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Electric Motors Overview

Introduction into Electric Motors and their Maintenance


Summary
Providing an exploration into the basics of electric motors, this article focuses on: nomenclature, term definitions, components, frames, enclosures, common motor styles, operations, typical failures, troubleshooting, and terminology from an asset efficiency view. After reading this article, you will have a broad understanding of what motors are, and how to identify their many components.

AoM04006_motor_OV Rob Bretz 29 pages February 2005 SKF Reliability Systems @ptitudeXchange 5271 Viewridge Court San Diego, CA 92123 United States tel. +1 858 496 3554 fax +1 858 496 3555 email: info@aptitudexchange.com Internet: www.aptitudexchange.com

Use of this document is governed by the terms and conditions contained in @ptitudeXchange. Copying or distribution of this document is prohibited.

AoM04006_motor_OV - Electric Motors - Overview Introduction......................................................................................................................................4 Water.........................................................................................................................................4 Account History........................................................................................................................4 Wind .........................................................................................................................................4 Steam ........................................................................................................................................5 Electric Motor...........................................................................................................................5 Electric Motor Reliability and Maintainability................................................................................5 Motor Components and Types.........................................................................................................7 Motor Components ...................................................................................................................7 Poly-Phase Motors....................................................................................................................8 Single Phase Motors .................................................................................................................8 DC Motors ................................................................................................................................8 Gear Motors ............................................................................................................................10 Brake Motors ..........................................................................................................................10 Stepper Motors........................................................................................................................11 Motor Nameplate Data...................................................................................................................11 Frame Sizes....................................................................................................................................12 Frame Number ........................................................................................................................12 NEMA Frame Suffixes ...........................................................................................................13 Frame Prefixes ........................................................................................................................14 Enclosures ......................................................................................................................................14 Open Motors ...........................................................................................................................14 Other Open Motor Types........................................................................................................14 Totally Enclosed Motors.........................................................................................................15 Other Enclosed Motor Types..................................................................................................16 Adjustable Speed Drive Types.......................................................................................................16 Motor-Drive Combinations ....................................................................................................17 AC Drive Application Factors ................................................................................................17 Motor Considerations With AC drives ...................................................................................17 2005 SKF Reliability Systems All Rights Reserved 2

AoM04006_motor_OV - Electric Motors - Overview Electric Motor Operations..............................................................................................................18 Losses .....................................................................................................................................18 Efficiency................................................................................................................................18 Temperature............................................................................................................................19 Typical Failures .............................................................................................................................19 AC Motors ..............................................................................................................................19 DC Motors ..............................................................................................................................19 Troubleshooting......................................................................................................................19 Severe Operating Conditions .........................................................................................................19 High temperature ....................................................................................................................19 Corrosion ................................................................................................................................20 Asset Efficiency Optimization.......................................................................................................20 References......................................................................................................................................22 Additional Resources .....................................................................................................................22 Acknowledgements........................................................................................................................23 Terminology...................................................................................................................................23 Appendix A [12] ............................................................................................................................26

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AoM04006_motor_OV - Electric Motors - Overview

Introduction
People and animals were the original power generation unit. Animals pulled carts, turned grain mills, and pulled water from wells. Consequently, humans did the chores animals couldnt do. However, both forms of physical labor were undependable due to lack of funds, disease, and injury. Ancient inventors realized there was a way to do more work and exert less physical output. Thus, the search for a dependable power source was on. Water The waterwheel changed the way factories provided energy to their fabrication equipment. Simple in operation, the waterwheel received its power from a running body of water, usually a river or waterfall.

Figure 2. Main Line Shaft Drive.

Account History The waterwheel was in use through the industrial revolution into the first part of the twentieth century. When the waterwheel worked, energy was abundant and inexpensive; however, there were many inherent potential problems with the energy production. By design, factories that ran on waterwheels were constructed on, or near a water source, which restricted factory location. From a reliability standpoint, waterwheels produced no rotational energy when water was unavailable. Consequently, dependable power from the waterwheel was unlikely. Depending upon factory location, ice also stopped the flow of water. As waterwheel-run mills became popular, competitor factories fought for water usage. In order for mills to ensure a consistent supply of water, dams were built. Unfortunately, water flow slowed or stopped for all the mills downstream of the dam. The resulting water reduction rendered all waterwheels downstream useless. Thus, the need for a more reliable power source was recognizes. Wind It is unclear when wind was first used to generate power for industrial purposes. However, it is safe to say the idea for 4

Figure 1. Waterwheel.

The flow of water turned the waterwheel, producing energy. The waterwheels energy rotated a large main line drive shaft that ran through the middle of the building. Individual machines were linked to the main drive shaft via leather belts that transmitted rotational energy (Figure 2).

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AoM04006_motor_OV - Electric Motors - Overview windmills originated from the use of sails used on sailing ships.

Figure 4. James Watt's First Steam Engine.

Figure 3. Sail-Wing Horizontal-Axis Windmill.

The first windmills were designed to run grain mills and pump water. There were inherent problems with the dependability of wind as a power source. Factors such as lack of wind, and wrong wind direction rendered windmills useless at certain times of day or year. Consequently, the likelihood of the mill being unusable at critical times was unlikely. A more dependable source of power was needed to ensure equipment operation at anytime of day or night, season, and location. Steam Thomas Savery, in 1689, patented a very crude version of a steam-powered engine used for pumping water out of coalmines. Thomas Newcomen and John Calley improved upon Saverys steam engine in 1712, and James Watt made more improvements in 1769. After further developments, Watts steam engine became the standard for all steam engines.

Unlike waterwheels and windmills, the steam engine was not dependent upon a natural source. Therefore, steam engines could be located anywhere. The steam engine proved to be a dependable source of power; however, there was still a need for a less complex, smaller, efficient, and versatile power source to keep up with other technological advances. Electric Motor In 1831 Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction and magnetoelectric induction. The process was simple: a copper disk (wires attached) is rotated between a magnetized horseshoe. The result is the generation of an electrical direct current. Simply put, electric motors operate due to electromagnetic force fields. Faradays discoveries lead to the invention of todays electric motor.

