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# Chapter 17 Sound Waves

Multiple Choice
1. The velocity of sound in sea water is 1533 m/s. Find the bulk modulus (in N/m2) of sea water if its density is 1.025 103 kg/m3. a. b. c. d. e. 2. 2.6 109 2.2 109 2.0 109 2.4 109 2.8 109

A sculptor strikes a piece of marble with a hammer. Find the speed of sound through the marble (in km/s). (The Youngs modulus is 50 109 N/m2 and its density is 2.7 103 kg/m3.) a. b. c. d. e. 5.1 4.3 3.5 1.3 1.8

3.

The Youngs modulus for aluminum is 7.02 1010 N/m2. If the speed of sound in aluminum is measured to be 5.10 km/s, find its density (in kg/m3). a. b. c. d. e. 11.3 103 7.80 103 2.70 103 29.3 103 1.40 103

4.

It is possible to hear an approaching train before you can see it by listening to the sound wave through the track. If the elastic modulus is 2.0 1011 N/m2 and the density of steel is 7.8 103 kg/m3, approximately how many times faster is the speed of sound in the track than in air? ( v air 340 m/s .) a. b. c. d. e.

20 5 10 15 25

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5.

A harmonic longitudinal wave propagating down a tube filled with a compressible gas has the form s(x, t) = sm cos (kx t). Its velocity can be obtained from
a. b. c. d. e.

/k k/
k

6.

Calculate the pressure amplitude (in N/m2) of a 500 Hz sound wave in helium if the displacement amplitude is equal to 5 108 m. ( = 0.179 kg/m3, v = 972 m/s.)
a. b. c. d. e.

3.5 102 1.6 102 2.7 102 4.2 102 2.0 102

7.

Calculate the displacement amplitude (in m) of a 20 kHz sound wave in helium if it has a pressure amplitude of 8 103 N/m2. ( = 0.179 kg/m3, v = 972 m/s.)
a. b. c. d. e.

2.9 1010 3.7 1010 7.8 109 2.4 109 1.9 1010

8.

The variation in the pressure of helium gas, measured from its equilibrium value, is given by P = 2.9 105 cos (6.2x 3000t) where x and t have units m and s, and P is measured in N/m2. Determine the frequency (in Hz) of the wave.
a. b. c. d. e.

## 1500 477 1.01 0.32 239

9.

The variation in the pressure of helium gas, measured from its equilibrium value, is given by P = 2.9 105 cos (6.2x 3000t) where x and t have units m and s, and P is measured in N/m2. Determine the wavelength (in m) of the wave.
a. b. c. d. e.

## 1500 0.32 477 1.01 0.50

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10.

The variation in the pressure of helium gas, measured from its equilibrium value, is given by P = 2.9 105 cos (6.2x 3000t) where x and t have units m and s. Determine the speed (in m/s) of the wave.
a. b. c. d. e.

## 1515 153 484 828 101

11.

Determine the intensity (in W/m2) of a harmonic longitudinal wave with a pressure amplitude of 8 103 N/m2 propagating down a tube filled with helium. ( = 0.179 kg/m3, v = 972 m/s.)
a. b. c. d. e.

3.7 107 1.8 107 9.2 108 4.6 108 1.5 109

12.

Calculate the intensity level in dB of a sound wave that has an intensity of 15 104 W/m2.
a. b. c. d. e.

20 200 92 9 10

13.

A jet plane has a sound level of 150 dB. What is the intensity in W/m2?
a. b. c. d. e.

## 1 100 10 1000 10000

14.

By what factor will an intensity change when the corresponding sound level increases by 3 dB?
a. b. c. d. e.

3 0.5 2 4 0.3

15.

By what factor is the intensity of sound at a rock concert louder than that of a whisper when the two intensity levels are 120 dB and 20 dB respectively?
a. b. c. d. e.

## 1012 108 106 1010 1011

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16.

A point source emits sound with a power output of 100 watts. What is the intensity (in W/m2) at a distance of 10.0 m from the source?
a. b. c. d. e.

7.96 102 7.96 101 7.96 100 7.96 101 7.96 103

17.

A point source emits sound waves with a power output of 100 watts. What is the sound level (in dB) at a distance of 10 m?
a. b. c. d. e.

## 139 119 129 109 10

18.

A car approaches a stationary police car at 36 m/s. The frequency of the siren (relative to the police car) is 500 Hz. What is the frequency (in Hz) heard by an observer in the moving car as he approaches the police car? (Assume the velocity of sound in air is 343 m/s.)
a. b. c. d. e.

## 220 448 5264 552 383

19.

