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Green Chemistry Series


Module 1 : Solid Waste Management & Handling
Organised by

WWF-India's
Designed by: Mr. Ashish Rohilla

under HSBC Climate Partnership

WWF-India Secretariat 172-B Lodhi Estate New Delhi-110 003 Tel: +91 11 41504770 Website: www.wwfindia.org

Written & Compiled by: Dr. Alka Tangri & Dr. Subhash Awasthi

CONTENTS
1.0 Introduction 2.0 Current Legal Status: Dumping of Hazardous Waste (CPCB's Guidelines) 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Definition(s) of Hazardous Waste 2.3 Characteristics of Hazardous Waste 2.3.1 Corrosivity 2.3.2 Reactivity 2.3.3 Ignitability 2.3.4 Toxicity 2.3.5 Acute Toxicity 2.3.6 Infectious Property 3.0 Operations at Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Responsibilities of Hazardous Waste Generator 3.2.1 Collection and Transportation of Hazardous Wastes 3.2.2 Test Report and Information 3.3 Responsibilities of the Hazardous Waste Transporter 3.4 Responsibilities of the Operator of TSDF 3.5 Waste Disposal into a Landfill 3.5.1 Operations at a TSDF 3.5.2 Waste TSD Options 3.5.3 Pathway of Waste Accepted for Direct Disposal 3.5.4 Comprehensive Analysis for Waste Acceptance for Direct Disposal 3.6 Pathways for not Accepted Hazardous Wastes for Direct Disposal 3.6.1 Waste Treatment / Stability 3.6.2 Identification Parameters for Waste Treatment / Stabilization 3.6.3 Analysis Protocol to Confirm Treatment / Stabilization of Waste 3.7 Waste Storage 3.8 Acceptance/Rejection of Waste Consignments for Storage 4.0 Incineration 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Incinerable Waste 4.3 Guidelines for Incineration 5.0 Leachate Treatment and Disposal Contd... 01 03

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Green Chemistry Series


Module I: Solid Waste Management and Handling
Conceptualized by: Ms. Arundhati Das Dr. Anjana Pant Edited by: Mr. Anshuman Atroley Published 2011

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List of Tables
6.0 Banthar Leather Technology Park's Secured Landfill Project 6.1 Industrial areas of Unnao 6.1.1 UPSIDC Industrial Area, Unnao 6.1.2 UPSIDC Leather Technology Park Banthar, Unnao 6.2 Background 6.2.1 Hazardous Waste from Tanneries 6.2.2 Current Situation 6.3 Hazardous Solid Waste Disposal/Storage arrangements of Leather Industries of Unnao 6.4 Other Techno-commercial study issues of the project when it was submitted as DPR in the ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India 6.4.1 Common Hazardous Waste Disposal Project component proposed under IIUS and cost estimates 6.4.2 Proposed Means of Finance 6.4.3 Sustainability of Project Components 6.5 Common Hazardous Waste Disposal Facility 6.5.1 Component Description - Summary 6.5.2 Component Analysis - Technical 6.6 Project Cost Estimates 6.7 Means of Finance 6.8 Details of Development of CHWDF 6.8.1 Development of CHWDF for hazardous waste industries of Banthar and Unnao 6.8.2 Inventorization and characterization of HW 6.8.3 Layout of CHWDF 6.8.4 Detailed Design and Engineering of CHWDF 6.8.5 Detailed Capital and Operating Cost Estimates 6.8.6 Financial Implications 6.8.7 Expected life of Landfill 6.8.8 Design Decision 6.8.9 Revenue Model 6.8.10 Implementation Framework 6.8.11 Financial Analysis 6.9 Project Risks 19 Table 2.3.4. Table 3.6.3 Table 6.4.1 Table 6.4.2 Table 6.4.3 Table 6.5.2 Table 6.5.3 Table 6.5.4 Table 6.5.5 Table 6.6 Table 6.7 Table 6.8.2 Table 6.8.2 Table 6.8.6 Table 6.8.6 Table 6.8.7 Table 6.8.11 Table 6.8.11 Table 6.8.11 Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) Test Limits Analysis Protocol for Treatment/Stability of Waste Proposed project component and cost estimates Proposed Means of Finance Proposed User Charges for different project components Typical Characteristic of CETP sludge from tannery Quantum of Hazardous Waste generated at LTP Banthar-Unnao Cluster Characteristics of Hazardous Waste generated at Kanpur-Unnao Cluster Design Criterion for CHWDF Cost Estimates for CHWDF in Rs Million Means of Finance for CHWDF (a) A break-up of other HW (b) Characterization of HW (a) Financial Cost of the Project (b) Broad break-up of cost of construction Expected life of a Landfill (a) List of Key Assumptions (b) Impact of Disposal Charges on Project Financials (c) Profit & Loss Statement for CHWDF 06 14 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 26 26 28 28 31 32 33 34 35 35

