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Physics 151

Lecture 5

Central Force Problem (Chapter 3)

**What We Did Last Time
**

**Introduced Hamilton’s Principle
**

Action integral is stationary for the actual path Derived Lagrange’s Equations Used calculus of variation Generalized (conjugate) momentum Symmetry – Invariance – Momentum conservation One more thing to cover …

**Discussed conservation laws
**

**We are almost done with the basic concepts
**

Goals for Today Energy conservation Define energy function Subtle difference from the Newtonian version Motion of a particle under a central force Simplify the problem using angular momentum conservation Use energy conservation Distinguish bounded/unbounded orbits Central force problem Å First application Discuss qualitative behavior of the solution Actual solution Æ Thursday .

Energy Conservation Consider time derivative of Lagrangian j ∂L . t ) dL(q. t ) Define this as energy function h(q. q Conserved if Lagrangian does not depend explicitly on t . q ∂L dq j ∂L dq =∑ +∑ + j dt dt ∂t j ∂q j dt j ∂q ∂L d ⎛ ∂L Using Lagrange’s equation = ⎜ ⎜ ∂q ∂ q dt j ⎝ j one can derive ⎞ ∂L ∂L d ⎛ j q − L⎟ + =0 ⎜ ∑ ⎟ ∂t j dt ⎜ ∂q ⎝ j ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ .

t ) ≡ ∑ q j h( q.“Energy” Function? . q j ∂L −L j ∂q Does energy function represent the total energy? Let’s try an easy example first Single particle moving along x axis 2 mx L= − V ( x) 2 2 − L h = mx 2 mx = + V ( x) = T + V 2 Total energy How general is this? .

t ) + L1 (q. t ) ≡ ∑ q j h( q. t ) = L0 (q. q j ∂L −L j ∂q Suppose L can be written as . q . t ) + L2 (q. q . t ) L ( q.Energy Function . q True in most cases of interest ∂L0 =0 j ∂q ∂L1 j q = L1 ∑ j ∂q j 2nd order in q 1st order in q ∂L2 j q = 2 L2 ∑ j ∂q j Derivatives satisfy Euler’s theorem ∂L . t ) ≡ ∑ q j h( q. q − L = L2 − L0 j ∂q j .

Energy Function . q L = T −V Energy function equals to the total energy T + V if T = L2 and V = − L0 1st condition is satisfied if transformation from ri to qj is time-independent 2nd condition holds if the potential is velocity-independent No frictions Æ Friction would dissipate energy Let’s look into the 1st condition . t ) = L2 − L0 h( q.

t ) because dri ∂ri ∂ri =∑ qj + ∂t dt j ∂q j .k i No q mi 2 i T =∑ r 2 i ri = ri (q1 .. k ∂q j ∂qk j .Kinetic Energy dri ∂ri j q =∑ Using the chain rule dt j ∂q j mi 2 mi ri = ∑ ∑ 2 2 i i ∂ri ∂ri mi ∂ri ∂ri ⋅ q j qk = ∑ q j qk ∑ ⋅ ∑ 2 ∂q j ∂qk j ........ qn . qn ) Time-independent 2nd order homogeneous This wouldn’t work if ri = ri (q1 .

q j ∂q j Energy function equals to the total energy if Constraints are time-independent Æ Kinetic energy T is 2nd order homogeneous function of the velocities Potential V is velocity-independent Lagrangian does not depend explicitly on time Energy function is conserved if These are restatement of the energy conservation theorem in a more general framework Conditions are clearly defined .Energy Conservation ∂L . t ) ≡ ∑ q j −L h( q.

Central Force Problem Consider a particle under a central force Force F parallel to r V is function of |r| if F is central F m Assume F is conservative F = −∇V (r ) O r Such systems are quite common Planet around the Sun Satellite around the Earth Electron around a nucleus These examples assume the body at the center is heavy and does not move .