Electric Motor Reliability and Maintainability


How are my motors performing? One of the best ways to make that determination is to compare your electric motor performance with

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AoM04006_motor_OV - Electric Motors - Overview that of others in similar applications (see Benchmarking for Best Practice MB02007). This information is good for generic motor failures, but more specifics are needed in order to assist in an accurate view of your equipment. To do this, we can investigate motor failures by boundary (the components attached to the motor and/or run by the motor) and their associated criticality. Criticality, for purposes of this article includes: critical, degraded, incipient, and unknown (refer to Table 1). Critical is a failure, which causes immediate and complete loss of a systems capacity of providing its output Degraded is a failure, which is not critical, but which prevents the system from providing its output within specifications. Incipient is a failure, which does not immediately cause loss of a systems capability of providing its output, but which, if not attended to, could result in a critical or degraded failure in the near future. Unknown Failure severity was not recorded or could not be deduced. Motor boundaries tend to be a little more simple to define compared to other assets. The basic question, with regards to reliability, is where does the motor stop being a motor and begin being part of another asset such as a pump or compressor? Obviously, a motor can fail due to any number of factors (see troubleshooting; typical failures below), but what matters to our discussion is where does that failure affect the entire asset. For this reason, we have subdivided the failure by criticality by the motor alone, the motor as part of a compressor, and the motor as part of a pump asset. The Table 1 is adopted from OREDA [11]. What's shown in Table 1 is measures of reliability (failure rate) and maintainability (repair time). Operational time is the accumulated number of operational hours of the complete population of motors included. Number of demands is estimated demands/cycles for the total population. Number of failures represents an accumulation of all failures of the population. Failure rate, while encompassing the lower, mean, and upper values, represent estimates per 106 operational hours. Active repair hours is represented in calendar time and begins from the time the asset is actively being worked on until the time when the asset is ready to be returned to full service. Notice from Table 1 that the failure rates show large variation. This means that in practice, estimates for a particular motor has to be strongly based on historical data. Table 1 as such just gives an indication. The repair time shows a large deviation as well. Notice this is a "lognormal" distribution; the shape of the lognormal distribution is asymmetric; its being skewed right indicates that most repair times will be distributed around the center of the distribution with a relatively few long repair times in the right-hand tail of the distribution.

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Asset Aggregated Number of Number operational demands of failures time * 4.3894* 0.9931* 3.3963* see above see above see above see above see above see above see above see above see above 6368 1348 5020 see above see above see above see above see above see above see above see above see above 119 41 78 76 29 47 80 27 53 4 3 1 Failures rate (per *) Lower Mean Critical 3.36 32.75 3.24 58.64 4.09 19.4 Degraded 1.93 18.54 0.26 49.79 1.45 13.28 Incipient 5.73 24.71 6.24 29.33 4.28 21.83 Unknown 0.00 1.72 0.21 3.17 0 0.25 Upper 87.95 172.8 44.08 49.6 178.94 35.16 54.6 66.45 50.55 7.3 3.17 0.81 Active repair hours 35.3 47.5 30 16.1 3.6 23.8 6.9 5.4 7.7 4 4 4 Repair time (manhours) Min. 1.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 Mean 55.6 61.7 53.2 22.7 4.8 32.9 11.4 8.8 12.8 4.0 4.0 4.0 Max. 1140.0 847.0 1140.0 484.0 34.0 484.0 100.0 8.8 77.5 4.0 4.0 4.0

Motor Motor + Compressor Motor + Pump Motor Motor + Compressor Motor + Pump Motor Motor + Compressor Motor + Pump Motor Motor + Compressor Motor + Pump * 10 hours
6

Table 1 Failure Rate and Repair Time by Criticality (consolidated)[1]

Motor Components and Types


A traditional electric motor generates rotational energy through its shaft. To do this, the electric motor utilizes magnets to create magnetic fields. These magnetic fields work with and against each other to generate motion. In both direct-current (DC) and alternatingcurrent (AC) motors, the driving torque is provided by the interaction between the magnetic fields set up by the stator and rotor. In the direct-current (DC) motor, the magnetic field is usually stationary and the field, set-up by armature with current-carrying conductors, rotates. The current is supplied to the armature through a commutator and brushes. [3] In the alternating-current induction motor, the currents in the rotor are supplied by induction. The rotors conductors are cut by the stators alternating magnetic field (set up by the alternating-current supply to the fields), which induces alternating current in the armature conductors. [3]

To gain a better understanding of how electric motors work, lets look at its components. Motor Components An AC electric motor is comprised of the following components:

Frame - The frame is a housing that holds


all internal and external motor components.

External Fan - Positioned on the


exterior end of the motor assembly, the fan blows air across the outside of the motor to prevent overheating.

Fan Cover Protects the fan from


foreign object damage and protects people from injury.

Cast Rotor Also know of as the


armature. The armature is the assembly of windings. These windings interact with the stator to form the magnetic fields necessary for generating rotation energy.

Stator Stationary portion of the motors


electrical field. 7

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Front Bearing Shaft support that reduces friction rotation. The front bearing is located at the end where the shaft extends from the motor housing. Rear Bearing - Shaft support that
reduces friction rotation. The rear bearing is located at the same end as the external cooling fan.

Poly-Phase Motors The poly-phase (3 phase) AC induction motor has a high starting torque, efficiency, power factor, and low current, which is suitable for larger commercial and industrial applications. Poly-phase induction motors are specified by their electrical design type: A, B, C, D, or E,) as defined by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). These designs are suited to particular classes of applications based upon the load requirements typical of each class. Because of their widespread use throughout industry, many types of general purpose, three phase motors are required to meet mandated efficiency levels under the U.S. Energy Policy Act. Included in the mandates are NEMA Design B, T frame, and foot-mounted motors from 1-200 HP. Single Phase Motors Unlike the poly-phase motor, a single-phase motor has but a single alternating current source. Therefore, a single-phase motor can only produce an alternating field: one that pulls first in one direction, then in the opposite as the polarity of the field switches. Because there is only one alternating field, the major distinction between the different types of single-phase AC motors is how they go about starting the rotor in a particular direction. This is usually done by some device that introduces a phase-shifted magnetic field on one side of the rotor. DC Motors Another commonly used motor in industrial applications is the direct current motor. It is often used in applications where adjustable speed control is required.

Base Also referred to as the foot mount,


the base secures the motor housing to the equipment platform.

Shaft The shaft runs longitudinally


through the center of the stator, and is supported by the front and rear bearings.

Capacitor Affixed to the outside of the


motor, the capacitor shifts the phase of the incoming current and feeds the starter winding.

Front End Shield Located at the end


where the shaft extends from the motor, the front end shield encloses the motor frame and supports the front bearing.

Rear End Shield Located at the same


end as the external cooling fan, the rear end shield encloses the motor frame and supports the rear bearing.

Internal Fan Located within the motor


housing, the internal fan circulates air internally

Nameplate A tag affixed to the motor to designate motor specification parameters. motor housing where motor connections are made with the power supply.

Connection Box A box affixed to the

End Ring Located at the end of the


rotor assembly, the end rings provide a surface to connect the rotor bars.

