A

A&AEE A/G AA AA AAA AAAA AAAD AAC AACC or A2C2 AADGE AAED

AAF AAFCE AAH AAI AAIB AALAAW AAM AANCP AAO AAR AARB AAS

AATH AB ABCCC ABG ABL ABM ABS absolute ceiling ABW AC ACA ACAB

ACAP ACAS ACC ACCS ACE ACETEF ACINT ACLANT ACLIS ACLS ACM ACM

ACM ACME ACMI ACMR ACMS CAN ACP ACR ACS ACSM ACT ACTD

ACTIVE Active controls Active runway ACU ACW AD ADAS ADC ADD ADF ADGE ADI

ADIRS adjustable pitch ADM ADP ADR ADS AdSAAMS ADSU ADT3 ADU ADV ADVCAP

ADW AEF AEF AEGIS AEO Aerofoil aeroplane aerostat AETC AEU AEW AEW&C

AF AFA AFB AFCAS AFCC AFCENT AFCS AFDS AFFTC AFGS AFLC AFMC

AFMS AFRC AFRES AFRES AFRP AFS AFSC AFSOC AFSPACECOM afterburner AFTI AG

AG AG AGARD AGE AGL AGM AGT AHIP AHM AHRS AI AIAA

AIAAM AIDC AIDS aileron AIM AIR air superiority airburst aircraft airship airspeed airstair

AIWS aka ALARM ALBM ALCAM ALCM ALD ALF/ALS ALH all cargo services ALN ALPA

alpha (a) ALRAD AM AMC AMF AMG AMI amphibian AMRAAM AMS AMSL AMTI

AMW ANG(B) angled deck anhedral ANO ANS ANVIS ANZUK ANZUS AoA AOB AOG

AOP APACHE APC APHIDS API approach noise APR APS APU aquaplane ARBS Area Rule

AREFS/AREFW ARG ARINC ARM ARNG ARPA ARTI artificial horizon ASA ASARS ASAT ASCC

ASDA ASE ASI ASIP ASLP ASM ASMP aspect ratio ASPJ ASR ASRAAM AST

ASTAR ASTOR ASTOVL ASTRA ASUW ASV ASW ATA ATAF ATAFCS ATAP ATARS

ATB ATC ATCC ATD ATDS ATE ATF ATGM ATGW ATHS ATIRCM ATIS

ATLANTIC ATO ATP ATPCS ATR ATS ATT augmented AURORA autofeathering autogyro autorotation

AUW AVEN AVGAS avionics avpin avtag avtur AW AWACS AWCLS AWE Azimuth

B
BAe BAI Ballistic parachute BALLUTE BAPC barbette BARCAP basic operating weight battle damage BCAR BDA

BDLI BDR beaver tail BERP Beta mode BG bhp bingo BITE bladder tank blade damper BLC

bleed air blisk block time blown flap BLU BMEWS boundary-layer control BPR brownout BRW BS/BW BST

buddy-buddy pack bulk cargo bus BVR BW bypass ratio

C
c/n C/R C3 C3CM C3I

C3I CA CAA CAB cabane cabin altitude CAC CAD/CAM CAF CAG CALCM canard

CAP CAR CAS CASA CASEVAC CASOM CASTOR CATAC CATIA CATIC CAVOK CBLS

CBR CBR CBU CBW CCIL/P CCTS CCV CDU CEAA CEAM CEP CEV

CFB CFE CFIT CFRP CFS cg CGAS chaff chine chord CinC circular dispersion

CIS CIT CIWS CJTF CKD clean CMS CNATRA CO Coanda effect Coanda flap coarse pitch

co-axial COC COCOM COD CofA COIN collective pitch combi COMINT COMPG COMSEC constant-speed propeller

continuation trainer contra-rotating convertible core CoS COTAM CPL CPT CRAF CRL CRT CSA

CSAS CSD CSRL CSW CTA CTD CTOL CTP CTS CTS/CTW CTTO CV

CVA CVH CVL CVN CVR CVS CVV CVW CWS CWW cyclic pitch control

D

DAACM DAB DACT DADC DADS DAFCS DARPA DASA DASS databus dB DBNS

DBS DC DDI dead-stick landing DECU DEMVAL DERA derated DESO DEW DF DFCS

DFDR DFVLR DGAC diamond landing gear DIANE dibber bomb dihedral DINAS DINS dipole aerial dirty disc loading

disposable load DLC DME DMZ DO DoD dog-tooth Doppler DOSAAF double-slotted flap DR DRA

dry lease DSFC duty runway DVI DWS DZ

E
EAA EAP EAS EC

ECCD ECCM ECM ECR ECS ECS ECU EDU EEZ EFA EFCS EFIS

EFM EFS EGT EHF ehp EICAS EIS EL elevator elevon ELF ELINT

ELS ELT EM EMC EMD EMDG EMP ENAER envelope EO EOB EPR

EPU ER EROPS ESM ESSS ETA ETD ETE ETOPS ETPS EUCLID EW

EW(O) EWSM externally blown flap

F
FAA FAC FADEC FAE FAI FANS FAR FARP

FBL FBW FCR FCS FDO FDR feathering FEBA fence fenestron ferry range FEWSG

FFA FFAR FFOS FFV FG/FS/FW FGA FGR field length fine pitch FIR FIRAMS fire-and-forget missile

firewall fixed pitch FL FLA flameout flap flaperon flare flat-rated flight envelope FLIR flutter

fly-by-light fly-by-wire FM FMA FMCS FMS FMS FOB FOC FOD FOL footprint

foreplanes FOT&E FOV Fowler flap FR free turbine freedoms frequency agile FRS FS/FW FSAT FSD

FSS FSW FTS/FTW FY FZ

G
g GA GaAs GAO GAPAN GAU

GBU GCA GCI GE GFE GFRP GGS GIAT GIFAS GLCM glide ratio glideslope

glove GmbH GMT GNS GP GPI GPMG GPS GPU GPWS GR Grandfather rights

GRD green aircraft GRP GS GSE GSh GTS GW

H
HAAC HAARS HADAS

HADS HAECO HAI HAL HALE HALO HAMC HAP HAR hardened hardpoint HARM

HARS HARV HAS HASC HC HDD HDU HE head-down display HEL helicopter HF

HIFR HI-LO-HI HiMAT HIRSS HLH HMD HMG HMP HMS HMSC HOCAC homebuilt

HOT hot and high HOTAS HOTOL hovering ceiling hp HP HQ HS HSCT HSI HSS

HTOVL HUD HUDWAC HUDWASS HUMS HVAR HVM HySTP Hz

I
IADS IAI

IAP IAS IATA ICAO ICBM ICE ICNIA ID IDF IDS IFALPA IFF

IFR IFTU IGE IHPTET IIR (I2R) ILS IMC IMINT IMN Imp gal INAS incidence

INEWS INF INS integral construction

J
JAA JAR JASDF JASSM JAST JATO JCS

JDAM Jet A-1 JGSDF JHSU JIT JMC JMSDF joined wing Joint STARS JP JP-1 JP-2

JP-3 JP-4 JP-5 JP-6 JP-7 JPATS JPT JSF JSOR JSOW J-STARS JTDE

JTIDS JTS

K
KEPD Kevlar KFP KIAS KLu kN Krüeger flap

kts kW

L
L/D LAAAS LABS LAC LAH LAMPS LANTIRN LAPES

LASER Lat LAU LBA LBH LCA LCD LCG LCH LCN LDA LDGP

LED LERX LEX LGB LH LHA LHTEC LHX LID LIFEX lift dumper LLGB

LLGB LLLGB LLTV LMTR LO load factor localiser LOH LoI LO-LO-LO Long longeron

look-down shoot-down LORAN LOROP LOS LOTEX low observables LOX LP LPI LRCA LRGB LRMP

LRMTS LRPA LRU LTD LWF LWR LZ

M
M MAC MACAIR

MAD MADGE MAFFS MAG manifest MANPADS MAP MAPO MARS MARV mass balance MATS

MATV MATZ MAW MAWS Mayday mb MBB MCAS MCM MDC MDH MEDA

medevac MEP MER MEWSG MEZ MF MFD MG MGGB MHz MILSTAR MIL-STD

MIRV MIS missed approach mission-adaptive wing MLRS MLS MLU MLW MMA MMH/FH MMO MMS

MMSA MMW(R) millimetrewave (radar) MNE MO MOA MoD mod MOD (PE) monocoque MoU MPA MPC

MPD MPR MR MRAAM MRASM MRF MRL MRW MSA MSIP MSL MSN

MSOW MSPS MTA MTAS MTBO MTBR MTD MTI MTOGW MTOW MTT MTU

MU MW MZFW

N
NAAFI NAC NACA NACES NADC NADEP NADGE NAEWF

NAF NAMC NAMMA NAS NASA NASC NASP NATC NATO NAVAID NAVEX NAVSTAR

NAVWASS NAWC NBAA NBC NCO NCTI/R NDAA NDB NDT NEACP NEFMA NETMA

NFH NFO NFWS NFZ NITE-OP NLOS nm NOAA NOE noise footprint NOLO NORAD

NOTAM NOTAR NPT NSA NTPS NVG NVS NWC

O
O&M OAT OBIGGS

oblique wing OBOGS OC OCA/H octa OCU OEI OEU offset OG OGE OGMA

OKB Omega OR ORP OSS OTH-B OTH-T outer marker OWE

P
P&W P3I

PACAF PAH PAN PAPI PAR passenger load factor pax payload PBN PBW PCB PCTA

PCU PDF PE PFA PFCS PFD PFP PGM phased array PHI PI PIC

plume pneumatic de-icing PNVS point defence POL power loading power train PPI PPL PR PRF primary flight display

propfan proprotor psi PSP PSR PTT PV PWR

Q
QFE QFI QNE

QNH QRA

R
R&D R&M R/C RAAWS radius of action RAeS RAF RAFVR RALS

RAM ramp weight range gating RAP RAPIDS RARO RAS RAT RATO RATOG RAuxAF RAWS

RCC RCM RCS RDT&E reaction-control jet reciprocal redundancy revenue passengers RF RFP RFQ RG/RS/RW

