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1. Use of volatile fatty acids salts in the production of xanthan gum By Correa Leite, Jose Alberto; Pozzi, Eloiza; Pelizer, Lucia Helena; Zaiat, Marcelo; Barboza, Marlei From Electronic Journal of Biotechnology (2013), 16(2), 6. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.2225/vol16-issue2-fulltext-6

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Background: The aim of this study was the prodn. of xanthan gum from salts of volatile fatty acids, which can be generated in anaerobic processes for the prodn. of hydrogen from org. wastewaters. Xanthan gum was produced with three different acid salts used to replace the traditional citrate, which is normally used in the culture for the prodn. of this biopolymer. The volatile fatty acids (VFA) salts used were sodium acetate 0.0328 M, sodium propionate 0.0219 M and sodium butyrate 0.0164 M. Results: The values of biomass yield, (Yp/x) obtained were 9.2 g/g for acetate, 11.78 g/g for citrate, 11.80 g/g for butyrate and 14.59 g/g for propionate, while the values of the product yield (Yp/s), were 0.92; 0.59; 0.71 and 0.72 for acetate, citrate, butyrate and propionate. As for the rheol. characterization, the gums produced showed a consistency index (K) and flow index (n) of 9.8 dinas-ncm-2 and 0.34 for acetate; 6.3 dinas-ncm-2 and 0.39 for citrate, 5.8 dinas-ncm-2 and 0.45 for butyrate, 39.2 dinas-ncm-2 and 0.24 for propionate, that characterize the gums with good consistency and fluidity. Conclusions: It is possible to produce xanthan gum from short-chain volatile acids in replacement by the citrate that is usually used in medium compn. for the gum prodn. These results contribute to the feasibility studies for implementation of processes for treating wastewater generating products such as volatile acids, hydrogen and consequent use of these acids for the prodn. of xanthan gum. ~0 Citings
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2. Formulation of fermentation medium for aquatic species residues for the production of xanthan gum By Reis, Elisiane C. A.; Maia-Araujo, Yzila L. F.; Oliveira, Cezar B. Z.; Rodrigues, Jamile L.; Cardoso, Juliana C.; Druzian, Janice I.; Padilha, Francine F. From Advances in Chitin Science (2010), 12, 64-67. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS Xanthan gum, a polymer synthesized by Xanthomonas sp has high com. interest, mainly for the food industry, pharmaceuticals and oil, due to its phys. and chem. properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prodn. of xanthan gum obtained starting waste oyster (Crassostrea brasiliana), lambreta (Lucina pectinata), crab (Ucides cordatus) and massunim (Anomalocardia brasiliana) and characterize the aq. solns. of 3% on the apparent viscosity. The inoculum was prepd. with the YM (yeast malt) and Xanthomonas campestris IBSBF 629, urea (0.1 gL-1) and phosphate (1.0 gL-1), incubated at 28 C, 250 rpm for 96 h. For anal. of the apparent viscosity of aq. solns. were used gum to 3%. You can obtain xanthan gum with high viscosity and yield from waste crustacean and bivalve supplemented with urea and phosphate. ~0 Citings
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3. Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on the production of xanthan gum from Xanthomonas campestris isolated from soil By Kumara Swamy, M.; Khan Behlol, A.; Rohit, K. C.; Purushotham, B. From Archives of Applied Science Research (2012), 4(6), 2507-2512. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS This study evaluated the influence of various carbon and nitrogen sources on the prodn. of xanthan gum by Xanthomonas campestris isolated from soil sample. Yeast ext. as nitrogen source gave highest yield of xanthan gum (4.8g/l) compared to any other nitrogen sources (beef ext., ammonium sulfate, peptone and tryptone) used in the prodn. medium. The biomass yield (24.5g/l) was also highest with the use of yeast ext. However found no significant variations with other nitrogen sources. Among the carbon sources, sucrose produced max. xanthan gum (3.6g/l). Though galactose yielded higher biomass (26.6g/l), the xanthan gum was found to be lesser in the medium (2.6g/l). The results indicate that, the prodn. of xanthan gum was very much influenced by the carbon and nitrogen sources used in the prodn. media. ~0 Citings
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4. Production of xanthan gum by Xanthomonas campestris strains native from bark cocoa or whey By Diniz, Denis de M.; Druzian, Janice I.; Audibert, Samara From Polimeros: Ciencia e Tecnologia (2012), 22(3), 278-281. Language: Portuguese, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1590/S0104-14282012005000032

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The optimization of the prodn. process of xanthan gum from cocoa husks or milk whey as carbon source was studied, and the prodn. rate of gum obtained by the bioconversion of cocoa pods and whey was detd., using Xanthomonas campestris 1182. The gum was produced in a medium with potassium and nitrogen at 25 C, 250 rpm for 120 h. The results were: 2.335 g.L-1 for sucrose; 4.995 g.L-1 for cocoa dry pods and 12.01 g.L-1 using whey. Therefore, the prodn. of xanthan gum is feasible upon using carbon sources such as cocoa hulls and whey. ~0 Citings
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5. Production of xanthan gum from Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B-1459 by fermentation of date juice palm byproducts (Phoenix dactylifera L.) By Ben Salah, Riadh; Chaari, Kacem; Besbes, Souhail; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hammadi From Journal of Food Process Engineering (2011), 34(2), 457-474. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1111/j.1745-4530.2009.00369.x In this work, we studied the possibility to use date juice for xanthan gum prodn. by Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B1459. The results showed that this strain has a high ability to metabolize date juice. The data on optimization of physiol. conditions of fermn., pH, temp., inoculum's size, glucose and nitrogen concn. showed that the max. xanthan yield of 24.5 g/L was obtained from 60 g/L glucose, 3 g/L ammonium sulfate when batch fermn. was carried with 5% inoculum's size at pH 7, 28C, 48 h, on a rotary orbital shaker at 180 rpm. The polysaccharide purified by high performance liq. chromatog. and analyzed by thin layer chromatog. contained glucose, glucoronic acid and mannose. ~0 Citings
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

6. Process for the production of xanthan gum By Bispo dos Santos, Eniel From Braz. Pedido PI (2012), BR 2010004194 A2 20120320, Language: Portuguese, Database: CAPLUS The claimed process for the prodn. of microbial extracellular polysaccharide utilizes the Xanthomonas campestris bacteria phytopathogenic for various plants. The prodn. process involves inoculum prepn., bacterial cell multiplication in aerated/agitated medium with sucrose (or glucose or sugarcane juice), proteins, N sources and mineral salts at pH 6.77.2 and 25-35C, pasteurization at 80C, pptn. with alc. (ethanol, isopropanol), and ppt. sepn. by centrifugation; the alcs. are recycled in the process. The solid sediment is dried, ground, and fractionated by sieving (80 and 200 mesh sieves) to obtain the desired xanthan gum product. ~0 Citings
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