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Figure 5 Single Phase AC Motor (Courtesy of Leeson Electric, a Subsidiary of Regal-Beloit Corporation).

Figure 6 DC Induction Motor (Reprinted with permission from LEESON electric, a subsidiary of Regal-Beloit Corporation)

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AoM04006_motor_OV - Electric Motors - Overview Permanent magnet DC designs are generally used for motors that produce less than 5 HP. Larger horsepower applications use shuntwound direct current motors. DC motors can be operated from alternating current or from low-voltage battery or generator source. This is a low-voltage design, which includes external connection lugs for the input power: with the rear end shield removed, as in the above view, the brush assemblies and commutator that form a DC motor's electrical heart are clearly visible. Both designs have linear speed/torque characteristics over the entire speed range. SCR rated motors -- those designed for use with common solid-state speed controls feature high starting torque for heavy load applications and reversing capabilities, and complementary active material to compensate for the additional heating caused by the rectified AC input. Designs are also available for use on generated low-voltage DC power or remote applications requiring battery power. Gear Motors A gear motor is the union of an electric motor, either DC or AC, combined with a geared speed reducer. Spur, helical or worm gears may be used in single or multiple stages. The configuration may be either a parallel shaft, emerging from the front of the motor, or a right-angle shaft. Gear motors are often rated in input horsepower; however, output torque, commonly measured in inch-pounds, and output speed are the critical values. Gear motors may be either integral, meaning that the gear reducer and motor share a common shaft, or they may be created from a separate gear reducer and motor, coupled together. Integral gear motors are common in sub fractional horsepower sizes; separate reducers and motors are more often the case in fractional and integral horsepowers. Speed reduction gearing is visible in this cutaway view of a parallel-shaft gear motor. Shown is a small sub-fractional horsepower gear motor.

Figure 7 Gear motor (Reprinted with permission from LEESON electric, a subsidiary of Regal-Beloit Corporation)

Brake Motors A brake motor is a pre-connected package of an industrial-duty motor and fail-safe, stopand-hold, spring-set brake. In case of power failure, the brake sets, holding the load in position. Brake motors are commonly used on hoists or other lifting devices. Brake features can also be added to standard motors through conversion kits that attach to the shaft end of either a fan-cooled or open motor. Displayed is a three-phase brake motor. Note the brake on the fan end (left-side). Like many brake motors, this model has a NEMA C face for direct mounting to the equipment to be driven. These motors are always part of integrated motor-and-controller systems that provide extreme accuracy in positioning and speed. Common applications include computercontrolled manufacturing machines and process equipment. Servomotors are the 10

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AoM04006_motor_OV - Electric Motors - Overview largest category of motors for precision motion control. AC, DC brush type, and brush-less DC versions are available. Closedloop control systems, common with servomotors, use feedback devices to provide information to a digital controller, which in turn drives the motor. In some cases, a tachometer may be used for velocity control and an encoder for position information. In other cases, a resolver provides both position and velocity feedback. Phase (Ph) - Phase data indicate[s] whether the motor is a single or Polyphase machine. Hertz (Hz) - Hertz is the frequency of the electrical source. In the United States and Canada this frequency is 60Hz or cycles per second. In other parts of the world 50Hz is the standard. Because US and Canadian manufacturers import specialized equipment internationally, US motor manufacturers produce 50Hz motors for aftermarket sales purposes. Frame Size (Frame) - Frame size is a number that defines the physical dimensions of the motor. Voltage (Volts) - Voltage is the voltage rating at the motor terminals. Usually satisfactory operation can be expected at a 10 percent variation from the indicated voltage. Full Load Current (Amps) - Full load current (amps) is the current draw of the motor connected to the nameplate voltage, loaded at nameplate horsepower and running at nameplate speed. Design Letter (Design) - NEMA/CEMA design letter governs motor torque and slip characteristics. Design letter definitions can be found below. Letter Code (Code) - The letter code applies to starting conditions in kilovolt/amps per horsepower (kVA/HP) when starting the motor on full voltage. Service Factor (SF) - Service factor indicates the ability of the motor to deliver more than nameplate horsepower. To arrive at the increased rating, multiply the nameplate horsepower by the service factor. The same also applies to the current. With the exception of 1 HP, 3600 revolutions per minute (which have a service factor of 1.25), all standard NEMA 11

Figure 8 Brake motor (Reprinted with permission from LEESON electric, a subsidiary of Regal-Beloit Corporation)

Stepper Motors Step (or stepper) motors, which move in fixed increments instead of rotating continuously, provide other means of precision motion control. Usually, they are part of open-loop control systems, meaning there are no feedback devices.

Motor Nameplate Data


The following nameplate data is taken from the Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants; Machinery Component Maintenance and Repair. [2] Horsepower (HP) - Horsepower is the power the motor is capable of putting out continuously.

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AoM04006_motor_OV - Electric Motors - Overview general purpose drip-proof integral horsepower T-frame motors through 200 HP have a service factor of 1.15. T-frame motors above 200 HP, and totally enclosed T-frames have a service factor of 1.0. Speed (RPM) - Speed is the speed at which the motor rotor shaft will rotate when loaded with the nameplate However, in general as a frame number becomes higher, the horsepower and physical size of the motor also increase. There are many motors of the same horsepower built in different frames. NEMA frame size only refers to mounting and does not reflect motor body diameter. Frame Number In any standard frame number designation there are two or three numbers. Typical examples are frame numbers 48, 56, 145, and 215. The frame number relates to D dimension (distance from center of shaft to center bottom of mount). For example, in the two-digit 56 frame, the dimension is 3 1/2", as 56 divided by 16 = 3 1/2". For the dimension of a three-digit frame number, consider only the first two-digits and use the divisor 4. In frame number 145 for example, the first twodigits divided by the constant 4 is equal to the dimension. 14 divided by 4 = 3 1/2". Similarly, the dimension of a 213 frame motor is 5 1/4", as 21 divided by 4 = 5 1/4". By NEMA definition, two-digit frame numbers are fractional frames, even though 1 HP or larger motors may be built in them. Three-digit frame numbers are integral frames. The third numeral indicates the distance between the mounting holes parallel to the base. It has no significance in a footless motor.

Frame Sizes
Here it should be noted that this article is written with the intension of providing a rudimentary overview of AC electric motors. The least confusing, most efficient way to achieve this goal is to utilize one specific standard. For this article, the National Electric Manufacturers Association (NEMA) was chosen. Please realize that there are other groups who attempt to coordinate international sizing and performance standards. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a global organization that prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies. The IECs mission is to promote, through its members, international cooperation on all questions of Electrotechnical standardization and related matters, such as the assessment of conformity to standards, in the fields of electricity, electronics and related technologies. [5] Frame numbers are not intended to indicate electrical characteristics such as horsepower.

