Common name

7th July 2009. Anthony C. Dweck FLS, FRSC. FRSPH Latin name

Part extracted

Ajowan Alantroot Ambrette

Trachyspermum ammi Inula helenium Hibiscus abelmoschuus

seed root seed


Angelica archangelica


g/kg Dermal LD50 Additional Toxicology Dermal Irritant: suspected moderate Mucous membrane irritant: severe (contains thymol and no data no data carvacrol). PROHIBITED – Should not be used as a fragrance ingredient. >5.00 >5.00 Oral Toxicity(LD50) : Oral-Rat 11160.00 mg/kg Oral-Mouse 2200.00 mg/kg Dermal Toxicity(LD50) : Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg Restriction in leave-on formulations to 0.78% and wash-off formulations to 3.9%. This is due to phototoxic effects (genotoxicity) associated with the potential presence in the oil of UV-reactive furocoumarins. Large oral doses should not to >2.2 >5.00 be taken during pregnancy May be used in cosmetic products, provided that the total concentration of furocoumarin-like substances in the finished cosmetic product do not exceed 1ppm. 3% in fragrance concentrate. 35 ppm in flavour. 15ppm CO2 extract in flavour. The seed oil is not phototoxic.

g/kg Oral LD50

Traditional use and ethnobotany


see above

In the form of an ointment it has a soothing effect on skin complaints, arthritis and rheumatism. A decoction of the root can also be used for scabies or itching and also for wounds. As a compress in gout. The tea is a good eye tonic. In the form of an ointment it has a soothing effect on skin complaints, arthritis and rheumatism. A decoction of the root can also be used for scabies or itching and also for wounds. As a compress in gout. The tea is a good eye tonic.



Angelica archangelica




Pimpinella anisum



Oral-Rat 2250.00 mg/kg >5.00 Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg

Anise oil is useful in destroying body lice, head lice and itching insects , where the oil can be used by itself, so is useful for pediculosis, the skin condition caused by lice. It may be used for scabies, where it may be used externally in an ointment base. It used either in oil or ointment base as a stimulating liniment and against vermin. Spain Alpine Rosebay, Sunpati. The stems and leaves are used in Tibetan herbalism. They have a sweet, bitter and astringent taste and they promote heat. They are antitussive, diaphoretic and digestive and are used to treat lack of appetite, coughing and various skin disorders. In Nepal, the leaves are boiled and the vapour inhaled to treat coughs and colds. It a sweet herbal, faint balsamic essence and is used in perfumery.


Rhododendron anthopogon


no data no data No data found



Artemisia vulgaris



Used in fomentations for skin diseases and ulcerative sores. The entire plant is often made into a decoction and used as a wash for all sorts of wounds and skin ulcers. The boiled leaves are used as a poultice to allay headaches and nervous twitching of the skin and muscles. The dried leaves cut into small fragments are used to help induce more rapid scarring of unhealed wounds. Practitioners also use the leaves in eczema, herpes and purulent scabies. Wormwood extract is the Oral LD50: 0.37g/kg main ingredient in absinthe, a toxic liquor that Recommended max 0.5% in fragrance concentrate. induces absinthism, a syndrome characterized by Wormwood is classified as an unsafe herb by the Food and addiction, GI problems, auditory and visual Drug Administration (FDA) because of the neurotoxic potential hallucinations, epilepsy, brain damage, and increased risk of psychiatric illness and suicide. of thujone and its derivatives. The safety of wormwood is poorly documented despite its long history as a food additive. Thujone-free wormwood extract is currently used as a flavoring, primarily in alcoholic beverages such Convulsions, dermatitis, and renal failure have been documented. as vermouth. Also known as armoise. Nepal It is called tulsi in India and used for ayurvedic medicine. Sacred to Krishna and Vishnu. the leaves are heart shaped and are considered a love symbol in Italy. The oil clears the head and is uplifting. It is useful in nervous conditions: good for anxiety, depression, hysteria, indecision and nervous debility. It is good for earache, colds, sinus, migraine, muscular spasm. It is good for sluggish and congested skin and is an insect repellant. Nepal see above South Africa see above Madagascar Bay leaf oil is used externally for sprains, bruises, etc., and was sometimes dropped into the ears to relieve pain. Use with care and never more than 1.25%. The oil is used as a food flavouring as well. Mildly narcotic, said to be good for promoting hair growth and ridding the scalp of dandruff.

Basil, French Basil, Sweet Basil, Tropical

Ocimum basilicum Ocimum basilicum Ocimum basilicum

flowering plant flowering plant flowering plant

1.40 >5.00 1.40 >5.00 1.40 >5.00

Oral-Rat 1400.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg IFRA restricted components: eugenol <4.00 % Sensitizer; methyl eugenol <6.00 % has potential carcinogenic activity 0.5% in fragrances, 20ppm in flavours. Toxicity class B acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant), Dermal Irritation class C (?), Dermal sensitisation class D (4%), Contraindicated in the warning list for pregnancy see above see above

Bay, Sweet

Laurus nobilis



Citrus aurantium bergamia


LD50: 1.80g/kg In acute toxicity studies, the aqueous extract was found safe with LD50 compared to oil LD50 0.33 ml/kg body weight. Some fragrance houses internally restrict the use of bay laurel oil (Laurus nobilis) in their fragrances because of customer >5.00 >5.00 sensitization issues Oral-Rat 11520.00 mg/kg Bergamot essential oil has GRAS status. Irritation/Sensitisation - Nil at 30% (Human). 3/200 patients with dermatitis affected. When the level of furocoumarins is decreased to below >10.00 >20.00 0.0075% phototoxicity is avoided. Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D (30%), bergapten-free is safe and does not cause phototoxicity. LD50: 1.70g/kg As a food flavouring additive the material has been assessed to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS). The rodent LD50 for black pepper essential oil is greater than 5 g/kg. The material is neither phototoxic nor sensitizing, and is considered non-toxic. 500 mg/24 hr caused a toxic reaction to/ rabbit skin.

It is used for oily skin, acne, seborrhea of the scalp, herpes, psoriais, ulcers and wounds. Bergamot is an antidepressant and gentle relaxant and has a refreshing, uplifting quality. Italy

Bergamot (bergaptene free) Birch, Sweet

Citrus aurantium bergamia Betula lenta

fruit wood


Black Pepper

Piper nigrum



It is anti inflammatory, anticatarrhal, expectorant, supportive to the digestive glands, and traditionally used for rheumatoid arthritis. Considered an aphrodisiac and sexual stimulant.



Peumus boldus



Oral LD50: 0.13 g/kg Not recommended for topical use

The U. suspected weak carcinogen.777 Acute Oral-Rat LD50: 2480mg/Kg Dermal-rabbit LD50: >5000mg/Kg Classified as non-toxic (Oral-Rats LD50 2-5 g/kg) and nonsensitizing. Symptoms included nausea. influenza and dyspepsia. and coma. FEMA GRAS.69 LD50 Dermal-Rabbit: 5000 mg/Kg? (seems high . Properties are antiseptic and stimulative. Indonesia Essential oil basically cinnamon essential oils comes in two forms. >5. 25ppm flavours. used internally for the treatment of coughs and colds.Cajuput Melaleuca cajuputi leaf 2.69 ml/kg IFRA Sensitization benzyl benzoate <2. headache.00 % Sensitizer eugenol <4. Not in the warning list for pregnancy Poisoning has occurred from administration of camphorated oil (camphor liniment) to children in mistake for castor oil. It is a sedative and relaxant and used as a flavouring in cooking and as a fragrance in soaps. It is also applied in treating indolent ulcers.00 mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Guineapig 297.00 camphor are 2 ppm (long-term) and 3 ppm (short-term). and for the relief of toothache and earache.00 Oral-Rat 3270. It is used externally for the relief of neuralgia and rheumatism.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit 320. OverThe-Counter (OTC) Drug Review Ingredient Status Report. or oil of wintergreen. fever and lumbago. eucalyptus and peppermint. It is used in gastrointestinal and genito-urinary complaints. Cajeput oil is produced from the leaves by steam distillation. Guatamala Larger or Greater Cardamom or Nepal Cardamom. Used for treating rheunatism. toxic by ingestion. was one of the holy annointing oils mentioned in Exodus as being used by Moses on sacred occasions. In Arabia and Iran it is used as an aphrodisiac.80 0. detergents and perfumes.90 % Sensitizer methyl eugenol <0.S.00 mg/kg intravenous-Mouse 1138. It has been approved for food use by the Food >5. colds.84g/kg Oral-Rat 777. cinnamon bark.60 % Sensitizer Geraniol <0.00 mg/kg Skin-Guineapig >5000. anti-inflammatory and anodyne (pain relief) properties and used for burns. max. helping to clear the mind of noise and confusion. rat) 2800 mg/kg.00 % Sensitizer cinnamaldehyde <90.00 mg/kg IFRA Sensitization The prime allergen is Cinnamic aldehyde and concentration of Cinnamic aldehyde in the finished cosmetic product should not exceed 0. Dermal Irritation class B more likely C-D. Nepal Camphor (Yellow) Cinnamomum camphora bark 3. FDA GRAS Toxicology: LD50 (oral. light.00 mg/kg Citral <0.ACD) It yields Cassie oil for barbers shops. vomiting. Japanese camphor contains ketones. Mucous Membrane class B. although skin irritation may occur at high concentrations. which is steam distilled from the inner bark of the tree.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000. and also for their carminative and stimulating properties.10 % has potential carcinogenic activity 5% in the fragrance concentrate.1%. Cardamom large Amomum subulatum seed Cassia Cinnamomum cassia bark Cassia Cinnamomum cassia leaf 22. often in the form of ointments and liniments.50 mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Rat 221. Cassia is chiefly used to scent potpourri and to flavour chocolate. The oil is a common household medicine.00 % Sensitizer methyl eugenol <0. In Great Britain the recommended exposure limits of synthetic >5.30 % has potential carcinogenic activity White camphor oil is said to be less toxic than the yellow and brown varieties which contain large amounts of safrole. also has an uplifting effect. depression of the central nervous system. benzyl benzoate <2. and in the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia as a specific for flatulent cholic and dyspepsia with nausea. Oral-Rat 3870mg/kg 4% in fragrances.73 Oral-Rat 3730.40 % Sensitizer cinnamyl alcohol <1.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000. Methyl salicylate.10 % has potential carcinogenic activity 1% in fragrances 2. Breathing was difficult and the breath had see above >5.00 Oral-Rat 5000. It is correctly described by the Arabian physicians under the name Hil-Bawa.00 % Sensitizer eugenol <4. delirium.00 12% in the fragrance. muscle twitching. a feeling of warmth. IP routes.48 Cajuput Melaleuca leucadendron leaf 3.00 no data Acure Oral-Mice 22.00mg/kg IPR-Mice 3000mg/Kg IFRA specification: <20 mmoles / L of peroxides restricted components: citronellol <0.00 % Sensitizer methyl eugenol <0. the seeds are credited with stimulant and astringent properties. Camphor is also listed as an antitussive ingredient in the cough and cold monograph. and cinnamon leaf. Good for nervous exhaustion and mental fatigue. China .00 a characteristic odour.00 15ppm in flavours.87 Calamus (Sweet Flag) Acorus calamus rhizome 0. human skin irritant.50 % Sensitizer cinnamyl alcohol <1. mod. which emits a smell rather like that of mandarin oranges. colic and asthma. colic. (December 1991) listed camphor as a Category I ingredient for fever blisters and as a counter-irritant in the External Analgaesics Monograph.32 25ppm in flavours Oral-Rat 3. The oil is reputed to have insect-repellent properties. refreshing and stimulating.40 0. especially in South-East Asia. but in China it is given as an antiseptic and as a digestive tonic. cosmetics.00 and Drug Administration (FDA). Makes an excellent bath oil.00 % Sensitizer cinnamaldehyde <60.00 mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Mouse 177. Medicinally.00 mg/kg Oral-Rat LD50 value 1298.00mg/kg Toxicity class C acute oral.40 % Sensitizer >5. and it flavours other medicines. Used as a flavouring. against stomach cramps. Oral LD50: 0. Cinnamon leaf essential oil has many uses in modern practice.070 mg/kg Oral-Rat 2800. epileptiform convulsions. steam distilled from the leaves and twigs. is listed as a counter-irritantin the external analgaesic monograph. see Melaleuca cajuputi [Syn: Melaleuca leucadendron ] Vietnam Camphor (White) Cinnamomum camphora leaf >5. Dermal sensitisation class D (10% for leaf). poison by skin contact. The dried bark is used. A nasal product indicated for the relief of nasal irritations and nasal congestion due to colds consists entirely of a blend of essential oils cajeput.In Japan the leaves were used as a bathing agent to make "Sweet Flag bath water".00 mg/kg methyl eugenol <0.00 activity. Nepal Cardamom Ellettaria cardamomum seed 5.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit 5000. The leaves possess antibacterial.60% as it has potential carcinogenic >5. Camphor is well-known for its analgesic and infection-fighting abilities when used in combination with eucalyptus oil. dizziness. Used for its aphrodisiac effect. It is an aquatic perennial. 4% in fragrances.40 ml/kg Skin-Rabbit 0. Repeated dose toxicity: LD50 Oral-Rat: 2650 mg/Kg 3. anuria may occur.