7. Production of xanthan gum via fermentation with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 8004 By Wen, Yanxuan; Sun, Guosong; Tang, Jiliang; Li, Qunliang; Huang, Kelin; Yang, Kedi; Long, Yunfei; Yan, Wei; Ge, Li From Faming Zhuanli Shenqing (2012), CN 102559803 A 20120711, Language: Chinese, Database: CAPLUS The title method comprises: culturing Xanthomonas campestris campestris in strain medium at 26-30 C, 180-220 rpm for 16-20 h; transferring to fermn. medium, culturing at 28-30 C, 220 rpm for 70-80 h; dilg. the fermn. broth by tap water by 5 times, centrifuging at 10000 rpm for 30 min; adding satd. KCl soln. and 95% ethanol into the supernatant fluid, adjusting pH to 4, stirring, filtering; and drying the ppt. at 60-80 C to obtain food-grade xanthan gum. The invention has simple method, easily obtainable raw materials and low prodn. cost. ~0 Citings
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

8. Production of xanthan gum type polysaccharide by fermentation of glycerol with Xanthomonas By Nery, Tatiana Barreto Rocha; Brandao, Lillian Vasconcellos; Druzian, Janice Izabel From Braz. Pedido PI (2009), BR 2007005950 A2 20090310, Language: Portuguese, Database: CAPLUS The invention describes a process for using glycerin, with varying degrees of purity, a sub-product of biodiesel as a substrate in fermn. culture supplemented with nitrogen using Xanthomonas to obtain a xanthan gum type polysaccharide, using aerated reactors. The invention provides a low cost substrate for the prodn. of xanthan gum type polysaccharide by fermn. when compared to the bioconversion of saccharose and glucose for the same purpose.

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9. Production of xanthan gum by adding carbon sources during batch fermentation By Wang, Shouquan; Du, Jinsuo; Zhao, Xingchun; Chen, Jian; Si, Shufeng; Wang, Xingang From Shipin Gongye Keji (2010), 31(9), 168-170. Language: Chinese, Database: CAPLUS In order to improve the yield and viscosity through the fermn. of xanthan gum, adding sugar during batch fermn. of xanthan gum was studied, and the change of parameters was compared. The results showed that the best initial sugar concn. and adding time and feeding concn. were 40 g/L, 24 h and 20 g/L. Further sugar addn. or distributing the same final amt. in smaller portions during the fermn. did not result in yield increasing. In addn., fed-batch fermn. parameters of the max. cell concn., the yield and the viscosity were prior to batch fermn. ~0 Citings
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

10. Production of xanthan gum by solid-state fermentation By Zhu, Bin; Yan, Yanning From Zhongguo Niangzao (2010), (8), 72-74. Language: Chinese, Database: CAPLUS The xanthan gum was produced by Xanthomonas campestris grown on solid medium contg. agar and spent grain impregnated with a nutrient soln. The effects of medium compn., substrate water content, fermn. time and layer thickness of the substrate on the yield of xanthan gum were studied. The proportion of xanthan gum isolated from the surface of agar medium ranged from 3% to 3.5% (wt./wt.), which was consistent with that produced during submerged fermn. The sucrose and soybean meal were the most suitable C-source and N-source, resp. The highest prodn. of xanthan gum was achieved as 35.3 g/kg in static cultivation when the water content of substrate was 75%, layer thickness was 6 cm and fermn. time was 5 d. ~0 Citings
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11. Xanthomonas sp., and its application for production of xanthan gum specific for soy sauce By Zhai, Hantao; Zhao, Zhiqiang From Faming Zhuanli Shenqing (2010), CN 101838625 A 20100922, Language: Chinese, Database: CAPLUS The invention provides a Xanthomonas sp. (its CGMCC No. 3623), which can be used for prepg. xanthan gum specific for soy sauce. The invention provides a process for the prodn. of xanthan gum, which comprises inoculating Xanthomonas sp. into fermn. medium ia fermenter, fermenting under sterile condition to obtain fermn. liq., introducing into a storage tank, sterilizing the connecting pipes for 30 min with steam, pumping the fermn. liq. into a first-order reactor, extg. with 88% edible ethanol to obtain extg. liq., dehydrating, centrifugating to obtain solid material I, mixing uniformly with 88% edible ethanol, pumping into a second-order reactor, adjusting pH to 6-8 with 20% HCl, treating for 20-30 min, centrifugating to obtain solid material II, oven drying at <50, grinding, and packaging. The fermn. medium is composed of corn starch 4.0-4.5%, soybean 0.25-0.25%, light CaCO3 0.02-0.022, addnl. tap water, and its pH 6.5-7.0. The invention further relates to the application of xanthan gum for producing soy sauce, with improved quality and no ppt.. ~0 Citings
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12. Continuous production of xanthan gum in the form of a concentrated, water-based broth By Ferro, Alessander Acacio; Fabi, Marino Tadeu; Barreto da Silva, Jose Fernando; Rocha, Lucio Jose; Buzzanelli, Luca Pessoa; Buzzanelli, Edson Quirino; Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial - SENAI From PCT Int. Appl. (2010), WO 2010051612 A1 20100514, Language: Portuguese, Database: CAPLUS In a continuous industrial process for producing polysaccharides in the form of a concd., water-based broth, an appropriate carbon source, such as glucose, saccharose or the like, is fermented using micro-organisms of the species Xanthomonas campestris, or other Xanthomonas species, in a growth and prodn. medium in a single reactor controlled by oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH and temp. analyzers, and the fermented and pasteurized product is subsequently treated with polygalacturonase and protease enzymes, yielding a fermented broth that is sufficiently transparent and free of cellular debris to be appropriately stored or used directly in enhanced oil recovery from oil wells.