List of Figures
Figure 1 Figure 2 Fig 6.8.5. The typical cross-section of the foundation The typical cross-section of the liner system Suggested Project Implementation Plan for industries 24 25 30

List of Annexures
Annexure I Comprehensive Analysis Requirement for Hazardous Wastes-Generator/TSDF Operator Annexure II Fingerprint Analysis Requirement for Hazardous Wastes-TSD Facilities Annexure III Concentration Limit /Criteria for Acceptance of Hazardous Wastes for Direct Disposal to Secured Landfill Annexure IV Emission Standards for Common Hazardous Waste Incinerator 37 39 40 41

List of Abbreviations
BDAT BOT CAGR CETP CHWDF CLRI CPCB CRHSMC CRU DoIPP DRANCO DSCR DSRA ETP FY GDP GoI GoUP HAZWAMS HW IISTEM IIT-K IIUS IL&FS IDC IRR KL Km LTP M MLD Mn MoC&I MoEF MT Best Demonstrated Available Technology Build Operate Transfer Compounded Annual Growth Rate Common Effluent Treatment Plant Common Hazardous Waste Disposal Facility Central Leather Research Institute Central Pollution Control Board Common Raw-Hide Storage and Management Center Chrome Recovery Unit Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion Dry Anaerobic Composting Process Debt Service Coverage Ratio Debt Service Reserve Account Effluent Treatment Plant Financial Year Gross Domestic Product Government of India Government of Uttar Pradesh Hazardous Waste Management Series Hazardous Waste International Institute of Saddlery and Export Management Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Industrial Infrastructure Upgradation Scheme Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services Infrastructure Development Corporation Internal Rate of Return Kilolitre Kilometer Leather Technology Park Meter Million litre per day Million Ministry of Commerce & Industries Ministry of Environment & Forest Metric Ton NH NPV OPEX PAT PBDIT PBT PCC PWD RCC SLF SME SOR SPCB SPV STP TCLP TREM TSDF UPLIA UPPCB UPSIDC USEPA National Highway Net Present Value Operation and Maintenance Expenditure Profits After Tax Profits Before Depreciation Interest and Tax Profits Before Tax Pollution Control Committee Public Works Department Reinforced Cement Concrete Secured Landfill Facility Small & Medium Enterprises Schedule of Rates State Pollution Control Board Special Purpose Vehicle Sewerage Treatment Plant Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure Transport Emergency Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility Uttar Pradesh Leather Industries Association Uttar Pradesh Pollution Control Board Uttar Pradesh State Industrial Development Corporation United States Environment Protection Act