Scientific Name(s): Matricaria recutita L.00 Oral-Rat >5000. One of the most ancient oils traditionally used as a fixative in the perfume industry. insomnia. Soothing and calming. tonic. France It has a fine fruity fragrance. May help with insomnia. inflamed joints. with roman chamomilelike notes.00mg/kg 8% in fragrances Chamomile.. flatulence.00 Oral-Rat 10000.00 (4%). a physician should be no data no data consulted. characteristic odour and a peculiar. swelling of the breasts. The oil is widely used for insect repellent activities and Turkish carpet shops are walled with cedarwood boards to deter the moths. Catnip may lead to excessive menstrual bleeding and may be contraindicated in certain gynaecological conditions (as a herbal tea). Nepal. The leaves and shoots can be used as ingredients in sauces and soups. The herb has been studied for use in cases of insufficient lactation.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000. the scent encourages pleasant dreams. Add to a fragrance jar in a wardrobe to repel moths. migraine headaches and stress related complaints.000 mg/L. The oil extracted from catnip plants is used in natural mosquito repellents.00 Roman Chamomile flower [Syn. antiseptic/wound healing. 6ppm in flavours. catnip oil is considered relatively safe to use although it may cause skin irritation as there was observed redness of the applied skin area after the treatment. Tea made from the leaves and flowers of this herbaceous perennial has traditionally been sipped to relieve coughs. muscle tension. Chamaemelum nobile ] has certain uses similar to those of Matricaria flower (German Chamomile). Soothing woody aroma helpful for oily skin and itchy scalp. soothing for conjunctivitis/sore eyes. Oral-Rats: 1-2 ml/kg to rats did not cause toxicity. Mucous Membrane C-D (nonit is mush less investigated pharmacologically and irritant). Commission E reports no counter indications or interactions for the fruit. cuts.00 ml/kg.Catnip Nepeta cataria plant 3. The acute oral LD50 of catnip oil was 3160 mg/kg and 2710 mg/kg body weight (BW) in female and male rats. bitterish taste. toothaches. Used in pillows. Roman Chamaemelum nobile flower >5. 4-week subacute toxicity study. The tops and leaves are medicinal. and disturbances of menstruation occur.00 No health hazards or side effects have been associated with proper administration of catnip in designated dosages. although some of its constituents are markedly different and Toxicity class D acute oral. It is useful against infestions and is used extensively in Europe for skin disorders. Catnip oil was classified as practically nonirritating to the eye. Chaste berry has historically been used to treat hangovers. rashes. >5. Catnip was once listed in the FDA's “Herbs of Undefined Safety” listing in the mid 1970s. German Matricaria chamomilla flower >5. scrapes and bruises. Dermal sensitisation class D clinically. Note: If tension. Anti-inflammatory and sedative effects of >5. anti-inflammatory. eczema. France Good for stress related disorders. burns. sedative. Compared to other EPA approved insect repellents. The toxicity of bisabolol Acute LD 50: 15 ml/kg in rats and mice. The oil should therefore only be used under medical monitoring & supervision. The Commission E approved the use of chaste tree fruit for irregularities of the menstrual cycle. sometimes dramatically. Not in the warning list for pregnancy volatile oil have been demonstrated in rats.16 >5. It was also recognized to bring on menstruation and to relieve uterine cramps. Roman Anthemis nobilis flowers >5. Matricaria chamomilla and Matricaria suavoelens . The leaves are used in baths for its relaxing and invigorating scent. chaste berry is used primarily for conditions of the female reproductive system that may stem from latent hyperprolactinemia or corpus luteum insufficiency (luteal phase defect). Adverse effects: skin reactions. Cape Eriocephalus punctulatus flower no data no data 3% in fragrances Chamomile. There is evidence that diterpenes in the oil cause circulating female hormone levels to change.6% in fragrances. . It has been suggested that the oil can be used as an alternative to roman chamomile. England Chaste Tree Vitex agnus-castus berry Vitex agnus-castus berry oil is sometimes used for ‘hormonal balancing’ by aromatherapists: especially in post.00 Chamomile. and eczema as well as for hair care. Family: Asteraceae (daisy). The acute dermal LD50 was > 5000 mg/kg BW. especially on nervously excited children. Toxicity test was further performed to provide a broad spectrum on safety of using catnip oil as a biting insect repellent. cuts.00 >5. The primary skin irritation test on New Zealand white rabbits showed that catnip oil is a moderate irritant. and constipation. acne. It is very much liked by cats. Catnip is contraindicated during pregnancy because of uterine stimulant activities. Today. arthritis and rheumatism. menopausal problems.and perimenopausal women. boils. Synonyms: Chamomilla recutita . American Eclectic physicians of the nineteenth century recommended chaste berry not only as an emmenagogue but also to stimulate lactation. Its sedative action on the nerves adds to its generally relaxing properties. South Africa Chamomile.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000. Said to soothe acne. they have a strong. The intraperitoneal LD50 1300 mg/kg (oil). fevers. No teratogenic or developmental abnormalities were noted in rats and rabbits after chronic administration of bisabolol 1 >5. The acute inhalation LD50 was observed > 10. and mastodynia. South Africa Cedarwood (Atlas Cedar) Cedrus atlantica wood >5. premenstrual complaints.00 mg/kg 0. Has been used for helping skin conditions such as dermatitis. teething pains. A very calming oil for respiratory problems. It is antispasmodic. Anti-inflammatory and soothing. and experts have suggested it could add a whole new dimension to the flavour and fragrance industry. Dermal Irritation class C.00 see Anthemis nobilis South Africa.

00mg/kg twigs: there is also a cinnamon cassia. poison by skin the presence of methyl amyl ketone. toxic by ingestion.20 % Sensitizer geraniol <28. muscle cramps. cinnamon bark. Nepal.20 Citronella (Java type) Cymbopogon winterianus herb 7. However. Sri Lanka Oral-Rat 2650. An ointment made with clary leaves will help draw out inflammation and bring boils and spots to a head.00 mg/kg IFRA restrictions geraniol <0. If spontaneous vomiting has occurred.10 % Sensitizer 10% in fragrances 100ppm in flavours. methyl eugenol <0. Mucous Membrane assumed C-D (non-irritant). which is known as sage clary or Muscatel oil is obtained by steam distillation. bloating and flatulence. and Oral-Rat 2650.00 mg/kg IFRA max levels citronellol <8.Cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia bark 2.00 mg/kg IFRA restrictions citronellol <14. the oil has been used as an aromatic tea.00 % Sensitizer. but this is IFRA critical Effect: Sensitization from a slightly different subspecies and is IFRA fragrance material specification: The prime allergen is discusssed under ‘Cassia’. however.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit 4700.10 % has potential carcinogenic activity.50 % Sensitizer. The seeds become mucilaginous in water and may be used to extract foreign bodies from the eye.00 mg/kg Oral-Mouse 4600. for flatulent cholic and dyspepsia with nausea. Cinnamon Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark 2. as it may be harmful IFRA restricted components: (E)-cinnamaldehyde <89.00 mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Rat 713.69 6% in fragrances. to be used in aromatherapy.479 mg/mL.00 % Sensitizer methyl eugenol <2.4 g per day of ground bark is deemed acceptable' (Bundesinstitut fur Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte. Dermal sensitisation class D (8%).60 >2.90 % Sensitizer.32 be taken during pregnancy (McGuffin. see above Sri Lanka Toxicity class D acute oral. cinnamon is a AHPA-BSH Class 2 herb and should not be used for long term use.00 Oral-Rat 5600. (E)-cinnamyl alcohol <8. The essential oil. 1997).20 % Sensitizer.70 respiratory symptoms is required. IP routes. diuretic and antispasmodic. eugenol has many uses in modern practice. FDA GRAS refreshing and cooling quality of the bark is due to Toxicology: LD50 (oral.00mg/kg cinnamon leaf. Clary Sage Salvia sclarea flowering tops/foliage 5. 1998).00 % Sensitizer methyl eugenol <0.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit 4700. high blood pressure.1% in the finished product.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit 320. eugenol <89. IFRA restricted components: benzyl benzoate <0. eugenol <4. A dose of 1 to 4 mL/kg given by stomach tube in rabbits caused paralysis. Oral-Rat 7200. in the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia as a specific 8% in fragrances.00 mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Rat 713. has antifungal.70 25ppm in flavours. antiviral. 1% in fragrances. observation for 4. cinnamaldehyde <3. emotional and physical tensions.00 suspected weak carcinogen. coma. and death.00 mg/kg IFRA critical Effect : Sensitization IFRA fragrance material specification: The prime allergen is Cinnamic aldehyde and should not exceed exceed 0. In traditional medicine. should not exceed an intake of 2-4 g per day and not 0. which is steam distilled from the inner bark of the tree. Nepal Anti spasmodic oil. However. The Commission E has `approved the internal use of cinnamon for loss of appetite and dyspeptic complaints such as mild spasms of the gastrointestinal tract.00 % has potential carcinogenic activity Recommended max usage levels: 5% in fragrances 4.20 % has potential carcinogenic activity recommendation levels max: 3% in fragrances 30ppm in flavours. France . and is current <1.1% in the finished product. Dermal Irritation class C.00 % Sensitizer eugenol <3. And. At least 1 case of death has been reported in a child who ingested an unknown quantity of citronella oil. Cinnamon bark oil is Cinnamic aldehyde and should not exceed exceed 0. cinnamyl alcohol <1. Cinnamon is a cooking spice that has many medicinal therapeutic properties which include anticancer effects. rat) 2800 mg/kg. LC50 = 0.00 % Sensitizer. Sometimes referred to as Andropogon nardus.00 % Sensitizer.80 Oral-Rat 2800. Citronella Cymbopogon nardus 7.00 % Sensitizer. and is not finished product. 25ppm in flavours.00 % Sensitizer. 10ppm in flavours. human skin irritant. cinnamon leaf essential oil Sensitizer.60 % Sensitizer (E)-2-hexen-1-al trace to <0. 2. steam distilled from the leaves and Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg Oral-Mouse 4600.00 % Sensitizer 0. IFRA restricted components: benzyl benzoate <2. unless otherwise prescribed. bacteriacidal and larvicidal >5.20 Citronella oil has been used as a flavouring for foods and beverages. A review of 5 cases of childhood citronella oil poisoning suggests that dilution of the oil following ingestion may be sufficient to treat most cases of ingestion and that emesis may be induced with a relatively low risk of major pulmonary complications. its inherent allergic and irritant properties can lead to contact stomatitis in sensitive individuals. It is sometimes incorporated into perfumes and soaps.65 Cinnamon Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf 3. Cinnamon oil contact. good for menstrual difficulty. respiratory problems.00 gm/kg IFRA critical Effect: Sensitization IFRA fragrance material specification: The prime allergen is Cinnamic aldehyde and should not exceed exceed 0. The FEMA GRAS.00 % Sensitizer farnesol <0. Not in the warning list for pregnancy Oral-Rat 7200.00 % Sensitizer farnesol <0. cinnamaldehyde <90. Citronella candles have been promoted as an effective way to repel mosquitoes.90 % Sensitizer. 520ppm in flavours.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5.00 % on the skin. properties.60 % Sensitizer geraniol <26.1% in the mostly used for fragrance and flavouring.40 Essential oil basically cinnamon essential oils comes in two forms. cinnamyl alcohol <1. mod. Perhaps the most widely recognised use for the oil is as an insect repellant. Ingestion may be fatal in some cases. as a vermifuge.

00 Cumin is an aromatic. Externally used on sores and infected areas and also used as a mosquito and moth repellant. In spices. to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions of use. The seed is antispasmodic. poison ivy rash. Inhalation-Mouse LC50 3000 mg/m3 0. Found to be non-phototoxic. Not in the warning list for pregnancy IFRA restricted geraniol <4. Dermal Irritation class AB (may be irritant to some sensitive individuals). beverages. antimicrobial. Drug and Cosmetic Act. Dermal Irritation class C. It is also used externally as a foot Acute oral LD50: >5g/kg. inhaled as a secretolytic. the production in nursing mothers. Externally it has been used as a lotion to treat rheumatic pains. Clove has been used for its antiseptic and analgesic effects and has been studied for use in platelet aggregation inhibition.50 Dermal-Rabbit Rabbit 500 mg/24H Clove Syzygium aromaticum bud 2. Egypt 3. diuretic. using it to flavor their bread. cumin is used as an antiflatulent.65 Bacteriacidal and insecticidal. Menthol. Dermal irritation class and may help with oedema. arthritis.00 mg/kg Oral-Mouse 3520. nondeodorant.Clary Sage Salvia sclarea leaves 2. The herb has been used externally as a poultice to relieve stitch and observed no-effect level of 25% on the skin of the hairless mouse and on the no-effect level of 5% in tests with humans. cramps and post2% in fragrances. Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant). aphrodisiac. Coriander has been used as a flavoring and medicine since ancient times. It helps decongest the circulatory and lymphatic systems Mucous Membrane C-D (non-irritant). sports treatment. Dermal Irritation class AB (may be irritant to some sensitive individuals). Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant).40 2. colds and fevers and to improve milk wash-off products. and chemoprotective and antipyretic effects. colic.56 3900ppm in flavours. not in flavours. but this type of poisoning is rare and poorly documented. and the leaves yield about 2%. . beverages.03 see above Indonesia Coriander Coriandrum sativum seed 4. Toxicity class D acute oral. and toothpastes. and in alcohol as a stimulant. Dermal sensitisation class D (5%). Italy. Based on the photo-toxicity of cumin oil. astringent herb that benefits the digestive system and acts as a stimulant to the sexual organs. for application to the skin or mucous membrane. excluding of insomnia. marsh mint oil. Mucous Membrane class B. Not in the warning list for pregnancy. In India it is also used in the treatment For applications on areas of skin exposed to sun. by the Expert Committee of the USA Flavour and Extract manufacturer’s Association (FEMA). Essential oils are obtained from the buds.4% in the finished cosmetic product. Toxicity has been observed following ingestion of the oil. and flatulence also for chest conditions and coughs. In Germany. Mediterranean Cypress. Dermal sensitisation class D (4%). Not in the warning list for pregnancy 8% in fragrances Cornmint oil. derived from mint oil.4% in perfumes). stimulant and Skin-Rabbit 3. haemorrhoids. Oil of cloves is used as a disinfectant and dental analgesic.00 IPR-Mouse 520550mg/kg see Salvia sclarea Toxicity class C acute oral. bruising and thread veins. Applied externally it can produce local anaesthesia. Acute dermal toxicity (LD50): >5000 mg/kg [Rabbit]. antithrombotic activity. Cumin oil is used as a fragrance no skin contact: 5% Recommendation. toxicity of the compound increases almost 200-fold when administered intratracheally (LD 50 11 mg/kg). Oral-Rat (eugenol) 2.56 ml/kg stomachic.20 Toxicity class D acute oral. antispasmodic. athlete's foot. Oral-Rat 2. clove leaf and clove stem ARE IN THE LIST see above Clove and clove oils are used safely in foods. Dermal sensitisation in some isolated cases. Internal use of mint oil for flatulence. The level of clove used in foods does not exceed 0.60 Clove Eugenia caryophyllus bud 4. The essential oil obtained from the seed is antibacterial and larvicidal. and carminative. however. Dermal Irritation class C. catarrhs of the upper respiratory tract. Ukraine Cornmint / Peppermint Mentha arvensis fresh leaves 1. As a food flavouring additive. as a pain killer and to treat rotten teeth. Monoterpene content: Can be and Morocco >5. and as a counterirritant in external analgesic preparations . and beverages.00 irritant to skin and mucus membranes in high concentrations.00 % Sensitizer 10% in fragrances. Mucous Membrane B (may be irritant to some sensitive individuals). and the Roman legions carried coriander as they progressed through Europe.00 Acute oral toxicity (LD50): 1240 mg/kg [Rat]. flavoring agent. Funeral Cypress. section 201 (s). 50ppm in flavours. and external use for myalgia and neuralgic ailments. clove leaf and clove stem ARE IN THE >5. but this rarely occurs. Clove and clove oils are used safely in foods. Not in the warning list for pregnancy Dermal-Dog 2000-5000mg/kg Oral-Rat 5000-5600mg/kg >5.4% Restriction. the material has been assessed under the provisions of the Federal Food. and applied externally for its cooling property. Not in the warning list retention. Japanese mint oil. it is taken internally as a carminative or cholagogue.20 1. Seeds have been found in the tombs of Pharohs. and leaves.13 The oil is said to have anti-inflammatory and sedative properties.50 Cypress Cupressus sempervirens leaf >5. The stems yield about 5% of the oil.50 ml/kg carminative. Nepal Cumin Cuminum cyminum fruit 2.680 mg/kg. stimulant. It is official in the Chinese pharmacopeia as an aromatic. Orally.24% and the oil is not used in amounts greater than 0. Dermal sensitisation class D (8%). galactogogue. Dermal Irritation class C. limit cumin oil to 0.24 >5. Italian Cypress. antibacterial and France. cumin is used as a flavoring component. Clove buds yield approximately 15% to 20% of a volatile oil that is responsible for the characteristic smell and flavor. leave on: 0. Toxicity has been observed following ingestion of the oil. and to relieve pain or discomfort. and toothpastes. . for stimulating menstrual flow. Toxicity class C acute oral. cellulite and water D. Mucous Membrane B (may be irritant to some sensitive individuals). 5% in fragrances component in cosmetics (maximum use level 0.37g/kg 1. however. is widely used as an antipruritic component of OTC preparations to treat burns and sunburn.00 mg/kg Toxicity class C acute oral.20 Containdicated in pregnancy Containdicated in pregnancy Oral-Rat 4130. stems.00 LIST LD50: 1. It has been found useful for muscular for pregnancy stiffness. Indonesia Clove Clove Clove Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium aromaticum flowers leaves stem 3. pains in the side. rheumatism. Not in the warning list for pregnancy. Dermal sensitisation in some isolated cases. foods. field mint oil. Dermal sensitisation class D (6%). wash off: 2% Recommendation. treating diarrhea. Mediterranean Cyprus. It is used for circulatory conditions where its effects as a venous tonic make it helpful for varicose veins. functional gastrointestinal and gallbladder disorders.06%. Spain sensitising and non-irritant. It is anti infectious. Mint oil is official in the Indian Pharmacopoeia as a carminative.