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13. Fermentative production of xanthan gum from waste molasses or waste glucose mother liquor By Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Guopei; Zhang, Cha; Zhang, Shaohua From Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2008), CN 101240309 A 20080813, Language: Chinese, Database: CAPLUS The title method comprises the steps of: culturing Xanthomonas campestris to obtain seed soln., inoculating the seed soln. in a fermn. medium, culturing at 28-34 C, 0.03-0.05 MPa, pH 7.0-7.2 and 0.2-0.3 vvm for the first 10 h, culturing at 28-34 C, 0.03-0.05 MPa, pH 7.0-7.2 and 0.3-0.4 vvm for the 10-20th hours, culturing at 28-34 C, 0.03-0.05 MPa, pH 7.0-7.5 and 0.4-0.5 vvm for the 20-40th hours, culturing at 28-34 C, 0.03-0.05 MPa, and 0.5-0.6 vvm for the 40-60th hours, adding waste molasses or waste glucose mother liquor at 40-45th hours, controlling sugar concn. at 2-3%, culturing at 28-34 C, pH 7.2-7.5, 0.03-0.05 MPa and 0.5-0.6 vvm for the 60-65th hours to obtain fermn. soln., pretreating the fermn. soln., extg., washing, drying and pulverizing to obtain xanthan gum. The fermn. medium comprises: waste molasses or waste glucose mother liquor 3.5-4.2%, cottonseed protein hydrolyzates 0.1-0.3%, soybean protein hydrolyzate 0.2-0.3%, soybean flour 0.1-0.3%, CaCO3 0.15-0.25%, FeSO4 10-15 ppm and polyether antifoamer 0.050.1%. The method can reduce environment pollution, and has good product performance, simple process, and low manufg. cost. ~0 Citings
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14. Modeling and optimization of synthetic production medium for the production of xanthan gum using response surface methodology By Jain, V. K.; Bajpai, Mukul From Journal of Pure & Applied Microbiology (2007), 1(2), 255-262. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS Response surface methodol. (RSM) was used to evaluate the effects of variables, namely the concn. of glucose, citric acid, KH2PO4 and NH4Cl, in the synthetic prodn. medium for xanthan prodn. Central composite design was used in the design of expts. The exptl. results showed that the optimum concn. of the components were (in g/l): glucose, 34.20; citric acid, 2.11; KH2PO4, 4.01 and NH4Cl, 2.13. The max. xanthan prodn. was 12.5 g/L. This method was efficient; only 24 expts. were necessary to assess these conditions, and model adequacy was very satisfactory as the coeff. of detn. was 0.9856. ~1 Citing
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.

15. Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on the production of xanthan gum and extracellular enzymes by penicillinresistant mutant of Xanthomonas campestris By Janas, Piotr; Targonski, Zdzislaw From Zywnosc (2007), 14(1), 161-172. Language: Polish, Database: CAPLUS The influence of C and N sources on the prodn. of xanthan gum and extracellular enzymes (inulinase, invertase, amylase, -galactosidase) by penicillin-resistant mutant of Xanthomonas campestris bacteria was studied. The C sources tested were maltodextrin, sucrose, glucose, cellobiose, inulin, maltose, lactose, CM-cellulose, fructose, sorbose, lactobionic acid, xylose, xylan, chitin, and ground topinambur tubers. The N sources tested were ammonium sulfate, urea, mono- and diammonium phosphates, ammonium chloride, ammonium fluoride, ammonium nitrate, and corn steep liquor. Good C sources for the xanthan gum prodn. were maltodextrin, sucrose, glucose, cellobiose, inulin, and maltose. The highest xanthan concn. was obtained after cultivation with 3% maltodextrin and sucrose. High activities of extracellular enzymes (inulinase, invertase, -amylase) were found in the culture media; the activities of -galactosidase were low (lactose utilization as C source was also low). The best N sources for xanthan gum prodn. were (NH4)2SO4 and urea. ~0 Citings
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16. Experimental study on production of xanthan gum by fed-batch fermentation By Chang, Chun; Ma, Xiaojian; Fang, Shuqi; Li, Hongliang; Wang, Juan; Deng, Shenglin From Shipin Kexue (Beijing, China) (2005), 26(12), 261-264. Language: Chinese, Database: CAPLUS

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Prodn. of xanthan gum by fed-batch fermn. was studied. Carbohydrate source hydrolyzed for 20 min could promote the prodn. of xanthan gum, and the best DE value was 32.5%. The effects of initial sugar content, the component of feeding medium, the adding time and the way of feeding on prodn. of xanthan gum were studied further by orthogonal expts. The best initial sugar content and adding time and feeding way were 4%, 24 h and exponential way resp., and the feeding medium contg. 0.1% peptone was more adaptable. The final kinetics anal. revealing fed-batch fermn. was prior to batch fermn. ~0 Citings
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17. Production of xanthan gum used for increasing the recovery factor By Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Guopei; Zhang, Cha; Zhang, Shaohua; Liu, Xuezhen From Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2005), CN 1597975 A 20050323, Language: Chinese, Database: CAPLUS The process comprises activating Xanthomonas on agar-free slant medium at (281) for 24 h, dilg., screening on 5-10 ppm antibiotic (rifampin) plate medium at (281) for 72 h, identifying; culturing in shaking-bottle medium at (281) for 24 h; culturing in seed medium at (281) twice for 20-24 h, fermenting at 28-30 under adding org. acid (0.025-0.05% of ferment medium; citric acid or pyruvic acid) at 30-35 h and 45-50 h after fermn.; terminating the fermn. when the solid content in the ferment liquor is >2.8%, residual sugar <0.1%, and viscosity 5,000 Mpa s; treating with acidic or alk. protease at 45-50 for 6-8 h, deactivating at 80, and adding 37% formaldehyde (3,000 ppm). The slant medium is composed of glucose 1, yeast ext. 0.3, peptone 0.5, NaCl 0.1, and agar 2.0%. The seed medium is composed of glucose 1, yeast ext. 0.3, peptone 0.3, NaCl 1, K2HPO4 0.15, MgSO4 0.1, and antifoaming agent 0.05%, and its pH is 6.5-6.8. The ferment medium is composed of glucose 3.5, NH4NO3 0.3, NaNO3 0.2, K2HPO4 0.15, MgSO4 0.1, FeSO4 0.005, and MnSO4 0.025%, and its pH is 6.5-7.0. The recovery rate of the third oil prodn. is increased by >25% by using the xanthan gum whose soln. can pass through 5 m filter membrane. ~0 Citings
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18. Fermentative production of xanthan gum by Xanthomonas strains By de Oliva Neto, Pedro; dos Santos, Luisa Helena From Braz. Pedido PI (2005), BR 2003002205 A 20050322, Language: Portuguese, Database: CAPLUS A process is provided for the prodn., sepn. and purifn. of xanthan gum produced by bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas. Specifically provided is the use of Xanthomonas axonopodis manihotis, Xanthomonas campestris campestris, or Xanthomonas spp. to produce xanthan gum using a fed-batch or continuous fermn. mode. ~0 Citings
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19. Production of xanthan gum by fermentation of cassava, potato, and agroindustrial residues of coffee, potato, and cassava By Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Woicienchowski, Adenize Lorenci; Pandey, Ashok From Braz. Pedido PI (2002), BR 2000007342 A 20020917, Language: Portuguese, Database: CAPLUS Solid and hydrolyzed residues of cassava, cassava bagasse, potatoes, husks and pulp of coffee beans were used with a strain of Xanthomonas campestris in a stirred and aerated fermentor. The present invention solubilizes sugars from the above substrates for direct fermn. to produce com. valuable biomols. It also optimizes the temp. and pH, defines the best N, P, and K sources to add to the substrate, and describes the sepn. process for removing xanthan gum from the fermentor. ~0 Citings
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20. Optimum conditions for the production of xanthan gum from hydrolysed UF-milk permeate by locally isolated Xanthomonas campestris By Abd El-Gawad, I. A.; Murad, H. A.; El-Sayed, E. M.; Salah, S. H. From Egyptian Journal of Dairy Science (2001), 29(1), 37-51. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS

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Fifty isolates from infected cabbage seeds were screened for their ability to produce xanthan gum. One Isolate which was found to be a high producer, was identified as a Xanthomonas campestris LIS-3. The prodn. of xanthan gum by X. campestris LIS-3 from -galactosidase hydrolyzed UF-milk permeate was studied under variable conditions. The optimum conditions for max. xanthan prodn. (43.9g/l) were: 4 days incubation period, 3% inoculum ratio, tryptone and meat ext. or NaNO3 and KNO3 as a org. and inorg. N sources, resp., 10% initial lactose, pH 7.0, and 2.5% KH2PO4 + 0.3% K2HPO4 as a mineral sources. The produced xanthan gum was isolated, purified and characterized for its pyruvic acid content. Also the viscosity of its aq. solns. was measured. ~1 Citing
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21. Optimal control of a batch bioreactor for the production of xanthan gum By Cacik, F.; Dondo, R. G.; Marques, D. From Computers & Chemical Engineering (2001), 25(2-3), 409-418. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1016/S0098-1354(00)00662-1 The application of an optimal control procedure to reduce the fermn. time necessary to produce a desired amt. of xanthan gum is presented. This procedure computes the temp. operating policy for the culture based on the fermn. initial conditions and the desired (target) product concn. at the final time. For that purpose, it uses biomass and product growth models proposed previously in the literature, which are dependent on the medium temp. Computational expts. show that the optimal fermn. time to produce 15 g of gum per l is 16.3% shorter than the necessary time when the usual const. temp. of 28C is used, and 12% shorter than the necessary time when the two-temp. strategy of other authors is used. The results also show considerable energy savings. Rules to det. a near optimum temp. profile without applying the optimization procedure are outlined and some results are presented. These rules are based on the outcome of the optimal control procedure and only require the knowledge of the initial cell and the desired final gum concns. ~19 Citings
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22. Production of xanthan gum by two-staged fermentation By Situ, Haifeng; Xu, Xilin; Chen, Weijun From Huanan Ligong Daxue Xuebao, Ziran Kexueban (1999), 27(6), 114-117. Language: Chinese, Database: CAPLUS To solve the oxygen-limit problem in the final phase of xanthan gum fermn. and to obtain cell-free broth, a new way of producing xanthan gum by cell-free fermn. was studied. The new method, "Two-Staged Fermn.", included two stages. First, cells cultured in the later period of logarithmic phase were removed from the fermn. broth by the microfiltering pipe. Then, non-nitrogenous medium with high carbon source was added to the fermn. broth in the second fermentor. Xanthan gum was thus synthesized by the exocellular enzymes produced in the first fermentor. The exptl. results show that the xanthan gum prodn. was 24.5% higher in the two-staged fermn. than that in the normal one and alc. consumption reduced 40%. Moreover, the final fermn. broth was cell-free and do not need to remove the cells. So it is possible to simplify the sepn. process and to cut the prodn. cost. ~0 Citings
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23. H. Kawahara H. Obata Production of xanthan gum and ice-nucleating material from whey by Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens By Anon. From Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (1998), 49(6), 800. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS ~0 Citings
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24. Production of xanthan gum and ice-nucleating material from whey by Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens By Kawahara, H.; Obata, H. From Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (1998), 49(4), 353-358. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1007/s002530051181

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Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens IFO13599 could produce xanthan gum (18.5 mg/100 mg, lactose) with lactose as the growth substrate in spite of a low level of -galactosidase. This productivity corresponded to one-fifth that with glucose. This strain could also produce ice-nucleating material having an ice-nucleating temp., T50, of -2.8C with xanthan gum in the culture broth. We found that this strain produced both materials in whey medium from which the insol. components had been removed. The prodn. of xanthan with ice-nucleating material reached a max. after cultivation for 168 h under optimum conditions. Furthermore, the xanthan obtained had a low viscosity because of its variant structure revealed, by TLC and HPLC analyses, to be lacking pyruvic acid. Furthermore, we concluded that this mixt. had considerable potential as a regeneratic agent, when compared to other regeneratic agents such as CMcellulose. ~10 Citings
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25. Production of xanthan gum by Sphingomonas bacteria carrying genes from Xanthomonas campestris By Pollock, T. J.; Mikolajczak, M.; Yamazaki, M.; Thorne, L.; Armentrout, R. W. From Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology (1997), 19(2), 92-97. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1038/sj.jim.2900449 Twelve genes coding for assembly, acetylation, pyruvylation, polymn., and secretion of the polysaccharide xanthan gum are clustered together on the chromosome of the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris. These genes (gumBCDEFGHIJKLM) are sufficient for synthesis of xanthan gum when placed in bacteria from a different genus, Sphingomonas. The polysaccharide from the recombinant microorganism is largely indistinguishable, structurally and functionally, from native xanthan gum. These results demonstrate that a complex pathway for biosynthesis of a specific polysaccharide can be acquired by a single inter-generic transfer of genes between bacteria. This suggests the biol. and com. feasibility of synthesizing xanthan gum or other polysaccharides in non-native hosts. ~12 Citings
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26. Modeling to control the production of xanthan gum in a stirred bioreactor By Abraham, N. H.; Kent, C. A. From IChemE Research Event, European Conference for Young Researchers in Chemical Engineering, 2nd, Leeds, U. K., Apr. 2-3, 1996 (1996), 1, 139-141. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS Prediction of polymer prodn. by Xanthomonas campestris using a simple model was performed successfully utilizing online off-gas anal. as an input variable. The results presented are from the 6 dm3 scale (5 dm3 working vol.) and involve fed-batch addn. of glucose at a const. rate. Simple unstructured models were also adapted to allow for fed-batch operation, and the glucose concn. within the bioreactor was predicted successfully. ~0 Citings
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27. Modeling to control the production of xanthan gum in a poorly-mixed bioreactor. By Abraham, N. H.; Kent, C. A. Edited By:Schmid, Rolf D From Biochemical Engineering 3, International Symposium on Biochemical Engineering, 3rd, Stuttgart, Mar. 6-8, 1995 (1995), 178-80. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS A linear relationship between online biomass readings from a Biomass Monitor and off-line cell dry wts. has been obsd. for the Xanthomonas campestris system. This online biomass has been used as an input variable to simple models for polymer prodn. A good fit is obtained using a Ludeking Piret model with the consts. of Weiss or Shu, an improvement can be made by evaluating the parameters specific to this set of data. The best fit is obtained by varying the parameters over short window lengths. ~0 Citings
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28. Apparatus and method for the production of xanthan gum By Murofushi, Kanji; Homma, Taira; Nagura, Shigehiro From Eur. Pat. Appl. (1996), EP 698662 A2 19960228, Language: English, Database: CAPLUS