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Figure 9 NEMA Frame and Shaft Size.

NEMA Frame Suffixes There are many NEMA frame suffixes, but the most common are listed below. Contact your motor manufacturer for suffixes not listed. C NEMA - The NEMA C face mount is a machined face with a pilot on the shaft end that allows direct mounting with the pump or other direct coupled equipment. Bolts pass through the mounted part to a threaded hole in the motor face. It is possible to specify a C face configuration with or without rigid base.

part. NEMA C face motors are by far the most popular and readily available. D flange mounting can be specified with or without rigid base. H - Indicates a frame with a rigid base that has an F dimension larger than that of the same frame without the suffix H. For example, combination 56H base motors have mounting holes for NEMA 56 and NEMA 143-5T, and a standard NEMA 56 shaft. J - J is a NEMA C face configuration, threaded shaft pump motor.

D NEMA - NEMA D Flange Mount is a JM - Close-coupled pump motor with machined flange with rabbet for special dimensions and bearings. mountings. Bolts pass through motor flange to a threaded hole in the mounted 2005 SKF Reliability Systems All Rights Reserved

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AoM04006_motor_OV - Electric Motors - Overview JP - Close-coupled pump motor with special dimensions and bearings. M - 634'' flange (oil burner). N - 714'' flange (oil burner). T & TS - T and TS are integral horsepower NEMA standard shaft dimensions if no additional letters follow the T or TS. Y - Non-NEMA standard mount; a drawing is required to be sure of the dimensions. Can indicate a special base, face or flange. Z - Non-NEMA standard shaft; a drawing is required to be sure of dimensions. Open Drip Proof (ODP) prevents drops of liquid from falling into the motor. These motors are designed for use in areas that are reasonably dry, clean, well-ventilated, and indoors. If installed outdoors, ODP motors should be protected with a cover that does not restrict airflow.

Frame Prefixes Letters or numbers appearing in front of the NEMA frame number are the manufacturers. They do not have NEMA frame significance. Their significance from one manufacturer to another varies.
Figure 10. Open Drip Motor.

Other Open Motor Types The following motors are not nearly as popular as the open drip motor, but deserve recognition for familiarity purposes. Splash-Proof - A splash-proof motor is an open machine in which the ventilating openings are so contracted that successful operation is not interfered with when drops of liquid or solid particles strike or enter the enclosure at any angle. [4] Semi Guarded - A semiguarded motor is an open machine in which part of the ventilating openings in the motor, usually in the top half are guarded as in the case of a guarded machine but the others are left open. [4] Guarded - A guarded motor is an open machine in which all openings giving access to live metal or rotation parts. [4] Drip-Proof Fully Guarded - A drip proof fully guarded motor is a drip proof machine whose ventilating openings are 14

Enclosures
There are two basic types of enclosures: open and totally enclosed. The enclosure design is important, as it protects the motor from its surroundings, and allows for varying levels of ventilation. The following section segregates the two types of enclosures into their multiple sub-types. Open Motors Within the open motor enclosure category there are many different configurations. The open motor is one in which a free exchange of air is permitted between the surrounding atmosphere and the interior of the motor. Cooling air is drawn into the motor through ventilating openings at each end and exhausted through similar openings at the bottom of the motor.[2]

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AoM04006_motor_OV - Electric Motors - Overview guarded in accordance with the requirement of a guarded machine. [4] Open Pipe-Ventilated - An open pipeventilated motor is an open machine except that the admission of the ventilating air are so arranged that inlet ducts or pipes can be connected to them. [4] Open Externally Ventilated - Also known as a force ventilated, is an open externally ventilated machine that is ventilated by means of a separate motordriven blower mounted on the machine enclosure. [4]

F igure 11. Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled Motor.

Totally Enclosed Motors Like open motors, the totally enclosed motor category has many different configurations. A totally-enclosed motor is one in which there is no free exchange of air between the surrounding atmosphere and the interior of the motor. The interior of the motor is covered by the stator frame and end covers, but not sufficiently enclosed to be air tight.[2] Totally Enclosed Non-ventilated - TENV motors do not have vent openings. They are tightly enclosed to prevent the free exchange of air, but they are not airtight. TENV rely on convection for cooling, as they do not have cooling fans. They are suitable for use where they may be exposed to dirt or dampness, but not hazardous locations or applications with frequent wash downs. Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled - TEFC motors are similar to the TENV except they have an external fan as an integral part of the motor to provide cooling by blowing air over the outside frame.

Explosion Proof - The Explosion Proof meets Under-writers Laboratories or CSA standards for use in the hazardous (explosive) locations shown by the UL/CSA label on the motor. The motor user must specify the class of explosion proof motor required. Locations are considered hazardous when the atmosphere contains, or may contain gas, vapor, or dust in explosive quantities.

F igure 12. Explosion Proof Motor.

The National Electrical Code (NEC) divides hazardous locations into classes and groups according to the type of explosive agent. The following list has some agents of each classification. For a complete list, see Article 500 of the National Electrical Code.

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Class I (Gases, Vapors)


Group A (Acetylene) Group B (Butadiene, ethylene oxide, hydrogen, propylene oxide) Group C (Acetaldehyde, cyclopropane, diethlether, ethylene, isoprene) Group D (Acetone, acrylonitrile, ammonia, benzene, butane, ethylene dichloride, gasoline, hexane, methane, methanol, naphtha, propane, propylene, styrene, toluene, vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride, xylene)

Waterproof - A waterproof motor is a totally enclosed machine so constructed that it will exclude water applied in the form of a stream from a hose, except that leakage may occur around the shaft provided that it is prevented from entering the coil reservoir and provision is made for automatically draining the machine. Totally Enclosed Pipe-Ventilated - A totally enclosed pipe-ventilated motor is a totally enclosed machine except for openings so arranged that the inlet and outlet ducts or pipes may be connected to them for the admission and discharge of the ventilating air. Totally Enclosed Water-Cooled - A totally enclosed water-cooled motor is a totally enclosed machine that is cooled by circulating water. Totally Enclosed Water-Air-Cooled - A totally enclosed water-air-cooled motor is a totally enclosed machine that is cooled by circulating air, which in turn is cooled by circulating water. Totally Enclosed Air-to-Air-Cooled - A totally enclosed air-to-air-cooled motor is a totally enclosed machine, which is cooled by circulating the internal air through a heat exchanger, which, in turn, is cooled, by circulating external air.

