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Figure 1.

Hydrologic cycle
Drainage and Design Flood
- Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia
- Factors influencing volume and rate of runoff are soil, topography
and vegetation characteristics
- Hydrological Procedure: non-urban situations e.g.: dam, river engineering
Flash floods in Malaysia
Johor, Jan 2007
Flash floods in Malaysia
Kota Tinggi, April 2007
Flash floods in Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur, 2008
Flash floods in Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur, 2008
Flash floods in Malaysia
- Procedures and guidelines for urban drainage system designs in
Malaysia
Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia
(MSMA - Manual Saliran Mesra Alam)
- Published by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia (DID)
in 2000
- Reduce drainage-related issues such as flash flood, excessive sediment
outflow and water quality deterioration generated by any land opening
activities in the development project boundaries
- All urban drainage systems design should be complied to the Urban
Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA - Manual Saliran
Mesra Alam)
Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia
(MSMA - Manual Saliran Mesra Alam)
- 48 chapters
www.msmam.com
- 20 volumes
MSMA - Control at Source
Estimation of Peak Flow for a Single Sub-catchment using Rational method
Post-development peak flow s Pre-development peak flow
from the outlet point of the site to the downstream public drainage system or receiving water
Design Fundamentals (Volume 4 MSMAM)
- Hydrologic events are described by AEP or ARI
- AEP - Annual Exceedance Probability P
- probability an event of specified magnitude, or volume and
duration, will be exceeded in a time period
- ARI - Average Recurrence Interval T
r
- average length of time between events that have the same
magnitude, or volume and duration.
Example:
A flood with a discharge of 50 m
3
/s may have an AEP of 0.01, that is on
the average there is a 1% chance that a flow of 50 m
3
/s will be equalled to
or exceeded in any year.
The ARI is
years 100
01 0
1 1
= = =
. P
T
r
Hence, a 1% AEP has an ARI of 100 years
Choosing a design / event ARI (Volume 2 MSMAM)
- Minor system - collect and convey runoff from relatively frequent
storm events to minimise inconvenience and nuisance flooding.
- Major system - safely convey runoff not collected by the minor
drainage system to waterways or rivers. Major system must protect
the community from the consequences of large, reasonably rare
events, which could cause severe flood damage, injury and even loss
of life.
- Note: The definition of major or minor system does not refer to the
size of the drains.
o
RS C V = - Chezy:
2
1
3
2
1
o
S R
n
V =
- Manning:
Design Rainfall (Volume 4 MSMAM)
p A c
I F I =
- For catchment greater than 10 km
2
, areal reduction factor is required in
the calculation of the design rainfall using the IDF curve.
where,
I
c
= average rainfall over the catchment
F
A
= areal reduction factor
I
p
= point rainfall intensity
- DID has published the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curve in 1991
for 26 and 16 urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia,
respectively (HP No. 26).
- The IDF curves is represented by the following polynomial expression:
where,
R
I
t
= the average rainfall intensity (mm/hr) for ARI and duration t
R = average return interval (years)
t = duration (minutes)
a to d = fitting constants dependent on ARI
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 2
ln ln ln ln t d t c t b a I
t
R
+ + + = for 30 s t s 1000 mins
Design Rainfall (Volume 4 MSMAM)
- The design rainfall depth P
d
for a short duration d (minutes) is given by,
where,
P
30
, P
60
= 30-minute and 60-minute duration rainfall depths, respectively
F
D
= adjustment factor for storm duration
( )
30 60 30
P P F P P
D d
= for t < 30 mins
d
P
I
d
=
where,
P
d
= rainfall depth in mm
d = rainfall duration in hours
- Rainfall intensity I
Example 1: Calculation of 5-minute duration rainfalls
Calculate the 5-minute duration, 20-year ARI rainfall intensity for use in a roof
design in Kuala Lumpur.
Solution:
( )
30 60 30
P P F P P
D d
= for t < 30 mins
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 2
ln ln ln ln t d t c t b a I
t
R
+ + + = for 30 s t s 1000 mins
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 2
30
20
30 ln 0166 0 30 ln 2796 0 30 ln 7533 0 9781 4 ln . . . . I + + =
For Kuala Lumpur, a = 4.9781, b = 0.7533, c=0.2796, d = 0.0166
mm/hr 4 142
30
20
. I =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 2
60
20
60 ln 0166 0 60 ln 2796 0 60 ln 7533 0 9781 4 ln . . . . I + + =
mm/hr 3 91
60
20
. I =
mm 71.2 0.5 mm/hr 4 142
30
20
= = . P
mm 3 91
60
20
. P =
For Kuala Lumpur, P
24h
~ 100 mm
F
D
= 2.08
( )
30 60 30 5
P P F P P
D
=
( ) 2 71 3 91 08 2 2 71 . . . . =
mm 4 29. =
d
P
I
5
20
5
20
=
60 5
4 29.
=
mm/hr 7 352. =
Time of Concentration
The time of concentration is the flow travel time from the most hydraulically
remote point in the contributing catchment area to the point under study.
The time of concentration t
c
is often considered to be the sum of the time of
travel to an inlet plus the time of travel in the stormwater conveyance system.
d o c
t t t + = Time of concentration
where,
t
o
= overland flow or sheet flow travel time (minutes)
t
d
= conveyance system flow travel time (minutes)
Time of overland sheet flow t
o
2
1
3
1
107
S
L n
t
o
=
Friend's formula:
where,
t
o
= overland sheet flow travel time (minutes)
L = overland sheet flow path length (m)
n = Manning's roughness value for the surface
S = slope of overland surface (%)
For multiple segments,
Time of channel / pipe flow t
d
For small area, A s 0.4 hectare:
Rational method
- Rational method is applicable for catchment area A s 80 hectares
Variation of subcatchment conditions
Example 2: Rational method calculation (Volume 5 MSMAM)
Determine the design peak flow generated from a minor drainage of medium
density residential area of 10 hectares in Kuala Lumpur. Assume 80 m of
overland flow followed by 400 m of flow in an open drain. Catchment area
average slope = 0.5%. The catchment is shown in Figure below.
Figure. Catchment area
Rational method
suitable for catchment
area < 80 hectares
Estimation of Peak Flow for a Single Sub-catchment using Rational method
Post-development peak flow s Pre-development peak flow
from the outlet point of the site to the downstream public drainage system or receiving water
Solution:
1. Design ARI (Table 4.1)
Minor drainage system = 5-year ARI
Major drainage system = 100-year ARI
2. Estimate time of concentration t
c
From Design Chart 14.1, L
o
= 80 m, S = 0.5%, assume paved surface,
t
o
= 8.5 minutes

