C#ar&e 1

+

Name 3//oniu/ Hy'roniu/ 0icar.onate 0i&ulfate 3cetate Nitrite

Formula NH
+ #

H30+ H+O3E HSO#E +H3+O2E
or

+2H3O2E NO2E NO
E 3

1E

Nitrate +yani'e Hy'ro!i'e 4ihy'ro%en *ho&*hate +ar.onate Sulfate Hy'ro%en *ho&*hate O!alate 4ichro/ate

+NE OHE H29O#E

9er/an%anate 8nO#E +O32E SO#2E H9O#2E +2O#2E +r2O
2E (

Metal Li > +a Na 8% 3l An +r Fe +' Ni Sn 9. H2 +u 3% H% 3u

Oxidi ed Li+ + e! >+ + e! +a2+ + 2e! Na+ + e! 8%2+ + 2e! 3l3+ + 3e! An2+ + 2e! +r3+ + 3e! Fe2+ + 2e! +'2+ + 2e! Ni2+ + 2e! Sn2+ + 2e! 9.2+ + 2e! 2H+ + 2e! +u2+ + 2e! 3%+ + e! H%2+ + 2e! 3u3+ + 3e!

React! "it# +ol' ?ater@ &tea/@ or aci'&

Stea/ or aci'&

3ci'&

4oe& not react ?ith aci'&

2E

Table "—#etal Acti$ity (2%") 7;uili.riu/ +on&tant 7!*re&&ion<
c d

K=

[ C ] ×[ D ] [ A ]a ×[ B ] b

K a=

[ H ]×[ salt ] [ acid ]

Equilibrium Reaction H2O ↔ H+ + OH– $nor%anic Acids Nitrou& aci' HNO2 ↔ H+ + NO2– Hy'roflouric aci' HF ↔ H+ + F– Hy*ochlorou& aci' HO+l ↔ H+ + O+l– Hy*o.ro/ou& aci' HO0r ↔ H+ + O0r– Hy'rocyanic aci' H+N ↔ H+ + +N– +ar.o!ylic Acids +hloroacetic aci' +H2+l+OOH ↔ H+ + +H2+l+OO– For/ic aci' H+OOH ↔ H+ + H+OO– 0en2oic aci' +)H1+OOH ↔ H+ + +)H1+OO– 3cetic aci' +H3+OOH ↔ H+ + +H3+OO– $nor%anic Bases 3//onia NH3 + H2O ↔ NH#+ + OH– Hy'ra2ine H2NNH2 + H2O ↔ H2NNH3+ + OH– Hy'ro!yla/ine HONH2 + H2O ↔ HONH3+ + OH– 3/ine& 4i/ethyla/ine 5+H362NH + H2O ↔ 5+H362NH2+ + OH– 7thyla/ine +H3+H2NH2 + H2O ↔ +H3+H2NH3+ + OH– 8ethyla/ine +H3NH2 + H2O ↔ +H3NH3+ + OH– 9yri'ine +1H1N + H2O ↔ +1H1NH+ + OH– 3niline +)H1NH2 + H2O ↔ +)H1NH3+ + OH– Water Table 2—Ionization Data (255-6) Formula Type

Acid

Ka/b/w 1 0 ! 10 "1# ( 2 ! 10"# ) ) ! 10"# 2 , ! 10"2 1 ! 10", ) 2 ! 10 "10 1 # ! 10"3 1 - ! 10"# ) 3 ! 10"1 1 - ! 10"1 1 - ! 10"1 - 1 ! 10"( , 1 ! 10", 1 , ! 10"# # 3 ! 10"# # 2 ! 10"# 1 1 ! 10", # 2 ! 10 "10

3E

9ho&*hate

9O#3E

4efinition of *H = *OH<

pH =− log [ H ] pOH =− log [ OH ] Table &—'olyatomic Ions (()) O!i'ation< %ain O@ lo&e H@ or lo&e e – Hen'er&on"Ha&&el.alch 7;uation< Be'uction< lo&e O@ %ain H@ or %ain e –
O' ò Acid Name hy'roFFic aci' hy*oFFou& aci' FFou& aci' FFic aci' *erFFic aci' Anion FFi'e hy*oFFite FFite FFate *erFFate

ò

ò

ò

Table 5—*amin+

bcc: Fe@ >@ Na = W fcc: 3l@ +u@ 9. = 3%

Name 1 /ol of any %a& at 1 at/ = 0I+ 5SJ96 Hy'rochloric aci' [ salt ] occu*ie& Sulfuric aci' pH =− log  K a  log   [ acid ] 22 #L So'iu/ hy'ro!i'e So'iu/ chlori'e • O!i'i2in% a%ent&< O2@ H2O2@ >2+r2O( +alciu/ nitrate 5alcohol&6@ >8nO#@ anti&e*tic& 3cetic aci' • Be'ucin% a%ent&< coal 5+6@ /etal&@ H@ 3//onia *hoto 'eDelo*er@ antio!i'ant& 8ethyla/ine electrode c#ar&e reaction electroplate 8ethyl alcohol catho'e ne%atiDe re'uction &*oon 7thyl alcohol Sucro&e ano'e *o&itiDe o!i'ation &ilDer .ar C#aracteri!tic! / Example!
%pec .eat cal  &⋅° C 

H+l Stron% aci' H2SO# Stron% aci' NaOH Stron% .a&e Na+l Salt +a5NO362 Salt +H3+OOH Wea: aci' NH3 Wea: .a&e +H3NH2 Wea: .a&e +H3OH 8ol li;ui' +H3+H2OH 8ol li;ui' +12H22O11 8ol &oli'

Elec. Cond. Stron% Stron% Stron% Stron% Stron% Wea: Wea: Wea: None None None

Table 4—Some Electrolytes (2 4)

)ntermolecular Melt. Elec. (article! Force! (oint Cond. *l+ )onic Cry!tal! 7lectro&tatic / $on& Hi%h Hi%h $onic 5D &tron%6 Co,alent Networ- Cry!tal! +oDalent .on'& 4o not 3to/& N/3 5Dery &tron%6 /elt Metallic Cry!tal! 9o&itiDe ion& = 8etallic .on'& Hery Hi%h /o.ile electron& 5Dery &tron%6 Hi%h Molecular Cry!tal! ,ydro+en-bonded 8olecule& ?/ H Hy'ro%en .on'& $nter/ Hery Lo? on N@ O or F 5inter/6 'olar 9olar /olecule& 4i*ole force& Lo? Hery Lo? ?/o H .on'& 5?ea:6 *on-olar 3to/& / non*olar 4i&*er&ion force& Hery Hery /olecule& only 5Dery ?ea:6 Lo? Hery Lo? Table 6—.rystalline Solids

3l +u Har'@ *olar" &olu.leG Na+l +2H1 OH Fe Hery har'@ in&olu.leG 'ia/on' HO+2 H#OH $n&olu.le /allea.le 8% con'uctor&G +u@ An H% SH2O Fra%ileG H2O@ HF@ NH3 Fra%ile@ &olu.leG H+l@ H2S Soft@ Dery &olu.leG 3r@ H2@ $2@ +O2

0 21) 0 0,21 0 1-0 10) 0 1)1

• • • • • •

%tron& acid! Hy'rochloric aci' 5H+l6 Hy'ro.ro/ic aci' 5H0r6 Hy'rio'ic aci' 5H$6 Nitric aci' 5HNO36 Sulfuric aci' 5H2SO#6 9erchloric aci' 5H+lO#6 %tron& ba!e! 3l:ali /etal hy'ro!i'e&< LiOH@ NaOH@ >OH@ B.OH@ +&OH 3l:aline earth /etal hy'ro!i'e&< +a5OH6 2@ Sr5OH62@ 0a5OH62

0oyleC& La? +harle&C& La? 3Do%a'roC& La? +o/.ine' Ga& La? $'eal Ga& La?

P1 V 1 = P 2 V 2

V 1 / T 1 =V 2 / T 2
V 1 / n1 = V 2 / n 2
P 1V 1 P 2 V 2 = T1 T2

0 2#1 • 0 0332 0 1), 1 000 •

PV = nRT L⋅atm mol⋅K
%alt 3ci'ic 0a&ic 3ny

R =.0821
Acid Stron% Wea: Wea:

• • • • •

1 at/ K 101 321 :9a K 2, ,21 inH% K ()0 torr K ()0 //H% K 1# ),) l./in 2 1 cal K # 1-# J

$a!e Wea: Stron% Wea:

Stron% Stron% Neutral

° C =° F − 32 / 1.8 ° F = ° C⋅1.8  32
Specific Gra it! = D s"bstance / D #ater

$ Heat = mass⋅specific %eat⋅$T

Table —Salts (25 )

03/03/10

Note Sheet for Lecture Final

Jerry Goure

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