A car moving at 36 m/s passes a stationary police car whose siren has a frequency of 500 hz. What is the change in the frequency (in Hz) heard by an observer in the moving car as he passes the police car? (The speed of sound in air is 343 m/s.)
a. b. c. d. e.

## 416 208 105 52 552

20.

A truck moving at 36 m/s passes a police car moving at 45 m/s in the opposite direction. If the frequency of the siren relative to the police car is 500 Hz, what is the frequency heard by an observer in the truck as the police car approaches the truck? (The speed of sound in air is 343 m/s.)
a. b. c. d. e.

## 396 636 361 393 617

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21.

A truck moving at 36 m/s passes a police car moving at 45 m/s in the opposite direction. If the frequency of the siren is 500 Hz relative to the police car, what is the frequency heard by an observer in the truck after the police car passes the truck? (The speed of sound in air is 343 m/s.)
a. b. c. d. e.

## 361 636 393 396 383

22.

A truck moving at 36 m/s passes a police car moving at 45 m/s in the opposite direction. If the frequency of the siren is 500 Hz relative to the police car, what is the change in frequency (in Hz) heard by an observer in the truck as the two vehicles pass each other? (The speed of sound in air is 343 m/s.)
a. b. c. d. e.

## 242 238 240 236 234

23.

How fast (in m/s) is the Concorde moving if it reaches Mach 1.5? (The speed of sound in air is 344 m/s.)
a. b. c. d. e.

## 229 516 416 728 858

24.

A stone is thrown into a quiet pool of water. With no fluid friction, the amplitude of the waves falls off with distance r from the impact point as
a. b. c. d. e.

25.

## A wave generated in a medium is a longitudinal wave when

a. b. c. d. e.

there is a net transport of matter by the wave. the molecules of the medium are unable to exert forces on each other. molecular displacements are parallel to the wave velocity. molecular displacements are perpendicular to the wave velocity. the density of the medium is less than the density of water.

26.

When you hear the horn of a car that is approaching you, the frequency that you hear is larger than that heard by a person in the car because
a. b. c. d. e.

wave crests are farther apart by the distance the car travels in one period. wave crests are closer together by the distance the car travels in one period. the car gets ahead of each wave crest before it emits the next one. the speed of sound in air is increased by the speed of the car. a speeding car emits more wavecrests in each period.

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27.

While you are sounding a tone on a toy whistle, you notice a friend running toward you. If you want her to hear the same frequency that you hear even though she is approaching, you must
a. b. c. d. e.

stay put. run towards her at the same speed. run away from her at the same speed. stay put and play a note of higher frequency. run towards her and play a note of higher frequency.

28.

To decrease the intensity of the sound you are hearing from your speaker system by a factor of 36, you can
a. b. c. d. e.

reduce the amplitude by a factor of 12 and increase your distance from the speaker by a factor of 3. reduce the amplitude by a factor of 4 and increase your distance from the speaker by a factor of 3. reduce the amplitude by a factor of 2 and increase your distance from the speaker by a factor of 3. reduce the amplitude by a factor of 3 and increase your distance from the speaker by a factor of 4. reduce the amplitude by a factor of 3 and increase your distance from the speaker by a factor of 12.

29.

Drummers like to have high-pitched cymbals that vibrate at high frequencies. To obtain the highest frequencies, a cymbal of a fixed size should be made of a material
a. b. c. d. e.

with a low Youngs modulus and a low density. with a low Youngs modulus and a high density. with a high Youngs modulus and a low density. with a high Youngs modulus and a high density. composed of a metal-plastic laminate.

30.

A person standing in the street is unaware of an bird dropping that is falling from a point directly above him with increasing velocity. If the dropping were producing sound of a fixed frequency, as it approaches the person would hear the sound
a. b. c. d. e.

drop in frequency. stay at the same frequency. increase in frequency. decrease in loudness. stay at the same loudness.

31.

(Do not try the following: it could kill you. This question is only about a hypothetical possibility.) If you were standing below an object falling at terminal velocity, as it approached you, you would hear the sound
a. b. c. d. e.

drop in frequency. stay at the same frequency. increase in frequency. decrease in loudness. stay at the same loudness.

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32.

## A plane wave propagating along the x-axis has the form

2720 8 y( x , t) = (0.002 cm ) sin x t . s m

The wavelength is
a. b. c. d. e. 33.

## A plane wave propagating along the x-axis has the form

2720 8 y( x , t) = (0.002 cm ) sin x t . s m

## The frequency of the wave (in Hz) is

a. b. c. d. e. 34.

## 3.68 10 4 . 7.35 10 4 . 1360. 2720. 2720.

2720 0.002 cm 8 A spherical wave has the form (r , t) = x t . The sin r s m amplitude of the wave a distance r from the source is

a. b. c. d. e.