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A fermentor for the prodn. of xanthan gum is provided with an upper helical impeller and a lower turbine impeller which are positioned therewithin, and an agitator shaft for driving these helical impeller and turbine impeller. The helical impeller consists of a pair of vertically spaced arms extending from the agitator shaft in opposite directions and arranged in twisted relationship, and at least one shearing paddle bridging these arms, and the turbine impeller consists of a rotating disk having 1 turbine blade attached thereto. ~6 Citings
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29. Production of xanthan gum by fermentation By Honma, Taira; Nagura, Shigehiro; Murofushi, Kanji From Fr. Demande (1995), FR 2712304 A1 19950519, Language: French, Database: CAPLUS A procedure for the prodn. of xanthan gum by Xanthomonas, comprising a cell culture stage on media contg. 2 N sources, a sol. inorg. N compd. an an insol. org. N source, followed by a prodn. stage in which the N source is water-sol., is disclosed. ~1 Citing
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30. Production of xanthan gum used in oil drilling engineering By Nguyen, Xuan Nguyen; Ta, Dinh Vinh; Pham, Hong Hai; Phan Doan From Tap Chi Hoa Hoc (1993), 31(4), 37-8. Language: Vietnamese, Database: CAPLUS Preliminary processing and use of xanthan gum for treatment of drilling fluids are discussed. ~0 Citings
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31. High production of xanthan gum by a strain of Xanthomonas campestris conjugated with Lactococcus lactis By Ekateriniadou, L. V.; Papoutsopoulou, S. V.; Kyriakidis, D. A. From Biotechnology Letters (1994), 16(5), 517-22. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1007/BF01023336 Plasmid pNZ521, contg. phospho--galactosidase, maturation protein, and proteinase P genes, was conjugally transferred for the 1st time from L. lactis into X. campestris XLM1. After 20 generations, 67% of the tested colonies were resistant to chloramphenicol. In the transconjugant, proteinase activity appeared in the growth medium, whereas in L. lactis MG1820 it was extd. from the cell wall. Proteinase activity and prodn. of xanthan gum were studied in different concns. of whey. Xanthan gum prodn. was much higher in all cultures with the transconjugant strain XLM152L. ~7 Citings
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32. Production of xanthan gum By Kawano, Yoshio From Gekkan Fudo Kemikaru (1992), 8(11), 91-101. Language: Japanese, Database: CAPLUS A review with 24 refs. on fermn. conditions and recovery systems in manuf. of xanthan gum with Xanthomonas campestris, preservation of the NRRL B-1459 strain, and effect of culture media on qualities of the product.. ~0 Citings
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33. The continuous production of xanthan gum By Peters, Hans Udo; Ghosh, Purnendu; Zaidi, Ahmed; Schumpe, Adrian; Deckwer, Wolf Dieter Edited By:Christiansen, Claus; Munck, Lars; Villadsen, John From Proc. - Eur. Congr. Biotechnol., 5th (1990), 2, 1049-52. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS

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The specific xanthan productivity of Xanthomonas campestris in the chemostat with N-limited synthetic medium deviates from the Luedeking-Piret model at high growth rates. Citric acid improves the sp. growth rate and the sp. xanthan productivity. The wt.-mean mol. wt. of the polysaccharide and its viscosity yield increase with the diln. rate. ~1 Citing
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34. Production of xanthan gum by Xanthomonas campestris var. oryzicola as influenced by nutritional factors By Nirmala, C.; Purushothaman, D. From National Academy Science Letters (India) (1991), 14(2), 71-4. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS In a chem. defined medium, the prodn. of xanthan gum by an isolate of X. campestris oryzicola was studied. Of the several C sources tested, maltose and mannitol at 0.4% gave high amts. of xanthan gum (21 g/L). Similarly NaNO3 (0.1%) as N source stimulated xanthan prodn. Zn and Mg as trace elements enhanced xanthan gum prodn. With these nutrients, 27 g xanthan/L was obtained. ~1 Citing
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35. Construction of lactose-utilizing Xanthomonas campestris and production of xanthan gum from whey By Fu, Jen Fen; Tseng, Yi Hsiung From Applied and Environmental Microbiology (1990), 56(4), 919-23. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS X. campestris pv. campestris possesses a low level of -galactosidase and therefore is not able to grow and produce significant amts. of xanthan gum in a medium contg. lactose as the sole carbon source. In this study, a -galactosidase expression plasmid was constructed by ligating an X. campestris phage LO promoter with pKM005, a ColE1 replicon contg. Escherichia coli lacZY genes and the lpp ribosome-binding site. It was then inserted into an IncP1 broad-hostrange plasmid, pLT, and subsequently transferred by conjugation to X. campestris 17, where it was stably maintained. The lacZ gene under the control of the phage promoter was expressed at a high level, enabling the cells to grow in a medium contg. lactose. Prodn. of xanthan gum in lactose or dild. whey by the engineered strain was evaluated, and it was found to produce as much xanthan gum in these substrates as the cells did in a medium contg. glucose. ~59 Citings
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36. Improved strains for production of xanthan gum by fermentation of Xanthomonas campestris By Marquet, Magda; Mikolajczak, Marcia; Thorne, Linda; Pollock, Thomas J. From Journal of Industrial Microbiology (1989), 4(1), 55-64. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1007/BF01569694 Two classes of mutants of X. campestris B1459 were isolated that accumulate more xanthan gum than the parental wildtype in culture broths of shake flask cultures and both batch and fed-batch fermns. The 1st mutant class was resistant to the antibiotic rifampicin and accumulated, on av., 20% more xanthan gum than wild-type. The 2nd mutant class, a deriv. of the 1st, was resistant to both bacitracin and rifampicin and accumulated 10% more xanthan than its parent. On a wt. basis, the viscosities of the polysaccharides made by each strain were not distinguishable. Only a subset of the drug-resistant mutants were overproducers of xanthan. The biochem. basis for the overprodn. of xanthan by the mutant strains was not detd. Both new strains served as recipients for recombinant plasmids bearing xanthan genes and further augmented the effects of multiple copies of those genes on xanthan productivity. ~7 Citings
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37. Evaluation of a novel foam fermenter in the production of xanthan gum By Misra, Tushar K.; Barnett, Stanley M. Edited By:Ho, Chester S.; Oldshue, James Y From Biotechnol. Processes (1987), 227-37. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS

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Fermn. of a culture of Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B-1459 was carried out in a foam fermenter. The parameters monitored were growth rate, xanthan gum and glucose concns., pH, and viscosity. Flow patterns in the fermenter were studied using dye tracers. Results were a max. specific growth rate of 0.245/h for 120 h of fermn. at 28 and a final xanthan gum yield of 70% based on initial glucose in the media. The viscosity of the broth at the end of the fermn. was 0.66 PaS. Sep. expts. using the "gassing-in" method were conducted to det. the volumetric mass transfer coeff., k1a, in the foam fermentor under various conditions: in water, in fermn. media, and in media with surfactant. The k1a values showed a direct dependency on air flow rate to the foam generator and were reported to be higher for the case when a surfactant was present in the media. These values decreased with increase in fermn. age and broth viscosity. ~2 Citings
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38. Effects of agitation by flat-bladed turbine impeller on microbial production of xanthan gum By Funahashi, Hitoshi; Maehara, Masao; Taguchi, Hisaharu; Yoshida, Toshiomi From Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan (1987), 20(1), 16-22. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1252/jcej.20.16 The effects of agitation by a flat-bladed turbine impeller on the microbial prodn. of xanthan gum [11138-66-2] were studied. The intensity of shear flow of an impeller was particularly important compared with other phys. factors relevant to agitation. The specific prodn. rate of xanthan gum and the specific O2 uptake rate were influenced by the shear stress but not by the shear rate. Both of these rates increased with increasing shear stress in the range of 0-40 Pa, beyond which they were const. Increase in glucose [50-99-7] concn., as the driving force of glucose transfer from the medium into the cells, resulted in increase of the specific prodn. rate of xanthan gum. These results suggest that the shear stress was particularly important for xanthan gum prodn. and that the microbial prodn. of xanthan gum might be limited by the mass transfer of the materials from the medium into the cells at low shear stress. ~12 Citings
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39. Fermentative production of xanthan gum By Nishi, Hisamitsu From Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (1986), JP 61173796 A 19860805, Language: Japanese, Database: CAPLUS Xanthomonas campestris Is cultivated in the presence of an inorg. salt and a H2O-sol. org. solvent (e.g. CaCl2-Me2CO) to give xanthan gum as a dispersion of its metal salt and thereby lower the broth viscosity. Thus, the strain was precultured in the presence of Me2CO and inoculated to a medium contg. (per L) sucrose 30, urea 2.5, KH2PO4 2, Na fumarate 3, MgSO4.7H2O 0.2, peptone 1, CaCl2 5 g, and Me2CO 250 mL at 28 for 3 days while adding a seed culture in 24 and 48 h to give a broth of viscosity 520 cP, pH 7.43, contg. 1.56 g insol. and 0.52 g intact xanthan gum/dL. ~0 Citings
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40. Fermentative production of xanthan gum By Nishi, Hisamitsu From Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (1986), JP 61173795 A 19860805, Language: Japanese, Database: CAPLUS Xanthomonas campestris Is cultivated in the presence of a di- or trivalent metal ion (e.g. Ca, Mg, or Al ion) at an appropriate pH to give lower broth viscosity. Thus, the strain was cultivated in a medium (pH 3.0) contg. sucrose 3, urea 0.25, KH2PO4 0.2, Na fumarate 0.3, MgSO4.7H2O 0.02, Al2(SO4)3 0.5%, and some Fe, Zn, and Mn at 28 for 5 days while adding a seed culture at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h to give a broth of viscosity 7 cP, pH 4.25, contg. 1.32 g H2O-insol. and 0.81 g intact xanthan gum/dL. ~0 Citings
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41. Rate and yield relationships in the production of xanthan gum by batch fermentations using complex and chemically defined growth media By Pinches, Anthony; Pallent, Leslie J. From Biotechnology and Bioengineering (1986), 28(10), 1484-96. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.1002/bit.260281006

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Rate and yield information relating to biomass and product formation and to N, glucose, and O consumption are described for xanthan gum [11138-66-2] batch fermns. in which both chem. defined (glutamate [56-86-0] N) and complex (peptone N) media are employed. Simple growth and product models are used for data interpretation. For both N sources, rate and yield parameter ests. were independent of initial N concns. For stationary growth phases, specific rates of gum prodn. were independent of N source but dependent on initial N concn. Empiric modeling suggests caution in applying simple product models to xanthan gum fermns. ~32 Citings
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42. Production of xanthan gum from starch by Xanthomonas campestris N.K-01 By Zhao, Dajian; Diao, Huxin; Liu, Rulin; Liang, Fenglai; Zhang, Yanzhu From Gongye Weishengwu (1986), 16(3), 11-20. Language: Chinese, Database: CAPLUS Xanthan gum [11138-66-2] was produced in 55% yield from corn starch [9005-25-8] by fermn. with X. campestris NK01. Com. grade EtOH or Ca salt pptd. the xanthan gum, which was of com. grade after recovery. ~0 Citings
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43. Production of xanthan gum


No Inventor data available

From Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (1985), JP 60062996 A 19850411, Language: Japanese, Database: CAPLUS Xanthomonas Cultures are desalted by ultrafiltration to <5% total salts and concd. to dryness to yield xanthan gum [11138-66-2]. Thus, X. campestris IFO 18551 was cultured on 18 L medium contg. glucose 4, peptone 0.4, K2HPO4 0.5, and MgSO4.7H2O 0.1% at 30 for 24 days. The culture was filtered through an ultrafiltration membrane for desalination to obtain 1% total salts. The filtrate was spray dried to yield 130 g xanthan gum. ~0 Citings
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44. Semicontinuous production of xanthan gum using Xanthomanas campestris ATCC 31600 and Xanthomanas campestris ATCC 31602 By Weisrock, William P. From U.S. (1982), US 4328308 A 19820504, Language: English, Database: CAPLUS xanthan gum [11138-66-2] Is produced by X. campestris in a fermn. system in which the broth is partially removed and replaced with fresh medium every 24 h. Thus, a preculture of X. campestris XCP-1 was inoculated into medium contg. glucose 22.5, KH2PO4 3.6, Na2HPO4 3.4, citric acid 0.5, NH4Cl 0.86, MgSO4.7H2O 0.421, CaCl2.2H2O 0.040, NaCl 0.021 g/L and mineral elements and incubated at 28 with shaking for 18-20 h. Then 10 mL broth was removed and added to 90 mL fresh medium and incubation was continued as before for 24 h. Fresh medium was inoculated every day for 14 days with 10% inoculum from the previous fermn. Yields of xanthan gum ranged 3.2-6.4 g/L. ~1 Citing
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45. Semicontinuous method for production of xanthan gum using Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 31601 By Weisrock, William Peter From Eur. Pat. Appl. (1982), EP 44659 A2 19820127, Language: English, Database: CAPLUS Xanthan gum [11138-66-2] Is obtained by semicontinuous fermn. with X. campestris on min. medium followed by recovery of the product from a portion of the medium and then reintroduction of fresh medium to repeat the cycle. Thus, an inoculum of X. campestris was prepd. and then transferred to a nutrient-salts medium followed by incubation at 28 for 18-20 h with agitation at 250 rpm. Ten mL of this starter culture was inoculated into 90 mL of a similar medium and allowed to incubate for 24 h periods, after each of which a portion of the culture broth was withdrawn to be replaced by fresh media. Xanthan gum prodn. continued relatively undiminished for 10 serial transfers. ~1 Citing