Class II (Combustible Dusts)


Group E (Aluminum, Magnesium and other metal dusts with similar characteristics) Group F (Carbon Black, Core or Coal Dust) Group G (Flour, Starch or Gain Dust Hostile & Severe - Totally Enclosed Hostile and Severe Environment motors are designed for use in extremely moist or chemical environments, but not for hazardous locations.

Other Enclosed Motor Types The following motors are not nearly as popular as the TEFC, TENV, Explosion Proof, or Hostile and Severe motors, but they deserve mentioning for familiarity purposes. All of the following open motor descriptions can be found in Peter Walkers book [4]. Dust Ignition Proof - A Dust Ignition Proof motor is a totally enclosed machine whose enclosure is designed and constructed to exclude ignitable amounts of dust or amounts that might affect performance or rating. It also does not permit arcs.

Adjustable Speed Drive Types


In most industrial applications, mechanical, fluid or eddy current drives are paired with constant-speed electric motors. On the other hand, solid-state electrical drives (also termed electronic drives), create adjustable speed motors, which allow speeds from zero RPM to beyond the motor's base speed. Controlling the speed of the motor has several benefits, including increased energy efficiency, by eliminating energy losses in mechanical speed changing devices. In addition, by reducing the need for wear-prone mechanical components, 16

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AoM04006_motor_OV - Electric Motors - Overview electrical drives foster increased overall system reliability, and lower maintenance costs. For these and other reasons, electrical drives are the fastest growing type of adjustable speed drive. Motor-Drive Combinations Variously called intelligent motors, smart motors, or integrated motors and drives, these units combine a three-phase electric motor and a pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter drive in a single package. Some designs mount the drive components in what looks like an oversize conduit box. Other designs integrate the drive into a special housing made to blend with the motor. A supplementary cooling fan is frequently used for the drive electronics to counteract the rise in ambient temperature caused by close proximity to an operating motor. Some designs also encapsulate the inverter boards to guard against damage from vibration. Size constraints limit integrated drive and motor packages to the smaller horsepower ranges, and require programming by remote keypad (either hand-held or panel mounted). Major advantages are compactness and elimination of additional wiring. One-piece motor and drive combinations can be a pre-packaged solution in some applications. The motor in Figure 10 incorporates drive electronics and cooling system in a special housing at the end of the motor.

Figure 13. Motor /Drive Combination.

AC Drive Application Factors As Pulse with Modulated (PWM) AC drives continue to increase in popularity, drive manufacturers spend considerable research and development efforts to build programmable acceleration and deceleration ramps, a variety of speed presets, diagnostic abilities, and other software features. Operator interfaces have also improved with some drives incorporating "plain-English" readouts to aid set-up and operation. Plus, an array of input and output connections, plug-in programming modules, and off-line programming tools allow multiple drive setups to be installed and maintained in a fraction of the time. All these features simplify drive applications. However, several basic points must be considered: torque, speed, current, power supply, control complexity, and environmental factors. Contact your motor and drive manufacturer for the proper drive selection. Motor Considerations With AC drives

One drawback to Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) drives is their tendency to produce voltage spikes, which can damage the insulation system and bearings used in electric motors. This tendency is increased in applications with long cable distances (more than 50 feet) between the motor and drive, and with higher-voltage drives. In the worst cases, the spikes can literally poke holes into the 2005 SKF Reliability Systems All Rights Reserved 17

AoM04006_motor_OV - Electric Motors - Overview insulation. To guard against insulation damage, some manufacturers now offer inverter-duty motors with special insulation systems that resist voltage spike damage. Particularly with larger drives, it may be advisable to install line reactors between the motor and drive to choke off the voltage spikes. In addition, some increased motor heating inevitably occurs due to the inverter's synthesized AC waveform. Insulation systems on industrial motors built in recent years and inverter-duty motors, can usually tolerate this. A greater cooling concern involves operating for an extended time at low motor RPM, which reduces the flow of cooling air, especially in constant torque applications where the motor is heavily loaded. Here, secondary cooling such as a special constantspeed blower kits can be added in the field to provide additional cooling to motors operated at low RPM as part of an adjustable speed drive system. Electrical power is lost in the conductors of both the field and conductors, generally known as copper losses. Losses caused by the action of the magnetic fields are referred to as iron losses and are given off as heat. [3] Efficiency Because all machines have some losses, their efficiencies are never 100%. That is, the output power is never the same as the input power. Usually expressed as a percentage, efficiency is the ratio between output and input power. [3] Minimum and nominal efficiency ratings for premium efficiency motors can be found on the National Manufacturers Association (NEMA) website www.nema.org. As an example, a 1 hp, 2 pole nominal and minimum efficiency ratings are 77.0% and 74.0% respectively. Comparatively, a 1hp, 6 pole motors nominal and minimum efficiency ratings are 82.5% and 80.0%. While the efficiency for a premium efficiency motor rating changes from 2 pole to 4 pole, it also changes as the horsepower is increased. For example, nominal and minimum efficiency for a 50hp, 2 pole motor is 93.0% and 91.7% respectively, and increases with a 6 pole to 94.1% and 93.0%. With the ever-increasing cost of utilities energy, and the overall cost effectiveness of the consumer, motor manufacturers are always attempting to produce motors of premium efficiency. The proof of the premium efficiencies effectiveness is found in the utilities practice of issuing rebates to users who employ motors that consume less electricity. The logic stems from the utilities economic concerns, whereby they conclude it is more economically feasible to conserve energy than it is to build more power plants. To encourage this conservation effort they reward those conscientious electricity users with rebates. Contact your local power utility 18

Electric Motor Operations


Losses Losses in a motor result from the rotation of its movable parts and the flow of electricity through its conductors; these are generally classified as mechanical losses and electrical losses, and all are manifested as heat. [3] Mechanical power is lost in four ways: 1. The extra power needed in overcoming bearing friction. 2. The extra power needed to break away inertia of the rotor at a standstill. 3. The extra power needed to overcome the friction caused by the brush contact on the commutator (DC only). 4. The extra power need for the rotor to overcome the resistance of air.

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AoM04006_motor_OV - Electric Motors - Overview / municipality for the latest programs, and information on premium efficient motors ratings. Temperature Temperature plays an important role in the efficient running of an electric motor. It is important to remember that when a motor is not running efficiently, more energy is consumed. This consumption relates directly to the total cost of your motors operation. It is to your advantage to guarantee proper precautions are taken to ensure your motor is running cool. Contact your motor manufacturer for specifics on effects of temperature on your electric motor and its application. Bearings running hot Bearings noisy Brush sparking Brush noises Brush excessive wear Brush chipping Broken Mount Rotor Rub

Troubleshooting A detailed troubleshooting guide [12] can be found in Appendix A, B, and C.