Drug and Cosmetic Act. SCCP: Essential oils and isolates derived from the Pinacea family. The two forms of fennel are very similar and not always distinguished.48 (10%). should only be used when the level of peroxides is kept to the lowest practicable level. North Africa Fennel. The buds. stimulant and tonic. anti-inflammatory.00 induced contact dermatitis.853(1978). there is a lack of clinical evidence to support the use of fennel for any indication.48 (10%). Eucalyptus oil taken by mouth for catarrh and used as an inhalation often in combination with other volatile substances. Not in the warning list for pregnancy Oral-Rat 2480mg/Kg Dermal-Rabbit >2000mg/Kg (Essentially non-toxic) Subcutaneous-Mouse 50mg/Kg LDLo Intramuscular-Guinea Pig 2250mg/Kg LDLo Subcutaneous-Dog 1500mg/Kg Toxicity class C acute oral. antiviral. sores. Eucalyptus oil has also been applied as a rubefacient. It has also been used as a stimulant to promote lactation and menstruation.05 mL to 0. parasiticide. Chronic effects have not been reported Recommended adult oral dose is 0. balancing.00 2. Very mildly irritant no data no data according to some sources. Weak estrogenic activity noted. Oral-Rat 1. Not in the warning list for pregnancy 3. The value of LD 50 was 1. expectorant. prefered use for higher infections than E. antibacterial. antiviral.09 g/kg Spain Fennel. It is used in the treatment of coughs. antiseptic and stimulating to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. either viral or bacterial. The two forms of fennel are very similar and not always distinguished.48 2. A warm liquid of the gummy sap was drunk as a treatment for gonorrhoea. Sweet Foeniculum vulgare dulce seed 4. Based on the published literature mentioning sensitising properties when containing peroxides (Food and Chemical Toxicology 11. contact dermatitis. LD50 of fennel oil was about 4 ml/kg in animal studies.2mL Has been used as a topical rubefacient at 0. Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant).Skin standard Draize test Skin-Rabbit 500 mg/24H. to be generally recognised as safe (GRAS) under current conditions of use. digestive stimulant (internally). Such products should have a peroxide value of less than 10 millimoles peroxide per liter. Portugal. bites etc. However. It is also used to treat sore nipples and is excellent for a sore throat. E. Dermal Irritation class C.843(1978). It is used internally in propriety mixtures to treat coughs and diarrhoea. Canada Fir.00 Oral-Rat 1. There are also reports that dill can cause photosensitivity and or dermatitis in some people. Australia Anticatarrhal. acting as a mild tranquilliser. Dill is a sedative herb and a good remedy for sleeplessness.00 (10%). by the Expert Committee of the USA Flavour and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA).5 mL/kg. and cross reactions.Dill Weed Anethum graveolens seed 4. 16. Has local antiseptic.. 16.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000. Bitter Foeniculum vulgare vulgare seed 3. The oil may induce reactions such as hallucinations and seizures.1053(1973).038mL/kg Oral-Rat 3120. Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant). an insect repellent. including Pinus and Abies genera. analgesic. diaphoretic. America see above see above Reunion Eucalyptus Eucalyptus globulus leaf Eucalyptus Eucalyptus radiata leaf Oral-Rat of cineole (Eucalyptol) 2480mg/kg It is a mild skin irritant. As a food flavouring additive.00 mg/kg 2% in fragrances 25ppm in flavours. Toxicity class C acute oral. Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant).48 2. IFRA recommends for example that oils from the Pinaceae e. Poison hemlock may be mistaken for fennel. expectorant. Nepal. and blepharitis (as eyewash). Eucalyptus oil should not be applied on face.038mL/kg Fennel may cause photodermatitis. Fennel oil was found to be genotoxic in the B. as well as an herbal remedy for poisoning and gastric conditions. has been shown to cause tumours in animals. febrifuge. Oral-Rat 2480. The resin is also antiscorbutic. helping to settle colic. it was used as an inhalant to treat headaches and was also taken internally to treat colds. antiinfectious. The essential oil is used in tinctures as a gargle and eyewash and in carminative preparations. colds and fevers. radiata with its richness in alcohols is more suitable for infectious conditions. indicating that death may be caused by the effects of metabolite imbalance or a nervous system toxicity. PROHIBITED – Should not be used as a fragrance ingredient. diuretic. Grand Abies balsamea Abies grandis needle needle Oral-Rat 10200 mg/Kg Dermal-Rabbit > 5g/Kg IFRA reccomendation: < 10 mmoles / L of peroxides 5% in fragrances. Toxicity class C acute oral. and/or sap are used in folk remedies for treating corns. deodorant and refreshing effects. wounds and sores. The Oral-Rat LD50 (anethole) >5. antibacterial. sore throats and various other complaints. Reaction: Moderate Oral-Rat 4040. It is used as a healing and analgesic protective covering for burns.12 g/kg to 4. antirheumatic.5% to 3%.00 mg/kg IFRA restriction eugenol <0.00 Oral-Rat 4040. France/Corsica The resin is a very effective antiseptic and healing agent.00 Dill Weed Elecampane Anethum graveolens Inula helenium herb root 4.30 % Sensitizer 4% in fragrances Dill is said to contain the alleged 'psychotroph' myristicine. No pathological toxicity was seen in the organs of dead animals.00 in the volatile oil. resin. no data no data . Though it works on the respiratory system.Lowest Lethal Dose/Conc Mouse-Oral LDLo 3 gm/kg Oral-Rat LD50 4040 mg/kg Subcutaneous-Mouse LD50 1350 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit LD50 >5 gm/kg Irritation . the essential oil in the seed relieves intestinal spasms and griping. The LD50 in animal studies have been observed at ranges from 3. expectorant.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000. Carminative and local anodyne. America see below France Fir. Chewing dill seeds will help to sweeten thre breath. The foliage has also >10. Dermal Irritation class C. Not in the warning list for pregnancy.00 >5. A tea made from the leaves is antiscorbutic. Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant). Dermal Irritation class C. Not in the warning list for pregnancy Characteristic aromatic camphoraceous odour and a pungent camphoraceous cooling taste.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.g. excellent liquefaction of the secretions. In cases of babies and young children. Dermal sensitisation class D 2. Dermal sensitisation class D (10%). Estragole.326 mg/kg. bruises. Dermal sensitisation class D 2. Dermal sensitisation class D 2. especially on the nose. antineuralgic.80 Fennel has been used as a flavoring. Southern Europe. present >5.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit 2480. Fir needle oil Canada Abies balsamea should have a peroxide value of less than 10 millimoles of peroxide per litre.00 mg/kg 5% in fragrances 100ppm in flavours Acute Oral rat LD50: >2g/kg. subtilis DNA-repair test. South Africa Eucalyptus Eucalyptus smithii leaf Eucaplyptus Fennel Eucalyptus citriodora Foeniculum vulgare leaf seed Toxicity class C acute oral. The oleoresin (Canada balsam) is reported to produce dermatitis when applied as perfume.00 >5. Spain Anti-infectious. France. Widely used medicinally by various North American Indian tribes as an antiseptic healing agent applied externally to wounds. Dermal Irritation class C.00 5. for instance by adding antioxidants at the time of production. Acute toxicity LDLO/LCLO . though taken in excess it is purgative. Topically fennel is good for conjunctivitis. Shown to be anti-inflammatory in rats and mice studies. anticatarrhal. stimulant and calming. Flatulent pain in infants. the material has been assessed under the provisions of the Federal Food.50 Antispasmodic. a scent. Useful as an oil when rubbed onto affected parts to relieve rheumatic pains.00 mg/kg 10% in fragrances Cases of eucalyptus oil poisoning have been sometimes reported. globulus.48 >2. section 201 (s). and warts.00 >5.

00 Citronellol: 40%: Geraniol 18%: Linalool: 10%: Citral 1. odorous sensitizing. The buds are antibiotic.00 11.853(1978). Based on the used instead of the leaves or the resin. Dermal Irritation class not given but assumed C/D. Sensitising component detected in the Essential Oil: >5. Boswellia spp. it is used >2. The latest scientific opinion is that these are both the same species and should Toxicity class not given for acute oral.843(1978). S. nontraditional standards. vasoconstrictor and vulnerary. As a result.00 Dhofar. sacra as growing in Oman and Yemen. Somalia Frankincense Boswellia sacra resin >2. a resinous dried sap. stomach problems. should only be used bronchitis.50 % Sensitizer citronellol <28. under occlusion was found to be moderately irritating. from Southern Saudi Arabia. etc. The oil is published literature mentioning sensitising properties when also rubefacient and can be applied externally in containing peroxides (Food and Chemical Toxicology the treatment of neuralgia. joints. which was prepared by ethanol extraction of Database/Plants Profile as Indian frankincense. blood vessels.It makes a very refreshing and relaxing bath oil with a delightful light rose perfume and a fresh green note. including Pinus and Abies genera. and B. leucorrhoea. Both Oral-Rat >5000. carterii as growing in Somalia. is derived. 210ppm in flavours. was found to be non-irritant. old Applying B. Swallowing 7-26g has been reorted to cause poisoning and death in humans Oral-Rat 400mg/kg IFRA restricted citral <1.40 Egypt Geranium. The bark is antiseptic and astringent. Boswellia gum applied to intact or abraded rabbit skin for 24 hrs.Monograph: Acute Toxicity: Oral LD50: 5 g/kg in rats.Fir. Also good for sluggish. Oil of Turpentine. pigs. it served in the treatment of stiffness. balsamic. sacra. Externally. eupeptic. and various wounds. The resin is antiseptic. and human subjects. Some literature identifies B. pain in the legs. diuretic. anticatarrhal. flu and fevers. sinusitis. Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant). which is production. and to stimulate birth. then followed by which was not considered true frankincense by evaporation of the ethanol. The fragrance raw Western medicine for the antinflammatory effects material Boswellia of boswellic acids. Frankincense. The trees start as absolute). rheumatism.Africa/Malawi . The leaves and/or 5% in fragrances. The leaves are expectorant and a bronchial sedative.00 % Sensitizer 10% in fragrances. 16. cystitis.00 It was used by the ancients as a remedy for wounds and tumours. Toxicity class D acute oral. colds. The smoke was considered helpful for women’s problems. Such products should have a peroxide value of obtained from the trunk of the tree. to eliminate odours in the home. It produces a soft. Bourbon Pelargonium graveolens flowering plant >5.5% Frankincense Boswellia carterii resin >5.00 Fir has traditionally been used to help reduce symptoms of arthritis. antiarthritic and stimulating.00 in various tests on mice. It is also used in inflammatory conditions. Indian Boswellia serrata resin >2. Yemen. woody. Said to balance sebum levels.1053(1973). B. It was known as a multi-purpose disinfectant. Closed patch Indian frankincense is a gum resin from Boswellia tests with 8% Boswellia serrata of Burseraceae used in Ayurveda and were found to be non-irritant to human skin. Silver Abies alba leaf >5.00 Oman. Irritation: Tested without irritation at 10%. balsamic. Dermal Irritation class C. or phytodermatitis. Phototoxicity: No phototoxic reactions observed. Dermal LD50: 2. congested and oily skins and is a good skin cleanser. It has been found to be a useful antiseptic. for instance by adding antioxidants at the time of pains and neuralgia.5 g/kg in rabbits. antiseptic and balsamic. infections. Fresh. France >5. or body. It is also used to treat various diseases of the eyes. the resin are used in folk medicine to treat SCCP: Essential oils and isolates derived from the Pinacea family. expectorant. Boswellia gum.00 % Sensitizer geraniol <21. as incense solely by the natives. Not in the warning list for pregnancy RIFM. used in adhesive plasters and perfumes has caused dermatitis in sensitive people. Sensitisation: Tested without sensitisation at 10%. slightly spicy and fruity fragrance. Mixed with pomegranate juice it found >5. either taken IFRA reccomendation: < 10 mmoles / L of peroxides internally or used as an inhalant. 10ppm in flavours use as an astringent. It is the primary tree in the genus Boswellia from which frankincense.00 mg/kg remedies for colds and coughs. serrata is listed in the USDA absolute.00 Western India (Rajhastan) Geranium Rose Concrete Pelargonium graveolens flowering plant 0. clothing. ulcers and flatulent colic. allergic contact dermatitis. toothaches. Mucous Membrane C-D (non-irritant) Rated safe producing resin when they are about 8 to 10 years >2. Dermal sensitisation class D (8% correctly be called B. is occasionally less than 10 millimoles peroxide per liter. and nonphototoxic resin that hardens in a year. serrata to the skin may cause contact dermatitis. 16. Boswellia sacra is a tree in the Burseraceae family.00 mg/kg the leaves and the resin are common ingredients in Skin-Rabbit >5000. coughs.00 during pregnancy.00 8% in fragrances. bronchitis. The resin is also used externally in bath when the level of peroxides is kept to the lowest practicable extracts. rubbing oils etc for treating rheumatic level. Dermal sensitisation class D (10%). The oil was used as an ingredient in embalming liquids and in mummification. pressure in the ear.

