NTU50235100

PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCERS
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NTU50235100

•Introduction •Electrostatics •Piezoelectricity •Signal conditioning
Pierre and Jacques Curie (1880)

•Applications
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NTU50235100

Introduction
•1880 Pierre and Jacques Curie: discovered the piezoelectric effect - mechanical stress induces surface electric charges •1881 Lippman: predicted the converse piezoelectric effect - electric field induces mechanical deformation •Lord Kelvin, Pockels, Duhem, Voigt, R. E. Gibbs, Max Born: established theories and models •Langevin: device for detecting submarines in World War I •1917 A. M. Nicolson: loud speakers, microphones, phonograph pickups, crystal oscillator •1921 Cady: Quartz crystal oscillators (GT cut) •1942 W. P. Mason: frequency filters •1950s~1960s R. D. Mindlin, H. F. Tiersten: vibration of piezoelectric plates
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Eve

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• Comparison of sensing principles
Strain Sensitivity (V/µ*) 5.0 Span to threshold ratio 100.000.000

Principle

Threshold (µ*)

Piezoelectric

0.00001

Piezoresistive

0.0001

0.0001

2.500.000

Inductive

0.001

0.0005

2.000.000

Capacitive

0.005

0.0001

750.000

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Applications
High-voltage sources
Spark source Transformer

Sensors
Microphone Contact microphone Microbalance Accelerometer Hydrophone

Actuators
Loudspeaker Ultrasonic Acousto-optic modulator Inkjet head Fuel injector

Frequency standard
Quartz resonator
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Electrostatics
•Electric field
F = qE

F: force q: charge E: electric field

- Coulomb’s law
F = kq1q2 x1 − x 2 x1 − x 2
3

- Electric field of a point charge
E = kq1 x − x1 x − x1
3

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- Electric field due to a charge density
E = k ∫ ρ (x′) x − x′ x − x′
−7 2
3

ρ ( x)

dx ′
9⎛

N ⋅ m2 ⎞ k≡ = 10 c = 8.988 × 10 ⎜ 2⎟ 4πε 0 ⎝ Coul ⎠ 1

ε 0 = 8.8542 × 10

−12 ⎛

Coul 2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ : dielectric constant in vacuum ⎝ N ⋅ m2 ⎠

- Gauss’s law
∫ E ⋅ nds =
1

ε0

∫V ρ (x)dx

∇⋅E =

ρ ε0
1

- Scalar potential
E = −∇ϕ

,

ϕ (x) =

4πε 0 ∫ x − x ′

ρ (x′)

dx ′

,

∇×E=0

ϕ : electrostatic potential
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- Poisson and Laplace equations
∇⋅E =

ρ ε0 ρ ε0
In regions of space where there is no charge density
∇ 2ϕ = 0 : Laplace equation

∇ ⋅ ( −∇ϕ ) = ∇ 2ϕ = −

ρ : Poisson equation ε0

- Boundary conditions
Dirichlet B.C. Neumann B.C.

ϕ

specified

∂ϕ specified ∂n

- Discontinuities in the field and potential
( E2 − E1 ) ⋅ n =

σ ε0

;

ϕ1 = ϕ 2

σ : surface - charge density ( Coul/m2 )
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- Conductors
Equipotential region, equipotential surface
E1 = 0 ; E 2 = −∇ϕ ∇ϕ ⋅ n =

∂ϕ ∂ϕ σ ; =− ∂n ∂n ε0

- Parallel-plate condenser
ϕ1 − ϕ 2 = V , V : " voltage" Qd σ V = Ed = d = A ε0 ε0 Q Aε 0
C= V = d

Coul ⎞ ⎛ , C: capatance ⎜ Farad= ⎟ ⎝ Volt ⎠

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- Electric dipole
p = qd : dipole moment p=qd , d: points from − q to +q

ϕ (R ) =

1 p⋅R : dipole potential 4πε 0 R 3

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- Potential for lump of charges
Far field approximation, di << R

ϕ (R ) =

1 ⎛ Q p⋅R ⎞ ⎜ + 3 +L⎟ ⎠ 4πε 0 ⎝ R R

Q = ∑ qi ; p = ∑ qi di

For a neutral object, Q = 0

ϕ (R ) =

1 p⋅R : dipole potential 4πε 0 R 3

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- Dielectrics
V= C=

σ ( d − b) ε0 ε0 A

d (1 − b / d )

The capacitance is increased.

Faraday discovered that the capacitance ⇒ is increased when an insulator is put between the plates.

The net charge inside the surface must be lower than it woiuld be without the dielectric.