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46. Fermentative production of xanthan gum with organic acids By Demain, Arnold L.; Souw, Peter From U.S. (1981), US 4245046 A 19810113, Language: English, Database: CAPLUS Xanthan gum [11138-66-2] is produced by fermn. with Xanthomonas campestris in a medium contg. an org. acid. Thus, X. campestris NRRL B-1459 was inoculated into a medium contg. glucose 20, citric acid-H2O 2.19, (NH4)2SO4 2, KH2PO4 5, MgSO4.7H2O 0.2, CaCl3 0.02, ZnO 0.006, FeCl3.6H2O 0.0024, H3BO3 0.006, Na pyruvate [113-24-6] 20 g/L, and HCl 0.13 mL/L and incubated at 25 for 4 days with shaking. Xanthan gum prodn. was 11.8 compared to 8.9 g/kg broth when no org. acid was used. ~7 Citings
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47. Glutamate transport and xanthan gum production in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri By Rojas Robert; Nishidomi Sabrina; Nepomuceno Roberto; Oshiro Elisa; de Cassia Cafe Ferreira Rita From World journal of microbiology & biotechnology (2013), , Language: English, Database: MEDLINE L-glutamate plays a central role in nitrogen metabolism in all living organisms. In the genus Xanthomonas, the nitrogen nutrition is an important factor involved in the xanthan gum production, an important exopolysaccharide with various industrial and biotechnological applications. In this report, we demonstrate that the use of L-glutamate by the phytopathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri as a nitrogen source in defined medium significantly increases the production of xanthan gum. This increase is dependent on the L-glutamate concentration. In addition, we have also characterized a glutamate transport system that is dependent on a proton gradient and on ATP and is modulated by amino acids that are structurally related to glutamate. This is the first biochemical characterization of an energy substrate transport system observed in a bacterial phytopathogen with a broad economic and industrial impact due to xanthan gum production. ~0 Citings
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48. Xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris using whey permeate medium By Savvides A L; Katsifas E A; Hatzinikolaou D G; Karagouni A D From World journal of microbiology & biotechnology (2012), 28(8), 2759-64, Language: English, Database: MEDLINE Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide that is widely used as stabilizer and thickener with many industrial applications in food industry. Our aim was to estimate the ability of Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 for the production of xanthan gum by using whey as a growth medium, a by-product of dairy industry. X. campestris ATCC 13951 has been studied in batch cultures using a complex medium for the determination of the optimal concentration of glucose, galactose and lactose. In addition, whey was used under various treatment procedures (de-proteinated, partially hydrolyzed by -lactamase and partially hydrolyzed and de-proteinated) as culture medium, to study the production of xanthan in a 2 l bioreactor with constant stirring and aeration. A production of 28 g/l was obtained when partially hydrolysed -lactamase was used, which proved to be one of the highest xanthan gum production reported so far. At the same time, an effort has been made for the control and selection of the most appropriate procedure for the preservation of the strain and its use as inoculant in batch cultures, without loss of its viability and its capability of xanthan gum production. The pre-treatment of whey (whey permeate medium hydrolyzed, WPH) was very important for the production of xanthan by the strain X. campestris ATCC 13951 during batch culture conditions in a 2 l bioreactor. Preservation methods such as lyophilization, cryopreservation at various glycerol solution and temperatures have been examined. The results indicated that the best preservation method for the producing strain X. campestris ATCC 13951 was the lyophilization. Taking into account that whey permeate is a low cost by-product of the dairy industry, the production of xanthan achieved under the studied conditions was considered very promising for industrial application. ~0 Citings
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49. Construction of Lactose-Utilizing Xanthomonas campestris with a Mini-Mu Derivative

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By Drahovska H; Turna J From Applied and environmental microbiology (1995), 61(2), 811-2, Language: English, Database: MEDLINE

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Xanthomonas campestris is not able to grow in lactose media. The lactose operon from Escherichia coli as part of a mini-Mu phage was integrated at random sites in the chromosome of this bacterium. Clones expressing (beta)galactosidase were selected. The resulting strain X. campestris 204, is suitable for production of xanthan gum directly from lactose. ~0 Citings
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50. A comparison between shaker and bioreactor performance based on the kinetic parameters of xanthan gum production By Faria S; Vieira P A; Resende M M; Franca F P; Cardoso V L From Applied biochemistry and biotechnology (2009), 156(1-3), 45-58, Language: English, Database: MEDLINE Xanthan gum production was studied using sugarcane broth as the raw material and batch fermentation by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris NRRL B-1459. The purpose of this study was to optimize the variables of sucrose, yeast extract, and ammonium nitrate concentrations and to determine the kinetic parameters of this bioreaction under optimized conditions. The effects of yeast extract and ammonium nitrate concentrations for a given sucrose concentration (12.1-37.8 g L(-1)) were evaluated by central composite design to maximize the conversion efficiency. In a bioreactor, the maximum conversion efficiency was achieved using 27.0 g L(-1) sucrose, 2.7 g L(-1) yeast extract, and 0.9 g L(-1) NH(4)NO(3). This point was assayed in a shaker and in a bioreactor to compare bioreaction parameters. These parameters were estimated by the unstructured kinetic model of Weiss and Ollis (Biotechnol Bioeng 22:859-873, 1980) to determinate the yields (Y (P/S)), the maximum growth specific rate (mu (max)), and the saturation cellular concentration (X*). The parameters of the model (mu (max), X*, m, lambda, alpha, and beta) were obtained by nonlinear regression. For production of xanthan gum in a shaker, the values of mu (max) and Y (P/S) obtained were 0.119 h(-1) and 0.34 g g(-1), respectively, while in a bioreactor, they were 0.411 h(-1) and 0.63 g g(-1), respectively. ~0 Citings
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51. Detection and visualization of an exopolysaccharide produced by Xylella fastidiosa in vitro and in planta By Roper M Caroline; Greve L Carl; Labavitch John M; Kirkpatrick Bruce C From Applied and environmental microbiology (2007), 73(22), 7252-8, Language: English, Database: MEDLINE Many phytopathogenic bacteria, such as Ralstonia solanacearum, Pantoea stewartii, and Xanthomonas campestris, produce exopolysaccharides (EPSs) that aid in virulence, colonization, and survival. EPS can also contribute to host xylem vessel blockage. The genome of Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine, contains an operon that is strikingly similar to the X. campestris gum operon, which is responsible for the production of xanthan gum. Based on this information, it has been hypothesized that X. fastidiosa is capable of producing an EPS similar in structure and composition to xanthan gum but lacking the terminal mannose residue. In this study, we raised polyclonal antibodies against a modified xanthan gum polymer similar to the predicted X. fastidiosa EPS polymer. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify production of EPS from X. fastidiosa cells grown in vitro and immunolocalization microscopy to examine the distribution of X. fastidiosa EPS in biofilms formed in vitro and in planta and assessed the contribution of X. fastidiosa EPS to the vascular occlusions seen in PD-infected grapevines. ~5 Citings
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52. Xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris w.t. fermentation from chestnut extract By Liakopoulou-Kyriakides M; Psomas S K; Kyriakidis D A From Applied biochemistry and biotechnology (1999), 82(3), 175-83, Language: English, Database: MEDLINE