RHAW RHWR RHWS RIC RIO RNAV or R/Nav ROC RP RPG RPM RPRV RPV

RQF/RQS/RQW RRC RRF RRITA RS/RW RSA RSS RTB RTF ruddervator RV RVR

RW RWR

S
S/L SAAHS SABCA SAC SACEUR SACLOS SADARM SAe safe life

SAHRS SALT SAM SAMSON SAR SARBE SAS SATCOM SATNAV SATS saw-tooth SBAC

SCAS SCIMITAR SDD SDI SEAD seat pitch semi-active semi-monocoque SENSO SEP service ceiling servo

sfc SFW SHAPE SHF SHORAD shp SI SID side-arm controller or sidestick SIGINT signature single-shaft

SIP SITA SITREP SLAM SLAM-ER SLAMMR SLAR slat SLEP slew-wing SLR SLRR

SMTD SMTI SMTS snap-down SOC SOF soft target SOG SOM SONAR SOP SOR

SOS SOW SPILS splitter spoiler spool SPTW SR SR(A) SRA SRAAM SRW

SRZ SSB SSR SST SSTOL st stabiliser Stabo stall strips stalling speed STARS START

STC std stick-pusher stick-shaker STOL store STOVL strake strobe supercritical SUU SW

SWAARM sweepback SWIP

T
T&TW t/c T/O T/W TA TAC TACAMO TACAN

TACEVAL TADS TAF TAI taileron TALCM TALD TALON TANS TARCAP TARG TARPS

TAS TASM TBA TBD TBM TBO TCAS TDY TEG/TES TER TERCOM TET

TF TF(R) TFG TFS/TFW TFTS THAAD THK TI TIALD tilt-rotor TINS TIR

TISEO TMA TMN TODA TODR TOGW top cover TORA TORR TOT TOW TPS

TR track transceiver transponder TRIGAT Trim trim tab TRN TRS TS/TW TsAGI TSFC

TSIAM TSO TSOR TTAE TTF TTW turbofan turbojet turboprop turboshaft TVC TW/AA

TWI twist TWR TWT TWU type certificate

U
u/s UAS UAV UCAV UDF

UHB UHCA UHF UKADGE UKADR ULM UN UNPROFOR unstick upper surface blowing UPT usable fuel

USAF USAFE USCG useful load USMC USN UV

V
V/STOL V1

V2 variable geometry variable pitch VASI VC VD VDF VDU VERTREP VFR VG VHF

VIFF visual approach path indicator VL VLF VLO VMC VMO VNE VOD VOLMET VOR vortex generator

vortillon VP VR VR VS VSI VTOL

W
W/O WAC WARPAC

WAS wash-in wash-out WAT waypoint WDNS WEF wet lease wet wing WEU WFU wheelbase

Whiteout white-tail wide body WIG Wild Weasel windshear wing area wing loading winglet WIP WIU WOD

WRAF write-off WRS WSO WW

X
X XAC XO

Y Yaw

yoke

Z zero-lifed zero-zero ZFW Zulu

Aeroplane & Armament Experimental Establishment, at Boscombe Down (UK) -- now part of the Defence Evaluation & Research Agency air/ground anti-aircraft air-to-air anti-aircraft artillery Army Aviation Association of America All Arms Air Defence (UK) (1) Army Air Corps (UK) or (2) Alaskan Air Command (USAF) Army Airborne Command and Control (US Army) Allied Command Europe air defence ground environment (NATO) advanced airborne expendable decoy

Auxiliary Air Force Allied Air Forces Central Europe (NATO) Advanced Attack Helicopter (US Army requirement which was fulfilled by the AH-64) angle of approach indicator Air Accidents Investigation Branch (UK) advanced air-launched anti-armour weapon air-to-air missile advanced airborne national command post (USAF) airborne area of operation air-to-air refuelling (USAF) advanced aerial refuelling boom Aeromedical Airlift Squadron (USAF)

automatic approach to hover Air Base (USAF, overseas locations) airborne battlefield command and control center (US) Air Base Group (USAF) Airborne Laser (USAF programme) anti-ballistic missile Air Base Squadron (USAF) greatest altitude attainable by an aircraft in unaccelerated flight Air Base Wing (USAF) (1) aerodynamic centre or (2) alternating current Agile Combat Aircraft Air Cavalry Attack Brigade

Advanced Composite Aircraft (helicopter) Programme (1) airborne collision-avoidance system or (2) Assistant Chief of Air Staff (UK) Air Combat Command (USAF) (1) Airborne Command & Control Squadron (USAF) or (2) air command and control system (NATO) (1) Allied Command Europe (NATO) or (2) actuator control electronics Air Combat Environment Test and Evaluation Facility (US) acoustic intelligence Allied Command, Atlantic (NATO) airborne communications location identification and collection system (US) (1) air cushion landing system or (2) Automatic Carrier Landing System (Sperry) Advanced Cruise Missile (HMSC AGM-129) Air Chief Marshal

air combat manoeuvring Advanced Core Military Engine (R-R) air combat manoeuvring instrumentation air combat manoeuvring range aircraft condition monitoring system aircraft classification number (an ICAO parameter indicating the order of bending moment imposed on aircraft pavements) airborne command post air control radar airborne control system Advanced Conventional Stand-Off Missile active control technology Advanced Concept & Technology Demonstration (DoD)

Aerodynamic Control Technology Integration VEhicle (USAF/NASA) flight control system whereby vertical acceleration in a sudden gust is automatically counteracted by upward or downward movement of flying control surfaces to alleviate load runway currently in use for flying operations avionics control unit Air Control Wing (USAF) (1) air defence or (2) Air Division (USAF) or (3) airworthiness directive airborne data acquisition system air data computer airstream direction detector (measures AoA) automatic direction finding (a medium-frequency radio navigation aid, sometimes referred to as radio compass) Air Defence Ground Environment attitude/direction indicator

air data and inertial reference system propeller with pitch which can only be adjusted by an engineer on the ground (as opposed to variable pitch) (1) advanced development model or (2) Air Decoy Missile (1) Advanced Ducted Propeller (P&W), or (2) automated data-processing (1) accident data recorder or (2) Air Defence Region (UK) (1) Air Defense Sector (USAF) or (2) air data system advanced surface-to-air missile system air data sensor unit Air Defence Tactical Training Theatre air data unit Air Defence Variant (Tornado F.3 interceptor) ADVanced CAPability

area denial weapon Air Expeditionary Force (US) Air Experience Flight (UK) AEW/Ground environment Integration System Air Electronics Officer (RAF) any solid body shaped such that as air or hot gas passes over it, it provides a useful force perpendicular to the direction of relative motion: for example generating lift in a wing or torque on a shaft in the case of a turbine blade a powered, heavier-than-air aircraft with a non-rotating wing a lighter-than-air aircraft, ie, a balloon or airship Air Education & Training Command (USAF) airborne electronics unit airborne early warning (radar or aircraft) airborne early warning and control

Air Force Air Force Association (USAF) Air Force Base (USAF term for airfields on US territory) automatic flight control augmentation system Air Force Communications Command (USAF) Allied Forces, CENTral Europe (NATO) automatic (or adaptive) flight control system automatic flight director system Air Force Flight Test Center (USAF) automatic flight guidance system Air Force Logistics Command (USAF) Air Force Materiel Command (USAF)

automatic flight management system Air Force Reserve Command (USAF, the former AFRES) Air Force REServe (USAF, now renamed Air Force Reserve Command) Air Force REServe (USAF) aramid fibre-reinforced plastics automatic flight system Air Force Systems Command (USAF) Air Force Special Operations Command Air Force Space Command (USAF) the combustion of fuel in the engine section aft of the turbine to boost thrust, equivalent to the now lesser used UK term 'reheat' Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (USAF/NASA) air gunner

Airlift Group (USAF) Aktiengesellschaft (German: joint stock company) Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (NATO) aircraft ground equipment (US) above ground level air-to-ground missile (US) Advanced Gun Technology (USAF) Army Helicopter Improvement Program (US) anti-helicopter mine attitude and heading reference system (1) Airbus Industrie or (2) air interdiction/interception or (3) artificial intelligence American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Advanced Intercept Air-to-Air Missile Aero Industry Development Centre (Taiwan) (1) advanced integrated display system (US) or (2) airborne integrated data system hinged control surface on trailing edge of outer wing providing control in roll air intercept missile (1) air-inflatable retarder, a Loral-developed bomb decelerator, also referred to as the BALLUTE, or (2) air intercept radar the control of airspace through the destruction of enemy fighters in dogfight actions. It is more formally defined in JCS Publication 1 as "That degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another, which permits the conduct of operations by t deliberate detonation of explosive device in mid-air rather than on contact with ground any man-made vehicle intended for navigation within the atmosphere, including aeroplanes, helicopters, gliders, airships and balloons. The term is often used loosely to signify fixed-wing aircraft (ie, aeroplanes). a lighter-than-air vehicle with means of propulsion and control the velocity of a vehicle relative to the surrounding air mass retractable steps permanently mounted on the aircraft.

