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is based partly on empirical and mostly rational data. Strength Design and Working Stress Design Methods (old code) The working stress method focuses on conditions at service load and the strength design method focuses on loads when failure may be imminent. Working Stress Method The working stress method or alternate design method has set limits on the stresses allowed under service loads (working loads).

f f allowable

Alternate Design Method ACI Appendix A of old code. Some of the obstacles to the working stress method are as follows: 1. 2. 3. No account for different types of loads. Creep and shrinkage are not easily accounted for in elastic stresses. Stress is not proportional to strain at concrete crushing therefore the inherent factor of safety is unknown.

Strength Design Method The strength design method or ultimate strength method has the service loads increased by sufficient factors to obtain the load at which failure is considered to be imminent. The strength provided must be greater than the required strength to carry these factored loads. Unified Design Procedure This is a major part of the ACI 318-02 code revision.

Comments on Design Methods Although strength design is currently the philosophy employed most widely, serviceability must be maintained. Working stress is stilled required to calculate deflections and cracking of structure in service load conditions. General The two primary factors used to provide safety in the ultimate strength method of design are U the overload factors (load factors) in ACI 9.2 (new factors) or ACI C.2 (old factors) and the understrength factors (strength reduction factors) in ACI 9.3 (new factors) or ACI C.3 (old factors).

M n M u

Design Strength<Required Strength Traditional ACI Code - Appendix C The structure must be designed for the most severe of any load combination. The load factors for some basic combinations are as follows per ACI C.2 (new code and old factors): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. U = 1.4D + 1.7L U = 0.75(1.4D + 1.7L +1.7W) U = 0.75(1.4D + 1.7L) +1.6W U = 0.9D + 1.3W U = 0.9D + 1.6W U = 0.75(1.4D + 1.7L +1.7(1.1E)) U = 0.75(1.4D + 1.7L) +1.0E U = 0.9D + 1.3(1.1E) U = 0.9D + 1.0E U = 1.4D + 1.7L + 1.7H U = 0.9D + 1.7H U = 1.4D + 1.7L + 1.4F U = 0.9D + 1.4F U = 0.75(1.4D + 1.4T + 1.7L) Dead D & Live - L Wind W 1.3W w/o direction factor 1.3W w/o direction factor Seismic E 1.4E for service load 1.4E for service load Earth pressure - H Fluid pressure - F Settle, creep, shrink, temp - T 2

11.

U = 1.4D + 1.4T No account for D+L+(2 others), but old codes use 2/3 of basic factors. In addition, for intermediate moment frames shear must be check with seismic load doubled per ACI 21.12(b). Applies to members resisting seismic loading (frame). The strength reduction factors accounting for adverse variations in material strength, workmanship, dimensions, control & degree of supervision, and importance of the member to the building structure are as follows per ACI C.3 (new code and old factors): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. = 0.90 Flexure, with or without axial tension = 0.90 Axial tension Tension controlled sections (t > 0.005) = 0.85 Shear and torsion = 0.75 Compression members, spirally reinforced Compression controlled sections (t < 0.002 i.e. balance) = 0.70 Compression members, others Compression controlled sections (t < 0.002 i.e. balance) = 0.70 Bearing on concrete = 0.65 Bending in plain concrete

NEW ACI Code Chapter 9 The structure must be designed for the most severe of any load combination. These are the factors in the ACI 318-02 code. The load factors for some basic combinations are as follows per ACI 9.2 (ASCE 7-88): 1. 2. 3. U = 1.4D U = 1.4(D + F) U = 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) U = 1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5(Lr or S or R) U = 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (0.5L or 0.8W) U = 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (1.0L or 0.8W) 3

4. 5. 6.

U = 1.2D + 1.3W + 0.5L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) U = 1.2D + 1.6W + 1.0L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) U = 1.2D + 1.5E + (0.5L or 0.2S) U = 1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0L + 0.2S U = 0.9D - (1.3W or 1.5E) (1.0E steel) U = 0.9D + 1.6W + 1.6H U = 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H

Typo in text

All the same notes on W and E as in C.2 (direction & service) The strength reduction factors accounting for adverse variations in material strength, workmanship, dimensions, control & degree of supervision, and importance of the member to the building structure are as follows per ACI 9.3 (ASCE 7-88): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. = 0.80 = 0.90 = 0.80 = 0.90 = 0.75 = 0.70 = 0.65 = 0.65 = 0.55 Flexure, with or without axial tension Tension controlled sections Axial tension Tension controlled sections Shear and torsion Compression members, spirally reinforced Compression controlled sections Compression members, others Compression controlled sections Bearing on concrete Bending in plain concrete

Basis of Nominal Flexural Strength The modern analytical approach to reinforced concrete beam design should include a linear strain distribution and a nonlinear stress distribution as shown below. The following equations can be derived statically assuming a ductile failure of steel at yield stress: k1 - fraction of stress area to rectangular block k2 - fraction of x to centroid k3 - fraction of fc at maximum stress 4

= T C = 0 As f y k1k3 fc ' b

x=

= M n = T ( d k2 x )

k As f y M n = As f y d 2 k1 k 3 f c ' b

It should be noted that only the ratio of k2/(k1k3) need be know and not the individual constants. Tests indicate that the variation is between 0.55 and 0.63.

Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution The computation of flexural strength based on the approximately parabolic stress may be done, but the designer needs a simpler method based on static equilibrium. The Whitney rectangular stress block as shown below is the basis for standard design. The average stress of 0.85fc' is used over a rectangular depth a=1x (ACI 10.2.7.1). The value for 1 should be taken as 0.85 for fc' < 4000 psi, and 0.05 less for each 1000 psi of fc' in excess of 4000 psi (10.2.7.3). The value of 1 need not be less than 0.65 (See ACI SP-17(97) FLEXURE 1 for this and more). This can be written as follows:

1 = 0.85 0.05

f 'c 4000 0.65 1000

C = 0. 85 fc ' ba T = As f y

= T C = 0

a=

As f y 0. 85 fc ' b

a = Mn = As f y( d ) 2

As f y M n = As f y d 1.7 f c ' b

It should be noted that the ratio of k2/(k1k3) turn out to be 0.59 which is right in the middle between 0.55 and 0.63. Nominal Moment Strength Mn - Rectangular Sections Having Tension Reinforcement Only The above definitions are for sections that are singly reinforced. Minimum concrete cover around the reinforcing per ACI 7.7 provides a minimum, but protection from fire may require more. Typical values for cast-in-place concrete include the following: 3 2 1-1/2 3/4 Cast against and permanently exposed to earth (All) Exposed to weather or earth (#6 & Larger) Beam & columns not exposed to weather or earth (All) Slab walls & joists not exposed to weather or earth (#11 & smaller)

It should be obvious that all the concrete in tension was ignored and the effective depth d (distance from tensile steel to compressive face of concrete) was used in computation. The ACI Strength Design Method includes the provision for basic load factors and a strength reduction factor of 0.9 (tension controls) down to 0.65 (tied members). The basic equations for the ultimate moment caused by the load Mu and the nominal moment strength of the beam Mn is as follows:

Mn Mu

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The strength of members shall satisfy equilibrium and compatibility. Strain in the steel and concrete shall be directly proportional to the distance from the neutral axis. The maximum usable strain cu at the extreme compression fiber shall be 0.003. The tensile strength of the concrete is neglected The modulus of elasticity of steel is 29000 ksi. Whitney stress block applies as previously defined. Problem 3.3 case 2 - Compute the nominal flexural strength Mn and the service moment capacity (MD + ML) assuming the total service moment is 60% live load. Use d=19.5 in, bw=12 in, 3-#10 bars, fc=3500psi and fy=60,000psi. Since fc=3500psi < 4000 psi Else

1 = 0.85

OR FLEXURE 1

3(1.27 ) 60000 = 6.403 0.85 f c ' b 0.85( 3500 )12 a 6.403 19.5 = 3726000lb in = 310.5k ft M c = M n = As f y(d 2 ) = 3(1.27) 60000 2 a= As f y =

M n =310.5k ft

x

= T C = 0 C = T 35700a = 228600

Find what value to use from t Since a = 6.403 = 1x , x = a/ 1x = 6.403/0.85 = 7.533 Find t from the strain diagram by geometry as follows:

cu 0.003 t t dx 19.5 7.533 = = = t = cu = 0.003 = 0.004766 x 7.533 d x 19.5 7.533 x 7.533

Since t > 0.004, meets code, but t < 0.005, transition zone t = 0.005 t = 0.004766 t = 0.002 = 0.9 = 0.8805 = 0.65 tension controls Our case compression controls (tied)

M n = 0.8805(310.5) 1.2(0.4 M s ) +1.6(0.6 M s ) 1.44 M s Mn 310.5 M n = 310.5 = M s = = 0.8805 1.635 1.635

Ms = 189.9k ft

Problem 3.3 case 5 - Compute the nominal flexural strength Mn and the service moment capacity (MD + ML) assuming the total service moment is 60% live load. Use d=36.25 in, bw=18 in, 8-#11 bars, fc=4000psi and fy=60,000psi.

f ' 4000 4000 4000 = 0.85 0.65 1 = 0.85 0.05 c 0.85 0.05 1000 1000

C = 0.85 fc ' ba = 0.85( 4000) 18a = 61200 a

T = A f f y = 8( 1.56) 60000 = 748800

FLEXURE 1

F = T C = 0 C = T 61200a = 648800

x

a= As f y 0.85 fc ' b = 8( 1.56) 60000 = 12.24 0.85( 4000) 18

OR

a=

OR

OR

As f y 8( 1.56) 60000 Mn = As f y d 0.59 = 8( 1.56) 60000 36.25 0.59 = 22560000in lb = 1880 k ft fc ' b 4000( 18)