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- The polarization vector P
Q=0 p=0
Q=0 pi ≠ 0

∑ pi = 0

Q=0 p≠0

Q=0 pi ≠ 0

∑ pi ≠ 0

∑ pi Polarization P = Δv

: dipole moment per unit volume (or Pi = aij E j for anisotropic materials)
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If the field is not too enormous P ∝ E
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- Polarization charges
p=ql

: dipole moment per molecule

l : effective movement of positive charges w.r.t. negative charges

q: number of positive charges per molecule number of molecules N= unit volume
Nq l ⋅ d S = N p ⋅ d S = P ⋅ d S : positive charges leave through dS

1. Surface polarization charge density

σp =

P ⋅ dS = n ⋅ P : surface polarization charge density dS

On the interface of two materials

σ p = n ⋅ ( P1 − P2 )
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2. Polarization charge density

∫ P ⋅ dS

: total positive charges leave volume V = net negative charges in volume V = − ∫V ρ p dV

ρ p : polarization charge density

∫ P ⋅ d S + ∫V ρ p dV = 0 ∫V (∇ ⋅ P + ρ p )dV = 0
ρ p = −∇ ⋅ P

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- Inside dielectric
∇⋅E =

ρ f + ρp ε0

,

ρ f : free charge density

ε 0∇ ⋅ E = ρ f + ρ p = ρ f − ∇ ⋅ P
or
∇ ⋅ ( ε 0E + P ) = ρ f

Define “electric displacement”
D = ε 0E + P

Governing equations
∇⋅D = ρf
∇×E=0
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and

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- Constitutive equation
Isotropic materials
P = χ e ε 0E D = (1 + χ e )ε 0E = ε r ε 0E = ε E

Anisotropic materials
Pi = ε 0 χij E j
Di = ε 0 (δ ij + χ ij ) E j = ε ij E j
Di = ε ij E j = − ε ijϕ , j

χe ε0 εr ε

: susceptibility : permittivity of empty space : dielectric constant (relative permittivity) : permittivity

Governing equation
Di ,i = ρ f

εijϕ , ji = − ρ f

- Boundary conditions
σ f +σp ( E 2 − E1 ) ⋅ n = ε0 ε 0 ( E 2 − E1 ) ⋅ n = σ f + (P1 − P2 ) ⋅ n
(D 2 − D1 ) ⋅ n = σ f

Boundary condition
( Di ni ) 2 − ( Di ni )1 = σ f (εijϕ , j ni )1 − (εijϕ , j ni ) 2 = σ f

ε1
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∂ϕ1 ∂ϕ − ε2 2 = σ f ∂n ∂n

and and

ϕ1 = ϕ 2

ϕ1 = ϕ 2
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NTU50235100

Piezoelectricity

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• Quartz

Photo Copyright © 2000 by John H. Betts.

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Potential is created Quartz in rest state

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Force is applied

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Temperature effect

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•Ferroelectric material: PZT
PbTiO3, PbZrO3

PZT unit cell above the Curie temperature

PZT unit cell below the Curie temperature

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Poling of piezoelectric ceramic

Electric dipoles in domains: (1) unpoled ferroelectric ceramic, (2) during and (3) after poling
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• Constitutive equations
E Tij = cijkl Skl − ekij E k S Di = eikl Skl + εij E j

Tij : stress Skl : strain
D Tij = cijkl Skl − hkij Dk S Ei = − hikl Skl + βik Dk

• Alternate forms of constitutive equations E D Sij = sijkl Tkl + d kij E k Sij = sijkl Tkl + g kij Dk
T Di = dikl Tkl + εik E k
T Ei = − gikl Tkl + βik Dk

• Governing equations
Tij , i = ρ u j && Di ,i = 0

E cijkl uk ,li + ekijϕ ,ki = ρ u j && S ekij ui , jk − εij ϕ ,ij = 0

• Boundary conditions For a surface of discontinuity
ni TijI = ni TijII u Ij = u II j ni DiI = ni DiII
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ni Tij = 0 for a traction free surface uj = 0 for a fixed surface ni Di = 0 at an air-dielectric interface ϕ =0 short-circuited electrodes
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ϕ I = ϕ II

NTU50235100

Material constants for PZT

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NTU50235100

Signal Conditioning
• Piezoelectric transducers
g33 ≡ d 33 ≡ e /t field produced in direction 3 = 0 stress applied in direction 3 f i / ( wl )
charge generated in direction 3 Q = fi force applied in direction 3

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Charge generated by the crystal
q = Kq xi

,

xi :deflection

Current generated by the crystal dq dx icr = = Kq i dt dt
icr = iC + i R

eo = eC

∫ iC dt = ∫ (icr − iR )dt =
C C

de dx e C ⎛ o ⎞ = icr − iR = Kq ⎛ i ⎞ − o ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎠ R

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Frequency response function
xi = X i exp(iω t )
eo = Vo exp(iω t )