Advanced Interdiction Weapon System (USN) also known as Air-Launched Anti-Radiation Missile (BAe) air-launched ballistic missile Air-Launched Conventional Attack Missile air-launched cruise missile (Boeing AGM-86B) air-launched decoy Airlift Flight/Squadron (USAF) Advanced Light Helicopter (HAL/Eurocopter) are scheduled or non-scheduled flights by aircraft carrying loads other than passengers, ie cargo, baggage, mail Alenia Air Line Pilots Association (US)

angle of attack of main wing airborne laser rangefinder and designator amplitude modulation (1) Air Mobility Command (USAF, combining the former MAC, and SAC tankers), or (2) Airframe Modifications Committee (UK) ACE Mobile Force (NATO) Air Movements Group (RN) Aeronautica Militare Italiana (Italian Air Force) aircraft capable of routinely operating from either land or water Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (Hughes/Raytheon AIM-120) Air Maintenance Squadron (USAF) above mean sea level airborne moving target indicator

Air Mobility Wing (USAF) (USAF) Air National Guard (Base) aircraft carrier deck inclined obliquely from port bow to starboard stern downward slop of wing from root to tip Air Navigation Order (UK statutory instrument for enactment of ICAO policy) airborne navigation system or automatic navigation system Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (US) Australia, New Zealand and UK military alliance Australia, New Zealand and US security treaty angle of attack, ie the angle between the zero-lift line of the wing and the free-stream airflow. Note: that in the UK it is common to use 'incidence' to refer to AoA, but it appears preferable to follow US practice and restrict use of this term to the se Air Order of Battle aircraft on ground

Airborne Observation Post arme propulsée à charges éjectables (French long-range container weapons system) (1) armament practice camp (RAF), or (2) armoured personnel carrier Advanced Panoramic Helmet Interface Demonstrator System armour-piercing incendiary level of noise measured 1nm from approach end of runway with aircraft overhead at 113m (370ft) automatic power reserve aircraft prepared for service. Civil terminology for weight including crew but excluding fuel and payload auxiliary power unit condition during which landing aircraft is travelling at such high speed through shallow water that it is entirely supported by dynamic reaction of the water, with its tyres out of ground contact, making steering or braking impossible Angle-Rate Bombing System (Hughes) the optimisation of longitudinal cross-section area distribution for minimum wave drag

Air Refuelling Squadron/Wing (USAF) Air Refueling Group (USAF) Aeronautical Radio INC, the company whose module sizes have established the international standard anti-radiation missile (US) ARmy National Guard Advanced Research Projects Agency (US) -- now renamed DARPA Advanced Rotorcraft Technology Integration primary cockpit flight instrument, indicating aircraft attitude in relation to horizon ahead Aggiornamento Sistema d'Arma (Italian F-104 weapons system upgrade) Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar System (Hughes) anti-satellite Air Standards Co-ordinating Committee (the organisation responsible for assigning recognition names to aircraft of the potential enemy)

accelerate stop distance available (1) automatic stabilisation equipment or (2) aircraft survivability equipment air speed indicator Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (US) air-sol longuee portée (French air-to-surface, long-range weapon) air-to-surface missile air-sol moyenne portée (French air-to-surface, medium-range weapon) the ratio of wingspan to mean chord, normally calculated by dividing the square of the span by the wing area Advanced Self-Protection Jammer (ITT/Westinghouse) Air Staff Requirement (UK) Advanced Short-Range Air-to-Air Missile (BAe AIM-132) Air Staff Target (UK)

Airborne Search Target Attack Radar Airborne STand-Off Radar (UK) Advanced Short Take-Off, Vertical Landing (US/UK) (1) Advanced System TRaining Aircraft (UK, modified BAe Hawk T.1), or (2) Advanced Stealth Technology Reconnaissance Aircraft (USAF), a 'black' project the existence of which the US does not presently acknowledge anti-surface unit warfare anti-surface vessel anti-submarine warfare (1) Air Transport Association (US) or (2) Advanced Tactical Aircraft (USN) or (3) actual time of arrival Allied Tactical Air Force (NATO) Airborne Target Acquisition And Fire Control System anti-tank, anti-personnel Advanced Tactical Air Reconnaissance System (USAF/USN/USMC)

Advanced Technology Bomber (Northrop B-2) (1) Air Training Command (USAF) or (2) air traffic control or (3) Air Training Corps (UK) Air Traffic Control Centre (1) actual time of departure or (2) Advanced Technology Demonstrator (USN) Airborne Tactical Data System (US) (1) Advanced Technology Engine (US), or (2) automatic test equipment Advanced Tactical Fighter (USAF) anti-tank guided missile anti-tank guided weapon airborne target handover system advanced threat infra-red countermeasures Aerodrome/Automatic Terminal Information Service

Airborne Targeting Low Altitude Navigation Thermal Imaging and Cueing assisted take-off Advanced Turbo-Prop (BAe) automatic take-off power control system (1) air transport racking (ARINC case-sizes) or (2) Avions de Transport Regional (France/Italy) air traffic service Advanced Theater Transport (USAF) (relating to thrust) boosted by afterburning AUtomatic Recovery Of Remotely-piloted Aircraft automatic system which rapidly feathers propeller on engine failure rotary-wing aircraft supported by a freely rotating rotor, with engine power providing thrust (although power may be diverted to spin up the rotor for take-off) rapid power-off descent in helicopter, reduced immediately before landing by sudden increase in collective pitch (normal only an emergency measure, except during flying training)

all-up weight, total aircraft weight under defined conditions Axi-symmetric Vectoring Exhaust Nozzle (GE) aviation gasoline aviation electronic equipment aviation specification iso-propyl nitrate (monofuel) aviation turbine fuel, wide-cut aviation turbine fuel (kerosine) Airlift Wing (USAF) airborne warning and control system (applied initially to the Boeing E-3; now loosely applied to any AEW aircraft) all-weather carrier landing system Atomic Weapons Establishment (UK) horizontal bearing or direction; rotation about vertical axis

British Aerospace (now renamed BAE Systems) battlefield air interdiction emergency recovery parachute, generally for light aircraft BALLoon-parachUTE (refer AIR) British Aircraft Preservation Council defensive gun position on large aircraft projecting laterally and providing field of fire to beam barrier combat air patrol (USN) MTOW less payload, but including crew, fuel and oil, bar stocks, cutlery etc in flight damage caused directly by enemy action British Civil Airworthiness Requirement bomb damage assessment

Bundesverbad der Deutschen Luftfahrt-Raumfahrt-und Ausrüstungsindustrie (German Aerospace Industries Association) battle damage repair aircraft rear fuselage having a progressively flattened cross-section as it nears the tail British Experimental Rotor Programme propeller or rotor operating regime in which pilot has direct pitch control Bomb Group (USAF) brake horsepower radioed call from (military) aircrew indicating fuel state is below a certain critical level, usually that needed to return to base built-in test equipment flexible tank for fuel or other liquid, not normally forming part of the airframe hydraulic spring or similar device which restrains motion of helicopter rotor about drag (lag) hinge, reducing noise and vibration boundary layer control

high-pressure air bled-off through pipes or valves from gas turbine engine compressor or combustor to perform a useful function a complete compressor stage manufactured as a single component, with blades and disk combined elapsed period from time aircraft starts to move off the apron to the time it comes to rest again (normally used relating to commercial aircraft operations; historically derived from removal and replacement of 'blocks' [chocks]) flap across which bleed air is blown at high speed (often supersonic) to prevent airflow breakaway Bomb Live Unit Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (US) control of layer of air in immediate contact with aircraft surface to increase lift, reduce drag and/or improve control under extreme flight conditions bypass ratio loss of orientation and/or visibility due to helicopter rotor downwash creating localised sand/dust storm brake-release weight (maximum permitted weight at start of take-off run) Bomb Squadron/Wing (USAF) British Summer Time

flight refuelling equipment carried in streamlined container on aircraft weapons pylon any loose freight which is not containerised or palletised or Busbar, main electrical system terminal to which battery or generator power is supplied beyond visual range Bomb Wing (USAF) figure derived by dividing airflow through fan duct (not passing through core) by airflow through core

construction or constructor's number contra (or counter)-rotating (relating to propellers turning in opposite directions on different axes) command, control, communications command, control, communications and countermeasures command, control, communications and intelligence

command, control, communications and intelligence Controller Aircraft (UK) Civil Aviation Authority (UK) Civil Aeronautics Board (US) structure, normally of braced struts, to support load (wing or engine nacelle) above fuselage or wing height above sea-level at which ambient pressure is the same as inside the cabin Chengdu Aircraft Industrial Corporation (China) computer-aided (or assisted) design/computer-aided (or assisted) manufacture Canadian Armed Forces (now Canadian Forces) Carrier Air Group Commander (USN) conventional air-launched cruise missile fixed or moveable aerodynamic surfaces or foreplanes ahead of the cg

combat air patrol Civil Airworthiness Regulation (1) calibrated air speed ie IAS corrected for ASI system errors or (2) Chief of Air Staff or (3) close air support or (4) collision avoidance system Construcciones Aeronauticas SA (Spain, now EADS CASA)) CASualty EVACuation Conventionally-Armed Stand-Off Missile (UK) Corps Airborne Stand-Off Radar Commandement Aérienne Tactique (France's Tactical Air Command) computer-aided three-dimensional interactive analysis (Anglicised from French conception assistée tridimensionelle interactive d'applications proprietary CAD system) China National Aero-Technology Import and Export Corporation ceiling and visibility OK for VFR flying or better than predicted carrier, bomb, light store (RAF)