Mn = 1880 k ft

Find what value to use from t Since a = 12.24 = 1x , x = a/ 1x = 12.24/0.85 = 14.40 Find t from the strain diagram by geometry as follows:

cu 0.003 t t d x 36.25 14.40 = = = t = cu = 0.003 = 0.004552 x 14.40 d x 35.25 14.40 x 14.40

Since t > 0.004, meets code, but t < 0.005, transition zone t = 0.005 t = 0.004552 t = 0.002 = 0.9 = 0.8618 = 0.65 tension controls Our case compression controls (tied)

M n = 0.8618(1880) 1.2(0.4M s ) +1.6(0.6M s )

M n = 1880 =

Ms = 1125k ft

10

Balanced Strain Condition Is it still needed? At the balanced strain condition the maximum strain cu at the extreme concrete compression fiber just reaches 0.003 simultaneously with the tension steel reaching y = fy/Es (0.002069 for fy = 60 ksi) as shown below. The amount of steel corresponding to the balanced condition is Asb.

If the actual steel provided was more than Asb then a sudden failure would occur at ultimate loading since the concrete would fail first in a brittle manner (BAD). If the actual steel provide was less than Asb then a gradual failure would occur at ultimate loading since the steel would fail first in a ductile manner (GOOD). Derive the balanced strain condition for a rectangular beam with tension reinforcement only.

=

As bd

(3.5.1)

xb d = cu cu + y

11

= T C = 0

b =

0.85 f c ' xb 1 d fy

0.85 f c ' 87000 1 fy 87000 + f y

(3.5.3) (3.5.4)

b =

Maximum Reinforcement Ratio In order to assure a ductile failure the ACI limits (ACI 10.3.3) the amount of tension steel to not more than 75 % of the amount in the balanced strain condition (max = 0.75 b). Table 3.6.1 pp. 57 gives maximum reinforcement ratios, also FLEXURE 1 SP-17(97). This is all from the 1995 or 1999 ACI code. The 2002 code states in 10.3.5 that if t>0.004 to ensure ductility (about 72.4% for grade 60). A more direct way of controlling ductility is prescribe a maximum value for the neutral axis distance x at the failure imminent condition (max x = 0.75 xb). For the 2002 code for flexural tension reinforcement at t = 0.004 the strength reduction factor turns out to be = 0.81667 using t = 0.002 for grade 60 steel. Other important strain-phi relationships are as follows: 12

tension controls compression controls (tied) compression controls (spiral) maximum for singly reinforced (tied) balanced condition (tied)

Minimum Reinforcement Ratio This is all a very nice derivation of the amount of reinforcement required to provide the same moment capacity as the cracking moment of the concrete. This led to ACI 10.5.1 that states:

As,min 3 fc ' bw d fy

min

200 fy

OR

As ,min

200 bw d fy

For statically determinate T-section with the flange in tension ACI 10.5.2 that states:

As,min 6 fc ' bw d fy

(old)

As , min

fc ' fy

min(bE ,2bw )d

(new)

As,min 3 fc ' bE d fy

(old)

none (new)

13

The amount of reinforcing may be less than minimum per ACI 10.5.3 provided the area provided is one-third more than is required. For Slab or footings the minimum area is per ACI 7.12 with spacing not to exceed 3t or 18. Grade 40 or 50 Grade 60 Grade 40 or 50 As = 0.0020*Ag As = 0.0018*Ag As = 0.0018*Ag(60/fy)

Design of Rectangular Sections in Bending Having Tension Reinforcement Only Under ACI-10.3 and 10.5 The problem is to determine b, d, and As from the required value of Mn = Mu/ and the material properties fc' and fy. Since there are only two applicable equations of equilibrium, but three unknown, many possible solutions exist. Assume = 0.9, if required, and check at the end. If the reinforcement ratio is preset then the following equation can be derived from the previously solved equilibrium conditions:

Rn = 1 = f y 1 m bd 2

2

Mn

(3.8.4b)

where

m= fy 0. 85 fc '

(3.8.4a)

In some situations the values of b and d are preset are the equations would be:

=

1 2mRn 1 1 m f y

(3.8.5)

The procedure to be used in strength design of rectangular sections with tension reinforcement only is as follows (Flexure 2.1 - 2.4 from ACI SP17(97) typ., cover this NOW): 14

Design Table for Singly Reinforced Rectangular Beams ACI 340R-97 SP-17(97)

F= bd 2 12000

Kn =

Mn = F

Mu F

As = bd

It should be noted that if Kn is above the line then is must be increased to 1.33As (<min). If 1.33As is less than minimum then use it (<min). If 1.33As is more than minimum then use minimum (min). Also if Kn is off the bottom of the chart compression steel is required (>max). FLEXURE 2.1 - 2.4 is also set up to find bd given as follows: Enter FLEXURE 2.1 - 2.4 with and interpolate to find Kn. It should be noted that if Kn is above the line then is must be decreased to 0.75Kn (<min). Also if Kn is off the bottom of the chart compression steel is required (>max).