( K q / C )i ω iτω ( Kq / C ) V0 = = X i iω + (1 / CR ) iτω + 1

τ = CR
Step response
xi = A for 0 < t < T xi = 0 for T < t eo =
eo =

Kq A C

exp( − t / τ )

0< t < T
T< t

Kq A C

[exp( − T / τ ) − 1]exp[ − ( t − T ) / τ ]

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Use series resistor - sacrifices sensitivity

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• Charge Amplifiers

Output voltage change

− Vc ΔC Δvo = Cf
or Sensor

− ΔQ Δvo = Cf
Lower cutoff frequency (-3dB)

f cp1

1 = 2πR f C f
1 = 2πR1C
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Upper cutoff frequency (-3dB)

f cp 2
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Example 1: Piezoelectric Transducer Charge Amplifier

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Spice simulation 1

Sensor

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Spice simulation 2

Sensor

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Example 2

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Example 3

Alessandro Gandelli & Roberto Ottoboni, 1993
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• Impedance converter

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Applications
• Piezoelectric accelerometers

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Model (Single axis or triaxial) Range Sensitivity Frequency Range Resolution, Threshold Transverse Sensitivity Non linearity Shock Temp. coef. of sensitivity Operating temperature range Housing/Base Sealing Ground isolation Mass Connector Diameter Height Mounting Mounting thread 11/29 mm mm g g pC/g Hz mgrms % % FSO g %/°C °C

Single axis linear ±2000 -10.000 5...10000 1 1.5 ±1 5000 0.13 -70...250 stainless steel hermetic (IP68) No 14.5 10-32 neg. 16 12.19 stud/wax 10-32 UNF x 3,3
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NTU50235100

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• Quartz torque sensor
The torque sensor consists of two steel disks, between which a ring is fitted which contains several shear-sensitive quartz plates. The crystal axes of the quartz plates are oriented tangentially to the peripheral direction and therefore yield a charge exactly proportional to the applied torque.

Application examples • Adjusting torques of pneumatic screw-drivers • Testing of screw connections • Calibration measurements of manual torque wrenches • Testing torsion of springs • Measurements of friction clutches • Measuring starting torques, variations in synchronization and torsional vibrations of fractional horsepower and stepping motors. • Testing of rotary switch
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The torque sensor must be mounted under elastic preload as the torque must be transmitted by static friction onto the front parts of the sensor.

Testing of rotary switch
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• Quartz Load Washers
The force to be measured acts through the cover and base of the tightly welded steel housing on the quartz sensing elements. Quartz yields an electric charge proportional to the mechanical load. Application examples • forces in spot welding • forces in presses • force variations in bolted connections under high static preload • shock and fatigue resistance • cutting and forming forces • forces in railroad brakes • impact forces

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Mounting The load washers must be installed between two plane-parallel, rigid and fine-machined (preferably ground) faces. This is necessary to achieve a good load distribution on one hand and a wide frequency response on the other hand. The load washers should always be installed under preload.

Preloading screw

Centering clip

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• 3-Component Quartz Crash Force Elements

Specification
Measuring Range Fx Fy, Fz Non linearity Natural Frequency fnx fny, fnz Operating temperature range Sealing kN kN % FSO kHz kHz °C 0...500 ±100 <±0.5 ≈4 ≈1.7 0...50 IP65

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Application

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Piezoelectric pressure sensors
Specification
Type 6005 Measuring range Overload Sensitivity Natural Frequency Non linearity Operating temperature range Acceleration sensitivity Thread Cooling Diameter Length Connector mm mm bar bar pC/bar kHz % FSO °C bar/g 0...1000 1500.0 10 ≈140 <±0.8 -196...200 <0.001 Without thread not cooled 5.5 6 M4x0,35 neg.

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• Dynamometer
- Cutting force measurement
Calibration Measuring Range Fx, Fy Fz Mz Speed Sensitivity Fx, Fy Fz Mz Natural Frequency Operating temperature range Diameter Height Mass Connection Sealing kN kN N·m 1/min mV/N mV/N mV/N· m kHz °C mm mm kg calibrated ±20 ±30 ±1100 max.5000 ≈-0.5 ≈-0.33 ≈9 ≈1 0...60 156 55 7.5 Non-contacting welded/epoxy (IP67)

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• Torque

Wheel-Sensor

Model Measuring Range Natural Frequency Mass Maximum r.p.m. Crosstalk Offset/Variation Non linearity Diameter Hysteresis Sealing Fy → My Fz → My My fny kN·m kHz kg 1/min N·m/kN N·m/kN % FSO mm % FSO

Piezoelectric ±3 1.1 Natural Frequency fny: free 4.4 2200 Max. speed ≈250 km/h <±2 <±2 <±1 289 ≤1 IP65

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• Hydrophone

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