(1) chemical, biological, radiological warfare or (2) California Bearing Ratio (a measure of the ability of an airfield surface to sustain the pressure created by an aircraft's wheels) common bomb rack cluster bomb unit chemical and biological warfare/weapons continuously-computed impact line/point Combat Crew Training Squadron (USAF) control-configured vehicle control and display unit Commandement des Ecoles de l'Armée de l'Air (France's Air Training Command) Centre d'Experimentations Aériennes Militaires (Mont-de-Marsan) circular error of probability, or circle of equal probability, ie, the radius of a circle containing half of the strikes from a large sample of similar projectiles that are fired or released under similar conditions Centre d'Essais en Vol (Istres)

Canadian Forces Base (1) Central Fighter Establishment (RAF, now long defunct) or (2) contractor-furnished equipment or (3) Conventional Forces in Europe (Treaty) controlled flight into terrain carbon fibre-reinforced plastics Central Flying School (RAF, RAAF) centre of gravity Coast Guard Air Station (USCG) radar-reflective material cut in thin slivers to lengths equating to those of hostile radars and dispensed in large 'clouds' for jamming purposes in supersonic aircraft, a sharp edge forming the lateral extremity of the fuselage, shedding strong vortex and merging into wing distance between centres of curvature of wing leading and trailing edges when measured parallel to longitudinal axis Commander-in-Chief diameter of smallest circle within which 75% of projectiles strike

Commonwealth of Independent States combined interrogator-transponder close-in weapon system (naval defence) Combined Joint Task Force (US) component knocked down (ie, in kit form, usually for licence production) configuration in flight with landing gear, flaps, slats, arrester hook, air brakes etc retracted or configuration without any optional extra stores cockpit management system Chief of Naval Air Training (USN) (1) commanding officer, or (2) carbon monoxide tendency of fluid jet to adhere to solid wall, even if it curves away from jet axis flap which relies on the Coanda effect for attachment of flow to upper surface, even at extreme angles propeller having large angle between blade chord and plane of disc, giving higher forward speed

propeller or rotor having two or more sets of blades on the same axis, rotating in opposite directions command operations centre COordinating COMmittee (for multi-lateral export controls) carrier on-board delivery Certificate of Airworthiness COunter-INsurgency pilot control in rotary-wing craft which simultaneously alters pitch of all blades of lifting rotor to control vertical speed commercial aircraft which routinely carries both passengers and cargo at the same time (derived from 'combination') COMmunications INTelligence Composite Group (USAF) COMunications SECurity one in which pitch is adjusted automatically to maintain selected rpm

aircraft used in refresher flying for experienced pilots propellers turning in opposite directions on the same axis aircraft which can be quickly changed between cargo or passenger transport gas generator portion of turbofan including compressor, combustion chamber and turbine Chief-of-Staff Commandement du Transport Aérienne Militaire (France's Air Transport Command) Commercial Pilot's Licence cockpit procedures trainer Civil Reserve Air Fleet (USAF) common rail launcher cathode-ray tube Command Support Aircraft (USAF)

command and stability augmentation system constant speed drive Common Strategic Rotary Launcher conventional stand-off weapon cased, telescoped ammunition colour tactical display conventional take-off and landing chief test pilot central tactical system Composite Training Squadron/Wing (USAF) Central Tactics and Trials Organisation (UK) aircraft carrier (USN)

attack aircraft carrier (USN) helicopter carrier (USN) light aircraft carrier (US) aircraft carrier, nuclear-powered (USN) cockpit voice recorder aircraft carrier, anti-submarine warfare (USN) aircraft carrier, medium sized (USN) carrier air wing (USN) Container Weapon System (MBB) Cruciform Wing Weapon (Rockwell GBU-15) primary helicopter flight control, pilot input tilts rotor disc in desired direction causing rotation about pitch or roll axis

Direct Airfield Attack Combined Munition (CBU-98/B) Defense Acquisition Board (US) dissimilar air combat training digital air data computer digital air data system digital automatic flight control system Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (US DoD, was ARPA) Deutsche Aerospace AGAG (now EADS DASA) Defensive Aids SubSystem electronic network for passing digital data between aircraft sensors and system processors Decibel Doppler bombing/navigation system

Doppler beam sharpening direct current digital display indicator landing of powered aircraft with all engines stopped digital engine control unit DEMonstration & eVALuation (US) Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (UK, subsequenty became QinetiQ) engine restricted to a power less than its maximum potential Defence Export Services Organisation (UK-MoD) Distant Early Warning (US) Direction Finding digital fire control system

digital flight data recorder Deutsche Forschungs-und Versuchsanstalt für Luft-und Raunmfahrt (German aviation research establishment) Direction Générale de l'Aviation Civile (France's airworthiness authority) configuration with tandem mainwheels on centreline and outriggers on wing Digital Integrated Attack Navigation Equipment one which penetrates a concrete runway before exploding upward slope of wing from root to tip digital inertial navigation/attack system digital inertial navigation system one composed of two conductors in line, fed at the mid-point, with a total length equal to one half wavelength used to describe configuration of aircraft with undercarriage, flaps, air brakes etc extended helicopter weight divided by main rotor disc area

total weight of payload, usable fuel, crew and any other masses which can be loaded and unloaded direct lift control distance-measuring equipment (beacon-based navaid) Doppler radar employing frequency shift due to relative target motion in order to measure ground-speed or detect moving objects demilitarised zone design/drafting/drawing office Department of Defense (US) step in wing leading edge where chord increases (similarly saw-tooth) radar based on the fact that received frequency is a function of relative velocity between transmitter or reflecting surface and receiver Dobrovol'noe Obshchestvo Sodeistviya Armii, Aviatsii i Flotu (Voluntary Association for support of the [former Soviet] Army, Aviation and Fleet), the now defunct paramilitary sport flying organisation which undertook all Soviet basic military flying train flap with additional aerofoil ahead of main flap to increase maximum lift (1) dead reckoning or (2) dispatch reliability Defence Research Agency (UK), now absorbed by DERA

lease of commercial aircraft from one airline to another without flight/cabin crew or supporting services direct side-force control runway designated to be in use for flying operations at a specific time direct voice input Dispenser Weapon System (MBB) dropping-zone

Experimental Aircraft Association (US) Experimental Aircraft Programme (UK) equivalent airspeed (rectified airspeed, with a compressibility correction) (1) electronic combat or (2) Escadre de Chasse (French fighter wing)

electronic cockpit control device electronic counter-countermeasures electronic countermeasures Electronic Combat and Reconnaissance (Tornado variant) Electronic Combat Squadron (USAF) environmental control system (1) electronic control unit or (2) environmental control unit or (3) engine change unit (1) electronic display unit or (2) engine diagnostic unit Economic Exclusion (or Exclusive-Economic) Zone European Fighter Aircraft (later Eurofighter 2000, now Eurofighter Typhoon) electronic flight control system electronic flight instrumentation system

Enhanced Fighter Manoeuvrability Enhanced Flight Screener (USAF) exhaust gas temperature (or JPT) extremely high frequency equivalent horsepower - propulsive power of a turboprop engine arrived at by adding the shp and the residual thrust from the jet engine indication and crew alerting system electronic instrument system emitter locator moveable surface for controlling aircraft in pitch control surface on wing trailing edge which combines elevator and aileron functions extremely low frequency ELectronic INTelligence

emitter location system emergency locator transmitter electro-magnetic electro-magnetic compatibility engineering and manufacturing development Euromissile Dynamics Group electro-magnetic pulse (eg, from nuclear explosion) Empresa Nacional de Aeronautica (Chile) outer covering of balloon or airship which encloses the gas or hot-air electro-optical electronic order of battle engine pressure ratio

emergency power unit extended range Extended-Range OPerationS electronic support measures (for the identification, location and recording of enemy emitters) external stores support system estimated time of arrival estimated time of departure estimated time en route Extended-range Twin-engine OperationS (capability of aircraft to fly a route always within two or three hours flying time from a usable alternative airfield) Empire Test Pilots School (Boscombe Down) EUropean Co-operation for the Long-term In Defence early warning

electronic warfare (officer) early warning support measures one over the upper surface of which engine bleed air is blown to prevent airflow separation

(1) Federal Aviation Administration (US) or (2) Fleet Air Arm (UK) forward air control(ler) full-authority digital engine (or electronic) control fuel-air explosive Féderation Aeronautique Internationale Future Air Navigation System Federal Aviation Regulations - Pt 23 refers to the airworthiness of private and air taxi aircraft with a maximum weight of no more than 5,670kg (12,500lb), and Pt 25 refers to public transport aircraft exceeding this figure forward area rearm/refuel point or forward arming and refuelling point

fly-by-light fly-by-wire (electrically-signalled flying controls) fire control radar flying/flight control system flight deck officer flight data recorder aligning pitch of propeller blades with slipstream to minimise drag and prevent windmilling when engine is shut down forward edge of the battle area chordwise wing surface projection, often extending around leading edge, intended to prevent spanwise flow form of tail rotor for helicopters consisting of many narrow blades in a short duct safe absolute maximum distance possible when not carrying any payload Fleet Electronic Warfare Support Group (USN)