Typical Failures
Divided into two separate areas, typical failures are associated with both AC and DC motors. Due to the differences in AC and DC motor operation and components, failures are, obviously, different. AC Motors Motor will not start Motor accelerates slowly Noisy Overheats Bearings running hot Bearings noisy Broken Mount Rotor Rub Motor will not start Motor accelerates slowly Noisy Overheats

Severe Operating Conditions


Motors, like any other asset, are susceptible to operating conditions beyond what might be considered a normal environment. High and low temperatures, exposure to water, corrosive materials, dirt and other abrasives all have a potentially adverse effect on the performance and longevity of your motor. Being able to identify and correct these potential problems make up part of your overall preventative maintenance program. High temperature Is your motor running hot due to the application and environment, or is the motor running hot due to a pending failure? Motor heat is a sign of something wrong. Incorrect sizing of the motor to the application may be the cause of the motor running hotter than it should. This could be due to the motor being undersized or low starting torque for the application. Because the motor is used to run another piece of equipment, the motor may be experiencing a higher demand due to the driven equipments malfunction as seen in; equipment jams, 19

DC Motors

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AoM04006_motor_OV - Electric Motors - Overview increased production demands, or pending internal failure. Is the motor free from obstructions and clean? A motor must be cooled. Cooling is accomplished by air circulation around the motor body. Obstructions and dirt decrease the motor bodys exposure to cooling air. In addition, blocked cooling port/vents in the motor body will increase motor temperature. Damaged bearings, bent and misaligned shaft, rotor rub are problems that will all increase the motors temperature. The reason for this is due to the extra torque demand, which directly relates to increased energy requirements. Failed windings or improperly installed electrical connections will cause the motor to overheat. In addition, incorrect line voltage will cause the motor to overheat. In addition, both under and over voltage causes either increased magnetic loses or excessive current draw respectively. Corrosion Corrosion attacks a motor in many different ways and in many different locations. Motor body, electrical leads, and the conduit box are all components vulnerable to corrosion. But it must also take into account the motors capacity in order to consider unseen corrosion problems. If a motor is in continuous operation, the simple fact that the fan is blowing air around the motor body will assist in keeping potentially corrosive materials from accumulating. Of course this does not apply to certain environments, where production media or environmental debris make it impossible for the motors fan to keep the body clean. Even more vulnerable to corrosion are motors that operate occasionally, or are used as part of a redundant backup system. In this case, the motor is susceptible internally as well as externally through vents and other openings.

Asset Efficiency Optimization


A key aspect of any fan management program is a proactive, efficient work management process, designed to ensure the effective performance of maintenance. To achieve maximum return on investment and maintain the greatest degree of productivity, it is pivotal that organizations have a process that effectively translates asset information to knowledge, and ultimately gain value from that knowledge. To help organizations achieve these goals, SKF offers Asset Efficiency Optimization (AEO), a management process designed to achieve maximum efficiency and effectiveness from work management activities focused on business goals for the facility. The AEO process encompasses four key elements [6]: Strategy Identification Control Execution.

The AEO process transforms conceptual asset management to tangible competitive edge. Each of the elements listed above contributes to the success of the AEO process. No matter how well defined and documented the maintenance strategy may be, it cannot achieve optimum effectiveness if badly implemented. Similarly good control and implementation practices are wasted if they are expended in performing the wrong tasks.

Maintenance Strategy involves the evaluation of work activities in relationship to a facilitys business objectives, a procedure that creates the documented basis for the maintenance program. Maintenance strategy related to Motors is worked-out in Maintenance Strategy for Motors[7]. 2005 SKF Reliability Systems All Rights Reserved 20

AoM04006_motor_OV - Electric Motors - Overview Work Identification is where work is identified from the evaluation of a comprehensive flow of data in conjunction with an integrated decision-making process. Key to the success of Identification is a comprehensive computerized maintenance. Work Identification related to Motors is worked-out in [8]. Work Control involves establishing procedures for planning and scheduling the work identified by the CMMS. Tasks are organized based on several parameters, including time and condition; job plans or procedures; man-hours required; data feedback; special requirements; and many other factors. Work Control related to Motors is worked-out in Work Control for Motors[9]. Work Execution is where identified, planned and scheduled work is performed. Once work is completed, feedback from the field plays a key role in measuring the overall effectiveness of the AEO process and making refinements for even greater efficiency in the future. Work Execution related to Motors is worked-out in Work Execution for Motors[10].

Figure 14: AEO diagram.

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References
[1] Greenwood, Douglas C. Mechanical Power Transmission; Component Selection and Application. New York, NY. McGrawHill. 1962. [2] Bloch, Heiz P., Geitner, Fred K. Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants; Machinery Component Maintenance and Repair, Volume 3, Second Edition. [3] Pansini, Anthony J. Basics of Electric Motors; Including Polyphase Induction and Synchronous Motors. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Prentice Hall, 1989. [4] Walker, Peter. Direct Current Motors Characteristics and Applications. Blue Ridge Summit, PA. TAB Books. [5] IEC. http://www.iec.ch/ [6] Toomey G., "Asset Efficiency Optimization Work Management Process." GS02010, http://www.aptitudexchange.com [7] Barratt, Mel. Maintenance Strategy for Motors. AoM04007_motor_MS. http://www.aptitudexchange.com [8] Bretz, Rob. Work Identification for Motors. AoM04008_motor_WI. http://www.aptitudexchange.com [9] Barratt, Mel. Work Control for Motors. AoM04009_motor_WC. http://www.aptitudexchange.com [10] Bretz, Rob. Work Execution for Motors. AoM04010_motor_WE. http://www.aptitudexchange.com [11] Offshore Reliability Data (OREDA). 4th Edition. OREDA Participants [publishing]. 2002
http://www.sintef.no/static/TL/projects/oreda/

[12] Departments of the Army (Corps of Engineers) Troubleshooting tables TM 5683/NAVFAC MO-116/AFJMAN 32-1083 http://www.usace.army.mil/inet/usacedocs/armytm/tm5-683/c-4.pdf

Additional Resources
Departments of the Army (Corps of Engineers) http://www.usace.army.mil/inet/usacedocs/armytm/tm5-683 Edward H. Cowern, P.E. Cowern Papers:Motor Basics. PR2525. Baldor Corporation. Barratt, Mel.Benchmarking for Best Practice; A Guide to Preparing and Undertaking Benchmarking Activities in Plant Maintanance MB02007. http://www.aptitudexchange.com Bearing Know-How for Electric Motor Rewinders; Manual for Bearing Health. SKF5073_E. 2001. http://www.aptitudexchange.com Vibration Monitoring and Current Analysis of AC Motors; Using Motor Current and Vibration Analysis to Detect AC Motor Problems. JM02011. http://www.aptitudexchange.com Maintenance Tips for Electric Motor Bearings; Mechanical maintenance. TB02002. http://www.aptitudexchange.com Electric Motor Lubrication; A New Perspective. NC_04001. http://www.aptitudexchange.com Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE). http://www.ieee.org/ National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). http://www.nema.org 22

