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Drainage

Drainage

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Hydrologic cycle

Drainage and Design Flood

- Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia

- Factors influencing volume and rate of runoff are soil, topography

and vegetation characteristics

- Hydrological Procedure: non-urban situations e.g.: dam, river engineering

Flash floods in Malaysia

Johor, Jan 2007

Flash floods in Malaysia

Kota Tinggi, April 2007

Flash floods in Malaysia

Kuala Lumpur, 2008

Flash floods in Malaysia

Kuala Lumpur, 2008

Flash floods in Malaysia

- Procedures and guidelines for urban drainage system designs in

Malaysia

Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia

(MSMA - Manual Saliran Mesra Alam)

- Published by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia (DID)

in 2000

- Reduce drainage-related issues such as flash flood, excessive sediment

outflow and water quality deterioration generated by any land opening

activities in the development project boundaries

- All urban drainage systems design should be complied to the Urban

Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA - Manual Saliran

Mesra Alam)

Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia

(MSMA - Manual Saliran Mesra Alam)

- 48 chapters

www.msmam.com

- 20 volumes

MSMA - Control at Source

Estimation of Peak Flow for a Single Sub-catchment using Rational method

Post-development peak flow s Pre-development peak flow

from the outlet point of the site to the downstream public drainage system or receiving water

Design Fundamentals (Volume 4 MSMAM)

- Hydrologic events are described by AEP or ARI

- AEP - Annual Exceedance Probability P

- probability an event of specified magnitude, or volume and

duration, will be exceeded in a time period

- ARI - Average Recurrence Interval T

r

- average length of time between events that have the same

magnitude, or volume and duration.

Example:

A flood with a discharge of 50 m

3

/s may have an AEP of 0.01, that is on

the average there is a 1% chance that a flow of 50 m

3

/s will be equalled to

or exceeded in any year.

The ARI is

years 100

01 0

1 1

= = =

. P

T

r

Hence, a 1% AEP has an ARI of 100 years

Choosing a design / event ARI (Volume 2 MSMAM)

- Minor system - collect and convey runoff from relatively frequent

storm events to minimise inconvenience and nuisance flooding.

- Major system - safely convey runoff not collected by the minor

drainage system to waterways or rivers. Major system must protect

the community from the consequences of large, reasonably rare

events, which could cause severe flood damage, injury and even loss

of life.

- Note: The definition of major or minor system does not refer to the

size of the drains.

o

RS C V = - Chezy:

2

1

3

2

1

o

S R

n

V =

- Manning:

Design Rainfall (Volume 4 MSMAM)

p A c

I F I =

- For catchment greater than 10 km

2

, areal reduction factor is required in

the calculation of the design rainfall using the IDF curve.

where,

I

c

= average rainfall over the catchment

F

A

= areal reduction factor

I

p

= point rainfall intensity

- DID has published the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curve in 1991

for 26 and 16 urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia,

respectively (HP No. 26).

- The IDF curves is represented by the following polynomial expression:

where,

R

I

t

= the average rainfall intensity (mm/hr) for ARI and duration t

R = average return interval (years)

t = duration (minutes)

a to d = fitting constants dependent on ARI

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

3 2

ln ln ln ln t d t c t b a I

t

R

+ + + = for 30 s t s 1000 mins

Design Rainfall (Volume 4 MSMAM)

- The design rainfall depth P

d

for a short duration d (minutes) is given by,

where,

P

30

, P

60

= 30-minute and 60-minute duration rainfall depths, respectively

F

D

= adjustment factor for storm duration

( )

30 60 30

P P F P P

D d

= for t < 30 mins

d

P

I

d

=

where,

P

d

= rainfall depth in mm

d = rainfall duration in hours

- Rainfall intensity I

Example 1: Calculation of 5-minute duration rainfalls

Calculate the 5-minute duration, 20-year ARI rainfall intensity for use in a roof

design in Kuala Lumpur.