>5. antirheumatic. cardiotonic. In humans. An oil made by boiling the leaves of this eastern Jasmine is used to annoint the head for complaints of the eye. Spain 5. section 201 (s).00 % Sensitizer geraniol <0.00 Helychrysum Helichrysum angustifolium flowering plant 4. Nepal grapefruit oil is a good astringent when used as a facial toner.effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation Oral-Mouse TDLo 50mg/kg Toxic Effects: behavioral .80 Hyssop Immortelle Hyssopus officinalis Helichrysum angustifolium flowering plant flowering plant 1. but with a hint of ginger and a different chemotype known as Gingergrass. Oral-Rat >5. When inhaled.00 The Hindus string the flowers together as neck garlands for honoured guests. Some caution is advised. Hyssop methyl eugenol <1.00 LC50 = 0. diaphoretic. skin bruises and good for acneic skins. Dermal Irritation Group A: Severely irritant The essential oil is spicy.00 Oral-Rat >5000. three times daily.00 of use. It is possible headache. confusion and delirium.40 The essential oil has been used as an anthelmintic. It is said to be good for stretch marks and particularly useful in cases of damaged and problematic skin conditions.30 % Sensitizer 2% in fragrances. AHPA-BSH recommends not exceeding the recommended 2-4 g/day.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.10 % Sensitizer geraniol <0.30 % Sensitizer farnesol <0. The flowers of one of the double varieties are held sacred to Vishnu and are used as votive offerings in Hindu religious ceremonies. Toxicity symptoms include palpitations.other changes biochemical .00gm/kg IFRA restricted components: citral <0. by the Expert Committee of the USA Flavour and Extract manufacturer’s Association (FEMA).00mg/kg Toxicity class D acute oral. e. Used also in morning sickness and travel sickness. It is often used as an inhalant for bronchial congestion. serve as an analgesic. India.0 g. grapefruit oil CO2 extract up to 6% in fragrances. Reaction: Moderate >5. convulsions and death.00mg/kg The scent uplifts the mood.Standard Draize Test Skin-Rabbit: 500mg/24h. earthy almost herbaceous aromas. excessive use causes vomiting.10 % Sensitizer no data no data 2% in fragrances. PROHIBITED – Should not be used as a fragrance ingredient. section 201 (s). increase concentration and focus on difficult tasks. Said to be antiinflammatory and to have insect repellant properties. This prized essence is calming. Toxicity China >5. the material has been assessed under the provisions of the Federal Food. Ginger has been used for centuries as a cooking spice and medicinally demonstrates a diverse range of applications having biological properties such as the ability to modulate platelet aggregation.Ginger Zingiber officinale root >5. to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions >5. antimicrobial. warm and woody. grapefruit is an anti-depressant and helps relieve anxiety. It has the ability to inspire. it also raises the libido and is used to overcome frigidity.Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill Oral-Rat LD50 >5 gm/kg.00 see above see above This is a powerful respiratory oil and mostly used for clearing congestion and easing breathing.Lowest Published Toxic Dose/Conc Oral-Rat TDLo 200mg/kg Toxic Effects: lung. The essential oil is and is toxic to humans.00 >5. It is also a good addition to air freshner preparations and proves to be especially effective against kitchen smells and odours. chapped lips. Acute toxicity TDLO/TCLO . thorax.20 % Sensitizer eugenol <2. As a food flavouring additive.8% in fragrances As a food flavouring additive.25 -1. 10ppm in flavours. hypoglycemic. also warning against long term use or using during pregnancy.Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill Oral-Rat LD50 >5 gm/kg IFRA restricted components benzyl alcohol <1. Inula Inula Inula graveolens Inula helenium flowering plant root no data no data Corsica Jasmine Jasminum grandiflorum flowers >5. Oral-Mouse 1400.00 Chronic toxicity.sofia plant IFRA specification: <20 mmoles/L of peroxides contains IFRA restricted components: geraniol <0. carminative.40 The plant is known as Everlasting or Immortelle and has a fresh. relaxing. Ginger and its constituents induce apoptosis in human cancer cell lines and display anticancer properties against spontaneous tumors in animal models.00 Dermal Irritation Class C Acute toxicity LD50/LC50 .40 % Sensitizer leave on products: 4% Restriction. France/Corsica Ho Oil Horseradish Cinnamomum camphora Amoracia rusticana leaf root 3. antiinflammatory.00% has potential carcinogenic activity 4% in fragrances. Powdered rhizome. It has a cooling. Externally it is a rubefacient and used for rheumatic pains and stimulant of peripheral circulation in bad circulation. Oral-Mouse LD50 3450 mg/kg Dermal-Rabbit LD50 >5 gm/kg Irritation Skin . India Very close relative of the delightful Palmarosa oil. 0. 50ppm in flavours.00 symptoms in adults have been noted after use of as little as 2g. Camphor in large doses is toxic. It has been used externally in liniments for treating joint and muscle pains. Ginger baths decrease muscle soreness and muscle stiffness. by the Expert Committee of the USA Flavour and Extract manufacturer’s Association (FEMA). also commonly used for nausea. the material has been assessed under the provisions of the Federal Food. The common name stinkweed or stinkwort is not particulalry pleasant! Some aromatherapists use it for backache and muscle cramps. balms for chilblains. and an oil obtained from the roots is used medicinally to arrest the secretion of milk.Standard Draize Test Rabbit-Skin 500 mg/24h. chillblains and cramps.00mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Mouse 1230. provides direction and suggests purity and clarity of Skin-Rabbit 5000. Argentina Grapefruit Citrus grandis peel >5.40 4. Said to reduce skin redness. refreshing and stimulating effect on lifeless skin and jaded senses.477mg/mL Gingergrass Cymbopogon martinii var. fresh.Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill Oral-Rat LD50 4400mg/kg Skin-Rabbit LD50 >5gm/kg Irritation Skin . yielding few side effects with the exception of a few subjects who experience nausea and drowsiness.00mg/kg Oral-Mouse 3450. fits.00mg/kg IFRA restricted components: spirit. or respiration . section 201(s). It can be effective in treating symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome and menopause. Drug and Cosmetic Act.00 % Sensitizer benzyl benzoate <1. The Commission E approved the internal use of ginger for dyspepsia and prevention of motion sickness. antispasmodic. causing systemic poisoning. not flavours. nausea.analgesia LD50/LC50 . used in aromatherapy. is believed to bring quick relief to the pain and bruising of a black eye. Dermal Irritation class C. to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions of use. to be generally recognised as safe (GRAS) under current conditions of use. the administration of ginger up to 6 g/day is relatively safe.g. Acute Toxicity LD50/LC50 . Intraperitoneal-Mouse LD50 1230mg/kg. antiparasitic activity and antioxidant. Not in the warning list for pregnancy. Reaction: Mild 0. As a food flavouring additive. excitement. Drug and Cosmetic Act. It is diaphoretic (promotes sweating). by the Expert Committee of the USA Flavor and Extract manufacturers’ Association (FEMA). the material has been assessed under the provisions of the Federal Food. Italy . cold sores and skin diseases. It is said to be good for chest infections. sedative and tonic. Drug and Cosmetic Act. Not recommended for topical use >5. Dermal sensitisation (may cause dermatitis in hypersensitive individuals or individuals with dermatitis). Camphor also affects the central nervous system that the oil can be absorbed through the skin.00gm/kg Skin-Rabbit >5.

restlessness.00 Toxicity class D acute oral. Some 8% in fragrances. Some fragrance houses internally restrict the use of bay laurel oil (Laurus nobilis) in their fragrances because of customer >5.3 mg/kg IPR-Mouse (jatamansone ) 350 mg/kg Also known as Indian Nard [Syn.00 >5.00 15% in fragrances. IFRA other specification : < 20 mmoles / L of peroxides Said to be good for anxiety and stress. When given alone it is also manifested by its oestrogen-antagonising action on the uterus of mice at an oral dose of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg.80 % Sensitizer >5. Jatamansone Intravenous-Mouse LD50: 80. Nepal Laurel Laurus nobilis dried leafs/branchlets >5. jatamansone which is the same as valeranone (in valerian).00 sensitization issues Oral-Rat >5.00gm/kg Skin-Rabbit >5. The dried leaves are used as an incense. excellent for skin irritations and allergies. dosages for hypotensive humans. cf 900 mg/kg for the whole essential oil A weak activity hypotensive was demonstrated on rats and mice. Mildly narcotic. latifolia and has a more herbaceous smell (some would say harsher) than some lavenders. Dermal Irritation class C. reduces tress and aids relaxation. It is more rounded and smoother than some lavandins. a sesquiterpene ketone. as well as less insomnia. Dermal sensitisation class D penetrator of the skin and is useful in cases of 8. grosso Lavandula hybrida flowering plant >5. A juniper (Juniperus sp. Rated safe during pregnancy. less than lab animal dosage.00gm/kg Oral-Rat 5. super Lavandula hybrida Lavandula hybrida flowering plant flowering plant >5. This soft oil has the same calming and sedative properties possessed by all lavender oils.00 >5.60 see Nardostachys grandiflora Oil [Syn: Nardostachys jatamansi ] Juniper Juniperus communis needle/wood Juniper Juniperus mexicana needle/wood Juniper Juniperus communis berry Oral-Rat 6280.28 >5. was found to possess antioestrogenic activity. said to be good for promoting hair growth and ridding the scalp of dandruff.00 20% in fragrances antibacterial activity. see above France France France France Lavandin. It is harvested before the leaves unfurl.00 Lavandin. Toxicity class D acute oral. Not in the >5. rheumatism. This is another hybrid and in this case the lavender is more camphoraceous with an exciting woodiness. bruises. Use with care and never more than 1. It is said to be more effective than any of the other lavender types in reducing skin redness.00 mg/kg Dermal-Rabbit > 5g/Kg Stimulates circulation. Jatamansone semicarbazone.25%. etc. Dermal Irritation class C. Said to be good for wounds that do not heal. It has the same skin calming and sedative properties of all lavenders. Can assist in reducing inflammation. 20ppm in flavours. abrialis Lavandula hybrida flowering plant >5.00 mg/kg IFRA other specification: < 20 mmoles / L of peroxides 8% in fragrances. France Texas Spain. Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant). Helps to promote restful sleep.00 >5. Irritant effects on skin were not found with the oils.40 % Sensitizer 1-octen-3-yl acetate <0. communis) caused abortion in late term pregnancies similar to pine needle induced abortion. Dermal sensitisation class D 6.Jatamansi Nardostachys grandiflora rhizome 4. 100ppm in flavours references say good for hangovers. sumian Lavandin. IPR-Mouse LD50: 100mg/kg Juniperus communis var saxatilis IPR-Mouse LD50: 3 g/kg An acute Dermal-Rabbit LD50: >5 g/kg Oral gavage of common juniper needles (J.001mg/kg Dermal-Rabbit 5.. Good for muscle aches and sprains and said to improve skin circulation. super Lavandula hybrida >5. as above Juniperus tetragona is probably the correct name for this species. The oil is used as a food flavouring as well.00 >5. Cooling. Mucous Membrane C-D (nonJuniper when applied externally is a good irritant). This is a hybrid between Lavandula officinalis and L. Dermal sensitisation class D (16%). In a study of multiple juniper species extracts used in fragrance and biological additives in cosmetic formulations. Soothing for the skin.00 Lavandin. Europe Lavandin. and used to reduce fevers.33 ml/kg body weight. Essential oil is hypotensive in dogs.00 . however. and was sometimes dropped into the ears to relieve pain.00 >5. Rats and mice oral LD50 >3160mg/kg Oral-Rat >3160 mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Rat: 353mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Mouse: >1gm/kg IPR-Mouse 900 mg/kg Jatamansi oil contains a ketone. there was little toxicity of the oil or tar in animals. Bay leaf oil is used externally for sprains. stubbornness. Oral-Rat 6280. Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant).60 IPR-Mouse LD50 (jatamansone) 350mg/kg. sciatica and dermatitis.00 (8%).00 In acute toxicity studies. It is a member of the Valerian family. 100ppm in flavours.) oil-based phytomedicine was tested for nephrotoxicity in Sprague–Dawley rats by oral administration of varying doses and all were found to be non-toxic. Cleansing. Toxicity class D acute oral. there was some evidence of sensitization to the tar. Nepal Jatamansi Nardostachys jatamansi root 4. the aqueous extract was found safe with LD50 compared to oil LD50 0.00 (8%). Preliminary clinical trials of jatamansone exhibited reduced aggressiveness. Nardostachys jatamansi ]. No studies could be found on the skin irritation or possible hypersensitizing effects of western juniper oil. An essential oil is obtained from the root and young stems. Rated safe during pregnancy. It is used in perfumery and as a hair tonic where it is said to make the hair grow faster and also to turn it black.001mg/kg IFRA restricted components: geraniol <0.00 >5. Good for acne and eczema.00 warning list for pregnancy It is a lavender oil derived from a hybrid plant that combines the properties of Aspic and true Lavender. The oil has anti-fungal and >5.