1.0 Introduction 1.1 Background


Tanning is an ancient craft in India practiced for many centuries as an industrial operation at the community level which has today acquired the status of a mature industry playing and important role in the country's economy. The Indian leather industry is one of the most vibrant sectors of the country's economy. Well recognized in the international market, the Indian leather goods constitute about 7 per cent of India's export earning. Besides being a significant earner of foreign exchange, the leather industry generates employment, ensuring jobs for over 2.5 million people. India, with an output of Rs.186.56 billion (3.354 billion Euros) and exports of Rs.125.46 billion (2.225 billion Euros), is placed third, while developed markets such as the US are major consumers of leather products. It is now poised for a big leap to double its global share from the present 3%. The industry covers a vast spectrum of inputs, activities, skills and products i.e. livestock, hides and skins, tanning, leather products and exports. The Indian leather industry is growing by leaps and bounds apparently because leather wear still enjoys a great demand abroad and now-a-days even the domestic market is developing and consuming the offering of this industry. Although the tanning industry has been in existence for long, the problem of environmental pollution has received attention only in the recent years. The considerable damage caused to water bodies particularly the Ganges in Kanpur and Unnao due to the considerable odour and dyes and other chemicals like chromium compounds used in the tanning process complicates the wastewater treatment operation. Besides substantial impairment of the quality of the nearby surface waters, there is an enrichment of the hazardous substance in the soil and possibly also in the groundwater as shown by some studies. This necessitates measures regarding disposal and treatment of industrial wastes. The development of the tanning industry and attempt to manage industrial waste should go hand in hand for maintaining proper ecological balance and to ensure unpolluted water courses. There are various solid, semi-solid wastes like Effluent treatment plants waste, fleshings, chrome shavings, buffing dust, leather cuttings and empty containers which are still posing problems for safe reuse or disposal.

important to build capacities within the industry to implement and mainstream such practices. With a view to do this WWF-Indias Living Ganga Programme team set up a stakeholder group comprising of industry leaders, Banthar Industrial Pollution Control Company, Pro Industrial Infrastructure & Environment Management, Central Leather Research Institute and Urban Local Bodies. In one of our initial interactions with the leading Tannery units from Unnao / Banthar / Jajmau and CEO, Banthar Industrial Pollution Control Company held on June 10, 2010, a need for capacity building of the Environmental Managers in tannery units both existing and potential was expressed regarding solid waste management, bio/phyto-remediation and cleaner tanning technologies. In order to address these issues, WWF-India through its Living Ganga Programme is organizing a training series titled Green Chemistry Series for the current and potential workforce of the leather industry and this module is a first step towards it. Living Ganga Programme under HSBC Climate Partnership aims to develop and implement strategies for sustainable energy and water resource management within the Ganga basin in the face of climate change. Specifically, the programme works on key sites and a critical stretch of the river of approximately 800 kilometers from Gangotri in Uttarakhand to Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh. The programme brings together components of climate adaptation coupled with pollution abatement and comanagement of water flow and energy. The programme aims to establish partnerships with key stakeholders with a focus on river restoration, community education and engagement, business and government involvement and biodiversity conservation. The programme consists of seven cross cutting components viz: Sustainable Water management, Climate Adaptation, Pollution Abatement, WaterEnergy Co-management, Sustainable Hydropower, Biodiversity Conservation and Communications and Business Engagement.

1.2 The Need


We all know that the generation of solid waste is inherent to manufacture of leather from skin and hide. Solid wastes generated at various unit operations of the tanning process considerably vary in quantity and composition. For instance, fleshings are animal tissue waste generated during the preparatory leather processing stage in relatively larger quantities as compared to other types of solid waste in the tanning industry. Fleshing mainly contains fat and protein and residual chemicals such as lime and sulphide used in the 'unhairing' process of beam house operation. Another type of solid waste in tanning industry which requires safe disposal is the primary sludge from tannery wastewater treatment plant. Industrial processes generate waste varying in composition and quantity at various stages, and disposal of such waste has become more and more difficult, particularly in view of stringent environmental pollution control standards stipulated by statutory authorities. There are better management practices available within the industry both nationally and globally. Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI) has also done various research studies and published papers on Solid Waste Management. While it is important to demonstrate the impact of these best management practices in the industry set up which is usually done by scientific research organizations and some leading industries, it is equally