Two-Body Problem Consider two particles without external force r1 and r2 relative to center of mass 2 2 2 mr (m1 + m2 )R L= + ∑ i i − V (r ) 2 2 i =1 m1 R Lagrangian is O r1 CoM r m2 2 Motion of CoM Motion of particles around CoM Potential is function of |r| = |r2 – r1| Strong law of action and reaction m2 r1 = − r (m1 + m2 ) m1 r2 = r (m1 + m2 ) i2 1 m1m2 mi r 2 r = ∑ 2 2 (m1 + m2 ) i =1 2 .

Two-Body Æ Central Force 2 1 mm (m1 + m2 )R 1 2 2 − V (r ) L= + r 2 2 (m1 + m2 ) m1 r R CoM m2 R is cyclic CoM moves at a constant velocity Move O to CoM and forget about it O L= 1 m1m2 2 − V (r ) r 2 (m1 + m2 ) Relative motion of two particles is identical to the motion of one particle in a central-force potential 1 1 1 m1m2 = + Reduced mass µ = or µ m1 m2 (m1 + m2 ) .

Hydrogen and Positronium Positronium is a bound state of a positron and an electron e− e+ e− p q2 V (r ) = − r Similar to hydrogen except m(p) >> m(e+) Potential V(r) is identical Turn them into central force problem me me me µ positronium = = (me + me ) 2 m p me µ hydrogen = ≈ me ( m p + me ) Spectrum of positronium identical to hydrogen with me Æ me/2 .

θ ) Azimuth Zenith = 1/2π Angular momentum is conserved L = r × p = const Choose polar coordinates L O r .θ .ψ ) = r (r .Spherical Symmetry Central-force system is spherically symmetric It can be rotated around any axis through the origin 2 ) − V (r ) doesn’t depend on the Lagrangian L = T (r direction Direction of L is fixed r ⊥ L by definition Æ r is always in a plane Polar axis = direction of L r = r ( r .

ψ ) m 2 2 2 2 2 2 ) − V (r ) + r sin ψθ + r ψ L = T − V = (r 2 θ is cyclic. but ψ is not d ⎛ ∂L ⎞ ∂L 2 2 ) = 0 − = mr ( ψ − sin ψ cos ψθ ⎜ ⎟ dt ⎝ ∂ψ ⎠ ∂ψ We can choose the polar axis so that the initial condition is =0 ψ = π 2 . We can forget about it .θ .More Formally Lagrangian in polar coordinates r = r (r .ψ 2nd term vanishes = 0 ψ Now ψ is constant.

Conjugate momentum pθ conserves ∂L Magnitude of pθ = = mr 2θ = const ≡ l angular momentum ∂θ Alternatively dr dA 1 2 Areal velocity = r θ = const dt 2 Kepler’s 2nd law True for any central force dA .Angular Momentum m 2 2 2 + r θ ) − V (r ) L = T − V = (r 2 θ is cyclic.

But we also know what we’ll get by integrating this .Radial Motion d ∂V ( r ) 2 (mr ) − mrθ + =0 Lagrange’s equation for r Æ ∂r dt Derivative of V is the force ∂V ( r ) = mrθ 2 + f (r ) mr f (r ) = − ∂r Centrifugal force m 2 2 2 + r θ ) − V (r ) L = T − V = (r 2 Central force Using the angular momentum l l = mr 2θ l2 = mr + f (r ) 3 mr We know how to integrate this.

Energy Conservation m 2 2 2 m 2 1 l2 + r θ ) + V (r ) = r + E = T + V = (r + V (r ) = const 2 2 2 2 mr = r 2⎛ l2 ⎞ ⎜ E − V (r ) − ⎟ m⎝ 2mr 2 ⎠ 1st order differential equation of r NB: This never goes negative One can solve this (in principle) by t r dr t = ∫ dt = ∫ = t (r ) 0 r0 l2 ⎞ 2⎛ ⎜ E − V (r ) − ⎟ m⎝ 2mr 2 ⎠ Then invert t(r) Æ r(t) l Then calculate θ(t) by integrating θ = mr 2 Done! (?) .

