budget to energy efficiency measures. 54 . The advantages to the host company are that they achieve lower energy costs without the need to find capital for the project and that they no longer have to run a boilerhouse facility. . . For example a CEM company may take over a project to install new boilers or CHP at a site. In this type of deal an outside company will normally take over the supply of a utility. Contract Energy Management (CEM) External finance External finance could be in the form of a straightforward load. There is often a positive cash flow for the host company from the start of the project in this type of deal. The CEM company would then put up the necessary capital to purchase the equipment and take over the running of the new plant completely. The prioritisation of different measures should take account of the funds available. Some companies now offer deals where a scheme is fully project managed by an outside consultancy. and savings achievable. or more complicated deals where the load is paid off directly out of savings.

ac. Copies can be obtained from: The Energy Research Institute Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Cape Town Rondebosch 7701 Cape Town South Africa Tel No: ‡27 (0)21 650 3892 Fax No: ‡27 (0)21 686 4838 Email: eri@eng.uct. which contains information on the latest developments in energy efficiency in Southern Africa and details of forthcoming energy efficiency events.SOURCES OF FURTHER INFORMATION For the latest news in energy efficiency technology: ªEnergy Management Newsº is a free newsletter issued by the ERI.za 55 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful