You are on page 1of 100

MENTAL TOUGHNESS

LOEHR

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

0: Introduction

0-1

Introduction
The Ultimate Challenge Insecurities Doubts Inadequacies Fears Mental Strength = Acquired Mental Skills: Concentration Controlling Attitude Managing Pressure Thinking Right Controlling Energy Staying Motivated Visualizing. AET Meeting ultimate challenge & building mental strength Excellence + Joy + Fulfillment + Struggle Step by step procedure for understanding and controlling the critical mind-body connection. Shorten the Mental Toughness process A Personal Journey In the Past . I feel Obligation I feel Expectation I feel Commitment I feel Fear I was too busy trying to perform well to enjoy myself I was too busy trying not to look stupid During performance, I always got caught up with what it was going to be I hated losing I was playing not to lose My focus now is in the MOMENT I savor the moment Every moment is of every performance is something to be fully experienced and enjoyed I take each moment for what it is When I do this (savor the moment), I experience = calm, strength & energy I feel more positive I feel more in control Things start to flow automatically No tension No anxiety No fear I am right here and now I am loving every minute of it I just do I just do: Ive got excess energy Im mentally on target My mind and my body seem to click Im no longer fighting myself Im flowing with the current Now I look forward I feel like a kid I am excited I feel lucky to have a chance to do what I am doing

When I lose this moment I think about winning and losing I think about what I should have done or not done All the negatives come charging back.

I try to get psyched I try to concentrate I try to perform well My mind and body does not click. I am fighting myself Im fighting against the current

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

0: Introduction

0-2

In the Past . I kept getting in the way I was determined to succeed I wanted to win at all cost I wanted to prove to myself and everyone I could do it My motto: try harder be stronger Problem: I tried too hard I was forcing it These makes a situation worse: Trying to play better Trying not to get angry Trying to concentrate Trying not to be nervous Trying Harder giving 100% effort I worry about the guy on the other side

Now I dont get in the way as much anymore.

Key Try softer Be calmer

Giving 100% effort I worry about me, not him ! He is easy I am my own toughest opponent. Savoring the Moment . 2 benefits: It brings me back to what I am doing makes it fun again It is easier to keep that feeling (pumped up, positive, confident, invincible), and when I lose it, I can get them back the same way. When I lose these feelings, I act as if I had them . And they come back!

Keeping the feelings (pumped up, positive, confident, invincible) is a problem Something wold happen (even something little), and suddenly the feeling would be gone. So I try harder, but feeling never came back.

I thought: that those feelings come only when I play well.

Truth: I play well because I have those feelings When I feel right, I perform right (When I dont feel right, I dont perform right, no matter how hard I try) These right feelings come when I live in every moment when I love and savor every moment when I am in the NOW

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

1. Mental Toughness

1-1

Mental Toughness
No One Ever Told Me I was overwhelmed by frustration, anger, self-doubt I fought myself every inch of the way During competition, my inner world was frantic mix of Panic Rage Panic tied up with fears: Fear of looking bad Fear of losing to someone I shouldnt Fear of choking Fear of winning Rage reflect Frustration (with myself) Disappointment (with myself) (These Negative) Emotions would build inside me. The results: mistake after mistake Failure after failure. The solution I know: Try harder Physiology Muscle tight Brain fast and frantic What is important during competition Relaxation Calmness Quiet

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

1. Mental Toughness

1-2

Mental Toughness and Consistency Feel out of control I feel like I am playing Russian Roulette I dont know if I will play poorly and be blown away I dont know if I will play well and be spared We rarely play to our full potential. This causes: Guilt Self-doubt Anger Self-criticism People become casualties of sport (e.g. quit) Frustration Mental anguish Mental Training = Reaching and performing at potential consistently

Consistency = ultimate measure of mental toughness in athlete. = earmark of a champion Consistent Performance requires 2 things (1) Good technique and form (2) Good mental skills Playing well is the result of creating a particular atmosphere within yourself. Players who can consistently create this special atmosphere or climate within themselves perform consistently. MENTAL TOUGHNESS IS LEARNED, NOT INHERITED. Mentally tough competitors have following learned mental skills: Self-Motivated and Self-Directed Positive but Realistic In Control of His Emotions Calm and Relaxed Under Fire Highly Energetic and Ready for Action Determined See next page Mentally Alert and Focused Dogged Self-Confidence Fully Responsible Your INNER STRENGTH makes the ultimate difference.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

1. Mental Toughness

1-3

Mental Toughness and Consistency (cont) Learned Mental Skills of Mentally Tough Athlete: Self-Motivated and Self-Directed Direction comes from within Does not need to be pushed, shoved or forced Hes involved because he wants to be. Positive but Realistic Not a complainer, criticizer, fault finder, destroyer a builder Eyes are fixed on success Eyes are fixed on what can happen Eyes are fixed on what is possible In Control of His Emotions There will always be Powerful Triggers of Negative Emotions (e.g. bad refereeing, stupid mistakes, obnoxious opponents, poor playing conditions, Negative Emotions (anger, frustration, fear) must be controlled, or they will control you Calm and Relaxed Under Fire Does not avoid pressure He is challenged by pressure Being put to the test is not a threat Being put to the test is a challenge Being put to the test is opportunity to explore self-potential Highly Energetic and Ready for Action He is his own igniter He can ignite himself in spite of fatigue, personal problems, or bad luck No matter how bad he feels, or how meaningless the situation, he is capable of getting himself pumped up and energized for playing his best Determined He is relentless in the pursuit of his goals Setbacks are taken in stride as he inches forward Mentally Alert and Focused Capable of long and intensive periods of total concentration Can tune in to whats important (even under pressure) Can tune out what is not important (even under pressure) Dogged Self-Confidence Unshatterable sense of self-confidence Strong belief in himself and in his ability to perform well Does not fall victim to others self-defeating thoughts and ideas Not easily intimidated Fully Responsible Takes full responsibility for his own actions There are no excuses: either he did or he didnt Ultimately, everything begins and ends with him, and he is comfortable with that. He is aware that his future is in his own hands.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

1. Mental Toughness

1-4

12

The Contest Within Yourself You will always be your own toughest opponent The greatest obstacle between you and your goal is YOU! Focusing on winning and losing the external contest too often leads to performance paralysis. Fears of winning and losing lead to: Muscle tightness Excessive anxiety Poor concentration To perform at your best, have one focus: Doing the best that you can Focus on doing the very best you can winning the contest with yourself

How to Win the match with yourself: (1) I gave my best effort every moment. I gave 100% (2) I maintained predominantly positive, healthy and optimistic attitude with myself (3) I accepted full responsibility for me today, for what I did and didnt do (didnt blame parents, weather, bad equipment, cheating opponents or anything else). Winning the contest with yourself is hard work it is the ultimate challenge Key: The conquest of self You will be victorious more consistently when you consistently win the inner contest. The contest of me against myself

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

1. Mental Toughness

1-5

16

A Formula for Success 4 Step formula for Success: Step 1: Self Discipline

Step 2: Self-Control

Step 3: Self-Confidence

Step 4: Self Realization

Step 1: Self Disciplined Do whatever you have to do Make whatever sacrifices are necessary to get the job done, the best you know how Giving up things you like in order to achieve a higher goal. Step 2: Self-Control Self-Discipline leads to Self-Control As you discipline yourself, you experience steady increases in self-control, Control of what you do Control of what you think Control of how you react Step 3: Self-Confidence Self-Control leads directly to Self-confidence What Tracks is for Trains (without it, train goes nowhere) Self-Confidence is for Athletes (without it, athlete goes nowhere) Self-confidence = the unshatterable belief in yourself, comes from knowing that you are in control Step 4: Self-Realization Self-Realization = Being the best that you can be = manifestation of your talents and skills as an athlete Self-Realization flows directly from Self-Confidence. Once you believe in yourself and feel good about yourself, you are opening the doors to your full potential.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

1. Mental Toughness

1-6

17

The AET Model Summary of AET Model Mental toughness is learned, not inherited The ultimate measure of mental toughness is consistency Mental Toughness is Learned, not Inherited Mental Toughness is an acquired skill You either learn to be mentally tough, or you dont. Process of getting Mental Toughness: Hard-work Understanding Practice The point: if you want to be Mentally Tough, you can !

Consistency Target of AET = increased performance consistency

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-1

The AET Model


2.1 Origin of AET 19 The success of AET is due to the fact that it comes from the players and coaches themselves It is not armchair theory Performance Consistency is the result of Psychological Consistency Consistency on the outside requires consistency on the inside. The ability to establish and maintain a stable internal climate during competitive play (leads to) competitive success. An Individuals Performance depends on the success they have in creating and maintaining a particular kind of mental climate within themselves. To the extent that an athlete was unable to establish this particular mental state, performance suffered. When athletes are performing well, they invariably are experiencing a highly distinct and specific mental state. The Level of Performance is an accurate reflection of the kind of internal climate existing within the performers themselves. Right Internal Conditions lead to Peak Performance. Playing well or Playing poorly is a natural reflection of the mental state. When the right internal conditions are present, playing toward the upper range of your capabilities occur automatically. Ideal Performance State an ideal performance climate (internal) There is a connection between this internal state and playing well. The Component Elements of the Ideal Performance State are fundamentally the same for all athletes and across all sports. The Ideal Performance State is most accurately described in terms of specific feeling states experienced by the individual performers. The most important mental skills required in competitive sport are those associated with creating and maintaining the Ideal Performance State during play. Controlling the Ideal Performance State is directly related to the acquisition of a core of essential mental skills. These skills are the direct focus of the AET procedures. Mental Toughness requires a high degree of control over the Ideal Performance State. The more you practice, the better you get. Maintaining the right internal climate when things are going your way is tough enough. The real test of mental skills come when the pressure is on, when the world is against you, and when everything has turned upside down.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-2

2.2

The Ideal Performance State Composite I felt physically very relaxed, but really energized and pumped up. I experienced virtually no anxiety or fear, and the whole experience was totally enjoyable. I experienced a very real sense of calmness and quiet inside, and everything just seemed to flow automatically. I really didnt have to think about what I was suppose to do; it just seemed to happen naturally. Even though I was really hustling, it was all very effortless. I always seemed to have enough time and energy and rarely felt rushed almost at times as if I were performing in slow motion. I felt like I could do almost anything, as if I were in complete control. I felt confident and positive. It also seemed very easy to concentrate. I was totally tuned in to what I was doing. I was also super-aware aware of everything but distracted by nothing. It almost seemed like I knew what was going to happen before it actually did. Critical Understanding 1. Your level of performance is a direct reflection of the way you feel inside. 2. When you feel right, you can perform right. 3. Playing well is a natural consequence of the right kind of internal feelings. 4. Playing as well as you can at the moment occur automatically when the right emotional balance has been established. 5. In the final analysis, mental toughness is the ability to create and maintain the right kind of internal feeling regardless of the circumstances. 6. The most important step you can take to perform to your best is to create a particular climate within yourself and maintain it, no matter what ! Which Comes First? The internal state comes first. When the right internal climate takes form, playing well occurs naturally and spontaneously. The wrong climate is like trying to get a seed to grow in frozen soil. The climate and the conditions just wont allow the seed and soil to properly connect. The right climate helps to bridge a gap, the gap between what you can do as an athlete, and what you actually do. As soon as the conditions are right the right combination of temperature, water and so on, - the connection is easily made, and the potential of one with the other can be realized.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-3

2.2

The Ideal Performance State (cont)

A Closer Look at the IPS 12 aspects of ideal climate: Aspects Feelings Physically When you feel relaxed and loose relaxed Mentally Calm When you feel a sense of calmness and quiet inside Low Anxiety When you feel no anxiety or nervousness Energized When you feel charged with high energy Optimistic When you feel optimistic and positive Enjoyment When you feel a genuine sense of fun and enjoyment in your play. Effortless When your performance feels effortless Automatic When you feel automatic and spontaneous in your play Alert When you feel mentally alert Mentally When you feel mentally focused and tuned in Focused Self-confident When you feel highly self-confident In control When you feel in control of yourself. AET = to help you achieve control over this special mental IPS state. The training procedures and concepts are designed To help you acquire the necessary mental skills That will enable you to Identify your IPS Trigger your IPS Maintain your IPS Regardless of the circumstances of play. 1 Physically Relaxed Athletes perform best when: theyre feeling loose they are experiencing no nervous muscle tension Mentally Calm When Athletes are performing well, They experience a sense of calm and quiet inside. They experience things going in slow motion. Everything seemed to slow down, and I had all the time in the world to make my move Low Anxiety Athletes perform best when: They feel no anxiety whatsoever No one performs well under pressure. To be a good performer, you must be able to take tough and difficult situations and make them PRESSURE FREE. Their greatness is in their learned ability to take the pressure off.

Athletes do not perform well when: Muscles feel moderately of slightly tight

2 Athlete do not perform well when Mental State is fast accelerated racy 3 Athlete do not perform well when they feel: nervous (even a little) anxious (even a little)

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-4

2.2

The Ideal Performance State (cont) 4 Athletes do not perform well when Source of Energy (feelings of): anxiety fear anger frustration

A Closer Look at the IPS (cont) Energized Athletes perform best when: They feel pumped with positive energy You can never get too much positive energy Source of energy = JOY Having right energy source leads to Feelings of: Enjoyment Fun Loving what they are doing. Unique combination = positive energy + profound sense of inner calm!

5 Even slightly negative and pessimistic feelings make staying loose, calm and positively energized impossible. 6

Optimistic Feeling positive and optimistic to perform well Makes staying loose, calm and positively energized possible. Fun / Enjoyment Principle: what you can enjoy, you can perform. Principle: if its fun, you can perform. You play well because you had fun! (We do not have fun because we play well!) Having fun and enjoying yourself: is key to staying relaxed, calm, unanxious, positively energized and optimistic. Is boundless energy source Is a highly controllable feeling Learn to: Love to struggle Love the battle Love the confrontation

7 When things dont go well try harder! But trying harder leads to: Physical: Tight muscle Mental: Fast and frantic mental state

Effortless When things dont go well try softer! I give 100% to the task, but I must also: let go and let it happen by itself Playing well is effortless! Playing well occurs when: We give 100% to the task of letting it happen by itself. Learn to try softer try easier When we play well, time seems to slow and it all becomes easy.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-5

2.2

The Ideal Performance State (cont) 8 Playing by Thinking Paralysis by Analysis Syndrome Think my way: into brilliant performance out of performance problem 9

A Closer Look at the IPS (cont) Automatic Playing by Instinct Let go and play automatically. Learn to: Turn on the automatic Play by instinct (swifter and more precise) Alert When athletes are in IPS, they experience Extraordinary awareness Aware of their own bodies Aware of position of players around them Whos likely to do what Where they are What they are doing Ability to anticipate well To read what is about to happen To respond intelligently to the present Mentally Focused Central to Performing Well: Focus ones attention to a specific target Resist being distracted from ones target (1) Attentional Control comes from = right mixture of calmness + high positive energy. (2) Athletes who perform well typically are not trying to concentrate. Concentration occurs naturally when inner conditions are right.

10

Attentional Control is not possible when: mind is in turmoil Mind is not properly energized Athletes who do not perform well: Are trying to concentrate Concentration rarely increases with conscious acts of trying harder. 11

Self-Confident Self-confidence the feeling that you can do it the feeling that you can be successful the feeling that keeps you calm and poised (in midst of turmoil) This feeling of self-confidence can be cultivated and controlled (learned)

12

In Control The feeling of I am in control of me When athletes are in IPS, they experience Feeling of inner strength Feeling of self-control Feeling of being in control of the situation, rather than the situation controlling you. In competition: There are a lot of things we cannot control But we can (in fact) stay in complete control by controlling our emotional response to those events!

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-6

2.3

Pressure, Pressure, Pressure Nobody plays well under pressure Skillful competitors play well in pressure situations precisely because they have eliminated the pressure. The fans may be wild, but the players who are doing well are in a completely different place psychologically. Although they were intellectually aware (thought) they were in a tough situation, they didnt feel the pressure inside (emotion). So, athletes perform best in pressure situations when they are able to successfully maintain their own Ideal Performance State. Why Dont they Feel The Pressure? Pressure is something you put on yourself. People view: Playing for fun = easy Playing competitively = too much hard work. The only difference between playing a sports competitively and playing it for fun is pressure. But the game is played exactly the same way in both cases. Keep score the same The rules dont change Often playing the same people The only difference is the difference you make in your head! E.g.: One counts, and the other doesnt My ego is really on the line in competition What will people think if I lose when it counts Competition: Just as much fun Fust as pressure free (like social play) When this happens, we become a mentally tough competitor. Pressure comes from within, not from without. In the physical world, there are no concrete, physical forces working on us. Situations are not nervous or anxious people are Its your interpretation of what is out there that gets you in trouble! Once we realize the above, we can start shutting pressure down

You can structure situations in your thoughts so that it is impossible to play relaxed, calm and positively energized.

Competition Hard Threatening Frustrating Unnerving

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-7

2.3

Pressure, Pressure, Pressure (cont) Disciplined Thinkers Undisciplined Think: Thinking the wrong thought Quickly lead to pressure problems. E.g. If I dont sink this putt, Ill lose $10,500 If I dont complete this pass, well never make the playoffs. The whole game rests on me if I dont hit these two free throws, what will everyone say? Sample Thoughts That Produce Pressure The pressure is awesome What if I dont do well? What if I blow it now; Ill never be the same Ill never live it down if I lose If I dont do it now, Ill lose everything My career is on the line Just think of what Ill lose if I dont pull this one out. Ill drop from second to tenth if I dont win this one. Mentally tough competitors manage pressure well Because they have become disciplined thinkers. They recognize a connection between: What they think, and How much pressure they experience during play. Changes that occur in the head (thinking) Will lead to Changes that occur in the body (action) Sample Thoughts That Reduce Pressure Pressure is something I put on myself. Im just going to do the best I can and let the cards fall where they may. Im simply going to focus on doing my job the best I know how. Im going to have one hell of a lot of fun out there, no matter what. Even if Im not the greatest today, It wont be the end of the world Winning and losing is for the fans; I simply perform. I love tough situations; the tougher the situation, the better I perform Im going to be OK, no matter what. Positive words Im simply going to I simply perform Do the best I can Focus on doing my job One hell of a lot of fun

Negative words: What if Ill lose If I dont If I blow it

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-8

2.3

Pressure, Pressure, Pressure (cont) Threat v Challenge Fold Under Pressure Face adversity. Become Bitter Frustrated Negative Pessimistic Finds all kinds of reason why he cant perform Coach Management Salary Lousy team, etc How does he construct the situation in his head? Mentally structured the situation to be = Threat (this mental construct is under our own control) Thrive under Pressure Face same adversity. Become Stronger Mentally tougher More determined Play becomes more inspired and enthusiastic In spite of confusion and craziness Continues to move forward No gripe about reasons

How does he construct the situation in his head? Mentally structured the situation to be = Challenge (this mental construct is under our own control) This Control is acquired by structuring our thoughts and ideas in positive constructive directions

If perceive situation as Threat We will have IPS problems and IPS will be unrealizable fantasy The more threatening the situation, The more serious the problem. Inevitable Problems: Problems with muscle tightness Problems with controlling anxiety Problems with staying calm Problems with attentional control

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-9

2.3

Pressure, Pressure, Pressure (cont) Threat v Challenge (cont) Physiology of Threat In reality, the situation is NOT Threatening A third set tie breaker in tennis for $10,000 An overtime free throw for the championship But athlete can perceive the situation as a THREAT (the trigger of THREAT) Threat triggers Flight or Fight response (physiology) Pounding heart Rapid breathing Trembling body Elevated blood pressure Heightened fear or anger Braced and tight muscle Tunnel vision Adrenaline pumping Once Threat triggered, impossible to reach IPS ! To serve the ace or to sink the free throw, we need Calmness Relaxation Positive Energy Self-Control To be successful, we must insulate ourselves against that trigger of THREAT. We can control our internal reactions to changing external events: We are not helpless victims of our biological instincts There are no actual physical forces in the world compelling us to react to stress in a particular way. Controlling the trigger means controlling the way we think about the situations we face as competitors. KEY = transform potentially threatening and difficult situations Into exciting self-challenges KEY Focus on eliminating the pressure Stop thinking about performing well under pressure Stop thinking about choking under pressure This skill (of eliminating pressure) separates superstars from the troops. They have: the ability to take the pressure off. The ability to transform crisis into opportunity The ability to turn threat into challenges All that stands between you and that ability . Is your head !

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-10

2.3

Pressure, Pressure, Pressure (cont) Raging Bull or Possum External Situation (Neutral) You Gotta Love Adversity ! Adversity: Nobody is there for you The weather is so rotten, you can hardly stand up Sick all week and got no practice Opponents get all the breaks, and you get none Everyone has written you off Your personal falls apart You are injured and you are not sure if you can or cant

Perceived as a THREAT

THREAT= automatically Triggers off unproductive Fight or Flight Response ( 2 Types)

Raging Bull

Pounding heart Rapid breathing Trembling body Elevated blood pressure Heightened fear or anger Braced and tight muscle Tunnel vision Adrenaline

Possum Shut down alarm response Play dead inside no lose temper dont feel anxious stay loose

Adversity triggers feelings of : Anger Resentment Frustration Nervousness Produce overwhelming FEELINGS of PRESSURE In TOP COMPEITTORS, these produce Feelings of challenge Feelings of inspiration Feelings of determination Feelings of positiveness In Short, you gotta love adversity! The greater the adversity The more you feel the challenge The more you fight. Transform adversity and pressure into challenges / inspiration: Rather than dread playing the other person love it! Rather than panicking when it goes against you get inspired! Rather than playing timid when door starts to close on you you summon all the positive forces and charge forward! The Importance of Rituals Rituals can become powerful triggers for creating IPS. Rituals Help in deepening concentration Turning on the automatic Raising intensity Staying loose, etc

Performance = miserable Reason: Absence of energy + fire Looks like: Lazy Unmotivated Not playing with heart Not caring Athlete response Forceful angry

Performance = bad

When game goes badly or when we start feeling pressure, we short circuit our rituals we bounce the balls less we take fewer deep breaths we visualize differently we cut down the time by half

When game goes badly or when we start feeling pressure, we must keep to our rituals take more than enough time to prepare prior to execution complete our pre-performance ritual in its entirety Develop rituals! Rituals that help me feel loose, confident, energized (1,2,3) Pre-Performance Rituals (1,2,3)

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-11

2.4

The Right Energy Negative Energy Fear Anxiety Negativism Sel-Doubt

Positive v Negative Energy Positive Energy Confidence Determination Self-belief Joy Momentum Team Spirit Positiveness High High Negative Energy High Positive Energy B D Low Negative Energy Low High Nervous Fearful Anxious Angry Frustrated Upset Vengeful Alert Energetic Lively Stimulated Vigorous Enthused High Team Spirit B D Bored Disinterested Annoyed Irritated Low High A C Tired Fatigue Weary Exhausted Out of Gas Pleasant A C Low Positive Energy Pleasant

Unpleasant

Unpleasant

rigid inflexible no mental focus

Tight Muscles Accelerated Mental State Tunnel Vision B D Low Muscle Tension Variable Calmness Unfocused Poor Concentration Low High Moderate Performance #2 chance good performance A C

Relaxed Muscles Calm Mental State Focused Concentrated

NO Fight or Flight Reaction

Unpleasant
Inconsistency Unpredictability Distracted easily

Pleasant Relaxed Muscles Calm Mental State Unfocused Poor Concentration


Attention wanders Distracted easily Effort to focus

Peak Performance #1 chance good performance B D A C Poor Performance #3 chance good performance Low Pleasant

Unpleasant Very Poor Performance #4 chance good performance

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-12

2.4 The Right Energy (cont) Positive v Negative Energy (cont) High I really want it Im not enough I wont be able to - THREAT Unpleasant Id rather be doing about anything else. This is boring - Mild Threat Low High High Energy HighNegative Negative Energy
Anxiety Fear Anger Frustration

I really want it Im Challenged I can do it! - No Threat B D A C I want to, but not all that much Pleasant

- No Threat -

High Positive Positive Energy Energy High


Calmness Strength Power Control

Unpleasant Low Negative Energy Low Negative Energy


No Fun No Energy No Fire No Life

B D

A C Low Positive Energy Low Positive Energy


Calmness Pleasantness Lacks Power Lacks Depth

Pleasant

Low High High Negative Energy High Positive Energy Takes time Best Performance = 60% only Takes effort Highly Motivated to do well Perceive Event as = THREAT Emotions: Anxiety Fear Anger Frustration Hate Tension Resentment Negativism Highly Motivated to do well Perceive Event as = Challenge Emotions: Calmness Strength Power Control Fun Enjoyment Determination Self-motivation Love what you are doing JOY Optimism Challenge High Team Spirit B D Low Negative Energy Low A C
Increase Power Increase Intensity

Unpleasant

Pleasant

Low Positive Energy

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-13

2.4 The Right Energy (cont) Intensity is Simply High Energy HIGH NEGATIVE INTENSITY Loss of Calmness Tight Muscles Poor Concentration Determination Aggressiveness Effort Im going for it High High Negative Energy High Positive Energy HIGH INTENSITY (HIGH ENERGY) Pleasant Low Positive Energy Low High-Octane Energy Think of Human Body = sophisticated high-performance engine that need good high-octane fuel to run ! 40/60 Mix (catastrophe ! ) NEGATIVE ENERGY Low-Octane Fuel High Negative Energy 50/50 Mix (borderline) 75/25 Mix (so so) POSITIVE ENERGY High-Octane Fuel High Positive Energy 100/0 Mix (best) Low Intensity (Low Energy) HIGH POSITIVE INTENSITY

Unpleasant Low Negative Energy

B D

A C

High

Unpleasant Low Negative Energy

B D

A C Low Positive Energy

Pleasant

Level of Performance = Poor

Low

Level of Performance = High

Poor judgment Tight muscles Early fatigue Poor concentration Loss of control Trick = keep Positive Energy up!

Low-Octane Negative Activators Anger Resentment Anxiety Hate Fear Tension Negativism Threat Frustration

High -Octane Positive Activators Fun Joy Love Determination Optimism Enjoyment Pride Self-Challenge Team Spirit Self-motivation

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-14

2.4 The Right Energy (cont) An Ancient Understanding Universal Life Force KI (Japanese) CHI (Chinese) Soft Energy (Loehr) Negative KI (KI-) Thoughts- Actions- Results(Ranch = Life Force Particles)

Positive KI (KI+) Thoughts+ Actions+ Results+ Health Harmony Fulfillment Positive Energy Joy Fun Love Challenge Optimism Determination Enjoyment Ki+

KI-

Negative Energy Anxiety Anger Hate Fear Negativism Frustration Distrust

ThoughtsAction-

Fast & Frantic Mental State Poor Concentration Tight Muscles

Calm Mental State Good Concentration Relaxed Muscles

Thoughts+ Actions+

Results-

Low-Level Performance

High-Level Performance

Results+

Ski Racer

Negative Energy Externals: Wind is bad Course is in poor condition Feelings: Concerned Nervous

Positive Energy Externals: Wind bites, snow is blinding Feelings: Loving every minute of it. Feeling Wired Feeling Supercharged Thoughts: This is my moment This is what I was born to do! No matter what, this is the greatest!

Thoughts: Competition is particularly tough Tired of waiting around How can anyone perform under these conditions? Body: Cold Swimmer Feelings: Feeling short fused (striking rattlesnake) Feeling Pressure. Thoughts: I have no clue how I got here Im outclassed. I dont belong here Just dont look bad Just dont let anyone down Today will be done with and I can start sleeping and eating normally again!

Body: feel tingling sensation up and down neck Feelings: Looking forward to today Feeling psyched just to have the chance! Thoughts: For first time, got chance to compete with 5 top state swimmers Got opportunity to swim against John Taylor! What a great opportunity! Body: Objectively speaking, not as good as others, but this does not phase me out.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-15

Football

Negative Energy Externals: Humiliated by other team last time. Made your team looked really bad Feelings: Angry (at prior loss) Personal vendetta (tomorrows game) Detest several of those other players Thoughts: Committed to getting even (revenge time) They won first game unfairly. They won first game by luck. Body: Just thinking about it I get all tied up inside

Positive Energy Externals: Humiliated by other team last time. Made your team looked really bad Feelings: (Last time: allowed self to be hopelessly intimidated) This time, I am going to hold my own.

How to Deal with Prior Loss

IPS

Thoughts: This time will be different I have one central focus = doing my job the best I know how, no matter what! Body: I am better prepared, I have worked harder I know what I am capable of! Externals: New coach does not like me

Baseball How to Deal with Jerks

Externals: Slump for 3 months now Pitching and batting lousy Thoughts: Convinced new coach does not like me This guy is a real jerk He took all the fun out of playing Feelings: Feel defensive Develop strong feelings of resentment Feel strong dislike for coach

Thoughts: Not sure why coach does not like me (pitching style? Personality? What?)

Feelings: IPS (Existing Feelings of anger, resentment, upset) Get hold of feelings + Turn situation around Feel determined that this guy is not going to undermine my enthusiasm and desire for the game. Learned a long time ago how important being positive is to my playing well. Convinced: enthusiasm, sprit and hard work will pan things out. Body:

Body: Hard to give best effort . Because deep inside, we want to make this guy look bad. Basketball Externals: Did not win State Championship last year Everyone said we have best chance We had the shooters, we had the talents Feelings: Players never came together as a team Individuals trying to be stars Everyone jealous of everyone else No one went out of way to help anyone else Someone was always criticizing something Nothing was every right Bench was always quiet, even when close to winning.

Externals: Win State Championship last year No one gave us a chance Team did not have height or shooters Feelings: Feel Momentum building from very first game Feel Team Spirit Feel Invincible Feel Supercharged Feel closeness Everyone was helping each other, building them up, making them feel good inside.

Team Spirit

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-16

2.4 The Right Energy (cont) Trying Not To Rarely Works Trying No to rarely produces the results you want Lesson: (1) Decide what you want to feel (2) GO AFTER IT!

High

High Negative Energy Perceive Event as = THREAT

Focus on Increasing Positive Energy Flow Example: Focus on playing smart Confident aggressively Trying Not To be Fearful Angry fails Nervous Example Playing Not To Make Mistakes Playing Not to Look Bad

High Positive Energy Perceive Event as = Challenge Emotions: Calmness Strength Power Control Fun Enjoyment Determination Self-motivation Love what you are doing JOY Optimism Challenge High Team Spirit Pleasant Low Positive Energy

Emotions: Anxiety Fear Anger Frustration Hate Tension Resentment Negativism

Unpleasant Low Negative Energy

B D

A C

Low

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-17

2.4 The Right Energy (cont) Momentum as Positive Energy FLow High High Negative Energy

M+ MM+

High Positive Energy

Unpleasant Low Negative Energy

B D

A C

M-

M+

Pleasant

MLow

Low Positive Energy

Negative Momentum (M-) M- = intensifying loss of IPS feelings M- Experience = Feelings of increasing Low confidence Negative thoughts Negative energy flow Frantic mental state M- were stalling were falling backwards

Positive Momentum (M+) M+ = intensifying feeling of IPS positive feelings M+ Experience = Feelings of increased confidence optimism energy alertness M+: were rolling!

Mental Toughness and Momentum

Flow of Momentum We can LEARN to control this Flow of Momentum. KEY = practice maintaining internal IPS climate KEY = practice maintaining flow of positive energy KI+ Patience Poise Wait to get momentum back

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-18

2.5

The Right Attitude Attitudes = Thinking Habits Attitudes are the stuff of which Champions are made Mentally Tough Competitors are Disciplined Thinkers Attitudes = habits of thoughts These habits of thoughts make or break the competitor Thinking Right Ideal Performance State leads to our Best Performance IPS . Linked to flow of positive energy (from before) IPS + flow of positive energy = tied to particular mental attitudes. Right Attitudes stimulate the flow of positive energy (energizing attitudes) [step-up] helps control flow of energy in positive direction (controlling [direction] attltudes) Controlling Attitudes (direction) 1. Pressure is something I put on myself 2. Winning will take care of itself; I simply perform 3. Hard work can be fun 4. When I enjoy, I can perform 5. Choking is not a weakness of character 6. I accept full responsibility for myself 7. I simply focus on doing the very best I can at every moment 8. Mistakes simply represent feedback and are a necessary part of learning anything well. Energizing Attitudes (step-up) 1. I will always give my best effort 2. I take pride in what I represent 3. I am going to thoroughly enjoy myself as I perform 4. Having fun is an important key to playing well 5. My attitude is offensive rather than defensive 6. I strive to be positive and enthusiastic, no matter what 7. Im willing to pay the price, no matter what 8. I will be successful

Reduce Your Negativism Absolute Rule To achieve your fullest potential as a competitor, Your must reduce your negativism to a minimum. Negativism See how negative the inner voice (i.v.) is? How often am I consumed in negative thinking? Inner Voice + Habit of Negative Thinking Powerful forces tt block realization of our potential Negativism erodes our INNER STRENGTH! Undermines our confidence Undermines our enthusiasm Undermines our willingness to invest & persist Undermines our beliefs in ourselves ! Negativism = programming for failure. Negativism = very very harmful! What goes on in mind is reflected in body! Negativism is Controllable! Start taking charge! Step 3: Replace the negative talk (or negative thought) with something positive and constructive. Control your Negativism (Programming for Success) To achieve our IPS, we must Control our Negativism (3-steps) Step 1: Listen to what you are saying and thinking Become aware of thinking and inner voice Be sensitive to any negativism Start blowing whistle on yourself as soon as any negative input is generated. Step 2: As soon as become aware of any negativism, shout STOP (i.v.) Youll be amazed that it actually stops !

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-19

2.5

The Right Attitude (cont)

The Attitudes of Success Attitude towards Fun and Enjoyment What I can enjoy, can perform Having fun makes playing well possible (not vice versa!) Ability to enjoy myself in competition = fundamentally important Make having fun a high priority during play, I can enjoy and have fun no matter how difficult the situation may be. Impact on IPS With proper attitude towards fun, athletes report that they: - Stay relaxed - Experience no anxiety - Remain calm, alert energized Having fun is a powerful source of positive energy The more fun they have, the more energy they have. I love what Im doing its great!

Attitudes towards Winning and Losing eliminate most of the energy stemming from negative activators such as Anxiety Tension Fear Most Anxiety Tension Fear stems from concerns about - Losing - Winning - Looking bad - Playing Poorly. As such, athlete must look for other sources of energy (energizing attitudes): Attitude of having Fun Attitude of Self-Challenge Wrong Attitude Towards Winning Winning is everything I must win at all cost I have value only if I win I cant tolerate the thought of losing I am useless if I lose Winning is good and Losing is bad I am strong if I win and weak if I lose I am a success if I win and a failure if I lose.

Right Attitude toward Winning and Losing (Attitude of Self-Challenge) Winning is important goal for me Obsession with winning is self-defeating My #1 effort winning My #1 effort , my focus, my goal = performing to the very best of my ability at any moment = doing the best at the moment

Winning will take care of myself. I simply perform. Reality: I am performing against myself, not someone else. I will always be my own toughest opponent. Winning the contest with myself and my external world becomes possible when I learn to establish the right internal conditions. Impact on IPS Provides a non-interfering target for the athlete, target of doing the best he can - Lowers of tension and anxiety - Helps produce mental calmness (important to performance) - Help improves athletes concentration and focusing efforts - Reduces tension and anxiety levels during play. Note: Winning is, in fact, everything! But fact: an athlete that is preoccupied (obsessed) with winning will show deterioration of performance. Better performance comes when: - Focus on performing to your best - Proceed to establish and maintain right internal conditions (- reduce focus on winning).

* = The statements I feel sensitive about


Impact on IPS This attitudes are triggers of negative energy ! This energy is extremely difficult to control. Wrong attitudes to winning leads to: Over-arousal Negative performances High levels of fear No relaxation No mental calmness

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-20

2.5

The Right Attitude (cont) Wrong Attitude Towards Mistakes Mistakes cannot be tolerated If Im tough, Ill never make mistakes If I punish myself for making mistakes, it will prevent me from making those same mistakes in the future. If I dont get upset with myself, I will just keep right on making inexcusable mistakes. Dumb mistakes makes me furious Winners just dont make mistakes To be a winner, I must stop making mistakes I must be perfectly competent and adequate

Attitudes Towards Mistakes Right Attitude Towards Mistakes Mistakes are a necessary part of learning anything well. Mistakes are inevitable part of participation. If I dont make mistakes, I wont learn. Mistakes simply represent feedback. If I become upset (emotion), I cannot listen or adjust, I am therefore bound to repeat. Right Internal Climate -> minimized mistakes.

*
Impact on IPS Attitude Mistakes are necessary part of learning anything well Stays calm and relaxed Stays positive and optimistic Continues to experience enjoyment in play

Impact on IPS Mistakes are inevitable part of participation Attitudes such at the above leads to: Anger Self-doubt Negative attitude. Over-arousal

Attitude Towards Pressure Wrong Attitude Towards Pressure I have little or no control over how much pressure I feel. Ive never held up under pressure well Certain people, places and events are threatening to me. Thats just the way I am. I know I dont perform well in those situations, but its not as if I choose to react that way. It just happens. Right Attitude Toward Pressure. I understand that pressure is something I put on myself Pressure (and any resulting anxiety) comes from the way I choose to see the situation. Whether a situation is seen as a THREAT or an exciting SELFCHALLENGE is within control (my choice) When I see the situation as a THREAT, negative activators come to the surface: Tension, Anxiety, Fear. When the same situation is seen as a SELF-CHALLENGE, positive energy is released, producing opposite reactions The ultimate challenge of handling pressure is the challenge of mentally reconstructing the event or situation so that it is seen as a positive self-challenge rather than as a threat. Transforming crisis into opportunity begins and ends in my head. Impact on IPS With the above attitudes, an athlete can find himself vicitimized by pressure situations. Over-arousal Threat and Fun is not compatible. Impact on IPS Ability to see situation as self-challenge (rather than a threat) results in high positive energy Leads to lower anxiety and fear Lead to mental calmness Leads to appropriate relaxation Enhances having fun and remaining optimistic Challenge and Fun highly compatible!

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-21

2.5

The Right Attitude (cont) Wrong Attitude Towards Control Winners never choke when it counts Winners dont fold under pressure Choking is a sign of weakness Choking is a true reflection of character To choke is the worst thing that can happen If I choke, I am not trying hard enough If I choke, I am not giving enough effort. Most things are caused by events and happenings outside myself Luck of fate determines my future in sports more than anything else. My opponent seems to get all the good breaks, all the good luck. When things go bad, I have little control over them.

Attitude Towards Control Right Attitude Towards Control Choking occurs when I perceive a situation to be a THREAT (thus triggering my fight or flight response). Choking is nothing more than my failure to maintain the right internal conditions. Choking is an indication that I am out there trying, taking a risk. Thats the only way I will ever learn to control it. I understand that finest athlete can choke on occasions. I can and will develop substantial control over choking I understand I will never be immune to choking The more I fear choking, the more likely it is I will experience it. Choking is not a weakness of character Choking is not a flaw in my personality

Impact on IPS With above wrong attitudes Athlete often feels helpless as he struggles not to choke during competition. Pressure situations lead to anxiety and fear Athlete begins to dislike competition During competition, Athlete is quickly threatened, loses confidence and generally plays poorly.

Impact on IPS The above right attitude: Produces poise and control Learn to control choke by recognizing choking is merely failure to maintain one or more critical elements of IPS

Positive Attitudes Wrong Attitudes (Negative and Pessimistic) I can only be positive when I am doing well, but when I start to make stupid mistakes, it is impossible to play well. Some athletes are just naturally eventempered and positive. Ive always been a little negative, but thats just me. I tried being positive, but it doesnt work Ive played really lousy, even though I had a positive attitude. It will take some time and convincing to get me to believe being positive is really all that necessary. Impact on IPS Negative attitudes lead to poor performance No relaxation No mental calmness High anxiety Low energy Right Attitude towards being Positive and Optimistic Having the correct attitude requires me to make a choice. I have made the choice to have a positive attitude. Being positive and optimistic is important to performing well. Maintaining a positive and enthusiastic attitude is a learned skill, not something that just naturally happens. I understand that I can eliminate negativism with hard work, practice and dedication. I recognize that eliminating negative mental habits take time, but I will make time for this learning, and I will be successful.

Impact on IPS Positive attitude leads to good performance. It is good to spend time, effort and energy to learn positive attitudes!

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-22

2.5

The Right Attitude (cont) Wrong Attitudes Toward Excellence I never get the breaks Nobody can work that hard It isnt really worth it So what if I give up, we werent going to win anyway. Impact on IPS Without element of Pride Determination Excellence The High Energy and Control Requirements will probably be noticeably deficient over time.

Attitude of Excellence. Right Attitude Toward Excellence I will always strive to give my best effort, regardless of the circumstances. I am never satisfied with giving less than 100% effort I have pride in what I represent Im not a quitter, and Im willing to pay the price. I have set a goal for myself, and I am willing to put forth whatever effort is necessary to accomplish them I fully understand that success is not waiting for something to happen, its making it happen. My attitude is offensive rather than defensive I am active rather than reactive. Im going for it! My future as an athlete is in my own hands. What I accomplish and what I fail to accomplish is a result of me. I accept full responsibility for myself. My destiny is shaped each day by what I dream, what I think and what I do. I will be successful Impact on IPS (1) Very powerful source of positive energy (2) Highly stabilizing control factor over performance. These attitudes continue energizing performance even though things are going badly. The energy generated from these attitudes . are the only satisfactory substitute for the energy lost when the athlete stops having fun. These are the attitudes of the true professional, producing an element of control and consistency in performance that cannot be achieved any other way.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-23

2.5

The Right

So How Do You Acquire the Right Attitudes? Attitudes are nothing more than habits of thought Our attitudes (habits of thoughts) are formed principally in response to the ways in which we consistently construe the world in which we live in. If you tend to be a negative and pessimistic thinker, you learned it. Habitually thinking about your world in a negative way leads to the development of very strong and resistant negative attitudes. These negative attitudes can substantially alter our inner climate. Your habit of thought are blocking a particular way of feeling. If you frequently feel threatened (in competition). you may more likely think about (competition) in a threatening way. If you rarely feel fun or enjoyment (in competition), you probably rarely think about (competition) being fun or enjoyable. If you consistently feel very undisciplined and lazy (as an athlete), you probably rarely think about how disciplined and hard working you could be and eventually would be. If you consistently feel negative, frustrated and angry in response to mistakes, you probably rarely think about how calm and cool you could be in response to mistakes. If youre frequently feeling negative and pessimistic about yourself and your future, youre probably not thinking challenging, inspirational or positive thoughts.

How to Acquire the Right Attitudes 1. Constantly repeat the attitudes you want 2. Read everything you can that pertains to the area you want to change 3. Record the attitude you wish to acquire on tape 4. Play it back daily 5. Record that statement along with favorite song 6. Makes signs/posters with key words relating to new attitude (e.g. I love it! Place them in strategic places. 7. As soon as find self thinking wrong attitude, say stop and replace it with the right one.

Key to Changing Attitudes = Repetitiously think of the attitudes you wish to acquire. May not believe them when first start. The daily programming quickly begins to impact your belief systems, and eventually you will witness a very real and obvious change in the way you feel. The true test for determining attitude change is the corresponding feeling change Feeling Change Begin to feel like you really can Begin to feel like you can become disciplined Begin to feel challenged, inspired, and strong as opposed to feeing angry or threatened in tough situations Begin to feel more relaxed and calm in competition

Repetitiously Say I can do that I am getting more disciplined! In face of adversity, say I love it! I love (competition)

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-24

2.5

The Right Attitude (cont)

How To Think About Problems and Adversity Competition = is nothing but a continuous presentation of problems. Your emotional response to problems will bring you either success or failure as a competitor. If you expect to enter the competitive arena and have everything go smoothly, youre in for performance trouble. You must learn to control your emotional response to problems. Ways to Think about Problems (that will trigger right energy response and sustain your IPS) I choose the way a problem affects me in competition. The right emotional response to a problem is 75% of the solution. Everyone is mentally tough when there are no problems; problems are the true test of my emotional skills. Problems will bring out my greatness no problems, no greatness. To become a good competitor, I must become a good problem solver. I never lose; I simply ran out of time before I solved the problem. When I think Ive exhausted all the options to solve a problem, I know I havent. To love competition, Ive got to love solving problems. Im at my best emotionally when the problems are the worst. Im getting good at turning problems into opportunities during competition. Give me problems I need the practice!

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-25

2.6

The Right Focus Thinking . Separate from . Doing We have become masters at living somewhere other than the present in our thoughts. Were just not accustomed to keeping our thoughts and actions together. We fail to be MINDFUL when we perform.

Thinking . Merged with . Doing But isnt it true that we immediately return to that special focus when the situation suddenly demands our best response? Eg mountain climber @ 2000 foot sheer canyon wall Eg race car driver @ 200 mph Eg karate man breaking blocks. Focus = keeping our thoughts and actions together.

Our thoughts drift to Past or Future, thinking of Past mistakes Winning or losing What people will think Winning the next point What will happen if Incomplete Movements follow Incomplete Attention Usually, we stay with the moment until a certain time only: Footall receiver swm until ball nearly reach hand then think of touchdown and loses the ball Golfer at delicate putt swm until just before putt . then think whether it will be good or not .. and miss the mark. Archer think RELEASE .rather than increasing his awareness that he is releasing the arrow.

Focus = moment-by-moment

Complete Movements follow Complete Attention Performing well requires that our focus be moment-to-moment. The presence of NOW must not be disturbed by a thought of what might be or what has been. The successful competitor must learn to savor every moment of play as an end in itself. Top performance requires mindfulness from beginning to end. Merge our awareness with what we are doing at the time. Each link in the performance chain becomes an end in itself, with full attention given to the activity until it is complete.

Rushing occurs when we lose the moment and begin trying to force the future.

When you successfully stay with the moment, There is no panic There is always enough time The finish is as important as the beginning.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-26

2.6

The Right Focus (cont)

From Mindfulness To Flow When we have Right focus = mindful of what we are doing Then awareness and action merge. IPS is tied to this merger. Consequence = flow Flow becomes possible when We act with total involvement When action follows upon action with no need for deliberate conscious intervention. Experience of unified flowing from one moment to the next wherein we feel totally in control of our actions. Flow Flow is that special state where everything we do is right and easy and automatic Flow often accompanies activities that are perceived as being particularly enjoyable and fu Flow results from a narrowing of attention wherein the past and future are clearly abandoned and the now is all that remains. Flow is consequence of the special union of action and awareness Flow most commonly occurs during the performance of wellpracticed and familiar routines, when action and reaction are so well-practiced that they become purely spontaneous. Flow is rarely experienced when a situation demands a response that is clearly beyond the limits of a persons skill and talent. During flow, movement simply seems to occur by itself, as if something else were causing it to happen. Flow occurs when a person is aware of what he is at that time, but is not aware of his awareness. As soon as he reflects upon his awareness, the flow is temporarily lost. When we shift our focus to that of an observer, viewing from the outside, the flow is blocked. Examples of this would be such statements as: I cant believe Im doing this or Is this really me? or Im really flowing. Ordinarily, the flow can be quickly re-established by properly centering ones attention.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-27

2.6

The Right Focus (cont)

The Right Focus and Its Effects We have the right focus when what we are doing is the same as what we are thinking.

When there is wrong focus (doing thinking) 1. Mental Chaos The racy fast accelerated feelings come from focusing on such things as winning and losing, how you look, whats going to happen if, and so on. High Anxiety anxiety results from wrong focus. If you persist in thinking certain thoughts, anxiety is inevitable! Not Automatic you cant think or analyze your way to top performance.

When the right focus is achieved and maintained, the following reaction occurs: 1. 2. Mental Calmness stay with the moment Low Anxiety being mindful as you act reduces the experience of anxiety to a minimum. Automatic The right focus enables me to turn on the right automatic. This is important. Performing well occurs spontaneously, or it does not occur at all. The right focus (staying with the moment) insures that you will not become involved in highly deliberate and analytical thinking during play. Alertness and Intensity focusing as you act produces a highly intense mental state, the same intensity which accompanies your best performances.

2.

3.

3.

4. 4. Dull, Boring.

Goal = one-pointed form of concentration so complete that a total loss of self-consciousness occurs in the act of focusing. Active concentration a state of actively State of passive concentration a state of automatic mental focus. trying to focus on your target. Leads to Passive concentration totally effortless and spontaneous focus deepest level of concentration mind is relaxed mind is one with the target Concentration is a learned skill!

Ability to concentrate is close tied to Ability to control flow of positive and negative energy If you have trouble managing pressure, You no doubt have problems managing concentration as well. High High Negative Energy Anxious Angry Fear Nervousness Unpleasant Poor Concentration Tunnel Vision Attention becomes too narrow - focus on own fear/nervous B D Low Negative Energy Poor Concentration Mixture High Positive and Low Positive relax High Positive Energy Good Concentration Success

A C Low Positive Energy

Pleasant

Bored Disinterested

Physically Tired Poor Concentration Fatigued Easily Distracted Attention becomes too broad - cannot limit focus - become distracted by everything Low

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

2. The AET Model

2-28

2.6

The Right Focus (cont)

Concentration Strategies During Play If you are concentrating and performing well, dont think about concentration . Just perform. When problems develop, follow these steps 1. Check Energy Level Note the kind of energy and its intensity Get positive energy flowing as much as possible Minimize negative energy to minimum 2. 3. 4. 5. Do whatever you can to be completely calm and quiet inside. Focus your attention on the present moment, not past or future. Actively focus your attention to the target Being totally attentive and mindful as you act (active concentration) will spontaneously lead to an effortless and automatic focus (passive concentration). This is your automatic goal. Keep your eyes very controlled during play. There is a very close connection between your visual focus and your mental focus. Keeping your eyes on target will help to keep you mentally on target.

Concentration Strategies Off the Athletic Field 1. Improve your calming and quieting skills This generally leads directly to improved concentration skills Practice Meditation Significant number of athletes have reported that in addition to improving relaxation skills, meditation serves as a form of concentration practice. For example, Billie Jean King reports a tennis ball as her object of focus for fifteen to twenty minutes prior to playing. Any activity that required you focus your full attention as you act can improve concentration. Concentration in sport is really the ability to remain totally MINDFUL during action. Examples: Focusing fully on your walking as you walk or focusing fully on your eating as you eat Practice focusing on your awareness, being totally mindful, in difficult or tough situations. Numerous opportunities arise each day to rehearse this skill. Focusing your attention under fire is precisely what is required of you to perform well in competition.

2.

3.

4.

Special Notes As soon as you start performing, establish a moment-by-moment focus there is no substitute.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

3. Primary AET Procedures

3-1

The Primary AET Procedures


3.1 Controlling Your Ideal Performance State Accelerating the Process AETP = designed to speed up the mental toughness process = Helps us to become mentally tougher in a shorter time period = Helps us to become mentally tougher less painfully For this to happen, we make unconscious conscious Like going to the professional for coaching: He makes conscious what has been largely unconscious Start increasing our awareness of things Im doing right Start increasing our awareness of things Im doing wrong This is how he accelerates process of change (beyond simple trial and error learning) KEY to Accelerated Learning = Increased Awareness Awareness & Self-Control are linked. Most significant self-change first takes root in awareness. Awareness provides feedback We need this feedback to give us the information we need to accelerate to new levels of self-regulation and self-control. AET Awareness Training Procedures 6 steps process to help us identify our IPS Step 1: Describe in writing and in as much details as possible what your internal psychological world was like when you performed in your FINEST HOUR. Step 2: Describe in writing and in as much details as possible what your internal psychological world was like when you performed in your WORST HOUR. Step 3: Fill out the following descriptive information concerning your FINEST and WORST HOURS by circling the number that best corresponds to how you felt inside at that time. Complete Steps 1 to 3 Reread what you have written. Compare how differently you responded to the 12 categories when considering your finest hour versus worst hour Contrast the differences inside yourself when youre playing well to when youre playing poorly. Become acutely aware of how different and distinct the two feeling states are. As you start tuning in to your inner world of experience and feeling during play, you are going to start understanding how changes in your feeling states directly affect your level of play. Step 4 Fill out an IPS Monitoring Card similar to the one following each time you play or practice your sport. Continue this procedure for the next 3 weeks. fill out asap after the game do this for next 3 weeks, then one month thereafter spend a few minutes considering each item (accelerate the process) Step 5 For the next three weeks, you are to substantially increase your awareness of your positive and negative energy flow during play and practice. Step 6 For the next 3 weeks, you are to substantially increase your awareness of what your internal feeling state is like as you play and practice. you are going to observe yourself. most important observation = how you feel inside affects how you perform outside! Every time you play / practice, make a conscious and deliberate effort to understand how your level of play is linked to your changing internal feeling states.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

3. Primary AET Procedures

3-2

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

3. Primary AET Procedures

3-3

Please spend a few minutes considering each item.

Please spend a few minutes considering each item.

Please spend a few minutes considering each item.

Please spend a few minutes considering each item.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

3. Primary AET Procedures

3-4

High Negative Energy

High

High Positive Energy

Unpleasant

Pleasant

Low Negative Energy

Low

Low Positive Energy

High Positive Energy

grgy

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

3. Primary AET Procedures

3-5

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

3. Primary AET Procedures

3-6

3.1

Controlling Your Ideal Performance State From Awareness to a 3-Step Emotional Control Process Ultimate objective = develop control over my own IPS Increased Awareness help us detect if IPS state is present, or not. help us detect which element is missing IPS is nothing more than a particular way of feeling. At the most basic level, therefore, to become a mentally tough competitor, we are seeking EMOTIONAL CONTROL. 3-Step Emotional Control Process seeks to accelerate control of the PS facilitates learning of a very special kind of emotional control. Step 1 Relax, become very still inside, and practice triggering the following positive emotions (feeling states): (2 min on each state) 1. Feeling of joy or fun 2. Feeling positive and optimistic 3. Feeling high self-confidence 4. Feeling highly determined 5. Feeling relaxed and loose (muscles) 6. Simultaneously experience calmness, confidence, and high positive energy (joy or fun) 1.5 minutes to get into feeling. (First try 67%, 10 try 100%). Remember, you control your feelings by controlling what you think and visualize. Emotion was triggered by focusing on a specific thought, image, sound or sensation that is associated with that feeling. Triggers: Persons face Particularly fun or joyous place A bodily feeling Sound of someones voice Particular piece of music Some other pleasant memory Find my own Trigger, preferably within the trading arena.
th

Emotions was elicit by controlling the thought / visualization. The more vivid the picture and recall, the more intense the emotion. Objective (of rehearsing feelings of calmness, looseness, confidence and energy) is to increase your ability to produce them during play! Ultimate objective = to trigger a feeling state that contains all these elements simultaneously. As with physical skills, the more you practice, the better you get.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

3. Primary AET Procedures

3-7

3.1

Controlling Your Ideal Performance State From Awareness to a 3-Step Emotional Control Process (cont) Step 2 Practice the following visualization exercises (4min each/12 total) 1. Playing Well Visualization 2. Visualization plus IPS 3. Future visualization plus IPS Visualization: = thinking in pictures rather than in words. = Use your imagination to reconstruct past experiences thru images. = Controlled daydreaming (Chapter 4, page 105) Doing the exercises Eyes closed Very relaxed and quiet state Not likely to be distracted by things/people. 2.1 Playing Well Visualization Visualization to cover 3 areas: Visual recall Auditory recall Kinesthetic recall These visualization exercises are very helpful in building mental triggers for your IPS. If you work at it, you will develop powerful visual, auditory and kinesthetic triggers. Visual recall Get a picture in your mind of what you look like when you are playing well. When an athlete is confident on the inside, he shows it on the outside. When we play well, we carry ourselves better than when we do not play well. Auditory recall Listen to the sound you hear when you play well (internal dialogue) What is your internal dialogue like? What are you saying to yourself, and how are you saying it? What is your internal response when faced with adversity during play? Recreate as vividly all the sounds. Kinesthetic recall Recreate as clearly as possible in your mind all the bodily sensations you have when you are playing well. How do your feet and hands feel? Do you have a feeling of quickness, looseness, speed or intensity in your body? Often, your racquet, skates, bat, glove etc have a distinct feel when you are playing well. Trader: How does the market feel? Focus on any bodily sensations associated with doing well.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

3. Primary AET Procedures

3-8

3.1

Controlling Your Ideal Performance State From Awareness to a 3-Step Emotional Control Process (cont) 2.2 Visualization Plus IPS Simultaneously 1. Recreate a time when you were playing very well, and 2. experience the internal feeling state that accompanied it. As you visualized, you should feel yourself becoming emotionally aroused feel the confidence, the positiveness the intensity

2.3 Future Visualization Plus IPS Switch your visualization to the future. Duplicate in your mind, the conditions of play that you are likely to face in your next competition (opponent, field, weather, etc) Create the image of what you are going to experience as vividly as possible. Now simultaneously trigger the IPS emotional feeling state that accompanies your best performance. Fully experience that special combination of feelings as you picture yourself playing at your best. See yourself handling difficult situations during play While remaining calm, relaxed, focused, positively energized. Mentally and emotionally rehearse situations that have given you trouble in the past. Picture yourself successfully working through these tough situations several times. See it happen, feel it happen. Dont worry, it will come! Dont become discouraged or disheartened if you are having trouble triggering the desired images or feelings Practice 10-15minutes 2 times a day Step 3 From this day forward, every time you play or practice your sport, you must make a deliberate and conscious effort to create and sustain the internal climate that accompanies your best performance. In other words, you are to trigger your own IPS. This is the most critical step No longer will you show up for practice and play and hope the mental skills will come. You are now taking direct control over the process, practicing mental toughness every time you play or practice your sport There is no difference between play and practice Every time you enter your arena, you have an objective to create and maintain your Ideal Performance State NO MATTER WHAT! No more trial and error learning about mental toughness The objective, purpose and path are clear. Make the commitment and start practicing.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

3. Primary AET Procedures

3-9

3.1

Controlling Your Ideal Performance State The Power of Your Physical Presence Weak competitors: Lack strong and positive physical presence Project feelings of low intensity indifference Lack of confidence Negativism Poor self-image Uncertainty Absence of inner strength Improve competitive toughness By improving physical presence. Questions to ask for improvement purposes: Do you like what you see? Do you like the image of yourself as a competitor? Do you physically project strength, confidence and positive intensity? How do icons communicate power and confidence? What do you need to add to improve your presence? How an athlete appears on the outside is often an accurate picture of how he or she is feeling on the inside. Walk differently Carry head and shoulder differently Looks of intensity Looks of determination Looks of confidence Looks of calmness Outstanding competitors: Have very powerful physical presence Physically exude confidence Strength Calmness Energy Once we have a clear picture of what needs to be added to improve a competitors image, we start practicing and rehearsing. Desired images: Fighter Strength Confidence No meekness No politeness Why is physical image so important? Simple Principle. Powerful Results. Because of the powerful link between the mind and the body. We cannot affect one without affecting the other. When changes occur in our physical bodies, we will also have corresponding psychological changes. Being a mentally tough competitor means controlling how you feel inside (IPS). 3 primary strategies accomplish this. 1. Controlling what you think 2. Controlling what you visualize 3. Controlling how you look on the outside (physical presence) Make a commitment to improve your physical image every time you play or practice your sport Improve your walk Your appearance of intensity Your looks of aggressiveness

The reason we display outward negative emotions: To let everyone around us know that we are really much better than what we are playing. If I dont show them Im upset, theyll think thats how I play all the time This strategy undermines us. You end up locking in the negative emotions. You continue to feel precisely like you act: Miserable Upset Negative

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

3. Primary AET Procedures

3-10

3.1

Controlling Your Ideal Performance State Act As If in Adversity When the feelings arent there, act as if they were! You can also fool yourself into feeling weak, no confidence and negative! You can fool yourself into feeling strong, confident and positive! The as if physical acting often triggers positive changes in the mental state. When you are feeling down (mental) When the world has turned against you (mental) When youve lost your confidence (mental) Fight the feelings by controlling how you look on the outside (phy) Start manufacturing confidence physically: Throw shoulders back Pick up your walk. Remember, you cant always control how you feel, but you can always control your physical presence, and that often gets the job done by itself! Work hard to develop and maintain the physical presence of a champion no matter how you feel!

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

3. Primary AET Procedures

3-11

3.2

Summary Roadmap to Mental Toughness Mental Toughness: Emotional Consistency Performance Consistency Athletes who have learnt how to trigger a very specific emotional state (IPS) during play are the best competitors Unusual response to continuous flow of problems and crises Respond in ways that keep them feeling relax, calm, energized, confident and loving it. How do they do it? 1. Learnt to increase their flow of positive energy in crisis and adversity rather than decrease it 2. Learnt to think in very specific ways; they have the right attitude towards problems, pressure, mistakes and competition. 3. Learnt how to focus right (exceptional concentration skills) How can I do it? We can enhance our own mental toughness by adhering to these AET principles. Increase your awareness of the emotional state that is associated with your best performance Practice triggering that ideal constellation of feelings on and off the field. The more you deliberately practice triggering off your IPS, the more skillful you will become and the more emotional control you will be able to exercise during competition Practice visualizing yourself in competition and simultaneously triggering your IPS. Take every opportunity you can in both practice and play to learn o how to energize right, o to think right and o to focus right so that your IPS becomes a regular reality Remember, the benchmark of all great competitors is how they respond emotionally to problems and crisis: o they become challenged, o they become inspired and o they enjoy solving problems during competition. Improving your skills in o visualizing, o muscle relaxation, o mental relaxation, and o breath control will accelerate your program in mental toughness Keep a daily record of your efforts.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

3. Primary AET Procedures

3-12

3.1c 6-Steps 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 IPS Pressure Right Energy Right Attitude Right Focus

3.1d 3-Step Emotional Control Process

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

3 Primary AET Procedures

S-3-1

Step 1: Describe in writing and in as much details as possible what your internal psychological world was like when you performed in your FINEST HOUR. My FINEST HOUR was the 100m Backstroke in the KL Open. We were in the Bukit Bintang Swimming Pool. It was the backstroke event. It was Wednesday noon, circa 2pm. Weather was blue sky with some clouds in the air. Water was nice and blue. I had black arena swimming trunks. I was wearing my blue (arena?) shirt That time I had a crush on Alice I was nervous before the games because Yau Yee Ming was in the event. I was confident of taking the others . But Yee Ming was my main opponent. The whistle went off and we went into the pool. I saw the 5m flags. (red, yellow blue?) I took my lane. Yee Ming was on my left. The judge went: On your marks We crouched into starting position. I felt myself zero into the starting block / my chest I remember telling myself: Just do the strokes. Dont worry about the rest PHHHHEEEEEEE! The judge whistled us off. Splash off! My body uncoiled and I arched into the water, a blur of white. Kick kick kick kick (underwater) Surface. Swim! Stroke! Stroke! Stroke! Look to the left .wheres Yee Ming. Heart sunk he was ahead (can see his leg wash) Focus on the stroke. Just count the strokes and follow thru. The race was a series of blur. I remember going in, turning, then coming out to the last 50 m. My mind was just asking my hands to keep stroking and my legs to keep kicking. Turn. Kick kick kick kick (underwater) Surface. Breathe. Stroke! Stroke! Stroke! Stroke! I was relentless keeping to rhythm. Suddenly, a miracle seemed to happen . I looked to my right . Surprisingly, I found that I was ahead of Yee Ming! (Just barely) This is possible! Keep going! Keep to rhythm! I kept to my stroke rhythm. It was very shiny all around and I just kept pushing and pushing. I was not very aware of distance . I just kept focusing on keeping the strokes! I felt peaceful as if things would just work out fine. I was not even physically exhausted. I saw the 5m flags power up . Push! Push! Push! Push! There was no panic . Just a sense of Stroke! Stroke! Stroke! Stroke! We touched the wall. When it was done, I had won! As a result, I became a Selangor Swimmer (100m backstroke) in the Malaysian Open (Ipoh) for that year.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

3 Primary AET Procedures

S-3-2

Step 2: Describe in writing and in as much details as possible what your internal psychological world was like when you performed in your WORST HOUR. It was a TABLE TENNIS game with Tang Yew I thought I was good at table tennis, or even better. On that day, I got a trashing. We were playing table tennis, and Tang had developed a new service that was really hard to get. I found myself falling behind on the scoresheet. I then started getting angry. This is not fair They should outlaw this service How can I lose to my baby brother! I got angrier I started feeling helpless I started to wish the game would stop I felt that I was losing face badly. I felt very, very helpess. I felt that I was being trashed big time. I felt stupid. My mind was everywhere except on the game. I did not even consider how to return the ball back. I was just out of my experience. I felt like I was out of my depth. I was in heavy negative emotions (panic, anger, fear, frustration) I dont think I ever played with my brother after that ever again.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

3 Primary AET Procedures

S-3-3

Step 3: Fill out the following descriptive information concerning your FINEST and WORST HOURS by circling the number that best corresponds to how you felt inside at that time.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-1

Refining Your Skills


Table of Content 4.1 Visualization 4.2 Self-Motivation 4.3 Muscle Relaxation Technique 4.4 Manage Negative Energy 4.5 Meditation 4.6 Breath Control Technique 4.7 Activation Training 4.8 Centering and Dynamic Energy 4.9 Performance Slump 4.10 Preparing for Big Game 4.11 Building Team Harmony 4.1 Visualization Training Example of Visualization Sit back, close your eyes and vividly imagine the following scene: Bottom of ninth, two away, man on 2 and 3 . Score is 5-4 (in opponents favor). To get into playoff, your team must win this game. If not, seasons over. You are next at bat Although there is tension and excitement everywhere, you see yourself move confidently from the on-deck circle to the plate. These feel real: - The sun is warm against your face. - The noise of the fans, - the familiar feel of the bat. - The excitement of the moment In spite of the pressure, you feel confident, alert, eager. This is a challenge for you, not a threat Youve been carefully studying the pitchers delivery. As you step into the box to take the first pitch, you can nervousness in pitchers eyes. Now feel yourself in your ready position See the pitchers delivery, see the oncoming ball. Hear ball one from umpire. Step back, take another practice swing, then assume ready position. The pitch is right. You swing. You can feel the bat as it collides with the oncoming ball. The impact is solid. You know the ball is well hit. Line nd drive over 2 base. rd Runner on 3 advance. Score is tied.
nd rd

4-1 4-4 4-9 4-13 4-17 4-18 4-19 4-20 4-22 4-24

4-9 Self-Motivation Training Assignment 4-11 Jacobsons Exercise (Muscle Relaxation) * * * Hara - Ki * Recycling.

Visualization Fundamental exercise Important exercise Successful Users: Robert Foster (shooting), Fran Tarkenton (NFL), Jack Nicklaus (golf), Bruce Jenner (decathlon) Visualization is one of the most powerful mental training strategies available to performing athletes. We are like image-sensitive computers: Mental images we have about ourselves What we can do What we cant do Images serve as blueprints / roadmaps Determine how we respond and our corresponding level of achievement. Thinking it paves the Way of Doing it! Dr. Maxwell Maltz: our brain is incapable of distinguishing between something that actually did happen and something that was vividly imagined. So, if you can imagine it vividly, actually see it, its as if it has already happened! When you: Vividly Imagine yourself playing well in tomorrows match See yourself staying calm and relaxed See yourself controlling your temper In terms of information programmed into your central nervous systems, it has already happened! Visualization = systematic practice of creating and strengthening strong positive mental images. = Positive Image Programming.

Program in

Program in

Negative images

Positive mages

Negative results

Positive results

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-2

4.1

Visualization Training (cont)

Exactly What is Visualization? Visualization: Process of creating pictures or images in your mind Thinking in pictures Use of imagination: seeing with the minds eye Recreation of past experience thru mental images Recreate the (feelings, sensations and emotions) that accompany images Mental reconstruction of experience See yourself doing it Can simulate the conditions of play more accurately in mind Create our own fans / umpires / opponents. Mentally practice playing against same opponents, rehearsing specifics of strategy, and practice all our moves. Develop strong positive images for as many situations that may arise during play as you can. Being mentally prepared for a game means NEVER BEING SURPRIISED BY ANYTHING. An athlete that is surprised is I n trouble. Best chance of not being surprised = when you have mentally rehearsed successful solution to the many situations that can occur during play Mental practice / Mental rehearsal: = picturing yourself doing something in your imagination = rehearsal of physical performance in your mind. Understandings: Everyone visualizes differently Visualization is a learned skill Visualization is one of most powerful technique to learn self-control, selfconfidence and mental toughness in sports. Visualization is connecting link between mind and body in performance. Practicing Visualization Quiet, non-distracting environment Mind is quiet, body is relaxed Set aside feelings, thoughts and desires that is unrelated to visualization Visualize in color Visualize in as much detail as possible Utilize your sense of smell, touch, feel and hearing Frequent repetition and practice. Subjective Visualization become the performer - in the mind, physically execute the move - feel the results.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-3

4.2

Visualization Training (cont) Visualization Strategies. 1. Practice visualization with all your senses. Recreate people, places and events The more vivid and detailed your mental images, the more powerful the effects of visualization Use photographs, mirrors, film or video replay to strengthen and improve the accuracy of the mental picture Mentally rehearse difficult routines that have given you trouble. Physical practice of a skill, when accompanied by appropriate mental practice, is far superior to physical practice alone. Mental practice can help you to learn and master your physical skills. Practice creating and strengthening positive mental images throughout all aspects of your play. Work t o eliminate the failure images, and replace them with successful ones. Mentally rehearse helpful mental and emotional responses to difficult situations that may arise during play. Rather than getting discouraged, angry or anxious, see yourself staying confident, calm and positive. Work hard every day to change and reconstruct your negative and selfdefeating self-images to positive and constructive ones Establish a regular visualization practice routine. For the best results, visualization should be practice when you are relaxed and quiet. Many short sessions (approx 5 mins each) are better than one or two long sessions.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-4

4.2

Self-Motivation

A Systematic Approach Motivation the energy that makes everything works. important and powerful source of positive energy (w/o it, no performance). Energy and Effort that produces progress, change and top performance. Gives us willingness to put up with frustration, sacrifice, pressure, fear and hard work We need an Inner drive (motivation) in order to work hard to change poor attitudes, to improve concentration, to improve self-confidence, to improve physical skills. A Universal Antidote.

If youre having motivational problems, you are probably having performance problems as well. You are finished as an athlete when: You have permanently lost your desire When you can no longer find a reason that makes sense.

Why do athletes lose their motivation? What causes players to burn out and lose interest? This occurs because performing no longer fulfills or promises to fulfill their basic psychological needs : The needs for recognition The needs for approval The needs for self-worth The needs for success. The reverse may occur. Playing competitively may stifle or threaten these basic needs to such an extent that risk > payoff: Players recognize it no longer makes sense Why work so hard, put with hassle, stick my neck out, and get nailed? Young developing talent, force to be neutered = pressure: Pressure to win Pressure from parents Pressure from within For the Veteran, force to be neutered = lack of progress Perceived back sliding Declining years For the Professional, force to be neutered = lack of winning / money Lack of winning Lack of money Too much physical punishment Lack of motivation is a contagious disease. If you are around people who have motivational disease, we can catch it too!

What do we do to maintain high levels of self-motivation, and what can we do to get it back when it is lost? Universal Antidote = SUCCESS Success is not defined by other people Success as defined by the individual athlete himself. As you as you see yourself succeeding, moving ever closer toward the realization of another meaningful goal for you, you will stay motivated. Objective = program a Diet of Regular Success. When ratio of success to failure experiences reaches a certain point, youre going to start getting interested again: Risk factor changes Comfort index changes Profit potential changes Genuine appeal comes back The Meaning of Success Success correctly paired with Effort Accomplishments Forward growth (not with winning external contest) KEY to Motivation = Steady Success Big Success = accumulation of hundreds of little successes. You dont sneak up on success. You take it one inch at a time

Why stay with it? Whats the payoff? Answer = CHALLENGE Having a dream of what you might do or become Inch forward each day toward realization of that dream Each step is a significant success Challenge of exploring and expanding your own limits

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-5

4.2

Self-Motivation (cont)

Sticking Your Neck Out. When you set goals for yourself, you also create Problems Conflict Hard Work The act of setting a goal in itself is often a conflict because you are taking a risk with yourself, you are putting yourself on the line, and thats not comfortable. When you set a goal of being a top competitor in your sport in 5 years, You are: risking failure creating mountains of hard work creating problems for yourself creating problems of anxiety and tension creating problems of controlling your anger and temper creating problems of staying positive and optimistic creating problems of managing mistakes creating problems of handling failure creating problems of handling time creating problems of handling money So next time you find yourself in the heat of competition and Elbow get stiff Hands start to tremble Struggle to take a breath Step back and smile inside because you did it again! You put yourself on the line. You took a chance. And thats what it takes to be a winner: Taking risks Making mistakes And finally breaking through The Familiar Agony and Ecstasy

Agony of Sport Frustration Disappointment Doubt

Accomplish another challenging goal = Ecstasy of Sport: Joy Fulfillment Satisfaction

KEY = to know that it is coming KEY = to understand that it is a necessary part of the process.

Solution: Dont run from it Attack it Fight it Regroup Then youll break through, and find yourself closer to your goal. Secret to Motivation = many many tiny Successes! To become a champion, strive not to surpass your competition, but rather yourself. Those who consistently outperform themselves Will ultimately outperform their competitors.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-6

4.2

Self-Motivation (cont)

Guaranteed Program of Success Experiencing success every day = guarantees self-motivation! If you follow the plan presented here, you will experience steady successes and youll stay self-motivated! Step 1: Have a dream, a dream of what you could possibly achieve as an athlete. Every Olympic champion first had a dream of being number one. What is your dream? Everything begins and takes shape from a dream. Being a club champion Becoming a world-class player Change long-standing negative picture to a positive one Condition: It must be YOUR dream (not someone elses)

No Dreams

No Reality

Your dream is your long-term goal Something tangible and real Something to strive for.

Dreams

Reality
In shaping your dream: Talk with top players Read their life stories Learn from their dreams, hard work, and discipline. Have someone to model (a hero) Select someone you admire, and imitate his attitude, dedication and confidence. Use your imagination: See yourself achieving your long-term goal. See it become a reality hundreds of times See the power of your imagination work. When a conflict arise between imagination and will, Imagination wins! You can will a goal to happen, but unless you can see it, and dream it in your imagination, it wont become reality. To achieve it, you must first conceive it, create it in your minds eye. You must have a dream.

Negative Imagination Self-Image as someone who never succeeds who does not have what it takes who folds when the going gets tough

Negative Imagination

Negative Dreams

Use Positive Imagination Self-image as someone Who succeeds Who have what it takes Who wont fold when going gets tough Hold on to your dream: Make it real Make it positive See it in your imagination

Positive Imagination

Positive Dreams

Negative Reality

Positive Reality

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-7

4.2

Self-Motivation (cont)

Guaranteed Program of Success (cont) Step 2 Set Intermediate Goals Intermediate Goals = stepping-stones to realization of long-term goals. What must I achieve during the next 6 months to several years in order to achieve my primary goal? These sub-goals should be: challenging Exciting Realistic Harvard McCleland Ring Game Too close = no motivation for success Too far = no motivation for success Medium (close enough to have a chance, far enough for a challenge) = greatest motivation for success In sub-goals, we should be achieving success with most goals. If not, maybe goals are too high (probably). If so, then adjust goals, training effort, time commitments. Dont set yourself up with impossible tasks. Step 3 Set Short-Term Goals The champion and genius in you take form here. This is the real battleground (rubber meets the road): Winner or loser Success or failure Plan for today and tomorrow Plan for next 3 to 6 months. These are goals that we can achieve (without question) Examples of daily short-term goals: 1. Complete physical conditioning exercises each day to improve stamina, strength and flexibility (Spell out what exercises, how many, length of time, etc) 2. Spend specific amount of time each day working to improve weaknesses in physical skills. Complete your mental conditioning exercises everyday (spell out when, how long, what exercises) Always give 100% effort in practice and play Always maintain a positive and constructive attitude in practice and play.

3.

4. 5.

Are these Short Term Goals reachable? Absolutely! Success is an everyday occurrence. (success is fractal)

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-8

4.2 Self-Motivation Training Assignment


1. Develop your personal long-term goals. Put them down on paper. In your fondest dream, what would you like to accomplish as an athlete (trader)? The only necessity here is that this must genuinely be your goal, not someone elses. Being realistic is not important. This is simply your dream and belief in what you might someday be able to accomplish. My long-term goals (goals that will take five or more years to accomplish) 1. 2. 2. Develop meaningful intermediate goals. Put them down on paper These represent stepping-stones to the realization of your long-term goals. You should be achieving success with most of your goals in this category. My intermediate goals (goals that will take six months or several years to accomplish) 1. Approximate date when you will accomplish it: 2. 3. 3. Develop meaningful short-term goals. Put them down on paper This is a way of keeping a record of your successes. Post your chart where you will see it, and check it daily. My short term goals are (your plan of action for today, tomorrow, and the next 6 months) 1. When Where How Many 2. 3. When When Where Where How Many How Many Approximate date when you will accomplish it: Approximate date when you will accomplish it:

4.

Make a chart similar to the one below for Beginners which includes all of your short-term goals. This is your way of keeping a record of your successes. Post your chart where you will see it, and check it daily.

My Short-Term Goals Practice (2 each week) Conditioning (daily) Lesson (1 each week) Mental Homework Had Fun Others

The above chart has been filled out for one week, and the person has had 24 successes. This ensures success, and thats the secret to motivation!

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-9

4.3 Muscle Relaxation Training


When we are Under Pressure: Muscles become tight and rigid Muscle enters partial state of contraction We will appear rigid, awkward and less skillful Mismatch effort and tasks Top athletes: can detect muscle tension, and make the necessary adjustments. Muscle Awareness Exercise: monitor muscle tension levels Driving a car- How tightly are you holding steering wheel? Writing a letter- How tightly are you holding on to the pen? Unlocking a door, etc We often use far more muscle and strength than is necessary to complete tasks efficiently and effectively. Goal of muscle awareness = to match the task with the effort. When you muscle a performance, the natural link system of your body becomes unmanageable. Arms locks with the shoulder Hips locks with the legs Movements become jerky and uncoordinated. bodys natural timing, rhythm and flow become blocked. Power, Muscle and Relaxation Hitting Harder more muscle. = requires relaxing major muscle groups = allowing bodys natural link system to function more smoothly Best performance will come when your muscles are relaxed and when the links of the body can flow freely and naturally. Muscle relaxation is closely related to maximum power and accuracy. Improved athlete performance r- removal of excessive muscle tension associated with performance. Relax their jaws when they performed Athletes dont try so hard Use 4/5 effort . Better than 5/5 effort. Trading Summary: Balance, coordination, accuracy and quickness requires appropriately relaxed and loose state Tense and Hard State cannot produce quick reactions. Trying too hard results in tension. muscling a movement (adding indicators), in effort to increase speed and power, usually produce opposite results. Matching effort with task generally produces an effortless performance. The experience of flow (so commonly accompany top performance) always occurs in EFFORTLESS state. Summary: Balance, coordination, accuracy and quickness requires muscles to be appropriately relaxed and loose Tense and Hard muscles cannot produce quick reactions. Trying too hard results in muscle tension. muscling a movement, in effort to increase speed and power, usually produce opposite results. Matching effort with task generally produces an effortless performance.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-10

4.3

Muscle Relaxation Training (cont)

Muscle Relaxation Training Balance between Mind and Muscle Mental and Physical Psychology: for every change that occurs mentally, There is a corresponding physical change Jacobsons study on - Mental anxiety and muscle tension: When a person becomes anxious and mentally uptight, his muscles will show a corresponding increase in tension. A person can learn to discriminate very small increases and decreases in muscle tension. Voluntary control of muscle tension is best acquired by increasing the persons awareness of when his muscles are tight and when theyre relaxed. When a person successfully lowered muscle-tension levels, his experience of mental anxiety would steadily decrease as well.

Therefore, If focus attention on upsetting or disturbing thoughts, you will quickly find that your muscles are overly tight.

This means 2 things to an athlete: To control muscle tension: 1. Lean to control what you think 2. Learn to discriminate increases and decreases in muscle tension Excessive muscle tension can easily damage performance. Gymnastics, diving, golf, tennis where fine touch and feel is important too much muscle tension can be devastating. The closer our muscles are to resting state, the faster and more accurate our movement becomes. Best = lowest possible level of muscle tension that still permit accurate retention of form and style.

High Risk Sports Car racing to choke at 200mph could be a life-and-death matter. Race-car drivers like Rick Mears clearly understand the importance of relaxation, calmness, concentration and intensity. Conquering fear is always a great challenge in high-risk sports.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-11

4.3 Muscle Relaxation Training (cont) Jacobsons Muscle Relaxation System a Modified Approach (10min) Jacobsons training procedures involve the alternation of tensing muscles and relaxing muscles, with the specific intention of developing an acute AWARENESS OF THE DIFFERENCE. 1. 2. 3. 4. Select a comfortable chair, preferably a reclining one. Find a quiet room. Close both eyes, take two deep breaths, and feel yourself let go Extend both arms straight out and clench your fists then relax . gradually increasing the tension level until all the let your arms drop naturally. muscles in your fingers and hands are fully tight Be aware of the difference between feeling tense and relaxed Elevate both arms again, straight out, now relax . and tense the muscles of your lower arms and elbow let your arms drop naturally to your side.. hold it, becoming aware of the feeling . Tense the muscles in your forehead by frowning hold it, becoming aware of the feeling . now relax . let all the muscles in your forehead become smoother and smoother. now relax

5.

6.

7.

Tense the muscles in your face hold it, becoming aware of the feeling . Tense the muscles of your neck hold it, becoming aware of the feeling . Tense the nuscles of the shoulders hold it, becoming aware of the feeling . Tense the muscles of the backs, First then upper back and then the lower back, hold it, becoming aware of the feeling . Tense the muscles of your chest, hold it, becoming aware of the feeling . Tense the muscles of your stomach, hold it, becoming aware of the feeling . Tense the muscles of your abdomen, hold it, becoming aware of the feeling . Tense the muscles of your upper legs, All the muscles of the thigh, hold it, becoming aware of the feeling . Tense the muscles of your lower leg, All the muscles of the knee and calf, hold it, becoming aware of the feeling . Tense the muscles of your feet and toes, hold it, becoming aware of the feeling .

8.

now relax

9.

now relax

10.

now relax

11.

now relax

12

now relax

13

now relax

14

now relax

15

now relax

16 17

now relax Now concentrate on relaxing all the muscles of your body. Become aware of any areas that might still be tense in any way, and relax them. Maintain this state of total muscle relaxation for at least two to three minutes. Open your eyes, stretch, and feel refreshed Go about your business.

18

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-12

4.3

Muscle Relaxation Training (cont)

Training Strategies 1. Experiment with different muscle tension levels as you practice your sport. Try to discover the best zone of tension for your best performance. Determine the performance consequence of not enough muscle tension as well as excessive muscle tension as you practice your sport. Monitor the amount of muscle tension that exists in your muscles when you are performing such common activities such as driving, writing, eating or walking. Practice matching effort to the task. Your objective =to use just enough tension to get the job done properly. Practice Jacobsons Exercise 15 min/day for 7 days Week 2++, try to get your muscles to relax without bringing muscle groups to a full state of contraction. If you are not successful, return to the original exercises. Repeat until you can relax all your muscles very quickly just by thinking certain thoughts (Tang: 1, 2, 3) Constantly practice raising your positive intensity to the highest possible level while simultaneously keeping your muscles relaxed and free.

2.

3.

4. 5.

6.

Remember, your competitive goal is relaxation of muscles, not of your mind! High Performance : Requires your muscles to be relaxed But your mind remain crystal clear and alert.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-13

4.4

Managing Negative Energy Best athlete struggles like rest of us from getting too frustrated, too anxious, too angry or too excited during play OVER - AROUSAL

The Art of Managing Negative Energy Main difference: Top players have highly developed RELAXATION SKILLLS his superior skills in managing and controlling that energy. When too activated to play well (best zone of arousal exceeded), We draw upon Relaxation Skills To lower energy and arousal level So that they do not interfere with our play. No matter how mentally tough we become, you will inevitably perceive some competitive situation as partially threatening. You will not totally eliminate negative activators Strengthening your relaxation skills is necessary to become a successful competitor!

Typical Signs of Over Arousal Muscles become too tight and rigid Fast heart rate, shallow and irregular breathing, often accompanied by racy accelerated feeling Legs feel weak and rubbery Difficulty in concentrating and focusing Everything appears to be going faster than it really is Inability to think clearly and accurately Attention gets fixed on one thing and refocusing is difficult Feeling of high anxiety and/or fear Become fatigue very quickly Become increasingly negative and self-critical Decreasing emotional control

Ability to Relax is directly related to: Personal moods How deeply you feel things How long feelings or moods last. Your ability to change from one emotion to another Your ability to control emotional responses. (These are all modifiable thru learning) Learn the skills for improving relaxation effort On the field relaxation strategies Off the field relaxation strategies.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-14

4.4

Managing Negative Energy (cont)

On The Field Relaxation Strategies 1. Deliberately slow your breathing as much as possible Maintain a slow regular pattern of breathing whenever the situation permits. Take more time doing everything, and deliberately slow down. Focus on doing the best you can not on winning or losing Try to play within yourself, not against your opponent. Stay within the here-and-now context in your thoughts. Focusing on either the past or future makes things worse. If muscles become overly tight, first contract, and then relax those muscles. Dangling your arms and hands t o your sides and vigorously shaking frequently helps to shake out excess tension. Focus your attention away from disturbing thoughts whenever possible. Focus your attention on the appropriate target. This will quickly help you relax. Play down the importance of the performance in your mind. Keep a positive and constructive attitude. You are already over-aroused. Should you become increasingly negative or angry, the situation will quickly become impossible. Create the strongest mental image that you can of yourself playing in your finest hour. Recapture the feeling as well as you can.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7. 8.

9.

10. Try to have fun and enjoy yourself. If you can momentarily step back and gain this perspective in your mind, negative activators quickly diminish.

Relaxation is a Learned Skill: Lowering heart rate Lowering blood pressure Breathing Muscle tension Brain wave activity You are practicing your relaxation skill every time you perform under pressure.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-15

4.4

Managing Negative Energy (cont)

Off The Field Autogenic Relaxation Training The following exercises teach relaxation by having you focus on the feeling states typically associated with body and mind relaxation. Autogenic sessions: Eyes close Seated on comfortable chair/lying on back Adopt an attitude of letting it happen (not forcing it to happen) Day 1 Arouse very vivid and enjoyable feelings of heaviness throughout your body Silently begin repeat my right hand and arms are becoming heavy As we say it, focus attention on sensation of heaviness in right arm. Say it 3 times. Finish with My right arm and hand are completely heavy Then move to your left hand and arm. Next: Shoulders Neck Head Chest Legs Feet and Toes Day 2 Arouse very vivid and enjoyable feelings of warmth throughout your body. Silently begin repeating: my right hand and arms are becoming warmer and warmer As we say it, focus attention on sensation of warmth. If you have trouble, get a mental picture of your arm submerged in warm water. Say it 3 times. Finish with My right arm and hand are completely warm Then move to your left hand and arm. Next: Shoulders Neck Head Chest Legs Feet and Toes Day 3 You are to produce a very calm, regular and steady heartbeat Silently begin repeating: My heartbeat is very calm and regular. My heartbeat is very calm and regular I feel calm and steady. Continue repeating this self-suggestion for the entire 7-minute period.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-16

4.4

Managing Negative Energy (cont)

Off The Field Autogenic Relaxation Training (cont) Day 4 You are to produce very slow, deep and regular breathing. Silently begin repeating: My breathing is becoming calm and regular. My breathing is very easy and slow Continue repeating this self-suggestion for the entire 7-minute period. Day 5 You are to arouse a very enjoyable and relaxed feeling in your stomach and lower abdomen. Silently begin repeating: My stomach is feeling warm, calm and relaxed. My stomach is feeling warm, calm and relaxed. Continue repeating this self-suggestion for the entire 7-minute period. Day 6 You are to produce the feeling of coolness on your forehead (You may wish to picture yourself standing in a gentle cool breeze after a hard sweat). Silently begin repeating: My forehead is cool My forehead is cool Continue repeating this self-suggestion for the entire 7-minute period. Day 7 You are to produce all six of the feelings, each for appropriately 2 minutes. Silently begin repeating each of the following self-suggestion for a 2minute period:: 1. I am feeling heavier and heavier 2. I am feeling warmth throughout my body 3. My heartbeat is regular and slow 4. My breathing is slow, relaxed and calm 5. My stomach is warm, relaxed and calm 6. My forehead is cool. Remember: Repeat all self-suggestions slowly and intently you want them to stick in your mind. Whenever possible, combine the suggestions with vivid imagination Continue repeating this self-suggestion for the entire 7-minute period. After Week 1 of 7-day autogenic exercise. Repeat entire program for Week 2. By practicing these techniques, you can quickly enter an autogenic state by simply repeating a suggestion like My hands and arms are heavy This represent an important step in establishing the mental triggers for performance that will lead to decreased arousal level.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-17

4.5

Meditation

Meditation as a Mental Toughness Training Strategy Meditation Improves ones ability to relax powerful source of positive energy Zen mental state and IPS state are similar Alert Spontaneous Fully aware No self-consciousness Important Understandings Meditation A form of concentration practice Attentional retraining leading towards attentional fitness. Moves us from mindlessness (attentional spastic) to mindfulness (total focused and aware without any self-consciousness) Mental focusing technique mental state = one of alertness (not dullness or sleepiness) Meditation teaches profound relaxation Meditative state is one of high positive energy (joy), profound mental calmness, alertness and deep physical relaxation of muscles. Do not need to subscribe to any religious beliefs system for technique to be effective. Selected Meditation Technique Conduct in a place where you wont be disturbed. Sit quietly in a comfortable position Select a time when you are not sleepy 2 x 10minute a day, 2x/day 1. Breath Counting Meditation Mental Target = Your breath Breath in: Count breath from 1 to 4. Breath out: exhale from 1 to 4. If attention shifts, simply bring it back to the breathing at one. 2. Object Meditation Mental Target = Object of any choice Pick one object and look at it. Objective = maintain concentration on the object for the time of the meditation. If attention shifts, simply bring it back to the object. 3 Eating or Walking Meditation Mental Target = eating or walking Eating meditation = focus attention on process of eating. If attention shifts, gently bring it back to your eating. Waling meditation = focus attention on process of walking If attention shifts, gently bring it back to your walking Goal of Meditation to be totally mindful, to fully focus as you act. Skill to develop skill in controlling attention during play When attention shifts, slowly bring it back to the task-at-hand.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-18

4.6

Breath Control Training Breathing plays an important part in controlling and regulating our IPS during play. Breathing Patten when not playing well Negative Arousal Breathing Pattern (Tense, Anxious, Negative, Anger, Fear, Anxiety) Short Jerky Shallow Irregular When biological alarm triggered, normal pattern of breathing changes. Begin to hold your breath Inhale at critical points. This minimal change causes dramatic drop in performance. Breathing Pattern when playing well Relaxed and Playing Well Breathing Pattern Rhythmic Deep Free Inhale = muscle tension increases Exhale = muscle tension decrease So coordinate out-breath with critical points of execution: Shooting the hockey puck serving in tennis Trading: clicking to enter.

When things go badly, we CAN intervene and take direct voluntary control of our breathing!

Breath Control Strategies During Play 1. When performing well, dont be concerned about breathing. 2. When feeling emotionally flat or lifeless, speed your breathing up until you feel higher energy and activation levels When negative energy is flowing and youre racing too fast inside, slow your breathing way down. Take deep., long, and regular breaths whenever possible. Attempt to coordinate the process of exhaling with critical moments of execution. Select a word like easy / Power / Yes and slowly pronounce it as you execute the critical point of movement. This insures that you will properly exhale as you perform.

(1) Recognize Normal breathing pattern has changed (2) We can control the process of breathing Slow the breath down

3.

4.

5.

Breath Control Strategies Off the Athletic Field Step 1 Inhale slowly, continuously and deeply through you nostrils, to a count of 4. Relax dont strain Let the steady flow of incoming air fill central part of your body, including lower abdomen, central and upper chest cavity. Stomach and lower abdomen should be fully pushed outwards. Practice this a couple of times, roughly to count of 4. Step 2 Momentarily pause before exhaling. Step 3 Exhale slowly and continuously thru the mouth. Ahhhhhhhhhh. Sound should be clear, continuous and long. Exhalation process should last roughly to count of 10 Practice exhaling a couple of times. Our normal breathing rate = 14-16 breath per minute. This exercise = brings it down to 4 breath per minute. When under pressure, you can slow down and return arousal levels to acceptable levels with three or four prolonged breath.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-19

4.7

Activation Training Under-activation (leads to poor performance) Feeling as if you dont have much energy/fire Feelings of being slow like slow starting engine Poor concentration easily distracted Low patience Dont really care feeling Noticeable absence of enthusiasm Noticeable absence of excitement Poor sense of timing or anticipation frequently late timing Physically look bored or lazy A sense of helplessness (nothing I do works) The quicker you can recognize your lowered energy level during play, the better are your chances of responding before its too late.

The Art of Getting Energized Remedy = ACTIVATION

Activation During Play 1. Increase your breathing rate. Take short quick breaths until you feel your arousal level increase. 2. Jump up and down on your toes. Get your body moving as much as possible to improve circulation and improve heart rate, blood pressure, etc Think challenging thoughts and ideas. Remember, thinking certain thoughts can produce tremendous energy. You should identify which they thoughts are powerful triggers of emotion and energy for you. They may be thoughts of pride, personal excellence, the ecstasy of winning, the self-challenge, whatever. Mentally review very quickly your most important goals and objectives as an athlete. Why are you out there playing? That alone may raise your energy level enough to substantially improve your performance. Verbally tell yourself things like I can do it; Lets get going; I can and will play well; My energy level is rising Alternate contracting and relaxing your muscles. Create the strongest mental image that you can of yourself playing in your finest hour. Recapture the feeling. Even though you didnt feel energized or psyched, start acting as if you do. You can often change how you feel inside, which is the essence of activation, by simply acting as if you really do feel that way. Always give your best effort no matter now energized you feel. Sometimes the right energy-producing feelings dont come. When that happens, it guts and determination that carry you through.

3.

4.

5.

6. 7.

8.

9.

Doing You Homework Before You Perform To minimize chances of under-activation Work to get things right BEFORE you perform. When you feel right, you tend to be energized right. The right feelings and emotions automatically produce appropriate activation. Getting psyched for play = getting the right winning feelings.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-20

4.8

Centering and Dynamic Energy Samurai warrior had to face death every day. How did he overcome effects of fear and tension in combat? His very survival was intimately tied to his ability to Conquer fear Conquer self-consciousness Conquer self-doubt Edict: develop the proper mental control and attitudes . Or die. Inner self-control = most important element ins successful combat. Enable warrior to sustain essential Calm Clarity Balance. 2 concepts on learning proper mental control: (cornerstones to proper mastery): Center Dynamic Energy 1. Center Total man = perfect balance physical, mental, spiritual. But mans world = confusing, chaotic, perplexing Fulfillment requires = find a basic harmony with himself and the world around him. This harmony represents a balance that brings calm, openness, fulfillment, clarity Point of balance and harmony is called the centre, or one point Balance Japanese word = hara Feelings Action Western Thought Being centered = center of gravity The point where we achieve maximum balance relative to weight and height. Eastern Thought Balance point = Essential training concept whereby total balance, harmony, and unity of mind and body can be realized. Being centered is a prerequisite for freeing and coordinating the full range of your potentials and powers. Point or Spot of Maximum Coordination = Located in the lower abdomen (2 inches below your navel) Being centered brings: Poise Stability Readiness Relaxed suppleness Intense awareness Total concentration Clarity of vision. Becoming focused on the one spot provide the warrior with a concrete method of conquering fear, tension and anxiety. Became the vehicle for responding positively and confidently, even when confronted with the ultimate contest the contest of life and death! Meditation and Systematic Breathing Practice will help us acquire Centering and Concentration Skills (ability to focus on one spot) Meditation Exercise: centre of focus = maintain one spot Breathing Exercise: centre of focus = maintain one spot.

Effects of Excessive Fear and Tension: undermined he warriors ability to react powerfully and accurately Restricting his balance Restricting his perception Restricting his judgment.

We are not centered when we are: Fearful Self-conscious Rigid Emotional Loss of centeredness to Samurai means: Death So maintaining the single spot below the abdomen became synonymous with life and death itself. Once centre is lost, fear and tension would lead to Muscle rigidity Loss of quickness and agility Impairment of vision Loss of concentration Ultimately, failure.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-21

4.8

Centering and Dynamic Energy (cont)

2.

Dynamic Energy

Eastern Tradition As a result of being centered, a new source of energy becomes available = Dynamic energy Ki Ki Enables man to go beyond his ordinary limits Enables man to transcend boundaries of his everyday living Leads to genius, personal excellence and fulfillment Makes possible the full realization of human powers. Makes possible the full realization of human potential Ki is present in all human beings, but exists in ununified sporadic and dispersed form. As centering (hara) occurs, this energy is Focused Coordinated Funneled Into dynamic positive force. No Hara No Ki How to unleash this energy? Meditation, Concentration and Breathing exercise. Mastery of the techniques involved Learning fundamental physical skills Learning proper mental attitudes and mental control to accompany those physical skills. Archery& Swordplay Practice: Meditation and abdominal centralization Allows: warrior to stand calmly and concentrate fully, even in battle. When the mind becomes distracted by the circumstances of combat, all is lost. The mind must be trained to see everything and Be distracted by nothing To maintain an intense and full awareness Accompanied by unshatterable calm. Mental exercises and training freed the warrior from most devastating obstacle to his own survival The paralyzing effects of tension and fear. To overcome effects of tension and fear, and To free a positive source of dynamic energy Ki, practice: Meditation (4.5) and systematic breathing exercise (4.6) Excellence comes from the conquest of self.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-22

4.9

The Performance Slump

Causes and Cures Experiences of peaks and valleys in performance seem inevitable. 1. New Changes in Physical Skills Overall level of play will drop immediately following a change or modification in form / technique. New earning establishes a network of competing resources that result in inefficient mix of old with new. Initial change in form feels great at first, but then the older and more dominant habits will appear, resulting in unworkable mixture. However, performance should steadily improve with regular drill and practice. Discontinuation of competitive play during this critical relearning phase generally increases the speed of learning and reduces the level of frustration. Improving your form/technique enables you to move higher in performance, but not immediately. 2. Natural Learning Plateaus Mastery of complex physical skills rarely follows a steady continuous pattern. Plateaus can be viewed as necessary incubation or gestation period for new learning. Learning plateau can initially contribute to the occurrence of performance slumps. 3. Physical Changes The following physical changes contribute to performance slump. Physical injuries Extended fatigue Health Problems Poor diet. 4 Mental Changes Persistent Performance Slump are Psychological in Nature: the Negative Spiral: Low self-confidence Negative Attitudes Increased Tension Increased Arousal Cure: Complete recycling is needed new perspective New attitudes New Expectation 5. Increased Awareness New learning in mental realm has similar effect Increased Awareness leads to initial performance slump. With mental realm, disruption is of shorter duration. Customary mental responses are changed by Awareness of muscle tension levels Energy states Breathing patterns, Negative attitudes, etc.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-23

4.9

The Performance Slump (cont)

Cures (for Eliminating Stubborn Performance Slumps) First, check that we are physically healthy! If we are not physically healthy, maximum performance cannot occur! If slump is not due to physical factors, then slump is due to mental factors. Mental Factors Step 1 Acknowledge and accept the fact that your slump is resulting from your current attitudes, beliefs, mind sets, and confidence levels Slumps disrupt arousal level lowering frustration levels (easier to get frustrated) intensifying feelings of worthlessness and guilt Commit yourself to a = psychological recycling effort. Step 2 Take a break from your normal training schedule, even 1-2 days. This is helpful in breaking the Negative Spiral. Step 3 Make a conscious and deliberate effort each day to have fun with your sport and to renew your enthusiasm and excitement for playing. Review your personal goals and objectives You need a renewed sense of motivation which translates to High Positive Energy. Step 4 Increase your level of physical conditioning Remember, physically stronger means mentally stronger. Step 5 Spend 2 x 10 minutes each day reconstructing: Attitudes Beliefs Thoughts Each Session: 1. start with 7 minutes relaxation 2. Then Visualization and Imagery practice visualize yourself breaking through to new and exciting levels of performance. See and Feel your self-confidence grow. Reprogram your inner world of experience as vividly and realistically as possible. 3. Repeat several times to yourself : I am breaking through I am breaking through. Practice recapturing those winning feelings Step 6 Dont force it! Take the pressure off! Let the break through occur naturally. And it will, once the internal conditions are right.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-24

4.10

Preparing for the Big Game If you can play well for the next 2 games, youll make the playoffs for the first time ever. The whole season boils down to these two last games over the next two weeks. You want to make the playoffs more than anything. ou can feel the pressure mounting. What can you do to ensure your best performance in important games such as these? How do you prepare? Dont Dont significantly change the physical training routine that has worked best in the past. This is not the time for over-training. Significantly changing habits now will lead to: Muscle soreness Stiffness Injury Dont break your training routine before important events. Do Physicals Maintain regular physical program. Ordinary running rope jumping speed and agility drills, etc Remember. Relationship between physical strength and mental strength is real. Stay on schedule (eating, sleeping, drinking, practicing and playing) that has proved best for you in the past. Exercise good self-discipline in your training before the events. Self-discipline is an excellent self-confidence booster. Mental Mentally prepare a little each day. Spend a little time each day thinking and rehearsing how you want to perform for the big game. Visualization (4.1) Prepare yourself mentally and physically for anything that might happen during the big game. Remember the dictum: NEVER BE SURPRISED BY ANYTHING An athlete who is surprised is in trouble. Its not that we are expecting bad things to happen: its just that we are prepared if they do. In other words, we wont panic and we can respond intelligently. Practice visualization each day how you want to perform on the big day How you want the team to perform on the big day. See it happen in your mind first! Store Up Positive Emotional Energy Do everything you can to achieve physical, emotional and intellectual high for the game. Avoid things that are likely to get you tired, depressed, sad, upset or negative.

Dont wait until the night before to do all your preparation. No last minute cramming of information! Such practice leads to confused play.

Dont make major changes in physical skills at this time. Go with what you have got. To play your best, you need to be able to turn on the automatic (this is not possible with newly acquired skills!)

Dont get involved in activities, events or situations that are likely to lead to personal problems or major conflicts (can leave us physically and emotionally drained) Avoid fights, horror movies, catastrophic news, upsetting relationships, etc. These undermine positive energy flow and often lead to premature fatigue and tiredness.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

4 Refining Your Skills

4-25

4.10

Preparing for the Big Game (cont) Dont Dont get anxious about being anxious. Worrying about worrying makes situation worse. Pregame nervousness is unavoidable . It shows we are psyched to play well. Dont worry of not enough sleep. Research shows having not enough sleep before a big game will not hurt performance if you dont worry about it!

Do Momentum Do start building momentum within yourself both during and away from practice. Get the Positive Energy flowing. Attempt to increase team spirit, positiveness, enthusiasm, eagerness and confidence. Dress Dress to Win! Do whatever helps you to get those winning feelings Dress rituals are important! Food Rigidly follow your best routine for food and drink intake before play. Have Fun! Have fun and enjoy yourself during the big game. This will help furnish energy This helps keep you relaxed during play. Attitude Rehearse the habits of thought (during the week) that are important to your play. They include: I will give 100% effort, no matter what I will stay positive and optimistic I will stay calm, relaxed and confident during play. I will perform well.

Dont eat anything substantial within 2 hours of the game.

Dont be serious (it does not help)

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

5 Assessing and Monitoring

5-1

Assessing and Monitoring Mental Strength and Weakness


5.1 Profiling Your Mental Skills Increasing your awareness of your mental strength and weaknesses is fundamental to accelerate change. The more you understand yourself and your limits, the better equipped you are to perform at your edge. Seven mental skill areas these are the most important and fundamental. 1. Top athletes are aware that certain things undermine their confidence levels activities, people, thoughts, images Nothing can undermine confidence levels more quickly than accumulation of perceived failures. If you have lost confidence, your performance output will be drastically affected. Self Confidence

Your level of self-confidence = good predictor of success Feelings and Images of what you can and cant do strongly determine the outcome. Maintaining high levels of self-confidence is a skill (learned) Self-confidence A knowing that says you can do it. A feeing that says you can do it Key ingredient = perceived success.

2. Controlling Negative Emotions is critical to competitive success Fear Anger Frustration Envy Resentment Rage Temper Perceive Situation as a THREAT / Frustrating Problems Fueling performance from Negative Energy produces Inconsistency Excessive muscle tension Poor concentration 3.

Negative Energy

Keep Negative Energy to a Minimum: Stay Calm Stay Relaxed Stay Focused Negative Energy Control: Perceive Situation as a CHALLENGE (not as a THREAT) Learned Skill

Attention Control

Attention Control the ability to sustain continuous focus on task at hand. Very important! Ability to tune in to whats important Ability to tune out to whats not important Goal = one-pointed form of concentration So complete focusing, that total loss of self occurs Total concentration leads to loss of self-consciousness By totally become the object of focus, we distract attention away from our self Learned Skill

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

5 Assessing and Monitoring

5-2

5.1

Profiling Your Mental Skills (cont) Undesired style of thinking Highly rational Highly logical Deliberate style of thinking

4.

Visualization and Imagery (VI) Control

Successful athletes have visual and image control skills Think in pictures than in words Able to control the flow of their mental pictures in positive and construction direction. VI vividly and in great detail VI before and during performance. Desired Style of thinking Spontaneous Free flowing Instinctive Visualization Critical Mental Skill in Performance (Learned Skill) One of most powerful mental training strategies to translate mental desires into physical performance. KEY = CNS cannot differentiate between deeply rooted visualization and actual physical event. The more vivid, detailed and real the visualization, the more powerful the effect. 5. Motivation

Motivation is ENERGY Self-motivation is one of the most important sources of positive energy available. Learned Skill = maintaining high levels of motivation Critical components of motivation: Setting meaningful goals Programming steady diet of daily success Managing failure properly

6.

Positive Energy

Learned Skill = maintaining and controlling the flow of positive energy. Important to become energized from sources such as: Fun Joy Determination Positiveness Team Spirit This Positive Energy source: Enables athlete to achieve high levels of activation While simultaneously experience calmness, low muscle tension and attentional control. Positive Energy Motivation Attitude.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

5 Assessing and Monitoring

5-3

5.1

Profiling Your Mental Skills (cont)

7. Attitude Control Attitude Control = reflect athletes habit of thought. Top athletes = are disciplined thinkers. Right Attitude produces Emotional control Poise Positive energy flows Top athletes have a specific constellation of attitudes.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

5 Assessing and Monitoring

5-4

Psychological Performance Inventory


(1x / 6 months) 1 Almost Always 2 Often 3 Sometimes 4 Seldom 5 Almost Never

1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

I see myself as more of a loser than a winner in competition


I get angry and frustrated during competition I become distracted and lose my focus during competition. Before competition, I picture myself performing perfectly I am highly motivated to play my best I can keep strong positive emotion flowing during competition. I am a positive thinker during competition I believe in myself as a player I get nervous or afraid in competition It seems my mind starts racing 100mph during critical moments of competition. I mentally practice my physical skills The goals Ive set for myself as a player keeps me working hard. I am able to enjoy my competition even when I face lots of difficult problems. My self-talk during competition is negative. I lose my confidence very quickly Mistakes get me thinking and feeling negatively I can clear interfering emotion quickly and regain my focus. Thinking in pictures about my sport comes easy to me. I dont have to be pushed to play or practice hard. I am my own best igniter. I tend to get emotionally flat when things turn against me during play. I give 100% effort during play, no matter what. I can perform towards the upper range of my talent and skills. My muscles become overly tight during competition. I get spacey during competition. I visualize working through tough situations prior to competition. Im willing to give whatever it takes to reach my full potential as a player. I practice with high positive intensity. 1 Almost Always 2 Often 3 Sometimes 4 Seldom 5 Almost Never

11 12 13

14 15 16 17 18 19

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

5 Assessing and Monitoring

5-5

Psychological Performance Inventory


1 Almost Always 28 29 30 I can change negative moods into positive ones by controlling my thinking. Im a mentally tough competitor. Uncontrollable events like the wind, cheating opponents, and bad referees get me very upset. I find myself thinking of past mistakes or missed opportunities as I play. I use images during play that help me perform better. I get bored and burned out. I get challenged and inspired in tough situations. My coaches would say I have a good attitude. I project the outward image of a confident fighter. I can remain calm during competition when confused by problems. My concentration is easily broken. When I visualize myself playing, I can see and feel things vividly. I wake up in the morning and am really excited about playing and practicing. Playing this sport gives me a genuine sense of joy and fulfillment. I can turn crisis into opportunity 1 Almost Always 2 Often 3 Sometimes 4 Seldom 5 Almost Never 2 Often 3 Sometimes 4 Seldom 5 Almost Never

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

41 42

Scoring the Results:


Self-Confidence 1 8 15 22 29 36 2 8 16 23 30 37 Neogative Energy 3 10 17 24 31 38 Attention Control 4 11 18 25 32 39 Visual & Imagery Control 5 12 19 26 33 40 Motivational Level 6 13 20 27 34 41 Positive Energy 7 14 21 28 35 41 Attitude Control

26-30 Excellent Skills 20-25 Room for Improvement 6-19 Needs your Special Attention.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

5 Assessing and Monitoring

5-6

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

5 Assessing and Monitoring

5-7

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

5 Assessing and Monitoring

5-8

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

5 Assessing and Monitoring

5-9

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

5 Assessing and Monitoring

5-10

5.3 Strategies for Overcoming Deficiencies 1 Low Self Confidence Increase Physical Strength and Endurance Levels Work hard to improve other mental skills deficiency Set realistic self-goals Think positively and create enthusiasm Constantly repeat positive affirmations to yourself. Increase self-discipline Use positive visualization Review Film of Best Performances. Act as if Practice off the athletic field. 2 Low Negative Energy Control Increased Awareness #1: increase awareness of . What happens to me under pressure? When Where and How does Negative Energy gets triggered? What situations, thought patterns, and perceptions lead to Threat? When and where do your muscles become overly tense and rigid? Under what circumstances are you likely to lose that all-important calmness and focus? Breathe Control Training To control energy levels, control and regulate your breathing. Take deep prolonged breath Deliberately slow down the overall breathing rate Coordinate the process of exhaling with critical moments of execution helps in emotional balance. Practice breath control (on and off the playing field) Muscle Relaxation Training Practice Jacobsons exercise to reduce excessive muscle tension. Autogenic Training Relaxation Training Technique associates certain words to trigger a relaxation response I am feeling heavier My hands are feeling warmer and warmer Emphasis on Power of words Power of self-suggestion Power of ones imagination Meditation Training Meditation produce profound states of relaxation reduces negative energy flow. Any technique can be used, as long as it produces desired relaxation and quieting effect: Mantra Meditation: Repetition of word one in exhalation of breath Focusing on Breathing Focusing on Object. Thought Control Training To achieve high degree of self-control over negative thoughts, you must control what you are thinking. Focusing on disturbing and negative thoughts produce Negative Energy State Focusing on themes of winning and losing, missed opportunities, self-condemnation produces Negative Energy State. Focusing on positive and constructive thoughts.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

5 Assessing and Monitoring

5-11

5.3 2

Strategies for Overcoming Deficiencies Low Negative Energy Control (cont) Visualization and Imagery Rehearsal. Visualizing and Imagining pleasant and relaxing scenes generally reduces negative energy. Mentally rehearse the desired physical and emotional response to tension-producing situations can be helpful. Counter Conditioning Strategies Tension and Anxiety reactions can become conditioned to various aspects of competitive play. Personality of Opponent The place The crowd Wind Particular Aspects of play (eg. Hitting backhand in tennis, short putt in golf) To change this conditioning: Sustaining a deeply relaxed response While at the same time maintaining a mental picture of the anxiety-producing situation. We are counter-conditioning a relaxation response to a situation that one produced anxiety and tension. Self-hypnosis Control Negative Energy Flow vide combination of Relaxation Self-suggestion Imagery Lead to reduced muscle tension Physical Exercise Mild physical exercise (bicycle, jogging) before the event may reduce muscle tension. Create Pressure Situations During Practice. Practicing in Pressure Situation Leads to less pressure during actual pressure situation (acclimatized) accelerate skills in relaxation, calming and energy control during play.

Low Attentional Control.

Improved Calming and Quieting Skills Meditation Training Time Awareness Training Centering Strategies Get the Positive Energy Flowing Concentrate During Practice.

Low Visualization and Imagery Skills

Practice Visualizing and Imagining with All 5 Senses Visualizing vividly requires internal calmness and quiet. Use photographs, mirrors or films Review edited film Start mentally rehearsing in advance.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

5 Assessing and Monitoring

5-12

5.3 5

Strategies for Overcoming Deficiencies Low SelfMotivation Set Meaningful Long-term Goals Set Realistic Intermediate Goals Set Daily Short-term Goals Commit Your Goals to Writing and Make a Date for Completion Keep a Daily Log of Your Success Associate with Highly Self-Motivated Athletes. Make it Fun! Make it fun again! Make this #1 in importance. As soon as you are successful, motivational problems will suddenly start evaporating!

Low Positive Energy

Joy Fun - Enthusiasm Increase Your Awareness Rehearse Energy Triggers Both On and Off the Playing Field. Do Whatever You Can to Start Feeling Good about You. High Level Physical Fitness

Low Attitude Control

Identify Positive and Negative Attitudes Start repeating to Yourself Those Attitudes That You Wish To Acquire. Say Stop Read, Listen, Model. Keep A Record.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

5 Assessing and Monitoring

5-13

5.4

Additional Self-Monitoring Techniques. To become the best you can, we have to balance: Physical with Mental. We can control our emotions by controlling the physical body. We can control the physical body by controlling the emotions. (eg. Anger, fear, joy) Here are 11 areas of training that deal with physical performance factor. Each represent a way to work directly with the physical body to achieve better mental and emotional control. 1. Eyes Principle: keep eyes under control at all times. Control the eyes, and we perform well. Train to keep your eyes on target during play. 2. Rituals. Rituals are good. Rituals serve to deepen concentration. Rituals help to keep you in rhythm during play. Rituals help you resist temptation to rush in when nervous / angry. Make sure rituals are precise . Esp. when under pressure and when problems start to mount. 3. Winning Pace. Keep to our winning pace during play. Maintain Pace, regardless of score or circumstances.

Losers keep changing pace (to suit their emotional state) Winning and Emotional Strong, Pace is Excellent Nervous or Angry, Pace becomes too Fast Losing and feeling Low, Pace drags.

4. Breathing Breathing is windows to emotions. When we experience different feelings, our breathing changes. To control feeling states, control the breathing. 5. Project High Positive Intensity To start feeling high intensity, project it on the outside with your physical body. If you look pumped up from the outside, you will fee pumped up on the inside. We can project intensity with our feet, eye, face, head. If you want to feel it and cant seem to get it going, FAKE IT. If you look frantic and tight, you probably are. 6. Project Relaxation and Calmness Project an image of being relaxed and calm in crisis. Of no pressure and being in control 7. Management of Mistakes Performing well, mistakes happen, we go on smoothly Our task = manage mistakes during competition the way we do when we are performing well.

Performing badly, mistakes happen, we respond with negative emotions.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

5 Assessing and Monitoring

5-14

5.4

Additional Self-Monitoring Techniques (cont) 8. Project Confident Fighter Image FAKE IT. Project the Image of a Fighter, No Matter What! When world going against us When were feeling weak When were lacking confidence. 9. Negative Self-Talk. The more negative self-talk, the poorer the performance. Keep your self-talk to minimum during competition. When it occurs, keep it brief and keep it positive. 10. Project a Positive Attitude When have trouble with Negative Thinking, work on Physical body. Project the outward image of someone who is: Thinking positive Thinking enthusiastically. 11. Project I Love the Battle Train to project I Love the Battle image at all times, Most importantly in crisis.

Negative self-talk simulates Negative emotions and Brings negative emotion problems.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

5 Assessing and Monitoring

5-15

Uderstanding What Affects Your Emotions. What affects our mood control? Use following chart to find out (8 week period). Diet Sleep Pattern Blood Sugar Levels Goal = to fine tune emotionally

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

5 Assessing and Monitoring

5-16

5.5

Mental Toughness Formula. How can we stay in control when we are constantly confronted by things beyond our control? We stay ultimately in control by CONTROLLING OUR EMOTIONAL RESPONSE TO THOSE EVENTS I cant control the wind. But when I control my emotional response to the wind, I control the wind (in a sense) Consistent success in competition demands: You control what you can control You control your emotional response towards things you cannot control Winning: we cannot directly control winning. FACT But we have direct control over the things that make winning possible: Effort Attitude Fight Determination KEY to Being a Winner By training to control these (the things you can control) And control you emotional responses to things you cannot control You control the situation Rather than the situation CONTROLLING you! Mental Toughness Formula Say yes to all 4 areas 1. 2. I gave 100% of my best effort throughout the contest, regardless of outcome. We did not play it safe emotionally We tried our hardest until it was over No way we can say I could have done better if I tried harder. We put ourselves on the line and risk losing, giving our absolute best. I kept my energy and attitude positive during the competition, most importantly, during crisis and adversity You didnt turn negative and sour as the problems mounted. If you attitude was to get challenged, inspired and more determined in response to the problems, you are fast developing into a mentally tough competitor. I project a strong and powerful physical presence during the competition, and most importantly, during the crisis You looked like a winner regardless of the score. You projected the image of a confident fighter throughout the battle. You looked the way you wanted to feel. I offered no excuses You never used a problem as an excuse. You were totally responsible.

3. 4.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

5 Assessing and Monitoring

5-17

5.6

The Journey Home Coming home in sport is becoming the best you can be. The price you must pay to attain proficiency in competitive sports is high. Its the challenge that captures us, and its the challenge that defeats us. It is a mastery of something that at times seems to be impossible. Theres more to playing this crazy sport than learning the physical skills. This same message will reverberate in the mind of every athlete as long as he or she strives for mastery. You never arrive as a competitive athlete. Youre always in transit The mastery of competitive sport is a PROCESS of TRANSFORMATION Of change Of continuous rebirth Of having it, and losing it Of struggle Of discovery It is failure and defeat, and it is victory. It is going forward in all directions backwards, sideways, upside down. The only Losers are those who fight the PROCESS. Calmness, positive Energy, Joy, Confidence, Focus, Positive Attitudes Are all for TRANSFORMATION Transformation leads to CONTROL . Control of mind-body connection. This control allows us to Extend beyond our ordinary limits Increase our degrees of freedom Become a fuller measure of our human potential that thought possible. The goal = to conquer OURSELF.

In searching for the sound of sport, one quickly hears the roar of the crowds, the crack of the bat and the thundering of racing feet. But if one listens a little harder and a little longer, one comes to hear silence. There is silence within the performer, in the tenseness of the crowd, in the fear of the hunter and in the beauty of the ski slopes. Man soon learns that silence is an integral part of life and that certainly it is prominent in sport. Silence is not simple the absence of sounds. Rather it is presence. It is the presence of the dimension of time. A realization of the instant and the situation.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

Psychological Performance Inventory

P-5-1

Psychological Performance Inventory


(1x / 6 months) 1 Almost Always 2 Often 3 Sometimes 4 Seldom 5 Almost Never

1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

I see myself as more of a loser than a winner in competition


I get angry and frustrated during competition I become distracted and lose my focus during competition. Before competition, I picture myself performing perfectly I am highly motivated to play my best I can keep strong positive emotion flowing during competition. I am a positive thinker during competition I believe in myself as a player I get nervous or afraid in competition It seems my mind starts racing 100mph during critical moments of competition. I mentally practice my physical skills The goals Ive set for myself as a player keeps me working hard. I am able to enjoy my competition even when I face lots of difficult problems. My self-talk during competition is negative. I lose my confidence very quickly Mistakes get me thinking and feeling negatively I can clear interfering emotion quickly and regain my focus. Thinking in pictures about my sport comes easy to me. I dont have to be pushed to play or practice hard. I am my own best igniter. I tend to get emotionally flat when things turn against me during play. I give 100% effort during play, no matter what. I can perform towards the upper range of my talent and skills. My muscles become overly tight during competition. I get spacey during competition. I visualize working through tough situations prior to competition. Im willing to give whatever it takes to reach my full potential as a player. I practice with high positive intensity. 1 Almost Always 2 Often 3 Sometimes 4 Seldom 5 Almost Never

11 12 13

14 15 16 17 18 19

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

Psychological Performance Inventory

P-5-2

Psychological Performance Inventory


1 Almost Always 28 29 30 I can change negative moods into positive ones by controlling my thinking. Im a mentally tough competitor. Uncontrollable events like the wind, cheating opponents, and bad referees get me very upset. I find myself thinking of past mistakes or missed opportunities as I play. I use images during play that help me perform better. I get bored and burned out. I get challenged and inspired in tough situations. My coaches would say I have a good attitude. I project the outward image of a confident fighter. I can remain calm during competition when confused by problems. My concentration is easily broken. When I visualize myself playing, I can see and feel things vividly. I wake up in the morning and am really excited about playing and practicing. Playing this sport gives me a genuine sense of joy and fulfillment. I can turn crisis into opportunity 1 Almost Always 2 Often 3 Sometimes 4 Seldom 5 Almost Never 2 Often 3 Sometimes 4 Seldom 5 Almost Never

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

41 42

Scoring the Results:


Self-Confidence 1 8 15 22 29 36 2 8 16 23 30 37 Neogative Energy 3 10 17 24 31 38 Attention Control 4 11 18 25 32 39 Visual & Imagery Control 5 12 19 26 33 40 Motivational Level 6 13 20 27 34 41 Positive Energy 7 14 21 28 35 41 Attitude Control

26-30 Excellent Skills 20-25 Room for Improvement 6-19 Needs your Special Attention.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

Psychological Performance Inventory

P-5-3

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

Psychological Performance Inventory Tang

(31 Oct 2012)

P-5-1

Psychological Performance Inventory


(1x / 6 months) 1 Almost Always 2 Often 3 Sometimes X X X X X X X X X X 4 Seldom 5 Almost Never

1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

I see myself as more of a loser than a winner in competition


I get angry and frustrated during competition I become distracted and lose my focus during competition. Before competition, I picture myself performing perfectly I am highly motivated to play my best I can keep strong positive emotion flowing during competition. I am a positive thinker during competition I believe in myself as a player I get nervous or afraid in competition It seems my mind starts racing 100mph during critical moments of competition. I mentally practice my physical skills The goals Ive set for myself as a player keeps me working hard. I am able to enjoy my competition even when I face lots of difficult problems. My self-talk during competition is negative. I lose my confidence very quickly Mistakes get me thinking and feeling negatively I can clear interfering emotion quickly and regain my focus. Thinking in pictures about my sport comes easy to me. I dont have to be pushed to play or practice hard. I am my own best igniter. I tend to get emotionally flat when things turn against me during play. I give 100% effort during play, no matter what. I can perform towards the upper range of my talent and skills. My muscles become overly tight during competition. I get spacey during competition. I visualize working through tough situations prior to competition. Im willing to give whatever it takes to reach my full potential as a player. I practice with high positive intensity. X X 1 Almost Always 2 Often X X X X X X X X X

11 12 13

14 15 16 17 18 19

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

X X

3 Sometimes

4 Seldom

5 Almost Never

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

Psychological Performance Inventory Tang

(31 Oct 2012)

P-5-2

Psychological Performance Inventory


1 Almost Always 28 29 30 I can change negative moods into positive ones by controlling my thinking. Im a mentally tough competitor. Uncontrollable events like the wind, cheating opponents, and bad referees get me very upset. I find myself thinking of past mistakes or missed opportunities as I play. I use images during play that help me perform better. I get bored and burned out. I get challenged and inspired in tough situations. My coaches would say I have a good attitude. I project the outward image of a confident fighter. I can remain calm during competition when confused by problems. My concentration is easily broken. When I visualize myself playing, I can see and feel things vividly. I wake up in the morning and am really excited about playing and practicing. Playing this sport gives me a genuine sense of joy and fulfillment. I can turn crisis into opportunity 1 Almost Always 2 Often 3 Sometimes 4 Seldom X X X X X X X X X X X 2 Often 3 Sometimes 4 Seldom 5 Almost Never X X

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

41 42

X X 5 Almost Never

Scoring the Results:


Self-Confidence 1 8 15 22 29 36 3 3 2 1 5 2 16 2 9 16 23 30 37 Negative Energy 2 1 2 2 2 2 11 Attention Control 2 1 4 2 1 2 12 Visual & Imagery Control 4 4 11 18 25 32 39 4 2 5 5 5 25 Motivational Level 5 1 12 19 26 33 40 2 1 1 2 5 12 Positive Energy 4 5 3 1 4 5 22 Attitude Control 7 4 14 21 28 35 41 2 2 5 1 5 19

3 10 17 24 31 38

6 13 20 27 34 41

26-30 Excellent Skills 20-25 Room for Improvement 6-19 Needs your Special Attention.

Mental Toughness Training for Sports.

Psychological Performance Inventory Tang

(31 Oct 2012)

P-5-3

Negative Energy: Situation of considerable internal conflict. Key = managing pressure Until negative energy control skills improve, staying relaxed, calm and focused in pressure situation is virtually impossible

Motivation Level: If something is not done to rectify the low level of self-motivation, the athlete will more than likey drop out or continue to be a discipline or behavioural problem for coaches.