## 0.002 cm. 0.002 cm . r 0.002 cm . r (0.002 cm )2 . r 0.002 cm . r2

35.

2720 0.002 cm 8 A spherical wave has the form ( r , t) = x t . The sin r s m wavelength of the wave is

a. b. c. d. e.

0.25 m. 0.50 m. 4 m. 8 m. 4 m.

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36.

2720 0.002 cm 8 A spherical wave has the form (r , t) = x t . The sin r s m frequency of the wave (in Hz) is

a. b. c. d. e. 37.

## 3.68 10 4 . 7.35 10 4 . 1360. 2720. 2720.

2720 0.002 cm 8 A spherical wave has the form ( r , t) = x t . The sin r m s velocity of the wave (in m/s) is

a. b. c. d. e. 38.

## 0.00588. 16. 340. 1360. 2720.

A boy has climbed to the top of a 6.00 m tall tree. When he shouts, the sound waves have an intensity of 0.250

tree. The ratio of intensity at the base of the tree to the intensity 1.00 m from the top of the tree is
a. b. c. d. e.
1 36

## W at a 1.00 m distance from the top of the m2

. .

1 25 1 . 6 1 . 5

1 . 6

39.

Which of the following does not have a precise definition in terms of the physical properties of sound waves?
a. b. c. d. e.

## frequency intensity loudness sound level wavelength

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40.

A friend hands you an equation sheet with the following equation for the Doppler effect: f =

## (v vO ) f . This version of the equation is correct with signs (v + v S )

as given only if
a. b. c. d. e. 41.

the observer and source are approaching each other. the observer is approaching the source while the source is moving away from the observer. the observer is moving away from the source while the source is approaching the observer. the observer and source are moving away from each other. the observer and source are moving in perpendicular directions.

A boat sounds a fog horn on a day when both the sea water and the air temperature are 25.0 C. The speed of sound in sea water is 1533 m/s. How much earlier in s does a dolphin 1000 m from the source hear the sound than a person in a boat that is also 1000 m distant? (Ignore the time it takes the sound to reach the water surface.)
a. b. c. d. e.

## 0.652 2.12 2.24 2.77 2.90

42.

A source of sound waves is placed at the center of a very large sound-reflecting wall. The source emits 0.500 W of power. Two meters from the source he intensity in W/m2 is
a. b. c. d. e.

## 9.95 103 . 1.99 102 .

0.313. 0.399. 0.625.

43.

On a day when the speed of sound in the upper air is 320 m/s, you fly coast to coast in the United States, a distance of about 4850 km, in about one hour, if the Mach number for the speed of your airplane is about
a. b. c. d. e.

1. 2 3 4 5.

44.

A fire engine approaches a wall at 5 m/s while the siren emits a tone of 500 Hz frequency. At the time, the speed of sound in air is 340 m/s. How many beats per second do the people on the fire engine hear?
a. b. c. d. e.

0 15 29 63 250

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45.

The figure below shows the positions of particles in a longitudinal standing wave. One quarter period later the particle distribution is shown in

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

Open-Ended Problems
46.

A bat, flying at 5.00 m/s, emits a chirp at 40.0 kHz. If this sound pulse is reflected by a wall, what is the frequency of the echo received by the bat? (vsound = 340 m/s.) A microphone in the ocean is sensitive to the sounds emitted by porpoises. To produce a usable signal, sound waves striking the microphone must have an intensity of 1.02 1011 W/m2. If porpoises emit sounds with a power of 0.0499 W, how far away can a porpoise be and still be heard? Disregard absorption of sound waves by the water. An airplane traveling at half the speed of sound emits sound at a frequency of 5000 Hz. At what frequency does a stationary listener hear the sound as the plane approaches, and after it passes by? Assume the airplane is not flying very high. The intensity level of an orchestra is 85 dB. A single violin achieves a level of 70 dB. How does the intensity of the sound of the full orchestra compare with that of the violin? When a workman strikes a steel pipeline with a hammer, he generates both longitudinal and transverse waves. The two types of reflected waves return 2.4 s apart. How far away is the reflection point? [For steel, vL = 6.2 km/s, vT = 3.2 km/s]

47.

48.

49.

50.

Sound Waves

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## Chapter 17 Sound Waves

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

d b c d a c b b d c b c d c d a d d c b d c b d c b

27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.

## c c c c b c c c a c c a c d c b d b e 41.2 kHz 19.7 km 10 000 Hz, 3 333 Hz

IOrchestra = 31.6IViolin

7.9 km

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