awakeing and invigourating property is needed in foam baths. and the dried leaves are used in herbal pillows to induce relaxing sleep. Aspergillus niger. disinfectant. S. Dermal Irritation class C.00 % Sensitizer geraniol <5.25 Oral-Rat 2425.00mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Mouse 640. Candida albicans.00 mg/kg Skin-Guinea pig >5000. Lemon myrtle oil was shown to possess significant antimicrobial activity against the organisms Staphylococcus aureus. Non-irritant is the dermal simulation system. carminative and sedative properties.00mg/kg IFRA critical Effect: Sensitization IFRA restricted components citral <90.00 % Sensitizer citronellol <0. Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant).2%. sprains and rheumatism. antiseptic. helps relieve aches and pains. rounded lemon scent with a somewhat spicey undertone. Oral-Rats 4880mg/kg Dermal-Rabbit 2850mg/kg Human open patch test skin irritation/sensitisation evaluation @10% (in vitro dermal and ocular irritection studies): minimal irritant in the ocular simulation test system. suggesting possible toxicities.60 % Sensitizer 2. carminative. At 5% was a non-primary irritant 2. and has antifungal properties. The essential oil distilled from the leaf has strong anti-bacterial.43 Dermal-Rabbit (citral) 2.00 % Sensitizer citronellol <1.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000. flies and other insects. Used for years by the Maori's the oil has qualities similiar to Tea Tree Oil. aureus (MRSA). Not in the warning list for pregnancy Oral-Rat 3800. sleep inducing. IFRA critical Effect : Sensitization IFRA restricted components: citral <19. 220ppm in flavours. relaxes tight muscles. This oil is used wherever a fresh. The essential oil obtained from the leaves (yield 0. Dermal sensitisation class D (10%). and to help relieve migraine. Its antibacterial qualities are more powerful than tea tree oil. It has a fine.10 % Sensitizer 2% in fragrances Oral-Rat LD50: 5000mg/Kg Dermal-Rabbit LD50: 5000mg/Kg The essential oil from the plant might sensitise the skin to sunlight (phototoxicity) Aloysia triphylla (CAS No. South Africa The essential oil is used in aromatherapy in the treatment of nervous and digestive problems and also for acne. Lemongrass is no data no data GRAS in the United States.00 Lavender. angustifolia. it is used in aromatic blends to combat coughs and colds. Sedative to restless children and sleepless adults. It yields a higher quantity of oil than the L.00 Lippia citriodora (CAS No. With its lemony aroma.Africa/Malawi It is known as cochin lemongrass or British Indian lemongrass and has similar properties to the above. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Corsica.50 % Sensitizer 60ppm in flavours Listed in the FDA GRAS list for Food Additives A few drops in a foot bath will banish fatigue. Australia Lemon Myrtle Backhousia citriodora leaves 2.10 % Sensitizer geraniol <0.10 % Sensitizer (E)-2-hexen-1-al <0. Escherichia coli. Said to normalise overactive oil glands and so good for acne and open pores.00 >5. 35ppm in flavours.30 % Sensitizer geraniol <3. IFRA critical Effect : Sensitization IFRA restricted components: citral <52. It is useful where clear thinking and powers of concentration are required and will refresh a weary traveler.00 for pregnancy IFRA critical effect: Sensitization IFRA restricted components: citral <40. anti-fungal and anti-viral properties. Toxic alveolitis has been associated with inhalation of the oil.00 % Sensitizer geraniol <3. PROHIBITED : Should not be used as a fragrance ingredient. Refreshing. Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant).10 % Sensitizer 1-octen-1-yl acetate <0. Healing to the skin.50 % Sensitizer >5.20 % Sensitizer 16% in fragrances. Toxicity class D acute oral. The antimicrobial and toxicological properties of the Australian essential oil.10 % Sensitizer methyl N-methyl anthranilate <0. shower gels or massage oils.10 % Sensitizer geraniol trace to <0. 50ppm in flavours. Rated safe during pregnancy.20 % Sensitizer geraniol <0. revitalising and stimulating.00 mg/kg IFRA specification: < 20 mmoles / L of peroxides IFRA restricted components: farnesol trace to <0. It is also successfully used as a powerful insect repellent. It is also believed to soothe fevers. Spike Lavandula latifolia flowering plant 4. The aroma definitely stimulates the brain and facilitates the logical thinking process. lemon myrtle. detoxifying.0g/Kg (oral) rat.25 g/kg 2. Oral-Rat >5000.2% in fragrances.00 (16%).00 % Sensitizer geraniol <0. boils and cysts.88 Has antiseptic.00 10% in fragrances. Dermal-Rabbit >5g/Kg Irritation/Sensitation-nil at 10% (human) and nil as 100%.5%) is extensively used in perfumery. 290ppm in flavours. 8024-12-2) so is banned Lemon Tea Tree Leptospermum petersonii leaves/twigs 4. The essential oil is an effective insecticide at 1 .20% concerns phototoxicity 8% in fragrances.00 % Sensitizer eugenol <0. Dermal sensitisation class D >5. it is an excellent general skin tonic and antiseptic.00 Lemon Citrus medica limonum peel >5.85 and a non-primary sensitiser to human skin in the test used.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000. Melissa herb (as dried leaves and made into a tea) has been used as a carminative and general relaxant.9ml/kg.00 mg/kg IFRA restricted components: eugenol <0.00 Lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus cut herb Lemongrass Cymbopogon flexuosus cut herb IFRA critical Effect : Sensitization IFRA restricted components: citral <88. (Backhousia citriodora) were investigated. Dermal Irritation class C. Bulgaria. The plant is an insect repellant and repels midges.Lavender Lavandula angustifolia flowering plant >5. Turkey Lemon Verbena Aloysia triphylla fresh herb 5. a few drops on the pillow will bring sleep more easily.00 Oral-Rat 4250. Cymbopogon spp. There is evidence that the use of this oil can sensitise the skin to sunlight and has been largely replaced by the lemongrass. France Spain Italy Lemon Citrus medica limonum leaf Lemon Balm Melissa officinalis leaf Melissa is extremely potent and should be used with caution. but the quality of the oil is perhaps inferior in odour. Constituent beta-myrcene was found to interfere with cytochrome P450 liver enzymes. Calms and reduces stress and tension. Lemon oil is stimulating. 1/2000 dermatitis patients were sensitive to lemon oil.50 % Sensitizer (E)-2-hexen-1-al <0. calming.00 mg/kg LD50 [Oral]: 1.30 % Sensitizer 3% in fragrances Lemongrass is considered to be of low toxicity. antimicrobial. Applied to the body it will act as a strong stimulant and may relieve various neuralgic pains. Toxicity class D acute oral. The oil is still sedative and has all the properties associiated with lavenders. Makes a good skin tonic.00mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Rat 540. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Propionibacterium acnes comparable to its major component-citral. 8024-12-2) is synonymous with 5. while in France it is used to treat painful bruises. The dried leaves retain their fragrance well and are used in pot-pourri.00 0. Not in the warning list >5. methicillin-resistant S. Oral-Rat >5. astringent. Nepal . LD50 [Dermal]: 200mg/kg.

10 % Sensitizer >5.citratus) as opposed to Cymbopogon flexuosus (Indian / Cochin type) West Indies Acts like lemon and the other citrus oils. the rubefacient action causing mild irritation to the skin.also known as C. however if the essential oil of lime is distilled rather that expressed. Mexico) South Africa no data no data Mandarin Citrus reticulata peel >5. Mustard oil can be mixed with rectified alcohol (1:40 oil to alcohol) and used as a lotion for gouty pains. It is used for the prevention of body and foot odour. It is used for aching muscles.80 % Sensitizer 5% in fragrances Toxicity class D acute oral. Melissa herb (as dried leaves and made into a tea) has been used as a carminative and general relaxant. New Zealand Marjoram. Lemon grass. 1979). 15ppm in flavours. Opdyke found Marjoram oil sweet to be non-irritating and non-sensitising to human skin. sprains.00 % Sensitizer geraniol <5. Petitgrain Citrus reticulata leaf >5. Tangerine contains vitamin C. 1979) . Mustard oils are absorbed through the skin and eliminated via the lung.50 % Sensitizer 6% in fragrances. not for use in flavours. Tangerine peel has also shown antineoplastic activity in vitro . beautiful tangy. Spain Sinapsis is a stimulating external application. Lemongrass is not approved by the German Commission E. 0. IFRA restricted components: citral <0. wash off products 2% no skin contact 4% >5. It is widely employed in dentistry as a cement for filling decayed teeth. Geranium grass. fruity essential oil with the typical oriental orange smell.00 The resin that oozes when the tree is tapped.00 Mandarin.00 a slightly sweet. then it does not have a phototoxic effect. Skin Irritation : As part of a dermal LD50 study.00mg/kg LD50 Oral-Rats: 2240mg/kg LD50 Dermal-Rabbit >5g/kg IFRA restricted components: citronellol <3. However.00 Acute oral LD50 >5g/kg. Undiluted mustard oil must never be used and it should never be used on sensitive areas. there is currently insufficient available evidence in humans to support the use of tangerine for any medical indication. West Indian lemon grass [1]) is a herbal plant of southern Asia and northern Africa. >5.165% Restriction.00 which are acceptable for use in foods.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000. IFRA critical Effect: Phototoxicity IFRA restricted components: citral <0.Lemongrass Cymbopogon schoenanthus cut herb >5. Expressed tangerine is not phototoxic. Mutagenicity (Ames test): no evidence of mutagenicity Oral-Rat >5000.00mg/kg IFRA fragrance material specification: Total concentration of furocoumarin-like substances in the finished cosmetic product should not exceed 1ppm. Fever grass. Similar to Lippia citriodora .00 4% in fragrances. Corsica Melissa. Sweet Origanum majorana flowering plant >5. oil. Several laboratory studies have shown that tangerine may have antioxidant properties. and the dried leaves are used in herbal pillows to induce relaxing sleep. but does have generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status in the United States. contact duration 4h) 100% oil: classified R38 . used in cases of acne and believed to be anti-inflammatory. crampls. non-sensitising & non-phototoxic.10 % Sensitizer geraniol <0.10 % Sensitizer methyl N-methyl anthranilate <60. Oral-Rat 5000. sciatica. Skin sensitisation by topical application and by intradermal injection (guinea pig): no evidence of skin sensitisation.10 % Sensitizer geraniol <0. is known as mastic and smells like turpentine. A 48-hr patch test with 8% in petrolatum on the backs of 61 volunteers no irritation (Epstein.00mg/kg Oral-Rat 2240. but definitely herbaceous.00 gm/kg Skin-Rabbit >5. USA (Peru.00 Not in the warning list for pregnancy. Mustard Sinapsis alba seed Oral LD50: 0. It is used in skin and hair care preparations. Oral-Rat 1125mg/kg Skin irritation (rabbit.00 15% in fragrances. Spain Mastic tree Pistacia lentiscus leaf/branch >5. Warning: Do not use lime on the skin in direct sunlight. neuralgia and various internal inflammations.13 Oral-Rat >5. Tangerine (Citrus reticulata ) is a citrus fruit that is well known for being sweet and easy to peel. True Melissa officinalis leaf Melissa is extremely potent and should be used with caution. folate. In the East it is used as a breath sweetener.00 but the oil is not believed to have been tested for phototoxicity.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 Manuka Leptospermum scoparium leaves/twigs 1. Oral-Rat >5000. 1979) . foot care and also oral hygiene products. 3100ppm in flavours. stimulating the circulation to that area and relieving muscular and skeletal pain. 12ppm in flavours LD50 oral-rat: between 2-5g/Kg. Acute toxicity : The oral LD50 in rats exceeded 5g|kg based on 3|10 deaths at that dose. fresh stimulating aroma. South Africa.00 mg/kg 10% in fragrances. The volatile oil obtained by steam distillation of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (Guatamalan / light type . IFRA critical Effect : Sensitization IFRA restricted components: citral <52. Dermal irritation Group A: Severely irritant .irrititating to the skin. and the dermal LD50 in rabbits exceeded 5g|kg based on 0|3 deaths (Palanker and Lewis. Specific data not available.50 % Sensitizer geraniol <0. 5g|kg of the undiluted material produced no irritation on rabbits after an occluded application for 24 hr (Palanker and Lewis. rheumatism and other conditions where its relaxing effects are needed. with fragrant foliage.00 gm/kg IFRA restricted components citral <1.34g/kg Caution: large amounts or prolonged use internally or externally can cause serious irritation and inflammation. antifungal. so that the antibacterial action can take effect there. and is also used in varnishes. woody and campherous if not slightly medicinal odour. The aroma enhances and enlivens the mood and energizes and can help relieve fatigue and stimulate mental activity and memory.10 % Sensitizer citronellol <0. Italy China Manuka oil is antibacterial. Dermal sensitisation class D.00 Lime Lippia Citrus aurantifolia Lippia rehmanni peel leaves >5. The Council of Europe (1981) included mastic in the list of plants and parts thereof. Lemongrass oils have been found non-irritant.20 % Sensitizer citronellol <3. Camel grass.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000. check the legal status. >5.20 % Sensitizer (E)-2-hexen-1-al <0. PROHIBITED : Should not be used as a fragrance ingredient.50 % Sensitizer 60ppm in flavours Listed in the FDA GRAS list for Food Additives a sweet citrus. Dermal Irritation class C. >5. lumbago and rheumatism. and beta-carotene.30 % Sensitizer (E)-2-hexen-1-al <0. Used in aromatherapy for acneic skin types.7% in fragrances.00 % Phototoxicity limits in the finished product leave on products 0.