Flug-und Fahrzeugwerke AG (now FFA Flugzeugwerke Altenrhein AG) (Switzerland) folding-fin (or free-flight) aircraft rocket Forward Flying Observation System Forenade Fabriks Verken (Sweden) Fighter Group/Squadron/Wing (USAF) Fighter Ground Attack (UK) Fighter Ground Attack Reconnaissance (UK) distance needed for landing and/or take-off, normally qualified with different measurements for specific circumstances setting of propeller angle most suitable for take-off and low-speed flight Flight Information Region flight incident recorder and aircraft monitoring system one with some form of self-homing capability

fire-resistant bulkhead isolating engine from rest of aircraft propeller in which blades are immovably fixed to hub, ie not variable flight level, usually expressed in hundreds of feet thus FL23 = 2,300ft Future Large Aircraft (C-130/Transall replacement, now designated Airbus A400M) cessation of combustion in gas turbine from cause other than fuel shutoff moveable surface forming part of trailing or leading edge of wing used for the purposes of altering low-speed lift and drag surface on wing trailing edge combining flap and aileron functions final nose-up pitch prior to landing to bring rate of descent to minimum (ideally, as near to zero as practical) engine restricted or derated in output at sea level but able to give constant predictable power at higher altitudes or at higher ambient temperatures up to a given limit basic parameters of an aircraft's performance giving the design limits of speed, altitude etc within which it must fly forward-looking infra-red (loosely applied to any IR-based imaging system) high-frequency oscillation caused by interaction of aerodynamic and aeroelastic forces

fibre-optically linked (as opposed to mechanical) flying control system electrically-signalled (as opposed to mechanical) flight control system frequency modulation Fàbrica Militar de Aviones (Argentina) flight management computer system Foreign Military Sales (US) flight management system forward operating base full operational capability foreign object damage forward operating location (1) precisely delineated area of ground, usually around an airport runway, over which noise of an aircraft must not exceed a specified level during take-off and/or landing or (2) dispersion of weapon impact points

pivoted canard surfaces providing authority in pitch and sometimes roll as part of primary flight control system follow-on test and evaluation (US) field of view one which initially moves rearwards to increase wing area then deflects downwards to increase drag flight refuelling one which drives the output shaft but is mechanically independent of the compressor, thus being able to run at its own speed bilateral agreements negotiated between governments relating to air traffic, first freedom is the right to fly across territory of another country with which an agreement has been made; second is the right to make a technical or non-traffic stop in that automatically switching over a range of different frequencies to reduce the chance of eavesdropping (1) Fleet Replenishment Squadron (USN) or (2) Fighter Reconnaissance Strike (UK) Fighter Squadron/Wing (USAF) full-scale aerial target full-scale development

Flight Screening Squadron (USAF) forward-swept wing Flying Training School (RAF, RAAF) or Squadron/Wing (USAF) fiscal year (US-- October 1 to September 30; ie FY1995 starts in October 1994) Les Forges de Zeebrugge (Belgium)

the acceleration due to the Earth's gravity; generally employed as a unit in measuring the nett lift on the aircraft; acceleration during rapid changes in direction of an aircraft's flightpath general arrangement (a three- or four-view drawing of the complete aircraft) or (2) general aviation gallium arsenide General Accounting Office (US) Guild of Air Pilots And Navigators gun (aircraft) unit (US)

glide bomb unit (US) ground-controlled approach (radar) ground-controlled interception General Electric government-furnished equipment glass-fibre reinforced plastic gyro gunsight Groupement Industriel des Armaments Terrestres (France) Groupement des Industries Françaises Aéronautiques et Spatiales (France's aerospace manufacturers' association) ground-launched cruise missile distance travelled along track divided by height lost, unpowered, in still air descent path guidance element of an ILS

fixed-portion immediately inboard of a variable-geometry wing Gesellschaft mit beschraenkter Haftung (German: limited liability company) Greenwich Mean Time global navigation system general purpose glide path indicator general-purpose machine gun (formerly Navstar) Global Positioning System (US-DoD) (1) ground power unit or (2) Gun Pod Unit ground-proximity warning system Ground Attack Reconnaissance (UK) award of permanent certificates to US domestic airlines in June 1940 for all their existing route networks

Gruppe für Rüstungsdienste (Swiss) completed airframe fresh from factory, flyable but only basically equipped, without paint and interior furnishings glass-reinforced plastic ground speed ground support equipment Gryazev-Shipunov (Russian gun designers) gas turbine starter guided weapon

helicopter air-to-air combat High-Altitude Airdrop Resupply System Helmet Airborne Display and Sight

Helicopter Air Data System Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Co Ltd Hellenic Aerospace Industry Ltd Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (India) high altitude, long endurance (1) high altitude, low observable, (2) high altitude, low opening (parachute) Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Co (China) Hélicoptère d'Appui Protection (France, Eurocopter Tiger variant) helicopter, search and rescue (UK) (relating to airfield buildings) afforded maximum protection against effects of nuclear blast reinforced load-bearing portion of aircraft to which weapons or stores can be attached High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile (Texas Instruments AGM-88)

heading/attitude reference system High-AOA Research Vehicle (F/A-18 mod) hardened aircraft shelter House Armed Services Committee (US) Helicopter, Cargo (UK) head-down display hose drum unit (in relation to in-flight refuelling equipment) high explosive display on cockpit instrument panel, as distinct from HUD high energy laser rotary-wing aircraft in which engine power is applied to a substantially horizontal rotor (or rotors), which provide both lift and propulsion high frequency

hover in-flight refuelling mission profile with high level ingress, low-altitude attack and high-level egress Highly Manoeuvrable Aircraft Technology (Rockwell/USAF/NASA programme) hover infra-red suppression system heavy-lift helicopter helmet-mounted display Her Majesty's Government (UK) Heavy Machine-gun Pod (FN Herstal) (1) Her Majesty's Ship (RN) or (2) helmet-mounted sight Hughes Missile Systems Company hands-on cyclic and collective (relating to helicopters) aircraft designed to be built or assembled from plans or kits by an amateur constructor

Haut subsonique Optiquement Teleguidé tiré d'un tube (high subsonic, optically-guided, fired from a tube -- helicopter-carried anti-tank missile) combination of altitude and high ambient temperature which has an adverse effect on take-off performance hands-on throttle(s) and stick (describes the location of essential fighter controls to minimise hand movement during combat) horizontal take-off and landing height at which air density is such that rate of climb of a helicopter becomes zero horsepower high pressure headquarters Helicopter Squadron (USAF) High-Speed Commercial Transport horizontal situation indicator Helicopter Support Ship

horizontal take-off, vertical landing head-up display head-up display and weapon-aiming computer head-up display weapon aiming sub-system health and usage monitoring system High Velocity Aircraft Rocket (USN Zuni) HyperVelocity Missile (Loral Vought Systems) Hypervelocity System Technology Program (USAF/NASA) Hertz (ie, cycle per second)

integrated air defence system Israel Aircraft Industries Ltd

International AirPort indicated airspeed International Air Transport Association International Civil Aviation Organisation inter-continental ballistic missile Improved Combat Efficiency Integrated Communications, Navigation and Identification Avionics (USAF/USN) Identification (1) Indigenous Defence Fighter (Taiwan) or (2) instantaneous direction finder Interdictor/Strike (Tornado variant) International Federation of Air Line Pilots Associations identification, friend or foe

(1) instrument flight rules or (2) in-flight refuelling Intensive Flying Trials Unit (UK) in ground effect (helicopter hovering performance just above a theoretical flat horizontal surface) Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (DoD/NASA) imaging infra-red instrument landing system instrument meteorological conditions imagery intelligence indicated Mach No Imperial gallon (approx 1.20 US gal, 4.546 litres) integrated nav/attack system angle at which wing is set to the fore/aft axis

INtegrated Electronic Warfare System (USAF/USN) intermediate range nuclear forces inertial navigation system -- method of measuring all accelerations imparted by an aircraft and integrating them with respect to time to give a continuous readout of velocity and with a second time integration also giving present position relative to the machined from solid rather than assembled from separate parts

(European) Joint Airworthiness Authorities (European) Joint Airworthiness Requirements Japan Air Self-Defence Force joint air-to-surface stand-off missile Joint Advanced Strike Technology (USAF/USN) jet-assisted take-off (inaccurate though still widely used reference to rocket-assisted take-off) Joint Chiefs of Staff (US)

joint direct attack munition turbine kerosine, standard aviation fuel Japan Ground Self-Defence Force Joint Helicopter Support Unit just in time Joint Maritime Course Japan Maritime Self-Defence Force tandem wing layout in which the wingtips of forward and aft wings meet, forming a diamond-shaped planform Joint Surveillance & Target Attack Radar System (US, mounted in Boeing/Grumman E-8 airframe) Jet Propulsion/Propelled (used for designation of different grades of aviation fuel -- see below) original kerosine or Avtur, replaced by Jet A-1 (NATO F35) improved kerosine, soon obsolete

original wide-cut kerosine and gas oil fractions widely used aviation fuel, Avtag or NATO F40 denser high-flash kerosine, Avcat or NATO F44 a 'heart-cut distillate' with good thermal stability fuel specifically produced for Mach 3 extreme high-altitude aircraft such as the SR-71 Joint Primary Aircraft Training System (USAF/USN- includes Raytheon T-6A Texan II aircraft plus all ground-based training aids) jetpipe temperature Joint Strike Fighter Joint Services Operational Requirement joint stand off weapon see Joint STARS Joint Technology Demonstrator Engine (USAF/USN)