2.0 Current Legal Status: Dumping of Hazardous Waste (Cental Pollution Control Board's Guidelines)
2.1 Introduction
Hazardous waste generated due to industrial and other activities are required to be properly disposed of, in case the same cannot be recycled or reused. The facility for hazardous waste disposal may comprise secured landfill with or without treatment facility or may be integrated one having incineration facility as well. Disposal of hazardous wastes has to be done in a manner that does not pollute air, water & soil and does not cause any harm to human beings and habitat in the surroundings, during operative period and also after closure. The States of Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat have promoted development of common facility in the private sector, for management of hazardous wastes in an environmentally sound and techno-economically viable manner. The services of treatment, storage and disposal facility (TSDF) are particularly useful for the hazardous waste generating units not only in the large category of industries but also for small and medium enterprises (SMEs), who on their own may not afford and are unable to provide on-site facility for proper disposal of hazardous wastes. Where the hazardous waste comes from similar type of cluster of industries and also the waste is conditioned and does not need any treatment then treatment part is ignored and only Secured Landfill Facility (SLF) would be sufficient and in this case TSDF may be regarded as SLF. In the same manner first time in Uttar Pradesh a SLF is developed by a SPV of Industries at Leather Technology Park Banthar which is receiving only ETP waste from various cluster of leather processing industries. M/s Industrial Infrastructure Services (India) Ltd. is the SPV which developed and operating this facility under GOI assistance under IIUS scheme through Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion (DoIPP). This project is operational since October 2008 and serving at present about 50 tanneries and their two CETPs. The CPCB guidelines aim at establishing the standards, which define the requirements for management of hazardous wastes (HW) at TSDF operating in the State. These guidelines shall apply to the generators of HW and the operators of the TSDF facilities. Following aspects have been illustrated in this document: Definition of hazardous wastes for TSDF Methodology for classification, identification and characterization of hazardous wastes Operating procedures for TSDF Requirements for handling, collection and transportation of hazardous wastes Applicable standards for compliance of regulations Additional information on regulatory requirements for managing hazardous wastes

b) Wastes, which consist wholly or partly of substances indicated in Schedule-2 if the concentration of the substances is equal to or more than the limit indicated in the same schedule, and c) Wastes indicated in Lists A and B of Schedule-3 (Part-A) applicable only in case(s) of import or export of hazardous wastes in accordance with Rules 12, 13 and 14 if they possess any of the hazardous characteristics listed in Part (B) of the Schedule. Explanation: For the purpose of the clause: i) all wastes mentioned in column (3) of Schedule 1 are hazardous wastes irrespective of concentration limits given in Schedule 2 except as otherwise indicated and Schedule 2 shall be applicable only for wastes or waste constituents not covered under column (3) of Schedule 1. ii). Schedule 3 shall be applicable only in case(s) of import or export. Definition of hazardous wastes its applicability From the viewpoint of application of the HW (M&H) Rules, waste can be classified as hazardous if: Waste substance is solid, semi-solid or non-aqueous liquid which because of its quantity, concentration or characteristics in terms of physical, chemical, infectious quality: (a) can cause or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible or incapacitate reversible illness, or (b) pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when it is improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of or otherwise managed Thus, a waste is hazardous if it exhibits whether alone or when in contact with other wastes or substances, any of the characteristics identified below: Corrosivity Reactivity Ignitability Toxicity Acute toxicity Infectious property

2.2 Definition(s) of Hazardous waste


Regulatory definition of hazardous wastes as given in the Hazardous Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989, and further amendments made there under, is reproduced below: Hazardous Wastes Hazardous wastes (HW) have been defined to include: a) Wastes, which are generated in the process, indicated in Column-2 of Schedule -1 and consist of wholly or partly of the waste substances, referred to in Column-3 of the same schedule

2.3 Characteristics of Hazardous Waste


2.3.1 Corrosivity A waste exhibits the characteristics of corrosivity if a representative sample of the waste has either of the following properties: (a) any liquid which has a pH less than or equal to 2 or greater than or equal to 12.5 as determined by the standard test procedure; or (b) a waste, which can corrode steel at a rate greater than 6.35 mm per year at a test temperature of 55 C as determined by the standard test procedure.

2.3.2 Reactivity A waste exhibits the characteristics of reactivity if a representative sample of the waste has any of the following properties: (a) It is normally unstable and readily undergoes violent change without detonating (b) It reacts violently with water (c) It forms potentially explosive mixture with water (d) It is Cyanide or Sulfide bearing waste which when exposed to pH conditions between 2 and 12.5 can generate toxic gases, vapours or fumes in a quantity sufficient to pose danger to human health or the environment. (e) It is an explosive. 2.3.3 Ignitability A waste exhibits the characteristics of ignitability if a representative sample of the waste has any of the following properties: (a) It is a liquid other than an aqueous solution containing less than 24% organic solvents by volume and has flash point less than 60 C as determined by a Pensky Martins closed cup tester using the standard test method. (b) It is not a liquid and is capable, under standard temperature and pressure, of causing fire through friction, absorption of moisture or spontaneous chemical changes, and when ignited burns so vigorously and persistently that it creates a hazard. (c) any oxidizing substance, when in contact with moisture or other materials/wastes, results in spontaneous fire or combustion. 2.3.4 Toxicity A solid waste exhibits the characteristics of toxicity if the leachate from the representative sample by Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test method (as followed by USEPA, vide No: S.W 846, till Indian standards are notified by MoEF / CPCB) contains any of the contaminants listed in Table 2.3.4 below in excess of the concentration limits mentioned thereupon.

S.No
01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

Contaminant
Arsenic Barium Benzene Cadmium Carbon tetra chloride Chlordane Chlorobenzene Chromium o-Cresol m-Cresol p-Cresol Cresol 2,4-D 1,4-Dichlorobenzene 1,2-Dichloroethane 2,4-Dinitrotoluene Endrin Heptachlor (and its epaoxide) Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorobutadiene Hexachloroethane Lead Lindane Mercury Methoxychlor Methyl ethyl ketone Nitrobenzene Pentachlorophenol Pyridine Selenium Silver Tetrachloroethylene Toxaphene Trichloroethylene 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol 2,4,5-TP (Silvex) Vinyl Chloride

TCLP Limits
(mg/l) 5.0 100 0.5 1.0 0.5 0.03 100.0 5.0 200.0 200.0 200.0 200.0 10.0 7.5 0.5 0.13 0.02 0.008 0.13 0.5 3.0 5.0 0.4 0.2 10.0 200.0 2.0 100.0 5.0 1.0 5.0 0.7 0.5 0.5 400.0 2.0 1.0 0.2

Table 2.3.4. Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) Test Limits


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*Note : 1 These limits shall be applicable till the notification of leachate standards (including test method) under the E (P) Act, 1986 2. Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) standards shall be employed for parameters not mentioned. 3. Leachate collected shall be treated and disposed as liquid effluent in compliance of the standards notified under the E (P) Act, 1986. 2.3.5. Acute Toxicity A waste exhibits the characteristics of being acutely hazardous if a representative sample contains any of the following: (a) wastes generated in the manufacturing process of halogenated phenols and other halogenated compounds (b) wastes generated in the manufacturing/formulating process of pesticides or pesticide derivatives (c) wastes generated during the manufacturing process of halogenated benzene under alkaline conditions (d) off-specification or discarded products generated from the above processes, and (e) containers used for handling hazardous / toxic substances / wastes 2.3.6 Infectious Property Wastes containing viable micro-organisms or their toxins which are known or suspected to cause disease in animal or humans fall under this category.

3.0 Operation at Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility (TSDF)


3.1 Introduction
All operations involving treatment, storage and disposal shall comply with the guidelines/regulations issued by CPCB/MoEF as may be adopted by the SPCB/PCC and stipulated in the authorization under Rule 5 of the Hazardous Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989, as amended. The facilities should ensure that the wastes from the generators are accepted at the facility in compliance of the manifest notified under the said rules. Additional requirements regarding screening and analysis procedures at TSDF are outlined in this section so as to help the TSDF in proper acceptance of waste.

3.2 Responsibilities of the Hazardous Waste generator


In order to optimize and facilitate proper operations at TSDF, the hazardous waste generator shall be responsible for managing hazardous wastes before sending to TSDF for further treatment and disposal. Certain responsibilities are listed as under: waste minimization, re-use of wastes to the maximum extent before sending to TSDF. waste characterization (Annexure I) segregation of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes to reduce the quantity of waste for disposal at TSDF (refer Annexure II) proper handling of wastes at the source labelling and packaging of the wastes according to procedures indicated in MoEF guidelines (1992) and Chapter 6 of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988, as amended. provide information on precautions for waste handling during transportation to TSDF. compliance of manifest for tracking of wastes. 3.2.1 Collection and Transport of Hazardous Wastes (a) The generator of the hazardous waste shall ensure that wastes are packaged in a manner suitable for safe handling, storage and transport. Labelling on packaging is readily visible and material used for packaging shall withstand physical conditions and climatic factors. (b) The generator shall ensure that information regarding characteristics of wastes particularly in terms of being Corrosive, Reactive, Ignitable or Toxic is provided on the label. (c) Transport of hazardous wastes shall be in accordance with the provisions of the rules made by the Central Government under the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 and other guidelines issued from time to time. (d) All hazardous waste containers shall be provided with a general label as given in Form 8 in Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989, as amended. (e) Transporter shall not accept hazardous wastes from an occupier (generator) unless six-copy (with colour codes) of the manifest (Form 9) is provided by the generator. The transporter shall give a copy of the manifest signed and dated to the generator and retain the remaining four copies to be used for further necessary action prescribed in the Hazardous Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989, as under:

Copy 1 (White) Copy 2 (Yellow) Copy 3 (Pink) Copy 4 (Orange) Copy 5 (Green) Copy 6 (Blue)

: : : : : :

To be forwarded to the SPCB/PCC by the occupier To be signed by the transporter and retained by the occupier To be retained by the operator of a facility To be returned to the transporter by the operator of facility after accepting waste To be forwarded to SPCB/PCC by the operator of facility after disposal. To be returned to the occupier by the operator of the facility after treatment & disposal of HW.

Undertake cleanup operation in case of contamination resulting from TSDF. Pollution and the odour arising out of TSDF operations and subsequent abatement. Compliance of regulations concerning occupational safety and health of TSDF employees.

3.5 Waste Disposal into a Landfill


Landfills shall have to be designed and constructed as a secured facility to contain the waste material and any leachate generated during the process. To meet these requirements, the base, slope, liner system etc. of the landfill shall have to be designed and constructed as per the guidelines of MoEF/ CPCB (Guidelines for Setting up of Operating Facility- Hazardous Waste Management, HAZWAMS/11/98-99 and Criteria for Hazardous Waste Landfills, HAZWAMS/17/2000-01), and the conditions stipulated by SPCB/PCC in the authorization to operate TSDF while granting consent to establish. Prior to the placement of waste, an engineered capping over the surface shall be placed after completion of work daily so as to minimize the infiltration of rainfall. The base liner and capping shall be a composite system comprising compacted clay layer and synthetic membrane as may be approved by the SPCB/PCC. A leachate collection drainage system is to be provided at the base of the landfill, immediately above the liner to ensure that the head of leachate will not exceed 300 mm during any season of the year. The following objectives have to be considered in the design of an engineered landfill: Minimization of the possibility of contamination of surface and / or ground water. Control over gaseous emissions, if any. Prevention and control of any other possible adverse impact(s) on the environment Utilization of excavated soil as cover material. Harvest of upstream rainwater flowing into the land fill. Preferred use of clay which is well-graded having at least 30% passing through 75 micron filter with plasticity index between 10-30. Clay fraction shall be kept at greater than 15% or more whereas gravel fraction shall be < 50% of clay lining. Clay having clod size less than 50 mm should be compacted to optimum moisture content using a sheep foot roller. Placement of wastes into a landfill would have to be done judiciously as it may cause impact(s) throughout the active life of the waste in the landfill. Therefore, waste disposal into the landfill be restricted as per the concentration limits/criteria for acceptance of hazardous waste in landfill as presented at Annexure III, besides the restrictions for waste placement into landfill stipulated by the SPCB/PCC. Placing bulk, containerized, or non-containerized liquid hazardous wastes containing free liquids (whether or not adsorbents have been added) in any landfill shall be prohibited by SPCB/PCC. 3.5.1 Operations at a TSDF (Transport, Storage and Disposal Facility) Suggested sequence of the operations at TSDF is presented below: Operator from the generator shall receive a comprehensive report on analysis of the waste. The operator of TSDF shall examine the report and plan pathway for waste treatment and disposal. Upon confirmation of the same by the operator of TSDF to the generator, the waste shall be dispatched to the TSDF accompanied by transport manifest.