viral hepatitis. Toxic effects: effects on fertility . It is also used to some extent in Ayurveda and Unani medicine although more preference is given to the related resin known as guggulu obtained from Commiphora mukul Engl. diarrhea. duration: male 40 day prior to mating. 0. Somalia Myrtle. Toxicity class D acute oral. wounds. Its antibacterial qualities are more powerful than tea tree oil. Dermal sensitisation class D 5. inflammation. (The Ebers Papyrus . coughs. Aspergillus niger.5mg/kg IFRA critical Effect : Sensitization IFRA restricted components:eugenol <0. non-sensitising 5.00 Dermal-Rabbit (citral) 2. At one hour post-instillation. respectively. female disorders. The antimicrobial and toxicological properties of the Australian essential oil. Myrrh has been used as a medicine and for ceremonial and religious purposes.43 Neem Azadirachta indica leaves 14. Escherichia coli.Standard Draize Test Skin-Rabbit: 500 mg/24H. typhoid. Mrrrh is in the list contraindicated during pregnancy. The Queen of all essential oils. by 24. can produce sedative effects. and can be stupefying.1 gm of the undiluted material. Dermal Irritation class C. rounded lemon scent with a somewhat spicey undertone. boils and other skin irritations.Male fertility index (e. lemon myrtle.40 % Sensitizer. dysentery.25 Oral-Rat 2425. and young fruits are used as a tonic and astringent and the bark has been used to treat malaria and cutaneous diseases. methyl eugenol <1.00 Eye Irritation-Rabbit-Positive LD50 oral: >2000mg/kg.00 offspring). Not irritating to human skin (Kligman A 1966) : J Invest Derm 47. The stem.65).25 g/kg 2. 48. and 0/110. Almost every part of the neem tree is used in traditional medicine in India. fresh fragrance with a hint of tea tree. A primary eye irritation study in rabbits exposed to technical azadirachtin was rated mild to moderately irritating after instillation of 0. It was given a toxicity category of III. Toxic effects: effects on newborn .000 mg/kg. Java and Thailand.00 % Sensitizer. The earliest use of a plant being used as human medication is found on an Egyptian papyrus dated about 1550 BC.70 Oral-Rats LD50: 1650mg/kg Toxicity class B acute oral for Myrrh (LD50 = 1. Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant).Lowest Published Lethal Dose/Conc IPR-Cat LDLO: 10 ml/kg LD50/LC50 .70 Niaouli Melaleuca quinquenervia leaf 2. Sri Lanka .00mg/kg IPR-Mouse LD50 1010. The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia indicates myrrh tincture as a mouthwash for gingivitis and ulcers. The tender leaves have been used in the treatment of worm infections. The therapeutic properties are effective in treating the nervous system.540 mg/kg to greater than 5. Lemon myrtle oil was shown to possess significant antimicrobial activity against the organisms Staphylococcus aureus. High concentrations of this potent oil. The Commission E approved myrrh for topical treatment of mild inflammations of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa. It is used to reduce dental caries and inflammation of the mouth when used as an ingredient in dental preparations. The LD50 (12% azadirachtin a major active constituent from neem) >5000mg/kg in rats Acute Oral-Rat >5 g/kg Acute Dermal-Rat >2g/kg Acute Inhalation-Rat LC50 >0. It is strongly antiseptic and so useful for treating acne. mouth ulcers.60 % Sensitizer isoeugenol <1. tumour etc.00 (8%). root bark. It is used as a chest rub and also has analgesic properties. geraniol <0.g.. # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile non-pregnant females) TDLo Oral: 4 gm/kg.3/110. Australia The medicinal and antimicrobial activity of plant extract has been known for generations. Not in the warning list for pregnancy Ethanol extract LD50 147. the maximum eye irritation score was 15. India The essential oil extracted from the fragrant flower of the bitter sour. 395 Oral-Rats (nerol) 4.00 % has potential carcinogenic activity 2% in fragrances. duration: male 40 day prior to mating. For insomnia the oil has an almost hypnotic effect and a few drops into a warm bath prior to bedtime will help give a good night's sleep. 15ppm in flavours. Dermal sensitisation class D (8%). Morocco Niaouli Melaleuca viridiflora leaf no data no data 4% in fragrances Oral-Rat 2620. and 72 hours the scores were 6. leprosy.. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Madagascar Nutmeg Myristica fragrans fruit The inhaled aroma is stimulating and effective in fighting mental fatigue. bronchitis. It has a fine.2/110. 8% in fragrances. Acute toxicity LDLO/LCLo .00 Oral-Mice LD50 316mg/kg (grandinin major component) The essential oil distilled from the leaf has strong anti-bacterial.ACD). Klebsiella pneumoniae and Propionibacterium acnes comparable to its major component-citral. It is used in East Africa as a decoction of myrrh resin to treat stomach ache. also known as Citrus bigaradia . Dermal Irritation class D (8%). Naturally occurring oil (from seeds of Azadirachta indica) with pronounced antimicrobial properties. methicillin-resistant S.5g/kg Dermal-Rabbit (nerol) >5g/kg IM-Mouse (nerol) 3g/kg No irritation or sensitisation by 4% (nerol) in petrolatum on human volunteers. to be generally recognised as safe (GRAS). Burma. Candida albicans. anti-fungal and anti-viral properties. In traditional medicinal myrrh is used for embalming. the highest dose tested when administered undiluted to albino rats.Rabbit > No Irritation Skin Sensitization-Guinea Pig. Use with caution on the skin. Warning: Nutmeg oil is toxic if used in large quantities.germ cell effects (in 2. however. Indochina. cardiovascular diseases and for their pesticidal and insect-repellant actions. Acute oral toxicity in rats fed technical grade azadirachtin ranged from greater than 3.5mg/kg Considered non-irritant. Mucous Membrane C-D (non-irritant). ulcers.Myrrh Commiphora myrrha resin 1.Sensitization >2. Lemon Backhousia citriodora flowering twig 2. aureus (MRSA).00 mg/kg Oral-Rats LD50: 14ml/kg Oral-Rabbit LD50: 24ml/kg Neem oil is non-mutagenic in the Ames mutagenicity test. SriLanka.60 >10.Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill Oral-Rat LD50: 2620 mg/kg toxic effects: Behavioral somnolence (general depressed activity) Dermal-Rabbit LD50: >10 gm/kg Irritation Skin . (Backhousia citriodora) were investigated. Myrrh is also an important drug in Chinese Traditional Medicine.3/110.00 Neroli Citrus aurantium dulcis flower 5. This oil has a sweet.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >10000. Reaction: moderate Reproductive effects Oral-Mouse TDLo: 2400 mg/kg. As a food flavouring additive. or Seville orange tree.72 mg/L Skin Irritation . 640ppm in flavours.

Citrus sinensis ]. This is equivalent to 7% in a fragrance compound used at 20% in the consumer product (see remark on phototoxic >5.10 % Sensitizer. uplifting and best described as alive. Origanum oil was investigated for its antifungal properties.00% Recommendation. no skin contact products: 10. citronellol trace to <0. Oral-Rat LD50: 1850mg/kg Toxic effects: behavioral somnolence (general depressed activity) Dermal-Rabbit LD50: >320 mg/kg Skin . It is also calming and brightening to dull complexions.10 % Sensitizer.00 (8%). Italy Oregano. mental clarity and alertness. LD 50 Oral-rat: >5g/kg Food and Cosmetic Toxicol (1974) I2 (3). It is uplifting to the mood. bitter orange oil expressed should not be used such that the level in the consumer products exceeds 1.00 A volatile oil obtained by expression from the fresh peel of the bitter orange. limits in the finished product leave on products: 1. 10% in fragrances. France . Reaction: Severe.85 A warming oil.90 % Sensitizer 4% in fragrances As a food flavouring additive. This is equivalent to 7% in a fragrance compound used at 20% in the consumer product (see remark on phototoxic >5. Myrrh is commonly used in Chinese medicine for rheumatism.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >10000. Opopanax is used as a fixative and fragrance for high class perfumery. IFRA critical Effect: Sensitization leave on products: 0.00 mg/kg IFRA critical Effect: Photoirritation IFRA fragrance material specification: May be used in cosmetic products.10 % Sensitizer. Dermal Irritation class C. Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant). excluding bath preparations. Orange.00 ingredients in the introduction and the guideline on citrus oils). 733. 10% in fragrances. Dermal sensitisation class D 5.00% Recommendation. 1000ppm in flavours. citronellol trace to <0.00% Recommendation.10 % Sensitizer. Not in the warning list for pregnancy Oral-Rat >5000. Aromatherapy uses have been suggested to be similar to myrrh oil (to which it is related). excluding bath preparations. no skin contact products: 8% Restriction. oil of bitter orange was effective in curing patients with treatment-resistant fungal skin diseases. not for use in flavours. digestion. bitter orange oil expressed should not be used such that the level in the consumer products exceeds 1.4% of a blend For applications on areas of skin exposed to sunshine. both the germination and the mycelial growth of C. Orange. wash off products: 6. arthritis and circulatory problems. section 201 (s). Oral LD50 (15kg child): 83g/kg Oral LD50 (70kg adult): 389g/kg Topical application dose to skin exposed to UV: 1. Bitter Citrus aurantium amara peel 5.6% Restriction. It is employed in perfumery.4%. Oral LD50 (15kg child): 83g/kg Oral LD50 (70kg adult): 389g/kg Topical application dose to skin exposed to UV: 1. Dose: 100%. it assists improvement of circulation. provided that the total concentration of furocoumarin-like substances in the finished cosmetic product do not exceed 1ppm. Opopanax is often adulterated. antitumor. It may have applications as a topical antifungal agent. provided that the total concentration of furocoumarin-like substances in the finished cosmetic product do not exceed 1ppm. and celldifferentiation promoting activities.25% Restriction.00% Recommendation. IFRA restricted components: geraniol <0. soaps and other products which are washed off the skin. It is used to relieves muscle aches and pains and is said to assist in increasing physical endurance and energy.Standard Draize Test Mouse Skin. 733. In China it is used additionally to treat itchy skin conditions. wash off products: 6. Sweet Citrus sinensis peel 5. Not to be confused with Cassie (Acacia farnesiana) which is also called Opopanax.70 The volatile oil obtained by expression from the ripe peel of the fruit Citrus sinensis (L. limits in the finished product leave on products: 1. Green Origanum vulgare flowering top 1.25mg/ml was found to completely inhibit the growth of Candida albicans. no data no data 8% in fragrances. LD 50 Oral-rabbit: >5g/kg Food and Cosmetic Toxicol (1974) I2(3). by the Expert Committee of the USA Flavour and Extract manufacturers’ Association (FEMA).00 mg/kg IFRA critical Effect: Photoirritation IFRA fragrance material specification: May be used in cosmetic products. Egypt Orange. It may assist in reducing cellulite.00 ingredients in the introduction and the guideline on citrus oils).) Osbeck (Fam.Opopanax Commiphora erythraea gum Phototoxic. while promoting relaxation and being calming. Origanum oil at 0.6% Restriction. wash off products: 0. In addition. to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions 0. IFRA restricted components:citral <0. Drug and Cosmetic Act.4% of a blend For applications on areas of skin exposed to sunshine. In vitro tests show that limonene from citrus peels may have relevant anticancer.32 of use (FEMA 2828).25% Restriction.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >10000. Rutaceae) / Citrus dulcis . The essential oil of orange is warm. soaps and other products which are washed off the skin. IFRA restricted components:citral <0. sweet.00 See Citrus aurantium dulcis [Syn. no skin contact products: 10. radiant.4%. Toxicity class D acute oral. Dried peel is official in the British Pharmacopoeia as a bitter tonic. 1000ppm in flavours. Oral-Rat >5000. the material has been assessed under the provisions of the Federal Food. albicans were found to be inhibited by Origanum oil in a dose-dependent manner. Sweet Citrus aurantium dulcis peel 5.

