Session – 1

Working Principle of 4-Stroke diesel Engine
Alfred Franklin V
Mobile Number: 9965370082

Course: B.E/B.Tech (First Year) Subject: Basic Civil and Mechanical Engineering. University: Anna University Tirunelveli.

Session Objectives
At the end of this session, the learner will be able to: • • • • • Define engine. Classify Engine Differentiate between Diesel engine and Petrol engine. Describe the Working principle of diesel engine. List out Applications of four stroke diesel engine.

Teaching Learning Material
• • • Black Board and Chalk PPT Animation

Working principle of 4-stroke Diesel Engine Author Name: Alfred Franklin.V

Page 2 College Name: St. Xavier’s Catholic College of Engineering

Session Plan
Time (in min) Content Learning Aid and Methodology Faculty Approach Typical Student Activity Skill and Competency Developed Remembering/ Knowledge Intrapersonal Remembering/ Knowledge Understanding/ Comprehension

5

Recap : Engine

Question and Answer

Facilitates

Participates

5

I.C Engine Classification

PPT

Explains

Listens

15

I.C Engine Components & their functions

PPT

Explains

Listens

Remembering/ Knowledge Understanding/ Comprehension

15

Working Principle of CI engine

PPT/Animation

Explains

Listens

Remembering/ Knowledge Understanding/ Comprehension

5

Applications

Quiz

Facilitates

Participates

Remembering/ Knowledge Understanding/ Comprehension Interpersonal

5

Comparisons between Petrol and Diesel Engine

Choose and Defend

Facilitates

Participates

Knowledge/ compression Interpersonal

4-stroke Diesel Engine Author Name: Alfred Franklin.V

Page 3 College Name: St. Xavier’s Catholic College of Engineering

Session Inputs
Recap: Engine
The learners are already familiar with diesel engines. The same can be recapped through a question and answer round before introducing the new topic. Suggested Activity: Question & Answer The following questions can serve as sample questions for the activity: 1. What is engine? 2. How engines are classified? 3. What is IC & EC engine? What is an engine? • Heat engines are mechanical device converting heat into useful mechanical work • • Heat is generally generated by chemical reaction, typically from combustion of all sorts of fuels. The original concept is called fire piston, which uses the high temperature due to a rapid compression of gas to kindle a fire.

How an engine is classified? • Internal Combustion Engines. - Combustion takes place inside the cylinder. • External Combustion Engines. - Combustion takes place outside the cylinder.

While explaining the IC and EC engines we can show the following pictures.

Working principle of 4-stroke Diesel Engine Author Name: Alfred Franklin.V

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IC Engine classification
The students should know the classification of IC engines as a part of curriculum; we have to classify the Internal combustion engines by showing the following pictures. 1. Based on Basic engine design 2. Working cycle (SI & CI engine) 3. Based on Application. 1. Based on Basic engine design

4-stroke Diesel Engine Author Name: Alfred Franklin.V

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2. Working cycle (SI & CI engine) • 2-stroke: 1 power stroke per 1 crankshaft rev • 4-stroke: 1 power stroke per 2 crankshaft rev

Components of I.C Engine
Before explaining the working principle of 4S diesel engine we have to explain the components and their functions so that the students can understand the working principle easily. The components are broadly classified into: a) Structural components b) Moving components

(a) Structural Components:
1. Engine Block (Multi cylinder Engine) • Part of engine frame that contains cylinders in which piston moves • Supports liners & head • Part of engine frame that contains cylinders in which piston moves • Supports liners & head

Working principle of 4-stroke Diesel Engine Author Name: Alfred Franklin.V

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2. Engine Head or Cylinder Head Assembly
• Serves to admit, confine, and release fuel/air • Cover to cylinder block • Supports valve train

3. Crankcase

• Engine frame section that houses the crankshaft.

(b) Moving Components
Three Groups – according to motion • Reciprocating only (pistons and valves) • Reciprocation & rotary (connecting rods) • Rotary only (crankshafts and camshafts)

4. Piston

• Acted on by combustion gases • Lightweight but strong/durable • Transfer heat from piston to cylinder • Seal cylinder & distribute lube oil • Pivot point connecting piston to connecting rod

• Piston Rings

• Piston Pin

5. Connecting Rod
• Connects piston & crankshaft

4-stroke Diesel Engine Author Name: Alfred Franklin.V

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• Converts reciprocating into rotary motion.

6. Crank Shaft
• Combines work done by each piston • Drives camshafts, generator, pumps, etc

7. Flywheel
• Absorbs and releases kinetic energy of power strokes and converts smoothes rotation of crankshaft.

8. Valves
• Intake: open to admit air to cylinder. • Exhaust: open to allow gases to be rejected

9. Camshaft & Cams
• Used to time the addition of intake and exhaust valves

Working principle of 4-stroke Diesel Engine Author Name: Alfred Franklin.V

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• Operates valves via pushrods & rocker arms

Working Principle:
After explaining the components of four stroke diesel engine, the students can understand the working principle easily. The following two figures are used for explaining the working principle.

