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QUESTIONS: 1. It is called the combining of signals from the same sources.Multiplexing 2.

It is called the combining of signals from multiple sources.Multiple access 3. It demonstrates the theoretical limit to how much information can be delivered over a medium.Hartleys Law 4. It shows that time and bandwidth are equivalent.Hartleys Law 5. What does FDM mean? frequency-division multiplexing 6. What does TDM mean? time-division multiplexing 7. It is the most basic form of multiplexing and has been used since the first days of radio. FDM/FDMA 8. It is a technique by which the total bandwidth available in a communication medium is divided into a series of non-overlapping frequency sub-bands, each of which is used to carry a separate signal. Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) 9. It is where frequency division multiplexing is used as to allow multiple users to share a physical communications channel. Frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) 10. It is used mainly for digital communication. TDM 11. It is a type of multiplexing in which two or more bit streams or signals are transferred apparently simultaneously as sub-channels in one communication channel, but are physically taking turns on the channel. Time-division multiplexing (TDM) 12. It is a channel access method for shared medium networks. Time division multiple access (TDMA) 13. It is specially conditioned for use as T1 and T2 carriers. Twisted- pair lines 14. It moves PCM samples from one time slot to another in a TDM signal. time switch 15. Each of the time switches has a separate bus at its output called highway 16. System to allow multiple users to use the same frequency with separate PN codes and a spread spectrum modulation scheme. (Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)) 17. Technique for increasing the bandwidth of a transmitted signal by combining it with a pseudorandom noise signal with a higher bit rate. (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) 18. Form of spread spectrum communication in which RF carrier continually moves from one frequency to another according to a prearranged pseudo-random pattern. (Frequency Hopping) 19. Improvement in interfere rejection due to spreading in a spread spectrum system. (Processing Gain) 20. A transmitted series of ones and zeros that repeats after a set time and which appears random if the sequence is not known to the receiver. (Pseudo-Random Noise (PN) Sequence) 21. Variation in received signal strength due to multipath propagation. (Rayleigh Fading) 22-23. Two important types of spread spectrum systems. Frequency Hopping Direct Sequence 24. Extra bits used to spread the signal in a direct-sequence spread spectrum system. (Chips) 25. Third form of multiple access. (CDMA)

26. Simpler of the two spread spectrum technique. (Frequency Hopping) 27. Is used to generate a carrier in the ordinary way. (Frequency Synthesizer) 28. Technique that spreads the signal over a broader spectrum of frequencies than is usual. (Spread-Spectrum) 29. Form of spread spectrum communication that is commonly used with digital modulation schemes. (Direct Sequence) 30. Also called Spreading Gain. (Processing Gain) PROBLEM SOLVING: 1. A voice transmission occupies a channel 40 kHz wide. Suppose a spread-spectrum system is used to increase its bandwidth to 20 MHz. If the signal has a total signal power of -100 dBm at the receiver input and the system noise temperature referred to the same point is 300 K. Calculate the signal-to-noise ratio for both system. ANSWER: PN=kTB PN(40kHz) = (1.38x10-23 J/K)(300K)(40x103Hz) = 165.6x10 W = -127.809 dBm PN(20MHz) = (1.38x10-23 J/K)(300K)(20x106Hz)
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(40kHz)= -100dBm (- 127.809dBm) = 27.809dB (20MHz)= -100dBm (- 127.809dBm)

= 82.8x10-15 W = 0.82dB = -100.82 dBm 2. A frequency-hopping spread-spectrum system hops to each of 150 frequencies every 10 seconds. How long does it spend on each frequency? ANSWER: t= = 0.0667 second per hop 3. How many of each of the following signals would fit into a 2MHz spectrum allocation? a) Voice, with a maximum frequency of 4kHz, modulated using SSBSC AM N = 2MHz / 4kHz = 500 b) The same voice signal using DSB full-carrier AM N = 2MHz / 8kHz = 250 c) High- fidelity music with a maximum baseband frequency of 25kHz, using wideband FM with a maximum deviation of 75kHz. B = 2(max + fmmax) = 2(75kHz + 25kHz) = 200kHz N = 2MHz / 200kHz = 10