It is antimicrobial. Dermal Irritation class C. moderate mucous membrane irritant. Dermal Irritation class C. . Not in the warning list for pregnancy A short-term oral toxicity study on male and female rats for 28 days demonstrated that peppermint oil causes brain lesions at doses of 40 and 100mg/kg bw/day which was confined to the white matter especially of the cerebellum.43mg/kg Acute oral LD50: 4. cellular and subcellular levels. clearing.Palmarosa Cymbopogon martini cut herb >5. insect repellant. rashes.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000. Indonesia Nepal Peppermint Mentha piperita fresh leaves 4. antibacterial.00mg/kg IFRA critical Effect: Sensitization contains IFRA restricted components citral <0. and traditionally has been applied in pharmaceuticals for the treatment of wounds. Breath freshener.52g/kg Oral-Rat: 3.0g/kg mild sensitiser. cholagogue. Has a cooling effect on the body. It is also used as an insect repellent and a carminative. Dermal Irritation class C. by the Expert Committee of the USA Flavour and Extract manufacturer’s Association (FEMA). used for headaches and nausea. penetrating odour. The toxicity of menthol was studied on four different in vitro systems covering organ. scaly and flaky skin. Dermal sensitisation class D (8%). the material has been assessed under the provisions of the Federal Food. Use with care during pregnancy. It helps with skin problems such as candida.00 8% in fragrances see above Oral-Rat LD50: 2. Acute toxicity LD50/LC50 . emmenagogue. to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions of use. eczema and pruritis (itching). digestive. along the coast of El Salvador. Madagascar Patchouli Pogostemon cablin plant >5.00 Pennyroyal. Reaction: Moderate Oral-Mouse: 1.Standard Draize Test >5. is very beneficial for the skin and may Toxicity class D acute oral. Peru balsam is weakly antiseptic. The essential oil and its constituent apiole are toxic. antiseptic.40 Typical minty fragrance with mentholic undertones. The pure oil is toxic and should not be used. S.000mg/kg >5.00 % Sensitizer 8% in fragrances. soothes skin problems and burns.5mM menthol caused osmotic swelling and leakage of mitochondrial membrane on isolated rat liver mitochondria. but with a roseovertone . Nepal. pectoral. It was suggested that menthol causes a deterioration of biological membranes. spasmolytic.40 % Sensitizer farnesol <2. natural flea repellant on pets.00 in the warning list for pregnancy from hives and other pruritic conditions. adverse effects: allergic reactions of skin/mucosae (rare) and phototoxicity. Potentially neurotoxic. Hepatotoxic.Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill Oral-Rat LD50 >5gm/kg Dermal-Rabbit LD50 >5gm/kg Irritation Skin .77g/kg Oral-Rat: 5. Rated safe during pregnancy.Africa/Malawi Perilla Perilla frutescens leaves/flowers 5. expectorant.24 Strongly and a characteristic oriental and musty odour. 0.00 Parsley Petroselinum crispum herb/leaf Oral-Rat >5000. diaphoretic. e.00 gm/kg mildly antiseptic. uterine vasodilator.96g/kg Parsley herb and leaf oils and some chemotypes of the seed oil Petroselinum crispum contain dill apiole to 20% which is severely hepatoxic and high dose levels have (endangering the subject) been used to procure an abortion. refrigerant.40g/mg uterine stimulant.00 gm/kg depressant. Invigorating . European Mentha pulegium aerial parts 0. carminative. It is a reputed abortifacient. Peru balsam is extracted from the cortex of the tree Myroxolon balsamum pereiae that grows in Central America. Mucous Membrane class B. Oral LD50: 0. Not in the warning list for pregnancy As a food flavouring additive. It helps reduce skin oiliness. sudorific. Acute oral LD50 (menthol): 3300mg/kg Oral-Mouse: 2. Oral-Rat LD50: 1240mg/kg Dermal-Rabbit LD50: >5000mg/kg >5. Dermal sensitisation class D (4%).g. reduces inflammation and is Oral-Rat >5. Pulegone at 80 and 160mg/kg bw/day caused histopathological changes in liver and in the white matter of the cerebellum.00 >10.4g/kg Toxicity class D acute oral. This oil is floral.00 Peru Balsam Myroxylon pereirae resin LD50 Oral-Rats > 5. 15ppm in flavours Toxicity class D acute oral. Stimulating. No signs of encephalopathy was observed in rats given menthol. I has been used for the care and relief of haemorrhoids. Not said to regenerate tissue and helps relieve itching >5. calms the stomach. as an insect repellant and to relieve headaches. Peru balsam is used as a fragrance and flavour additive in foods. fresh and sweet with the characteristic smell of geranium oil. 2% in fragrances Commission E reports contraindications: pregnancy and nephrosis.ideal travel companion. It has a clean. Mucous Membrane assumed C-D (non-irritant). It is a nerve sedative and antiSkin-Rabbit >5. very cooling.000 mg/kg.00 LD50 Dermal-Rabbit >10. Used to bathe tired and sweaty feet. blood purifier.00 % Sensitizer geraniol <94. It has been used on cuts. Drug and Cosmetic Act. It is also sensitisation class D (10%).hence the alternative name rose geranium. section 201 (s).40 Peppermint Mentha arvensis fresh leaves 1. Dermal help prevent wrinkles or chapped skin.00 Rabbit Skin 500mg/24h. A good insect repellent. antifungal and antiviral. stimulant.

They have a sweet. but not quite as sophisticated or floral.40 % Sensitizer (E)-2-hexen-1-al <0. and bronchitis conditions. The International Fragrance Association (IFRA) standard for bitter orange peel oil is 1. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints. methyl from the analysis figures there is the possibility a number of eugenol (8.aromatica leaf oils and divided the leaf oils into 4 the presence of the carcinogens methyl chavicol and methyl types: a <90% methyl chavicol type. colds.10 % Sensitizer 15% in fragrances.20 % Sensitizer geraniol trace to <0. Madagascar no data no data further data is available. Dermal NOAEL of > 226 mg/kg/day (highest dose tested).60 Oral-Rat >5000. diaphoretic and digestive and are used to treat lack of appetite. It is an excellent air-freshener and has antiseptic properties that give it good disinfectant properties. an inventory often referred to as "Everything" Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS). Dermal Irritation class C. the leaves are boiled and the vapour inhaled to treat coughs and colds. boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters. aurantium orange oil extract. as can be seen contain mainly methyl chavicol (79. peel. Petitgrain oil is extracted from the leaves of the tree but was once extracted from the green unripe oranges.00 can cause dermatitis in sensitive people.7%). and a sabinene (25-34%).70 IFRA other specification: <10 mmoles / L of peroxides 5% in fragrances The wood.1%). aromatica chemotypes and this makes proper identification study analysed 28 samples of formally identified vital. when they were still the size of cherries. In Madagascar it is known as "the oil that heals" because of its antiseptic activity and for its useful properties in respiratory problems. It a sweet herbal. Rate this oil as unproven and potentially dangerous until Ravintsara Oil (Cinnamomum camphora ) should not be confused with Ravensara Oil. diuretic.6ml/kg strong irritant of mucous membranes hepatotoxic It is made from the twigs and buds of the orange tree. burns.Petitgrain Citrus aurantium amara leaf/twig >5. especially decongestant baths. Toxicity class D acute oral. It is stimulating. It has shown to help with insomnia and muscle fatigue. Alpine Rosebay. hence the name Petitgrain or 'little grains. rubefacient and vermifuge and is used as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. Dermal sensitisation class D >2. wounds.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >2000. Systemic Toxicity NOAEL = >226 mg/kg/day. NOAEL can be estimated from a 14-day rangefinding study >3. good for circulation and useful for colds. and leaf are listed in its food additive database.88 France Ravensara Ravensara aromatica leaf Sometime called Clove Nutmeg and is a member of the Lauraceae (laurel) family. bitter orange peel. Ravensara oils should not be regarded as safe because R. Five leaf essential oils of Ravensara aromatica Sonn. Reported to be carcinogenic. Sunpati. Bitter orange is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).00 (8%). In frozen concentrated orange juice. flowers. Rhododendron Rhododendron anthopogon leaves/flowers no data no data No data found Nepal . faint balsamic essence and is used in perfumery. They are antitussive. aurantium is listed in its Poisonous Plants Database. C. Systemic Toxicity LOAEL = >226 mg/kg/day.00 % Sensitizer geraniol <2. In volunteers receiving skin applications of bitter orange peel oil expressed (5 µL/cm2 of 100% oil) under occlusion followed by exposure to visible light or ultraviolet A. the volume of bitter orange that may be added cannot exceed 5%. Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant). It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful for coughs.00mg/kg IFRA other specification: < 20 mmoles / L of peroxides IFRA restricted components: citral <1. similar properties and aroma to neroli (see above).00 Pimento Pimenta dioica berries/leaves 3. France Pine. coughing and various skin disorders.' Egypt Pine Pinus nigra needle 2. Not in the warning list for pregnancy Acute oral LD50: 3. and also in Asia Minor. antiviral and antibacterial properties. The stems and leaves are used in Tibetan herbalism.00 that showed a dermal NOAEL of 940 mg/kg/day. poultices. sores. and extracts are Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) as a direct additive to food. hepatotoxic linalool (7-21%) and terpinen-4-ol (6-12%) type. a terpinene (25-28%) and assumption. Scotch) 90-day dermal toxicity study in rats. Clearing and deodorising. Scotch Pinus sylvestris needle 6.25% in products applied to areas of the skin that are exposed to the sun. limonene (15-22%) type. sawdust and resins from various species of pine >2. Cyprus. The smell is slightly medicinal with a camphoraceous or eucalyptus-like note with a very slightly sweet back note of fruitiness. Douglas Pseudotsuga menziesii needle no data no data Oral-Rat LD50: 6880mg/kg Dermal-Rabbit LD50: >3g/kg IFRA other specification: <10 mmoles / L of peroxides IFRA restricted components: citronellol trace to <0.20 % Sensitizer 8% in fragrances (Pine Oil. occurring across southern Europe from Spain to the Crimea. oleoresins. Although C. oil. 20ppm in flavours Additionally. The European Black Pine Pinus nigra is a variable species of pine. In Nepal. France Distilled from the needles. herbal steam baths and inhalers. influenza and tuberculosis. all subjects exhibited phototoxic reactions. from Madagascar have been analyzed by GC and GC/MS were found to The safety of this oil is far from confirmed. Pine. a 74-92% eugenol in the bark and leaf oils totally contradict this methyl eugenol type. High quality oils do not smell as basic as toilet cleaners and have a lighter more delicate aroma. flu. Another R.5%) and limonene (3. bitter and astringent taste and they promote heat. The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic. and locally in the Atlas Mountains of northwest Africa. Estonia) 10% in fragrances (Pine Oil. It has anti-infectious.

elasticity and an even colored complexion. Spain Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis flowering plant LC50 = 0. DNA analysis has shown that a third species.Rose. Rosa fedtschenkoana . 4% pet): no senzitation reactions. The oil has been found to be non-irritating and non-sensitizing when applied topically to human skin in diluted concentrations. 50ppm in flavours.00 Salvia lavandulaefolia (Spanish sage) enhances memory in healthy young volunteers. Africa.95 Oral-Rat 5580. helping to improve mental clarity aiding concentration and used to enhance meditation.2.00 Sandalwood oil has GRAS status. intact or abraded skin. and its tincture is a valuable carminative. The Commission E has approved the internal use of sage leaf for dyspeptic symptoms and excessive perspiration. 48 hrs):no irritation. lavandulaefolia essential oil to patients with Alzheimer disease.60 It has been used in Europe for skin conditions such as eczema. and external use for inflammations of the mucous membranes of nose and throat with recommended dry leaf intake. or sometimes as the Rose of Castile. LD50: 1. Oral-Rat LD50: 5580mg/Kg Dermal-Rabbit: 5g/Kg 5. powder. for cutaneous inflammation and as an antiseptic. convulsions. 24 hrs): moderate irritation. is associated with the Damask rose. can induce hypoglycemia. Mucous Membrane C-D (non-irritant). not advised for long term use or during pregnancy. a significant increase in diastolic and systolic blood pressure was observed in two patients with preexisting hypertension. for relieving toothache. South pregnancy. in skin care.00 effects. Rosemary is forthright and strong. 50ppm in flavours. It may be beneficial for problem skin conditions and dandruff.00 mg/kg >5. establishing counter-indication of use during Portugal. Spanish sage oil was also nonphototoxic when applied to mice >5. 1-3 g. It is an antiseptic oil with antibacterial and antifungal properties and so would ne useful in problem acneic skin conditions France .00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000. France Sage.58 Sassafras Sassafras albidum root bark 1.299 mg/mL Oil of rosemary can have dangerous side effects including 5. Safrole: no effects see Santalum album Savory.90 g/kg (1. LD50 (mice) 2. It helps overcome mental fatigue.00 and pigs. The chief uses of sandalwood are as a deodorant.00 >10.37g/kg (Summer Savoury) Not recommended for topical use Savory oil is sometimes used as a local application to carious teeth. vomiting. Rated safe during pregnancy. Dermal Irritation class C.9g/kg Acute Oral toxicity: Oil: LD50 (rats): 1.00 nausea. mild erythema and oedema.98 Toxicity class D acute oral.50 for pregnancy Rosa damascena is more commonly known as the Damask rose or simply as "Damask". Although sage oil contains thujone. Sage Salvia officinalis flowering plant 2. and >5. undiluted) within 30 sec. dandruff and hair loss.52 . The aromatherapy benefits are said to be uplifting and relaxing. Sandalwood Santalum album wood >5. Damask Rosa damascena flowers 2. tachycardia. Mountain Satureja montana flowering plant LD50: 1. side effects and recommended use is 4-6 g of cut leaf for infusions. is a rose hybrid. Dermal sensitisation class D (2%). derived from Rosa gallica and Rosa moschata . Phototoxicity: (977 hairless mice and swine. three times daily.37 g/kg) Safrole: LD50 (rats) 1.00 % Sensitizer 8% in fragrances. It has been recognized for its benefits in relieving mental fatigue.95 g/kg. 1-3 mL. dry extracts and other galenical preparations for internal and external use. There were no significant side effects reported by healthy patients in two clinical trials. The Damask rose is commonly used to flavor food and to make rose water. It is claimed to be a skin softener and stimulates peripheral blood circulation in the skin. It protects against skin diseases and allergic conditions. Spanish Salvia lavandulaefolia leaves >5.1 (g/mL).00 Sandalwood Santalum spicatum wood 5.00 10% in fragrances. seizure and pulmonary oedema. Rose extract and rose oil have a host of beneficial affects on the skin and are great for promoting a youthful complexion with good tone. closed patch test. antiinfectious. AHPA-BSH has classified rosemary as a Class 2b/emmenagogue herb where it can stimulate uterine contraction and induce miscarriage. No reported drug interactions. under occlusion.. three times daily or fluid extract 1. There are many different sages and each have a unique aroma. is haemostatic or styptic and removes skin blemishes. undiluted . Routine blood and urine examinations were within normal limits. Skin irritation: Oil: (hairless mice and swine.00 not to exceed the recommended dose of 4-6 g Oil: Maximization test (25 volunteers. acne. antispasmodic and is a useful component in decongestant baths. the oil does not have a reputation for toxicity.35 g/kg Acute dermal toxicity: Oil: LD50 (rabbits): > 5 g/kg Safrole: LD50 (rabbits): > 5 g/kg Chronic toxicity Natural oil of Sassafras was fed to animals (species not indicated) in the dry diet at 390 and 1170 ppm for up to 2 yrs. In one pilot open-label study involving oral administration of S. muscle cramps and respiratory disorders. IFRA restricted components: geraniol <1. Sage is none the less classified as a AHPA-BSH Class 2b herb. Not in the warning list 2. Humans (4% pet. (rabbit. Oral-Mice LD50: 800mg/kg The oil of sage. The Commission E approved the internal use of rosemary leaf for dyspeptic complaints and external use as supportive therapy for rheumatic diseases and circulatory problems. undiluted): no >5. It is anti-catarrhal. Sensitization . The typical fragrance is sweetly herbal and slightly medicinal with a hint of camphor.