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AoM04006_motor_OV - Electric Motors - Overview Higgins & Mobley. Maintenance Engineering Handbook, Sixth Edition. New York, NY. McGraw Hill. 2001. The Motor & Motion Association (SMMA) http://www.smma.org/ Design A - A Design A motor is a squirrel-cage integral horsepower designed to withstand full-voltage starting and developing locked-rotor torque as shown in NEMA standard MG1-4.11, breakdown torque as shown in MG1-4.12, with locked-rotor current higher than the values shown in MG14.09, and having a slip at rated load of less than 5 percent. (Motors with 10 and more poles may have slip slightly greater than 5 percent).[1] The most important characteristic of this design is its high pullout torque. Design B - A design B motor is a squirrel-cage motor designed to withstand full voltage starting, developing locked rotor and breakdown torques adequate for general applications as specified in MG1-4.11 and MG14.12, drawing locked-rotor current not to exceed the values shown in MG1-4.09 and having a slip at rated load of less than 5 percent. (Motors with 10 and more poles may have slip slightly greater than 5 percent). [1] Defined as a standard industrial duty motor, the design B characteristics are: reasonable starting torque, moderate starting current, and good overall performance. Design C - A design C motor is a squirrel-cage motor designed to withstand full voltage starting, developing locked rotor torque for special high-torque applications up to the values shown in MG1-4.11, breakdown torque up to the values shown in MG1-4.12, with locked-rotor current not to exceed the values shown in MG1-4.09, and having a slip at rated load of less than 5 percent. [1] The design C motor is manufactured to produce high starting torque for hard to start loads. 23

Acknowledgements
Special thanks to the following for their additions to this article: Leeson Electric, A Subsidiary of RegalBeloit Corporation.

Terminology
AEMT - Association of Electrical and Mechanical Trades CEMA - Conveyor Equipment Manufacturers Association Constant Horsepower - Describes load situations where the torque requirement is reduced as the speed is increased. The opposite takes place when torque requirement is increased and the speed is reduced. Constant Torque - Constant torques is defined as a load characteristic where the amount of torque required driving the machine remains the same (constant), regardless of the speed at which it is being driven. Current - The flow of electrons constitutes an electric current. The number of electrons that pass a reference point in a second determines the current strength, as the flow of water is measured in gallons per minute. The flow of electricity or current is expressed in amperes (named for the French physicist Andre Marie Ampere). According to scientific measurement, 6.29 billion electrons passing in one second make up one ampere. [3]

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AoM04006_motor_OV - Electric Motors - Overview Design D - A design D motor is a squirrel-cage motor designed to withstand full voltage starting, developing high locked rotor torque as shown in MG1-4.11, with locked rotor current not greater than that shown in MG1-4.09, and having a slip at rated load of 5 percent or more. [1] The design D motor is manufactured to have very high starting torque along with high slip RPM at full load torque. Design F - A design F motor is a squirrel-cage motor designed to withstand full-voltage starting, developing high locked-rotor torque as shown in MG1-4.11, with breakdown torque as shown in MG1-4.12 with locked-rotor current not to exceed the values shown in MG1-4.09 and having a slip at rated load of less than 5 percent. [1] Design L - A designation L is a single phase integral horsepower motor designed to withstand full voltage starting and to develop a breakdown torque as shown in NEMA Standard MG1-2.07, with locked-rotor current not to exceed the values shown in MG14.10. [1] Design M - A design M motor is a single phase integral-horsepower motor designed to withstand full-voltage starting and to develop a breakdown torque as shown in MG1-2.07, with a locked-rotor current not to exceed the valves shown in MG1-4.10. [1] EASA - Electrical Apparatus Service Association Full Load Speed - The full load speed of a motor is the approximate speed that the motor will run when it is pulling out full rated torque of horsepower in a loaded condition. Full Load/Nameplate Amps - The amount of current the motor can draw under full load torque. Full Load Torque - Full load torque is the rated continuous torque that the motor can support without overheating. The full load torque of a motor is directly related to the full load current. IEC International Electrotechnical Commission. Insulation - Generally refers to the maximum allowable operating temperate of the motor by class (A, B, F, and H). Insulation Class A - Class A insulation is rated for a maximum temperature of 220F (105C), allowing for a average life of 20,000 hours. Insulation Class B - Class B insulation is rated for a maximum temperature of 266F (130C), allowing for a average life of 20,000 hours. Insulation Class F - Class A insulation is rated for a maximum temperature of 311F (155C), allowing for a average life of 20,000 hours. Insulation Class H - Class A insulation is rated for a maximum temperature of 356F (180C), allowing for a average life of 20,000 hours. Inrush Current - (See Locked Rotor Amps) Locked Rotor Amps - Line current drawn by motor at starting or when nameplate voltage is applied and the rotor is not rotating (locked). NEMA - National Electric Motor Association

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AoM04006_motor_OV - Electric Motors - Overview Peak Torque - The maximum actual torque required with cyclic torque loads where the amount of torque varies. Pull Out/Breakdown Torque - The maximum amount of torque that is available from the motor shaft when the motor is operating at full voltage and running at full speed. Pull Up Torque - The lowest point on the torque speed curve for a motor that is accelerating a load up to full speed. Resistance - The wires in an electric circuit can be thought of as an electrical pipe, because the electric current (or stream of electrons) flows through it. It is obvious, then, that the larger the diameter of the wire, and the shorter in length it is, the easier the flow or less the electrical resistance. [3] Service Factor Amps - The amount a motor can be overloaded without damage or overheating. Slip - For induction motors, slip means the difference between synchronous speed the speed of the revolving magnetic field and operating speed. Subtracting the operating speed from the synchronous speed, dividing the difference by the synchronous speed, and then multiplying the result by 100 can calculate percentage slip. [2] Starting or Locked Rotor Torque - The amount of torque the motor produces when it is energized at full voltage and with the shaft locked in place. Synchronous Speed - Synchronous speed of a motor is the speed at which the magnetic field within the motor is rotating and approximately the speed that the motor will run under in a nonloaded condition. Torque - The torque developed in any motor is caused by the interaction of the magnetic fields of its field (stator) and its armature (rotor). The magnetic fields in turn are produced by the currents flowing in the coils or conductors producing them. The resulting torque, is therefore, directly proportional to the current in the rotor and the strength of the stator field. In the induction motor, the stator field is a rotating field, and the resultant torque is in the direction of the rotating field. [3] Variable Torque - Variable torque is defined as the characteristic in loads requiring low torque at low speeds, and increasing values of torque as the speed increases