Joint Tactical Information Distribution System Joint Training Squadron (USAF/USN)

kinetic energy penetrator dispenser aramid fibre used in high-strength composite materials Korean Fighter Programme (South Korea - local assembly by KAI of F-16C/D kits) knots indicated airspeed Koninklijke Luchtmacht (Royal Netherlands Air Force) kiloNewton (approx 224.8lb) flap on leading edge of wing undersurface which hinges down and forward from below on high speed wing

knots: one knot represents a speed of one nautical mile (6,080ft or 1,853m) per hour kiloWatt (approx 1.34hp)

lift/drag ratio (a measure of aerodynamic efficiency, reaching around 45:1 for sailplanes) Low Altitude Airfield Attack System low-altitude bombing system (ie toss bombing) Leading Aircraft(s)man Light Attack Helicopter Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System (USN; the LAMPS Mk I was the Kaman SH-2D Seasprite; the Mk III is the Sikorsky SH-60B Seahawk) Low Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infra-Red for Night (Martin Marietta) Low Altitude Parachute Extraction System (USAF)

Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation latitude LAuncher Unit (US) LuftfahrtBundesAmt (German civil aviation authority) Light Battlefield Helicopter Light Combat Aircraft (India) liquid crystal display Load Classification Group Light Combat Helicopter load classification number (representing the peak bending moment imposed by an aircraft on the supporting pavement) landing distance available (1) laser designated general purpose or (2) low-drag general purpose (relating to bombs in both cases)

light-emitting diode leading edge root extension (BAe) leading edge extension (US) laser-guided bomb Light Helicopter large helicopter assault carrier (USN) Light Helicopter Turbine Engine Company (formed by Allison and Garrett for T800 programme) Light Helicopter Experimental (US) lift-improvement device (refers to ventral strakes on AV-8B) life extension flat plate, usually of wide span and short chord, raised from wing upper surface after landing to destroy lift low-level guided bomb

launch & leave guided bomb low-level laser guided bomb Low-Light TeleVision laser marker & target ranger low observable (technology) (1) number of passengers actually being carried as a percentage of those available or (2) the net lift on the aircraft, expressed as a multiple of its weight steering guidance element of an ILS system light observation helicopter Letter of Intent; formal letter from customer giving notice of intent to purchase, prior to negotiation of contract mission profile in which ingress, attack and egress are all undertaken at low level longitude principal fore and aft structural member

ability to destroy low-flying target from high altitude LOng Range Aid to Navigation LOng-Range Oblique Photography line of sight Life-Of-Type EXtension materials and structures designed to reduce aircraft signature liquid oxygen low pressure low probability of intercept (stealth radar) Long-Range Combat Aircraft long-range glide bomb Long-Range Maritime Patrol

laser ranging and marked target seeker Long-Range Patrol Aircraft line-replaceable unit laser target designator lightweight fighter laser warning receiver landing zone

Mach Number; the speed of a vehicle expressed in relation to the speed of sound under the same ambient conditions. Under standard sea level conditions (15°C) Mach 1 is approximately 340.5m/s (1,117ft/s) or 661.4kts (1,225.5km/h). In the standard atmospher (1) Military Airlift Command (now incorporated in AMC; USAF) or (2) mean aerodynamic chord McDonnell Aircraft Company

magnetic anomaly detector, also mutually assured destruction microwave aircraft digital guidance equipment Modular Airborne FireFighting System Marine Air Group (USMC) list of all passengers and cargo for a specific flight man-portable air defence system (1) Military Aid Program (US) or (2) Military Assistance Program (US) or (3) Mutual Assistance Program Moscow Aircraft Production Organisation Mid-Air Recovery/Retrieval System (USN/USAF) manoeuvring re-entry vehicle (US) weight attached to flying control surface, typically ahead of hinge axis, to reduce or eliminate coupling with airframe flutter modes Military Air Transport Service (USAF, preceded MAC)

Multi-Axis Thrust Vectoring (USAF) Military Air Traffic Zone (1) Marine Air Wing (USMC) or (2) mission-adaptive wing (a Boeing/USAF/NASA variable-camber experiment) or (3) Military Airlift Wing (USAF) missile approach warning system internationally recognised distress call for urgent assistance (Anglicised from the French m'aidez!, literally: to my aid) millibar Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (part of DASA) Marine Corps Air Station (USMC) mine countermeasures (1) McDonnell Douglas Corporation or (2) miniature detonating chord (BAe, used to shatter canopy prior to ejection) McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Co Military Emergency Diversion Airfield

MEDical EVACuation mission equipment package (US) multiple ejector rack Maritime Electronic Warfare Support Group (UK) (1) maritime exclusion zone (2) missile engagement zone (1) medium frequency or (2) multi-function multi-function display machine-gun modular guided glide bomb megahertz MILitary Strategic and TACtical Relay (US) military standard

multiple independently-targeted re-entry vehicles Missile Squadron (US) one which is aborted, for whatever reason, followed by an overshoot one with an automatically varying section profile to adapt to the requirements of each flight condition multiple-launch rocket system microwave landing system mid-life update maximum landing weight Multi-mission Maritime Aircraft (USN programme for replacement of P-3 Orion) maintenance man-hours per flight hour maximum operating Mach number mast-mounted sight (on helicopter)

Multi-Mission Surveillance Aircraft (special mission Metro 23)

Mach number never to be exceeded; not reached in normal flying, but available in emergency maximum permitted operating Mach number Memorandum of Agreement Ministry of Defence modification Ministry of Defence (Procurement Executive) method of construction in which all structural strength is in the outer skin and immediately underlying frames and stringers, without interior structure or bracing Memorandum of Understanding (1) maritime patrol aircraft or (2) man-powered aircraft Missile Practice Camp

multi-purpose display maximum power reserve maritime reconnaissance Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile Medium-Range Air-to-Surface Missile (BGM-109H/L) Multi-Role Fighter (USAF projected F-16 replacement) multiple rocket launcher maximum ramp weight minimum safe altitude multinational staged improvement programme or multistage improvement programme (US/Europe) mean sea level manufacturer's serial number (largely used in US, usually referred to as construction number in UK)

Modular Stand-Off Weapon (US) modular self-protection system Military Training Area Millimetric, Modular or Multi-sensor Target Acquisition System mean time between overhauls mean time between removals moving target detection moving target indicator (a radar facility) maximum take-off gross weight maximum take-off weight multiple target tracking Motoren- und Turbinen-Union (Germany)

Maintenance Unit (RAF) (1) Missile Wing (USAF) or (2) Mehrzweckwaffe (German multi-purpose weapon) maximum zero fuel weight

Navy, Army & Air Force Institutes (1) Naval Air Command (UK) or (2) North Atlantic Council (NATO) National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (now NASA) naval aircrew common ejection seat (USN) Naval Air Development Center (USN) Naval Air Depot (USN) Nato Air Defence Ground Environment NATO Airborne Early Warning Force

Naval Air Facility (US) Nanchang Aircraft Manufacturing Co (China) NATO MRCA development & Procurement Management Agency (now superseded by NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency) Naval Air Station (USN) National Aeronautics and Space Administration Naval Air Systems Command (USN) National Aero-Space Plane, now cancelled (US) (1) Naval Air Training Command or (2) Naval Air Test Center (both USN) North Atlantic Treaty Organisation NAVigation AID NAVigation EXercise NAVigation Satellite Timing And Ranging (US-DoD, now known as GPS)

navigation & weapon aiming sub-system Naval Air Warfare Center (USN) National Business Aircraft Association (US) nuclear, biological and chemical (warfare) Non-Commissioned Officer non-co-operative target identification/recognition (radar facility) Non-Developmental Airlift Aircraft (USAF requirement) non-directional beacon non-destructive testing National Emergency Airborne Command Post (US) NATO EFA/Eurofighter Management Agency(now superseded by NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency) NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency

NATO Frigate Helicopter Naval Flight Officer (USN) Naval Fighter Weapons School (USN 'Topgun' academy) no-fly zone night imaging through electro-optics non-line-of-sight nautical mile, equal to 1,853m (6,080ft) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (US) nap-of-the-earth (helicopter or aircraft tactic using natural cover of hills, trees etc) -- see footprint (noise) no live operator North American Aerospace Defense Command (US-DoD)

NOtice To AirMen, an advisory notice giving information on the establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or hazard (ICAO) NO TAil Rotor (MDH) Non-Proliferation Treaty National Security Agency (US) Naval Test Pilots School (at Patuxent River NAWC) night vision goggles night vision system Naval Weapons Center (USN)

operations & maintenance outside air temperature onboard inert gas generating system

one pivoted at mid-point so that one half is swept back and the other forwards, also referred to as slew wing on-board oxygen generation system Officer Commanding Obstacle Clearance Altitude (Height) unit of visible sky area representing one eighth of total area visible to horizon (1) Operational Conversion Unit (RAF) or (2) operational capability update (US) one engine inoperative Operational Evaluation Unit (UK) agreement with customer nation to give local workshare, helping to offset purchase cost of an imported aircraft/system and create local employment Operations Group (USAF) out of ground effect (relates to helicopter hovering performance far above nearest land or water surface) Oficinas Gerais de Material Aeronautico (Portugal)