16 see above see above Cooling. Mentha viridis ] The aroma of spearmint is not as sharp and intense or vital as peppermint. It is useful in the treatment of psoriasis and rheumatism.00 4. and nervousness. Spearmint is used for culinary purposes and in the aroma and flavour industry.90 5. It was supposed to make the skin 'clear and brilliant'. therefore it is little used. Dermal sensitisation class D (4%). Good for spots and other skin infections.00 see Mentha spicata [Syn. 'Virgin Milk' an old fashioned toilet water. 8% in fragrances. included benzoin as well as lavender and ethanol.Spearmint Spearmint Mentha spicata Mentha viridis fresh leaves fresh leaves 5. madurensis. The essence is an insecticide.40 % Sensitizer leave on products: 0. dizziness. As this is an emmenagogic plant (one which restores the menstrual flow) it should on no account be taken in any form by pregnant women. indigestion. and a few leaves rubbed into the pet's coat is a good flea repellant. The ancient civilisations thought it a grand remedy for driving away evil spirits and was often used in fumigations and incense. it is used to treat haemorrhoids and skin infections. unshiu and C. though it is toxic in large doses. C.20 % Sensitizer.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000. clementine type orange fruit.9g/kg Tea Tree Melaleuca alternifolia leaves 1. rheumatism. nausea. acne skin washes.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 Oral-Guinea Pig LD50: 766mg/kg 5. 10ppm in flavours Tansy Tarragon (Estragon) Tanecetum vulgare Artemisia dracucnculus aerial parts aerial parts 0. . It is an ingredient in Friar's Balsam. excellent for skin irritations and allergies.83 Oral LD50: 0. intestinal cramps.00 mg/kg IFRA restricted components:eugenol <0. relieves mental strain and helps to soothe headaches. USA A weak anthelmintic and mild irritant. tangerine. It is a member of the Valerian family. tansy can be poisonous even when applied externally. anti-inflammatory.00 Oral-Rat >5000. Nowadays used as a fixative in perfumes.6ml/kg.00 mg/kg >5.00 Oral-Rat 5000.3g/kg Oral-Rat LD50: 1. South Africa It has been used amongst other things for psoriasis. It is under the domination of the Sun or Jupiter. 'balsam' or 'gum benjamin'. Reaction: Mild IFRA restricted components: (E)-2-hexen-1-al <0. vanilla-like smell. The essential oil in the leaves is antiseptic. Said to be good for wounds that do not heal. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives has assessed l-carvone as presenting no safety concerns at current levels of intake when used as a flavouring agent. Dermal Guinea Pig: Dose: 100%. The daily per capita intake is estimated at 170 µg/kg bw/day in the USA and at 46 µg/kg bw/day in Europe.Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill Oral-Rat LD50: 5gm/kg Irritation Skin . it has been assessed to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions of use.00 LD50 1. It has antifungal. and decongestant baths when a cold is coming on. Reaction: Moderate. It is used as an antiseptic. In medieval times. It is an insect repellant and branches of are placed in amongst blankets and winter clothing to repel moths and other insects. USA Tangerine oil is extracted from Citrus reticulata (also known as Citrus nobilis. the leaves were placed in beds and strewn over floors as their camphor smell kept away flies and fleas. toxicosis with epileptic convulsions may result. The smell of tea tree is well known. Can assist in reducing inflammation.83g/kg The oil is poisonous when ingested in large quantities. Tagetes Tangelo Tagetes minuta Citrus tangelo flowering herb peel 3. 20ppm in flavours.00 5% in fragrances. fevers. >5.10 % Sensitizer. Thuja oil is a very poisonous essential oil and should only be used under strict medical supervision.01% Restriction. The chief constituent of spearmint oil (essential oil of Mentha spicata) is Lcarvone (more than 60%). antimicrobial and antiviral activities. It is a scented gum that has been used in cosmetics for hundreds of years. slightly spicey orange that reminds us of Christmas. and used to reduce fevers. a combination of medicinal. producing symptoms such as hypotension and convulsions and eventually death. and is said to help with anxiety.7 no data no data Tangerine Citrus reticulata peel >5. the yield is about 4kg of oil from 1 tonne of leaves and is used as a food flavouring and in oral hygiene preparations. Acute Toxicity LD50/LC50 .00% Recommendation. Not in the warning list for pregnancy. no skin contact: 2. As a food flavouring additive.73 Oral-Dog LD50: 0. Soothing for the skin. flatulence. Mentha viridis ] South Africa Spikenard Spikenard Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi rhizome root 4. antidepressant. If the dogs' baskets and kennels are lined with the plant. deliciosa) of the Rutaceae family and is also known as European mandarin.Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill [LCarvone] Oral-Rat LD50: 1640mg/kg Intravenous-Mouse LD50: 56mg/kg >5.00% Recommendation. Helps to promote restful sleep. the fleas will soon leave. The oil is antibacterial. It has a sweet.9-2. astringent and expectorant. and the tincture is widely used as a skin protectant and as an antiseptic and styptic on small cuts.20 % Sensitizer. Mucous Membrane class B. LD50: 1. see Mentha spicata [Syn.Standard Draize Test Dermal-Rabbit 500mg/24h. and topically for warts. eucalyptus and woody citrus notes. The odour is the traditional oriental. geraniol <0. It has a warming freshness. wash off products: 1. Dermal Irritation class C. Used for colic. tangerine. An essential oil is obtained from the whole plant. naartjie and true mandarin. used for cold sores. It is often described as minty with a slightly fruity aroma.the tangelo is another mandarin. reduces tress and aids relaxation. The oil is described as calming.15 g/kg Avoid during pregnancy owing to the presence of thujone. as it contains no menthol. It is used as an an ointment for pruritis. 1-octen-3-yl acetate <0. 8000ppm in flavours. India see Nardostachys grandiflora Oil [Syn: Nardostachys jatamansi ] Styrax Benzoin (Benzoin) Extract Styrax benzoin exudate Oral-Rat 3700.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000. Externally. If large amounts of any preparation containing tansy are taken. American Indians used the plant to cause abortion. South Africa no data . Thuja Thuja occidentalis 0. sedating.00 mg/kg Acute Toxicity LD50/LC50 . Toxicity class D acute oral. C.00 1% in fragrances.60 3. It was often referred to in old herbals as 'gum benzoin'.

8024-12-2) France/Spain Verbena Lippia citriodora fresh herb Vetiver Vetiveria zizanioides root >5. 100ppm in flavours. antifungal. the essential oil is sedating and ideal in massage oil or bath.00 mg/kg >5. Traditionally used in men's toiletries. Encourages sleep and restfulness. Dermal Irritation class C. Dermal Sensitisation rated as class D (not sensitisers) Red Thyme 8%. Drug and Cosmetic Act. . The oil is analgesic. Nepal Vanilla Vanilla planifolia pod 4. Acute Dermal Toxicity rates as C-D (not hazardous).F] 1400.00 mg/kg Gavage-Mouse [sex: M] 1000. The ester is potentially the most toxic salicylate for infants and children.00 (8%). Essential Oil Safety Data Manual. Madagascar An essential oil (oil of wintergreen' obtained from the leaves contains methyl salicylate. e. wild thyme not >5.20 % Sensitizer. Acute Oral Toxicity rates as C (relatively safe). emmenagogue.37 Vanilla is comforting. sultry almost smoky aroma. Inhaled. It is antimicrobial. Dermal sensitisation class D >5. 30ppm in flavours.F] 1580. The essential oil is found to be useful for overcoming fatigue and physical weakness after illness. It may be taken internmally.00 mg/kg Gavage-Rabbit 2600. Thymol Thymus zygis flowering plant 2.00mg/kg IFRA restricted components: (E)-2-hexen-1-al trace to <0.00 mg/kg Gavage-Rat [sex: M] 3830. The fragrance relaxes and softens anger.20 % Sensitizer 1% in fragrances Oral-Rats (root oil) LD50: 15g/kg (relatively safe) Valerian root and its constituent valepotriates are apparently nontoxic. Abortifacient rating as class B (risk) use only with great caution in pregnancy.00 Skin-Rat >2000.00 mg/kg Gavage-Rat [sex: M. Gavage-Rat [sex: M. section 201 (s). relieves depression and is an excellent decongestant and cold treatment. (E)-2-hexen-1-al trace to <0. diuretic. thyme oil uplifts the spirit.g.00 mg/kg Gavage-Rat [sex: M. It is also considered to be an aphrodisiac by many.F] 3925. The oil has a very characteristic musty odour.Thyme Thymus vulgaris flowering plant 2.84 8 % solution: no irritation or sensitization in human studies Oral-Rat 2840.F] 3300. New Hebrides The alternative name is Lippia citriodora and this essential oil should not be used as a fragrance ingredient according to the latest legislation Council Directive 76/768/EEC (CAS No.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000. No observable cytotoxicity seems that when there is a more direct contact between valepotriates and tissues.00 mg/kg Oral-Rat [sex: M. the material has been assessed under the provisions of the Federal Food.5 g/kg bodyweight. which is closely related to aspirin and is anti-inflammatory.F] 1580. especially during difficult times.10 % Sensitizer 2% in fragrances.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg Subcutaneous-Rat 1500.10 % Sensitizer >5. oral administration. geraniol <0.50 % Sensitizer.00 mg/kg Gavage-Guineapig [sex: M. Spain Nepal Valerian Valeriana officinalis >5.00 2% in fragrances.C-Guinea-pig 1500mg/kg (MLD) Oral-Rabbit 1300mg/kg Oral-Rabbit 2800mg/kg Oral-Dog 2100mg/kg The adult human oral LD50 is estimated at 0. the A rated should be used with great caution if applied to any of the orifices of the body.00 tested. or used in a bath.00 mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Rat 1160. It is used for joint pain.84 Thyme. calming and soothing.00 Very soothing and relaxing. antibacterial. inhalation. to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions of use. douches or enemas.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5010. insomnia) based on nervousness. A gum derived from turpentine was used in a traditional Chinese medicine to relieve the pain of toothache. Mucous membrane Irritation rated as class A (severely irritant). Spain Turpentine Pinus roxburghii resin no data no data IP-Mouse (dry extract root): 3300mg/kg Low toxicity: IP-Mouse extract: 360-400mg/kg LD50 for each of the triesters >4. carminative.00 mg/kg see Thymus vulgaris Turpentine and its related products have a long history of medicinal use. Methyl Salicylate values Oral-Mouse 1110mg/kg Oral-Rat 887mg/kg Oral-Rat 1250mg/kg Oral-Guinea-pig 700mg/kg (MLD) Oral-Guinea-pig 1060mg/kg S. where they have been employed as topical counterirritants for the treatment of rheumatic disorders and muscle pain. calms the nerves during sleep.6g/kg. Dermal Irritation rated as class B (irritant). backache and sciatica in a hot bath. antiviral and is strongly germicidal.00 mg/kg Gavage-Rat [sex: M. IFRA restricted components:eugenol trace to <0.00 Wintergreen Gaultheria procumbens 1. frustration and irritability when used in massage oils. Reaction: Moderate Toxicity class D acute oral. Not in the warning list for pregnancy. as 4 ml can be fatal 3% in fragrances 2.Standard Draixze Test Rabbit Skin: Dose: 500 mg/24h. stimulant and tonic. astringent. Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant).00 mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Mouse 475.00 mg/kg IFRA restricted components: citronellol <0. aromatic. France. Deeply relaxing.F] 3978.00 mg/kg Oral-Rat 4370. Photosensitisation not reported Oral-Rat 2840. by the Expert Committee of the USA Flavour and Extract manufacturer’s Association (FEMA). anti-inflammatory.80 The pure distilled essential oil is toxic in large doses A scented grass with a woody.g. Valerian root has approval status by the German Commission E for restlessness and sleeping disorders (e.40 Prohibited IFRA Oral-Rat LD50: >5 gm/kg Dermal-Rabbit LD50: >5 gm/kg Irritation Skin . As a food flavouring additive.

00 % Sensitizer 10% in fragrances.40 % Sensitizer eugenol <0.00 mg/kg IFRA critical Effect: Sensitization IFRA other specification: <20 mmoles / L of peroxides IFRA restricted components: benzyl alcohol <3.50 % Sensitizer benzyl benzoate <9. Dermal Irritation class C. Fragrant Wormseed Wormwood Gaultheria fragrantissima Chenopodium ambrosioides Artemisia absinthium leaves Ylang Ylang Zedoary Cananga odorata Curcuma zedoaria no data no data see Gaultheria procumbens Oral LD50: 0. Nepal Ylang Ylang is extremely effective in calming and bringing about a sense of relaxation. Indian Ocean .96g/kg leaves / flowering tops 0." The scent is very sensual.00 for pregnancy bark no data no data 1% in fragrances It has been described as a fresh.25g/kg Oral LD50: 0.25% of an essential oil. It is said to relax facial muscles. cleansing minty aroma.50 % Sensitizer isoeugenol <0.00 >5. 25ppm in flavours. anxiety and low self-esteem. Rated safe during pregnancy.00 % Sensitizer (E)-cinnamyl alcohol <0. The leaves yield around 1.96 Not advised for topical use Oral-Rat >5000.Wintergreen.00 % Sensitizer benzyl salicylate <3. The oil is employed in a rub used externally for rheumatic and muscular pains and to flavour dental preparations. but the smell is better known as the characteristic smell of Germolene and the typical smell of many embrocations. Dermal sensitisation class D (10%). anger. balances equilibrium.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000. Mucous Membrane C-D (non-irritant). as a hair oil and medicinally. said to help with sexual disabilities and frigidity and has been used traditionally to balance heart function. Used for its muscle relaxing and decongestant properties. this is a wintergreen substitute and it is used in perfumery. It is mentally relaxing and soothing. It is useful in treating insomnia. It is antispasmodic. Not in the warning list flower >5. Toxicity class D acute oral. It is the methyl salicylate that gives it the characteristic smell. and a massage with ylang-ylang helps to ease tension headaches.50 % Sensitizer farnesol <3. Ylangylang in the Malayan language means "flower of flowers. sweet and reminiscent of almonds.

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