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AoM04006_motor_OV - Electric Motors - Overview

Appendix A [12]
Trouble
Motor will not start (AC)

Probable Cause
Overload central trip Power not connected to motor

Maintenance
Wait for overload to cool. Try starting again. If motor still does not start, check all the causes as outlined below. Connect power to control; check control sequence and power to motor. Check connections. Test fuses and circuit breakers. Inspect for open or poor connection. Check motor-nameplate values with power supply. Also check voltage at motor terminals with motor under load to be sure wire size is correct. Check connections with control wiring diagram. Tighten connections Disconnect motor from load. If rotor starts satisfactory, check driven machine. Check for open circuits. Test, locate and repair. Open and repair. Check for shorted coil. Test for grounded winding. Free bearings or replace. Use lubricant designed for special conditions Troubleshoot the control. Reduce load. Isolate and discharge capacitor, check impedance. If opened or shorted, replace. Reduce the impedance of the external circuit. Make sure bearings are properly lubricated. Check bearing clearances. Check belt tension (if applicable). Check alignment. Be sure field-applying contactor is open and field-discharge contactor is closed through discharge resistance.

Faulty connection Faulty (open) fuses Low Voltage Wrong control connections Loose terminal-lead connection Driven machine locked Open circuit in stator or rotor windings Open circuit one phase Short circuit one phase Short circuit in stator winding Winding grounded Bearing stiff Grease too stiff Faulty control Overloaded Failed starter capacitor Voltage falls too low Friction High

Field excited

Trouble
Motor will not start (AC) cont.

Probable Cause
Automatic field relay not working Wrong Direction of rotation

Maintenance
Check power supply to solenoid. Check contactor tips. Check connections Reverse any two main leads of threephase motor. Single-phase, reverse starting winding leads.

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Motor will not start (DC) Open circuit in control Low terminal voltage Bearing frozen Overload Excessive friction Check control for open in starting circuit, open contacts, fuse, or breaker. Check voltage with nameplate rating. Recondition shaft and replace bearing. Reduce load or use larger motor. Check lubrication in bearings to ensure proper type and quantity. Disconnect motor from driven machine, and turn rotor by hand to see if trouble is with the motor. Strip and reassemble motor; then check part-by-part for proper location and fit. Straighten or replace bent shaft (motors under 5 hp). Held up by brush spring, remove and replace. Remove and replace. Remove, sand, and clean the brush housings. Check line connections to starter. Check contacts in starter. Balance or align machine. Remove motor from load. If motor is still noisy, rebalance motor. Center the rotor and if necessary replace bearings. Check lubricants. Replace bearings is noise is persistent and excessive. Tighten all holding bolts. Center the rotor and replace bearings if necessary.

Brushes not down on commutator Brushes worn out Brushes stuck in holders Power may be off Motor Vibrates Vibration from unbalanced or misalignment Possible mechanical system resonance Air gap not uniform Noisy ball bearings Loose punching or loose rotor on shaft Rotor rubbing on stator

Trouble
Motor Vibrates cont.

Probable Cause
Objects caught between fan and end shields Motor loose on foundation Coupling loose Open rotor circuit Current density of brushes too high (overload) Ring threading

Maintenance
Disassemble motor and clean it. Any rubbish around motor should be removed. Tighten hold-down bolts. Motor may possibly have to be re-aligned. Check for softfoot. Check coupling joint. Check alignment. Tighten coupling. Correct open connections or control. Reduce load. (If brushes have been replaced, make sure they are of the same grade as originally furnished) Low current density. Consult manufacturer for different brush recommendation. Measure motor loading with wattmeter. Reduce load.

Higher than normal temperature or smoking

Overload

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Electrical load unbalanced Fuse blown, faulty control, etc. Restricted ventilation Incorrect voltage and frequency Motor stalled by driven machine or by tight bearings Stator winding sorted Stator winding grounded Rotor winding with loose connections Belt too tight Motor used for rapid reversing service End shield loose of not replaced properly Excessive belt tension or excessive gear side thrust Bent shaft Insufficient oil Check voltage unbalance or single phasing. Check for open in one of the lines or circuits. Clean air passages and windings. Check motor nameplate values with power supply. Also check voltage at motor terminals with motor under full load. Remove power from motor; check machine for cause of stalling. Use insulation testing procedures. Use insulation testing procedures. Tighten if possible, or replace with another rotor. Remove excessive pressure on bearings. Replace with motor designed for this service. Make sure end shield fits squarely. Reduce belt tension or gear pressure and realign shafts. Assure thrust is not being transferred to motor bearing. Straighten shaft. Add oil if oil supply is very low; drain, flush, and refill.

Bearings Hot

Trouble
Bearings Hot cont.

Probable Cause
Foreign material in oil or poor grade of oil Oil rings rotating slowly or not at all

Maintenance
Drain oil, flush, and Relubricate using lubricant recommended by motor and bearing manufacturer. Oil too heavy; drain and replace using lubricant recommended by motor and bearing manufacturer. Oil ring has worn spot; replace with new ring - drain and replace using lubricant recommended by motor and bearing manufacturer. Level motor and realign is necessary. Replace rings. Adjust or replace retaining clip. Replace bearings. Resurface shaft. Remove relief plug and let motor run. If excess grease does not come out, flush/drain and replace using lubricant recommended by motor and bearing manufacturer.

Motor tilted too far Rings bent or otherwise damaged in reassembly Rings out of slot (oil ring retaining clip out of place). Defective bearings or rough shaft Too much grease

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Wrong grade of grease Bearings misaligned Bearings damaged (corrosion, etc.) Coupling Loose Motor will not come up to speed Excessive load Flush/drain and replace using grease recommended by motor and bearing manufacturer. Align motor and check bearing housing assembly. Ensure races are exactly 90 with the shaft. Replace bearings Check coupling joint. Check alignment. Tighten coupling. Decrease the load. Check operation of unloading device (if any) on driven machine. Increase voltage. Be sure field-applying contactor is open, and field-discharge contactor is closed through discharge resistance. Correct excessive torque peak at driven machine or consult motor manufacturer. If driven machine is a compressor, check valve operations. Increase or decrease flywheel size. Try decreasing or increasing field current.

Low voltage Field excited Motor hunts Fluctuating load

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