Solution:

( )

30 60 30

P P F P P

D d

= for t < 30 mins

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

3 2

ln ln ln ln t d t c t b a I

t

R

+ + + = for 30 s t s 1000 mins

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

3 2

30

20

30 ln 0166 0 30 ln 2796 0 30 ln 7533 0 9781 4 ln . . . . I + + =

For Kuala Lumpur, a = 4.9781, b = 0.7533, c=0.2796, d = 0.0166

mm/hr 4 142

30

20

. I =

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

3 2

60

20

60 ln 0166 0 60 ln 2796 0 60 ln 7533 0 9781 4 ln . . . . I + + =

mm/hr 3 91

60

20

. I =

mm 71.2 0.5 mm/hr 4 142

30

20

= = . P

mm 3 91

60

20

. P =

For Kuala Lumpur, P

24h

~ 100 mm

F

D

= 2.08

( )

30 60 30 5

P P F P P

D

=

( ) 2 71 3 91 08 2 2 71 . . . . =

mm 4 29. =

d

P

I

5

20

5

20

=

60 5

4 29.

=

mm/hr 7 352. =

Time of Concentration

The time of concentration is the flow travel time from the most hydraulically

remote point in the contributing catchment area to the point under study.

The time of concentration t

c

is often considered to be the sum of the time of

travel to an inlet plus the time of travel in the stormwater conveyance system.

d o c

t t t + = Time of concentration

where,

t

o

= overland flow or sheet flow travel time (minutes)

t

d

= conveyance system flow travel time (minutes)

Time of overland sheet flow t

o

2

1

3

1

107

S

L n

t

o

=

Friend's formula:

where,

t

o

= overland sheet flow travel time (minutes)

L = overland sheet flow path length (m)

n = Manning's roughness value for the surface

S = slope of overland surface (%)

For multiple segments,

Time of channel / pipe flow t

d

For small area, A s 0.4 hectare:

Rational method

- Rational method is applicable for catchment area A s 80 hectares

Variation of subcatchment conditions

Example 2: Rational method calculation (Volume 5 MSMAM)

Determine the design peak flow generated from a minor drainage of medium

density residential area of 10 hectares in Kuala Lumpur. Assume 80 m of

overland flow followed by 400 m of flow in an open drain. Catchment area

average slope = 0.5%. The catchment is shown in Figure below.

Figure. Catchment area

Rational method

suitable for catchment

area < 80 hectares

Estimation of Peak Flow for a Single Sub-catchment using Rational method

Post-development peak flow s Pre-development peak flow

from the outlet point of the site to the downstream public drainage system or receiving water

Solution:

1. Design ARI (Table 4.1)

Minor drainage system = 5-year ARI

Major drainage system = 100-year ARI

2. Estimate time of concentration t

c

From Design Chart 14.1, L

o

= 80 m, S = 0.5%, assume paved surface,

t

o

= 8.5 minutes

Average velocity in the open drain should be assessed using Manning's

equation. Assume V = 1.0 m/s

min 7 6

1

400

.

V

L

t

d

d

= = =

Therefore, t

c

= t

o

+ t

d

= 8.5 + 6.7 ~ 15 mins

3. Determine average rainfall intensity

Table 13.A1:

Kuala Lumpur, 5-year ARI, a = 5.1086, b = 0.5037, c = -0.2155, d = 0.0112

Table 13.A1:

Kuala Lumpur, 5-year ARI, a = 5.1086, b = 0.5037, c = -0.2155, d = 0.0112

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

3 2

30

5

30 ln 0112 0 30 ln 2155 0 30 ln 5037 0 1086 5 ln . . . . I + + =

mm/hr 9 117

30

5

. I =

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

3 2

60

5

60 ln 0112 0 60 ln 2155 0 60 ln 5037 0 1086 5 ln . . . . I + + =

mm/hr 7 75

60

5

. I =

mm 9 8 5 0.5 mm/hr 9 117

30

5

. . P = =

mm 7 75

60

5

. P =

For Kuala Lumpur, P

24h

< 100 mm, F

D

= 0.8

( )

30 60 30 15

P P F P P

D

=

( ) mm 5 45 9 58 7 75 8 0 9 58 . . . . . = =

mm/hr 182

60 15

5 45

15

5

15

5

= = =

.

d

P

I

4. Determine runoff coefficient

5. Determine peak flow

Design Chart 14.3, Category 3, C = 0.87

360

15

5

15

5

A I C

Q

=

360

10 182 87 0

=

.

s m 4 4

3

. =

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