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Xanthomonas campestris w.t. was used for production of xanthan gum in fermentations with chestnut flour for the first time. Fermentations were carried out with either chestnut flour or its soluble sugars (33.5%) and starch (53.6%), respectively, at 28 degrees C and 200 rpm at initial pH 7.0 in flasks. The effect of agitation rate (at 200, 400, and 600 rpm) on xanthan gum production was also studied in a 2-L batch reactor. It was found that xanthan production reaches a maximum value of 3.3 g/100 mL at 600 rpm and 28 degrees C at 45 h. ~1 Citing
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53. Xanthan gum production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate with Xanthomonas campestris using alternative sources of nitrogen By Woiciechowski Adenise L; Soccol Carlos R; Rocha Saul N; Pandey Ashok From Applied biochemistry and biotechnology (2004), 118(1-3), 305-12, Language: English, Database: MEDLINE Cassava bagasse was hydrolyzed using HCl and the hydrolysate was used for the production of xanthan gum using a bacterial culture of Xanthomonas campestris. Cassava bagasse hydrolysate with an initial concentration of approx 20 g of glucose/L proved to be the best substrate concentration for xanthan gum production. Among the organic and inorganic nitrogen sources tested to supplement the medium-urea, yeast extract, peptone, potassium nitrate, and ammonium sulfate-potassium nitrate was most suitable. Ammonium sulfate was the least effective for xanthan gum production, and it affected sugar utilization by the bacterial culture. In media with an initial sugar concentration of 48.6 and 40.4 g/L, at the end of fermentation about 30 g/L of sugars was unused. Maximum xanthan gum (about 14 g/L) was produced when fermentation was carried out with a medium containing 19.8 g/L of initial reducing sugars supplemented with potassium nitrate and fermented for 72 h, and it remained almost the same until the end of fermentation (i.e., 96 h). ~0 Citings
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54. Production of xanthan gum in immobilized cultures of Xanthomonas campestris By Anselmo R J; Viora S; Carletti S From Revista Argentina de microbiologia (1992), 24(2), 86-90, Language: Spanish, Database: MEDLINE The efficiency of xanthan production through surface processes was evaluated. The best porous material was selected first. Thereafter, a comparative study was performed using submerged agitated process vs other without agitation but containing the selected porous material. The culture medium used was white potatoes infusion, buffered with K2HPO4 and supplemented with glucose in diverse concentrations. Besides, to evaluate a different type of surface process, three vegetables were valued: Ipomaea batatus, Solanum tuberosum and Daucus carota, with an without glucose supplement. Larger xanthan production was achieved with immobilization of X. campestris vs the conventional method, when the liquid culture medium was used. The highest yield was obtained when the white potatoes infusion was supplemented with glucose 2.5%, yielding a conversion of this saccharide to xanthan up to 58%. When X. campestris was cultured on fragmented vegetables, the highest xanthan gum yield (5.6g) was obtained with Solanum tuberosum supplemented with glucose. This yield indicators that X. campestris used the glucose added as well as the constitutive polysaccharide of this vegetable. ~0 Citings
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55. Production of xanthan gums By Pares E P; Anselmo R J From Revista Argentina de microbiologia (1991), 23(2), 97-100, Language: Spanish, Database: MEDLINE Xanthomonas campestris was investigated in 70 samples of infected plants in the neighbourhood of Lujan, province of Buenos Aires, between February and August, 1990. The production of xanthan gum was determined from 50 strains of Xanthomonas campestris, as well as the conversion efficiency of substrate concentration into gum and the number of colony forming units (CFU) of Xanthomonas campestris/ml of broth culture. The highest number of strains producing extracellular polysaccharide was obtained from alfalfa. Xanthomonas campestris pv. alfalfa gave elevated cell concentration and conversion efficiency of glucose in xanthan gum. ~0 Citings

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56. A Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris protein similar to catabolite activation factor is involved in regulation of phytopathogenicity By de Crecy-Lagard V; Glaser P; Lejeune P; Sismeiro O; Barber C E; Daniels M J; Danchin A From Journal of bacteriology (1990), 172(10), 5877-83, Language: English, Database: MEDLINE A DNA fragment from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris that partially restored the carbohydrate fermentation pattern of a cya crp Escherichia coli strain was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The nucleotide sequence of this fragment revealed the presence of a 700-base-pair open reading frame that coded for a protein highly similar to the catabolite activation factor (CAP) of E. coli (accordingly named CLP for CAP-like protein). An X. campestris pv. campestris clp mutant was constructed by reverse genetics. This strain was not affected in the utilization of various carbon sources but had strongly reduced pathogenicity. Production of xanthan gum, pigment, and extracellular enzymes was either increased or decreased, suggesting that CLP plays a role in the regulation of phytopathogenicity. ~23 Citings
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57. Genetic and physical analyses of a cluster of genes essential for xanthan gum biosynthesis in Xanthomonas campestris By Harding N E; Cleary J M; Cabanas D K; Rosen I G; Kang K S From Journal of bacteriology (1987), 169(6), 2854-61, Language: English, Database: MEDLINE Xanthomonas campestris produces copious amounts of a complex exopolysaccharide, xanthan gum. Nonmucoid mutants, defective in synthesis of xanthan polysaccharide, were isolated after nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. To isolate genes essential for xanthan polysaccharide synthesis (xps), a genomic library of X. campestris DNA, partially digested with SalI and ligated into the broad-host-range cloning vector pRK293, was constructed in Escherichia coli. The pooled clone bank was conjugated en masse from E. coli into three nonmucoid mutants by using pRK2013, which provides plasmid transfer functions. Kanamycin-resistant exconjugants were then screened for the ability to form mucoid colonies. Analysis of plasmids from several mucoid exconjugants indicated that overlapping segments of DNA had been cloned. These plasmids were tested for complementation of eight additional nonmucoid mutants. A 22kilobase (kb) region of DNA was defined physically by restriction enzyme analysis and genetically by ability to restore mucoid phenotype to 10 of the 11 nonmucoid mutants tested. This region was further defined by subcloning and by transposon mutagenesis with mini-Mu(Tetr), with subsequent analysis of genetic complementation of nonmucoid mutants. A region of 13.5 kb of DNA was determined to contain at least five complementation groups. The effect of plasmids containing cloned xps genes on xanthan gum synthesis was evaluated. One plasmid, pCHC3, containing a 12.4-kb insert and at least four linked xanthan biosynthetic genes, increased the production of xanthan gum by 10% and increased the extent of pyruvylation of the xanthan side chains by about 45%. This indicates that a gene affecting pyruvylation of xanthan gum is linked to this cluster of xps genes. ~22 Citings
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