M Kn = n = F Mu F

bd 2 = 12000 F

15

=

As bd

Enter FLEXURE 2.1 - 2.4 with and interpolate to find Kn. It should be noted that if Kn is above the line then is must be decreased to 0.75Kn (<min). Also if Kn is off the bottom of the chart compression steel is required (>max).

F= bd 2 12000

Mu

= M n = FK n

Problem #3.8 case 2 - Design a rectangular beam with tension reinforcing only such that excessive deflections would not be expected under normal circumstances. Use the following data and include the actual beam weight (d/b=1-5-2.0[1.75], wD=0.8k/ft, wL=1.8k/ft, L=30ft, fc=3000psi and fy=60,000psi.) Assume beam weight in lb/ft=20 lb/ft*span in feet 20 lb/ft*30=600 lb/ft

wu = 1.2 wD +1.2 wL = 1.2(1.4 ) +1.2(1.8) = 4.74k / ft

Mu =

wu l 2 4.74k / ft ( 30 ft ) 2 = = 533.25k ft M n 8 8

FLEXURE 1 or 2.1

K n = 435.7

and

M Kn = n = F

Mu F

and

bd 2 F= 12000

16

Mu F=

Kn

533.25

For total height add 2.5 and round up to h=34 (d=31.5) and b=18

18in 34in wbeam = 0.15k / ft 3 = 0.6375k / ft 12in / ft 12in / ft

wu = 1.24 wD + 1.6 wL = 1.2( 0.8 + 0.6375) + 1.6(1.8) = 4.605k / ft

Mu =

wu l 2 4.605k / ft ( 30 ft ) 2 = = 518.1k ft M n 8 8

bd 2 18( 31.5) F= = = 1.488 12000 12000

2

Mu Kn = F

518.1

Enter Table 2.1 with Kn and interpolate to find and check = 0.9

= 0.007031

As = bd = 0.007031(18)31.5 = 3.986in 2

Choose 3-#11 from REINFORCEMENT 14 (bmax = 23.5 int.) The following is a check

=

As 4.68in 2 = = 0.008254 pref = 0.00802 bd 18in( 31.5in )

Kn=446.9

F= bd 2 18( 31.5) = = 1.488 12000 12000

2

Mu

There are many answers to this question, but I will use the following 18x34 w/3-#11 Problem #3.8 case 4 - Design a rectangular beam with tension reinforcing only such that excessive deflections would not be expected under normal circumstances. Use the following data and include the actual beam weight (d/b=1-5-2.0[1.75], wD=1.2k/ft, wL=2.5k/ft, L=30ft, fc=4000psi and fy=60,000psi.)

wu = 1.2 wD +1.6 wL = 1.2(1.2 ) +1.6( 2.5) = 5.44k / ft

Mu =

wu l 2 5.44k / ft ( 30 ft ) 2 = = 612.0 ft M n 8 8

FLEXURE 1 or 2.2

K n = 580.6

and

Mu F=

Kn

and

bd 2 F= 12000

F=

Mu = Kn

612.0

2

Increase 5% add 2.5 and round up to h=34 (d=31.5) and b=18 inches 18

wu = 1.2 wD + 1.6 wL = 1.2(1.2 + 0.6375) + 1.6( 2.5) = 6.205k / ft

wu l 2 6.205k / ft ( 30 ft ) 2 Mu = = = 698.1k ft M n 8 8

F= bd 2 18( 31.5) = = 1.4884 12000 12000

2

Mu Kn = F

698.1

Enter Table 2.2 with Kn and interpolate to find and check = 0.9

= 0.00948

As = bd = 0.00948(18)31.5 = 5.38in 2

=

As 4(1.56in 2 ) = = 0.01101 pref = 0.0107 bd 18in( 31.5in )

F= bd 2 18( 31.5) = = 1.4884 12000 12000

2

Mu

698.1 = 775.7 = 0. 9

19

There are many answers to this question, but I will use the following 18x34 w/4-#11 Revised Design Procedure for Singly Reinforced Rectangular Beams 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Assume that min < < max (I like 0.5b=0.375max) Determine the required bd2 (from Rn) Choose values for b and d (reasonable proportions d/b=1.5 to 2.0) Determine revised (for new b and d) Compute As (from ) Select reinforcement and calculate strength (Mn > Mu) Remember to check = 0.9 an any step

20

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