Average velocity in the open drain should be assessed using Manning's
equation. Assume V = 1.0 m/s

min 7 6
1
400
.
V
L
t
d
d
= = =
Therefore, t
c
= t
o
+ t
d
= 8.5 + 6.7 ~ 15 mins

3. Determine average rainfall intensity
Table 13.A1:
Kuala Lumpur, 5-year ARI, a = 5.1086, b = 0.5037, c = -0.2155, d = 0.0112
Table 13.A1:
Kuala Lumpur, 5-year ARI, a = 5.1086, b = 0.5037, c = -0.2155, d = 0.0112
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 2
30
5
30 ln 0112 0 30 ln 2155 0 30 ln 5037 0 1086 5 ln . . . . I + + =
mm/hr 9 117
30
5
. I =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 2
60
5
60 ln 0112 0 60 ln 2155 0 60 ln 5037 0 1086 5 ln . . . . I + + =
mm/hr 7 75
60
5
. I =
mm 9 8 5 0.5 mm/hr 9 117
30
5
. . P = =
mm 7 75
60
5
. P =
For Kuala Lumpur, P
24h
< 100 mm, F
D
= 0.8
( )
30 60 30 15
P P F P P
D
=
( ) mm 5 45 9 58 7 75 8 0 9 58 . . . . . = =
mm/hr 182
60 15
5 45
15
5
15
5
= = =
.
d
P
I
4. Determine runoff coefficient
5. Determine peak flow
Design Chart 14.3, Category 3, C = 0.87
360
15
5
15
5
A I C
Q

=
360
10 182 87 0
=
.
s m 4 4
3
. =