Opytno-Konstruktorskoye Byuro - Russian designation for an experimental aircraft or missile design bureau long-range hyperbolic radio navigation aid Operational Requirement (RAF) operational readiness platform (RAF) Operational Support Squadron (USAF) over-the-horizon -- backscatter (long-range radar) over-the-horizon targeting ILS marker situated normally at about 8.3km (41/2nm) out from runway threshold and on centreline operating weight empty

Pratt & Whitney pre-planned product improvement (US)

Pacific Air Forces (USAF) PanzerAbwehrHubschrauber (anti-tank helicopter, Eurocopter Tiger variant) generally broadcast radio code indicating uncertainty or alert but not an emergency serious enough for a Mayday call precision approach path indicator (1) phased array radar or (2) precision approach radar is calculated by dividing seat-kilometres used by seat kilometres available and expressing it as a percentage passenger in commercial aircraft, relates to revenue-earning cargo, passengers, baggage or mail; in military aircraft, total disposable load which may include weapons, cargo, passengers and any removable mission equipment Pilatus Britten-Norman Ltd (UK, now B-N Group Ltd) power-by-wire (use solely of electrical power to move control surfaces or perform other mechanical tasks) (1) plenum chamber burning (R-R) or (2) printed circuit board plastic-cased telescoped ammunition

power control unit precision direction finder Procurement Executive (UK-MoD) Popular Flying Association (UK) primary flight computer system primary flight display Partnership For Peace (NATO) precision-guided munition radar which operates by electronically scanning the beam in one or both axes while the antenna remains stationary precision and heading (or homing) indicator practice interception pilot in command

wake of hot air and gas emitted by a helicopter jetpipe or wake from jet engine at high power on the ground method of throwing ice off, for example, aircraft wing leading edges, by alternately pumping up and down a flexible surface coating pilot night vision system defence of specific area, city or installation petroleum, oil, lubricants aircraft MTOGW divided by total thrust at take-off a complete mechanical drive system, for example that which transmits power from an engine to the rotor system of a helicopter plan position indicator private pilot's licence public relations or photo-reconnaissance pulse repetition frequency (radar) main display screen showing all data for aircraft flight path control

new technology propeller family, normally with many thin, sharp-edged, scimitar-shaped blades and often contra-rotating large propeller capable of tilting for both forward and vertical flight, as in the V-22 Osprey pounds/square inch pierced steel planking (interlocking mild steel plates used for temporary runway or hardstanding) post-strike reconnaissance Part Task Trainer (US) private venture passive warning radar

atmospheric pressure at aerodrome elevation Qualified Flying Instructor (RAF) altimeter reading at airfield when subscale is set to 1013.2 millibars, ie pressure height of airfield

altimeter subscale setting to destination airfield altitude -- equivalent MSL pressure as calculated by destination ATC Quick-Reaction Alert (RAF)

research and development reliability and maintainability radio control radar altimeter & altitude warning system measure of the maximum distance an aircraft can fly from its base with a normal combat load and return without refuelling (figure varies considerably according to mission profile) Royal Aeronautical Society Royal Air Force Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve remote augmentation lift system (aka 'bleed-and-burn')

radar-absorbent material or random access memory maximum weight of aircraft before flight, comprising MTOGW plus fuel allowance for run-up & taxi limiting radar to detect targets only within narrow upper and lower range limits rocket-assisted projectile radar passive identification system remote aerial refuelling operation rectified airspeed, ie, IAS corrected for position error ram-air turbine rocket-assisted take-off (often erroneously referred to as JATO) rocket-assisted take-off gear Royal Auxiliary Air Force (1) radar altitude warning system or (2) radar attack & warning system

Rescue Co-ordination Centre Radio CounterMeasures radar cross-section research, development, test and evaluation small nozzles at aircraft extremities taking high-pressure bleed air from main engine on V/STOL types to control attitude and trajectory at low speed heading 180° from that intended having two or more means of continuing to function should primary system fail those who pay 25% or more of the normal applicable fare radio frequency Request for Proposals Request for Quotations Reconnaissance Group/Squadron/Wing (USAF)

radar homing and warning radar homing & warning receiver radar homing & warning system Reconnaissance Interpretation Centre radar intercept officer navigation system which calculates position, distance and time from groups of airways beacons rate of climb (1) rocket projectile (UK) or (2) Rocket Propelled rounds per gun revolutions per minute remotely-piloted research vehicle remotely-piloted vehicle

Rescue Flight/Squadron/Wing (USAF) Rapid Reaction Corps (NATO) Rapid Reaction Force (NATO) Rapid Response Intra-Theater Airlifter (USAF) Reconnaissance Squadron/Wing (USAF) Réseau du Sport de l'Air (France) relaxed static stability (reduced or negative longitudinal static stability) return to base Radiotelephone (ICAO) moving flight control surface of butterfly tail which combines functions of rudder and elevator (1) re-entry vehicle or (2) RendezVous runway visual range

Reconnaissance Wing (USAF) radar-warning receiver

sea level stability augmentation & attitude hold system Société Anonyme Belge de Constructions Aeronautiques (Belgium) (1) Shaanxi Aircraft Co (China) or (2) Shenyang Aircraft Corp (China) or (3) Strategic Air Command (USAF, now incorporated in ACC) Supreme Allied Commander EURope (NATO) semi-automatic command to line-of-sight (ATGW guidance) Search And Destroy ARmor Munition (US) Singapore Aerospace time, determined by testing, after which a component should be replaced, even if not apparently defective

standard attitude & heading reference system Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty surface-to-air missile Special Avionics Mission Strap-On Now (pod) (1) search and rescue or (2) semi-active radar or (3) synthetic aperture radar or (4) synthetic array radar Search And Rescue Beacon Equipment (UK) (1) Scandinavian Airlines System or (2) Special Air Service (UK) or (3) stability augmentation system SATellite COMmunications SATellite NAVigation small airfield for tactical support see dog-tooth Society of British Aerospace Companies (previously Society of British Aircraft Constructors)

stability & control augmentation system System for Countering Interdiction Missiles & Target Acquisition Radars System Development and Demonstration (US) Strategic Defence Initiative (US, aka 'Star Wars') suppression of enemy air defences is the distance between the back of one seat and the same point on the back of the seat in front form of missile guidance in which the weapon homes on to radiation reflected by the target but emitted from a third position, generally the launch aircraft method of construction in which most of the structural strength is in the outer skin and immediately underlying frames and stringers, with little interior structure or bracing sensor operator (normally in ASW operations) specific excess power (the power available per unit aircraft mass in excess of that required to overcome drag, and is thus available for climb or acceleration) height at which air density is such that maximum attainable rate of climb has dropped to 100ft/min device acting as a relay, normally augmenting pilot input to move a control surface or similar

specific fuel consumption (the rate of fuel burn per unit of thrust) sensor fused weapon Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers, Europe (NATO) super-high frequency SHOrt-Range Air Defence shaft horsepower, measure of power at the engine output shaft specific impulse (rocket performance parameter, obtained by dividing the thrust by the propellant weight consumed per unit time, giving an SI conventionally measured in seconds) standard instrument departure modern method of primary aircraft control replacing traditional control column with a short handgrip beside the pilot SIGnals INTelligence characteristic 'fingerprint' of target displayed by detection and identification equipment gas-turbine powerplant in which all compressor and turbine stages rotate together on a single shaft

System Improvement Programme Société Internationale de Télécommunications Aronautiques (Airlines' worldwide telecommunications and information services) SITuation REPort (1) Stand-off Land Attack Missile (MDC AGM-86E) or (2) Supersonic Low-Altitude Missile Stand-off Land Attack Missile -- Extended Range side-looking airborne modulated multi-mission radar side-looking airborne radar auxiliary aerofoil device to prevent flow breakaway from wing or tail, normally fixed on tail leading edge but almost always retractable on wing leading edge service life extension/enhancement programme (US) see oblique wing side-looking radar side-looking reconnaissance radar

STOL Manoeuvring Technology Demonstrator (US, F-15 mod) selective moving target indicator Space and Missile Training Squadron (USAF) ability to intercept very low-flying target from a fighter at higher altitude struck off charge (UK) Special Operations Forces (US) one which is not armoured or hardened Special Operations Group (US) stand-off missile SOund Navigation And Ranging standard operating procedure (1) Specific Operational Requirement or (2) Struck Off Records

(1) Save Our Souls (distress signal) or (2) Special Operations Squadron (USAF) or (3) stabilised optical sight (1) Special Operations Wing (USAF) or (2) stand-off weapon (1) Spin Prevention & Incidence Limiting System or (2) Stall Protection & Incidence Limiting System fixed or laterally moveable plate dividing fluid flow in duct, for example to feed two engines moveable surface on upper rear portion of wing designed to reduce lift and increase drag when open one complete axial compressor rotor in a powerplant Support Wing (USAF) Strategic Reconnaissance (US) Staff Requirement (Air) (UK-MoD) surveillance radar approach Short Range Air-to-Air Missile Strategic Reconnaissance Wing (USAF)