Terminology • TDC: Top Dead Center, position corresponding to smallest volume in the cycle • BDC: Bottom Dead Center, position corresponding to largest volume in the cycle • Stroke: distance between TDC and BDC • Bore: diameter of piston • Displacement volume: volume limited by TDC and BDC

4-strokeCycle CI Engine Principle of Operation
• • Cycle of operation is completed in 4-strokes of the piston or 2 revolutions of the crankshaft. Each stroke consists of 180°, of crankshaft rotation and hence a cycle consists of 720°of crankshaft rotation.
Stroke Suction Stroke Valve Position Suction Valve open Exhaust Valve closed

Compression StrokeBoth Valves closed Expansion or Power Stroke Exhaust Stroke Both Valves closed Exhaust Valve open Suction Valve closed

The series of operations of an ideal four-stroke SI engine are as follows: Intake/Suction Stroke  During the intake stroke, the intake valve opens as the

4-stroke Diesel Engine Author Name: Alfred Franklin.V

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piston moves down to allow air into the cylinder.  The air is pushed by atmospheric pressure into the cylinder through the intake valve. Compression Stroke  After the piston reaches its lower limit, it begins to move upward and as the piston moves up, the intake valve closes.  The exhaust valve is also closed, so that at this point in the cycle, the cylinder is sealed.  As the piston moves upward, the air is compressed and the compression of the air causes the pressure and the temperature of the cylinder to increase. Expansion/Power Stroke  As the piston reaches maximum compression of the air, diesel fuel is injected to the combustion chamber filled with compressed air.  The heat of the compressed air ignites the fuel spontaneously at the self-ignition temperature of the fuel.  As the cylinder pressure increases, the piston is forced down into the cylinder.  The power impulse is transmitted down through the piston, through the connecting rod, and to the crankshaft, which is rotated due to the force. Exhaust Stroke  As the piston reaches the bottom of its stroke, the exhaust valve opens.  As the piston moves up on the exhaust stroke, it forces the burned gases out of the cylinder through the exhaust valve.  Then as the piston reaches the top of its stroke, the exhaust valve closes, and the intake valve opens.  The cycle repeats again with the intake stroke.

Working principle of 4-stroke Diesel Engine Author Name: Alfred Franklin.V

Page 10 College Name: St. Xavier’s Catholic College of Engineering

4-stroke Diesel Engine Author Name: Alfred Franklin.V

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Applications of Diesel engines
The applications of diesel engine can be explained by conducting a technical quiz activity.

The applications of diesel engines are listed below with pictures for effective understanding.

Suggested Activity: Quiz The learners may be asked to suggest the applications of diesel engine by showing some of the pictures. We can list their answer on the board.

1. Marine engine

Marine (Largest engine in the world)

3. AGRICULTURE/FARM

Working principle of 4-stroke Diesel Engine Author Name: Alfred Franklin.V

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4. TRANSPORTATION

5. Power plants

Comparisons between Petrol and Diesel Engine

4-stroke Diesel Engine Author Name: Alfred Franklin.V

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The differences between Petrol and diesel engine can be explained by conducting an activity. The figure gives them some clear idea about petrol and diesel engine. Suggested Activity: Choose and Defend The entire class can be divided into two groups. Each group has to support one of the engines. Each group has to predict the advantages of the engine assigned to them and also disadvantages of the other engines. For each advantage 2 points can be given and for each disadvantage 1 point. We can draw two columns on the board with the following headings: ‘diesel engine’ and ‘petrol engine’. A small space may be provided for noting down the points.

The SI engine offers the following advantages

1. Low initial cost.

Working principle of 4-stroke Diesel Engine Author Name: Alfred Franklin.V

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Low weight for a given power output Smaller size for a given power output Easy starting Less noise Less objectionable exhaust gas odor and less smoke

The CI engine offers the following advantages

1. Low specific fuel consumption at both full load and part load conditions. 2. Utilizes less expensive fuels. 3. Reduced fire hazard 4. Long operating life 5. Better suited for supercharging 6. Better suited for two-stroke cycle operating, as there is no loss of fuel in scavenging 7. The great advantage of CI engine is lower fuel consumption which counteracts the disadvantage of higher initial cost, if engine used for long duties. Disadvantages of diesel engine 1. Engine Weight high. 2. High initial cost. 3. High maintenance cost. Disadvantages of Petrol engine 1. Fuel cost high. 2. Highly inflammable fuel.

Summary
In this session, we learnt to:

4-stroke Diesel Engine Author Name: Alfred Franklin.V

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• • • • • •

Define engine & IC engine. Classify engines Name all the Components Describe the working principle List the applications Compare the Petrol and Diesel engine.

References
Books

Working principle of 4-stroke Diesel Engine Author Name: Alfred Franklin.V

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• Theory & Practice in IC Engines By C F Taylor • Fundamentals of I C Engines-J B Heywood

• •

Internal Combustion Engines by Ganesan Internal Combustion Engines by M L Mathur & S P Sharma

Website www.images.google.com

4-stroke Diesel Engine Author Name: Alfred Franklin.V

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