Degrees of Freedom A particle has 3 degrees of freedom Eqn of motion is 2nd order differential Æ 6 constants By saying “time-derivative equals zero” Left with 2 constants of integration = r0 and θ0 Each conservation law reduces one differentiation We used L and E Æ 4 conserved quantities We don’t have to use conservation laws It’s just easier than solving all of Lagrange’s equations .

Qualitative Behavior Integrating the radial motion 2⎛ l2 ⎞ = r E − V (r ) − ⎜ ⎟ isn’t always easy m⎝ 2mr 2 ⎠ More often impossible… You can still tell general behavior by looking at l2 Quasi potential including V ′(r ) ≡ V ( r ) + the centrifugal force 2mr 2 Energy E is conserved. and E – V’ must be positive 2 2 mr mr E > V ′(r ) E= + V ′(r ) = E − V ′(r ) > 0 2 2 Plot V’(r) and see how it intersects with E .

Inverse-Square Force Consider an attractive 1/r2 force k k f (r ) = − 2 V (r ) = − r r Gravity or electrostatic force k l2 V ′(r ) = − + r 2mr 2 1/r2 force dominates at large r Centrifugal force dominates at small r A dip forms in the middle l2 2mr 2 V ′(r ) k − r r .

Unbounded Motion Take V’ similar to 1/r2 case V ′(r ) E1 1 2 mr 2 Only general features are relevant Particle can go infinitely far E = E1 Æ r > rmin E1 = V ′(rmin ) E2 Arrive from r = ∞ r E3 E =V′ Turning point =0 r A 1/r2 force would make a hyperbola Go toward r = ∞ .

(This one isn’t) A 1/r2 force would make an ellipse .Bounded Motion E = E2 Æ rmin < r < rmax V ′(r ) E1 E2 E3 1 2 mr 2 Particle is confined between two circles Goes back and forth between two radii r Orbit may or may not be closed.

bounded and circular motion depends on the general shape of V’ Not on the details (1/r2 or otherwise) .Circular Motion E = E3 Æ r = r0 (fixed) V ′(r ) E1 E2 r E3 r0 Only one radius is allowed Stays on a circle E = V ′(r0 ) =0 r r = const = r0 Classification into unbounded.

depending on the initial r l2 2mr 2 V′ E r V .Another Example a V =− 3 r 3a f =− 4 r a l2 V′ = − 3 + 2mr 2 r Attractive r-4 force V’ has a bump Particle with energy E may be either bounded or unbounded.

but it is unstable E r stable unstable Initial condition must be exactly = 0 and r = r0 r E d 2V ′ Stable circular orbit requires >0 2 dr r0 r .Stable Circular Orbit Circular orbit occurs at the bottom of a dip of V’ 2 mr = E −V ′ = 0 2 dV ′ = − mr =0 dr r = const Top of a bump works in theory.

Power Law Force dV ′ l2 = − f (r0 ) − 3 = 0 dr r = r0 mr0 df dr 0 l2 V ′( r ) ≡ V ( r ) + 2mr 2 d 2V ′ df =− 2 dr r = r dr 3l 2 + 4 >0 mr0 r = r0 <− r = r0 3 f (r0 ) r0 Suppose the force has a form f = −kr n k > 0 for attractive force Condition for stable circular orbit is − knr0n −1 < 3kr0n −1 n > −3 Power-law forces with n > –3 can make stable circular orbit .

and circular orbits Condition for stable circular orbits Next step: Can we actually solve for the orbit? .Summary Started discussing Central Force Problems Reduced 2-body problem into central force problem Used angular momentum conservation Problem is reduced to one equation l2 = + f (r ) mr 3 mr l2 Qualitative behavior depends on V ′( r ) ≡ V ( r ) + 2mr 2 Unbounded. bounded.

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