Special Rules Zone single side-band secondary surveillance radar supersonic transport super-short/supersonic & short take-off & landing static thrust, ie thrust of a jet engine when stationary and restrained against forward motion any fixed tail surface, usually prefixed by vertical (fin) or horizontal (tailplane) Startbahnbombe (MBB anti-runway bomblet) sharp-edged strips on wing leading-edge to induce stall at that point airspeed at which wing lift suddenly collapses Surveillance Target Attack Radar System STrategic Arms Reduction Talks/Treaty

Supplemental Type Certificate (US) Standard stall-prevention safety device which automatically forces stick forward when stalling AoA is neared, putting aircraft into shallow dive safety device, triggered when stalling AoA is neared, which 'shakes' the stick rapidly fore and aft through a small angle as a means of warning the pilot short take-off & landing general term for any weapons or equipment not permanently attached to an airframe short take-off/vertical landing long narrow surface perpendicular to fuselage skin and aligned with airflow high-intensity flashing anti-collision beacon descriptive of a wing that has an unusually high critical Mach No for its t/c and sweep angle, due to the use of an advanced aerofoil section suspension unit underwing (US) Strategic Wing (USAF)

smart weapon anti-armour (UK weapon dispenser system) backwards inclination of wing relative to fuselage, usually measured either at leading edge or quarter chord systems weapon integration programme

Test & Training Wing thickness/chord ratio take-off thrust/weight ratio (1) target acquisition or (2) terrain-avoidance (1) Tactical Air Command (USAF, now incorporated in ACC) or (2) Taiwan Aerospace Corporation TAke Charge And Move Out (USN/USMC acronym for E-6B Mercury aircraft used for C3 in conjunction with ballistic missile submarines) TACtical Aid to Navigation (military UHF navaid)

TACtical EVALuation (NATO) Target Acquisition and Designation System (Martin Marietta) Tactical Air Force Tusas Aerospace Industries Inc (Turkey) tailplane in which both sides are used as primary control surfaces in both pitch and roll Tactical Air-Launched Cruise Missile Tactical Airborne Laser Designator Theater Application: Launch On Notice (DoD) tactical air navigation system TARget Combat Air Patrol Telescoped Ammunition Revolver Gun (ARES Corp) Tactical Air Reconnaissance Pod System (USN)

(1) target acquisition system or (2) true airspeed (actual velocity relative to the surrounding air mass) Tactical Air-to-Surface Missile Thomson-Brandt Armaments (France) to be decided tactical ballistic missile time between overhauls traffic alert and collision-avoidance system temporary duty (US) Test & Evaluation Group/Squadron (USAF) triple ejector rack TERrain COntour-Matching (navigation system) turbine-entry temperature

Task Force terrain following (radar) Tactical Fighter Group (USAF) Tactical Fighter Squadron/Wing (USAF) Tactical Fighter Training Squadron (USAF) Theater High-Altitude Air Defense (US Army) Türk Hava Kuvvetleri (Turkish Air Force) (1) Texas Instruments or (2) trials installation or (3) thermal imager Thermal imaging airborne laser designator (pod) aircraft with fixed-wing but variable incidence rotors to enable both vertical and fast horizontal flight (eg V-22 Osprey) thermal imaging navigation set (1) target illuminating radar or (2) thermal imaging radar or (3) tracking & illuminating radar

target identification system, electro-optical terminal control area true Mach No take-off distance available take-off distance required take-off gross weight provision of fighter aircraft at higher level to protect bomber or attack formations below, usually while over enemy territory take-off run available take-off run required time on target (1) take-off weight, or (2) Tube-launched, Optically-tracked, Wire-guided (HMSC missile) test pilots' school

Tactical Reconnaissance (USAF) distance between centre of contact area of main landing wheels (or centre of contact area of each bogie in case of this type of undercarriage) radio transmitter & receiver transmitter/responder -- radio which when triggered by correct received signal automatically sends out precoded reply Third Generation Anti-Tank Missile (EMDG) to adjust balance of the aircraft such that the sum of all moments about its cg is zero, thus enabling hands-off flight small hinged portion of trailing edge of flight control surface adjusted by pilot to hold the aircraft in trim terrain-referenced navigation Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron (USAF) Test Squadron/Wing (USAF) Central Aero and Hydrodynamics Institute of the Russian Federation, Moscow thrust specific fuel consumption

Central Aero-Engine Institute, Moscow Technical Standing Order (FAA) Tentative Specific Operational Requirement total time, airframe & engine Tanker Task Force Technical Training Wing (USAF) gas-turbine core jet engine with extra turbine stages driving a large diameter fan which ducts most of the propulsive airflow round a core engine and generates most of the thrust simplest form of gas turbine comprising compressor, combustion chamber and turbine with most energy remaining as gas which is expended at high velocity through a small propulsive nozzle gas turbine similar to turbofan but in which power is geared-down to drive a propeller gas turbine in which power is used to drive a high-speed shaft, usually in a helicopter thrust vector control threat-warning and attack assessment

threat warning indicator progressive change of angle of incidence of wing or rotor blade from root to tip (1) threat warning receiver or (2) tower -- aerodrome control tower travelling-wave tube Tactical Weapons Unit (RAF, designation no longer used) legal document confirming completion of testing and allowing manufacturer to offer aircraft/engine for sale

Unserviceable University Air Squadron (UK) unmanned aerial vehicle unmanned combat air vehicle Un-Ducted Fan (GE)

ultra-high bypass ultra-high capacity airliner ultra-high frequency United Kingdom Air Defence Ground Environment United Kingdom NATO Air Defence Region Ultra Light Motorised (aka Microlight) United Nations United Nations PROtection FORce point at which aircraft leaves ground/water exhaust from turbofan vented over wing to increase lift Undergraduate Pilot Training (US) total amount of fuel which can be used in flight, total system capacity less residual fuel trapped in tank sumps, supply system etc

United States Air Force United States Air Forces in Europe United States Coast Guard sum of payload and usable fuel, difference between empty weight and MTOW United States Marine Corps United States Navy ultra-violet

vertical or short take-off and landing decision point on take-off, last point at which pilot could safely decide to either abandon take-off or continue

take-off safety speed, lowest speed at which aircraft can safely take-off and still maintain climb should one engine fail aircraft which is capable of changing wing-sweep in flight propeller in which the blades are held in rotary bearings in the hub enabling their pitch to be altered in flight visual approach slope indicator design cruise speed maximum dive speed Very high-frequency Direction Finding station video/visual display unit vertical replenishment visual flight rules variable geometry very high frequency

(thrust) vectoring in forward flight (BAe) simplified VASI for private pilots with red/amber/green sectors vertical landing very low frequency very low observable visual meteorological conditions maximum permitted operating speed never exceed speed, a permitted maximum aerodynamic or structural limit which may used in exceptional circumstances vertical on-board delivery Routine ground-to-air broadcast of meteorological information VHF omni-directional range (radio beacons) small blade perpendicular to wing or tail surface which creates a vortex in the boundary layer, usually increasing its speed and keep it attached to the surface, thus improving control

short-chord fence around underside of wing leading-edge controlling boundary layer direction (name 'invented' by McDonnell-Douglas for devices on the DC-9) variable pitch rotation speed, point at which pilot unsticks aircraft Volunteer Reserve Stalling speed vertical speed indicator vertical take-off and landing

Written-off weapon-aiming computer Warsaw Pact (now defunct)

weapon aiming system in-built twist in wing or rotor increasing angle of incidence towards tip in-built twist in wing or rotor reducing angle of incidence towards tip weight, altitude, temperature; factors independent of runway, governing take-off performance and climb out predetermined geographical point or points forming beginning or end of a route segment weapon delivery & navigation system with effect from lease of commercial aircraft from another carrier complete with at least flight crew but not usually cabin crew, with major servicing still provided by owner wing in which fuel tanks are an integral part of the structure but not one which merely houses fuel tanks Western European Union withdrawn from use distance between centre of contact area of nose or tailwheel and line joining centre of contact areas of mainwheels

loss of orientation in relation to horizon caused by overcast sky and sunlight reflecting off snow or zero visibility during snowstorm Unsold or not currently leased aircraft available for immediate sale or lease commercial aircraft with cabin sufficiently large to accommodate twin longitudinal aisles between seats wing-in-ground-effect originally code name for specific programme, now used as generic term for dedicated EW platform based on combat aircraft exceptionally large local wind gradient, mainly encountered at low altitude where it is particularly dangerous on approach at low speed total area as seen in plan view of clean wing, including all moveable surfaces in cruise configuration, and including such areas of fuselage, nacelles etc enclosed by lines joining intersections of leading and trailing edges with them. MTOGW divided by wing area upturned and usually swept back wingtip or other auxiliary aerofoil to increase efficiency of wing in cruise by reducing tip vortex work in progress weapons interface unit wind over deck

Women's Royal Air Force (UK) an aircraft which has been so severely damaged as to make repair uneconomical Weather Reconnaissance Squadron (USAF) weapon systems officer/operator World War

eXperimental Xi'an Aircraft Co (China) eXecutive Officer

rotation of aircraft about vertical axis

traditional pilot's control column for pitch and roll control

refurbishment of aircraft to 'as new' condition designation of an ejection seat designed for safe escape from zero altitude and zero forward speed zero fuel weight Greenwich Mean Time

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