(f) The generator shall provide the transporter with relevant information in Form 10, i.e. Transport Emergency (TREM) Card regarding the hazardous nature of the wastes and measures to be taken in case of an emergency. 3.2.2 Test Report and Information Generators sending hazardous waste to the facility for treatment, storage or disposal are required to provide necessary test report of hazardous waste to the operator along with the information on the process(s) of its generation, so as to facilitate the determination of pathway for treatment and disposal. Test report shall be submitted to the operator along with a copy marked to the SPCB. Based on the analysis report/waste characterization, TSDF operator shall decide the suitable pathway for treatment/storage/disposal.

3.3 Responsibility of the Hazardous Waste Transporter


Transporter of hazardous wastes shall be responsible for: Obtaining permission from SPCB/PCC for transport of hazardous waste [in addition to any other permission that may be required under the Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Act of 1988]. Suitably designing the transport vehicles to handle and transport the hazardous wastes. Maintaining the manifest system as required. Transporting the wastes in closed containers at all times. Delivering the wastes at designated points. Informing SPCB/PCC and other regulatory authorities immediately in case of spillage, leakage or other accidents during transportation. Cleaning up in case of contamination.

3.4 Responsibilities of the Operator on TSDF (Transport, Storage & Disposal Facility)
The operator of TSDF would be responsible for: Accepting hazardous wastes at TSDF from the generators authorized by SPCB/PCC. Establishing a system for optimal movement of hazardous wastes transportation, treatment and disposal operations, which may include resource recovery/ recycling as the case may be. Fingerprinting analysis to confirm the wastes shall be the responsibility of the operator (Annexure II of the report). Operating the TSDF as per conditions stipulated in the authorization. Ensuring waste treatment and/or disposal as per Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989, as amended.

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Upon receipt at the facility, the wastes shall be weighed and properly logged. Waste shall then undergo a visual inspection to confirm the physical appearance. A representative sample of the waste shall be collected and sent to the on-site laboratory for fingerprinting analysis (Annexure II). The results of fingerprinting analysis shall be compared with the results of earlier analysis. Upon confirmation, waste shall then be sent for TSD operations according to the identified pathway. 3.5.2 Waste TSD (Transport, Storage and Disposal) Options Waste at TSDF could be handled in different ways as follows: Direct disposal into landfill Treatment/stabilization of wastes and then disposal into landfill Direct incineration Pre-treatment and incineration Pre-treatment, incineration and disposal of incineration ash in landfill Waste processed for fuel/industrial by-products for recycling Others 3.5.3 Pathway of Waste Accepted for Direct Disposal Wastes accepted for direct disposal shall conform to the concentration limit/criteria stipulated by the SPCB/PCC (Annexure - III). 3.5.4 Comparative Analysis for Waste Acceptance for Direct Disposal Generators of hazardous wastes shall identify and provide analysis report including CRIT criteria of the waste consignments. TSD facility should require that the generator provides such information regarding: The throughput and process that generates the waste with quantities The physical and chemical description of the waste as per parameters given in Annexure I The analytical procedures and interpretation of results used to characterize the waste or process knowledge documentation Hazardous waste codes are placed as per Schedule 1 & 2 of the Hazardous Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989, as amended. The operator at TSD, so as to ascertain direct disposal into a landfill, shall perform the following fingerprinting analysis: Free liquid content (Paint Filter Liquids Test and Liquid Release Test) pH Calorific value Flash point Reactive sulfide Reactive cyanide Chemical compatibility Any other specific parameter, which may be decided on merit of each case.

The waste shall be placed at the toe of the working face and spread evenly by mechanical equipment in approximately 0.5 meter layers. Spreading and compaction is an important part of operation to achieve maximum waste density within the landfill. After every day's operation, soil cover of at least 100 mm thickness shall be placed over the waste. The placement and compaction is continued to uniformly raise the level of the cell. At the point of reaching the final design height, the final cover is placed over that section, as the work proceeds.

3.6 Direct Disposal Pathways for un accepted Hazardous Wastes


Wastes not accepted for direct disposal into landfill shall have to either be treated /stabilized before disposal into a landfill, or would have to be incinerated, or otherwise managed as per the conditions stipulated by the SPCB/PCC. 3.6.1 Waste Treatment / Stability Waste treatment / stabilization is a process designed to convert hazardous wastes in the form of non-aqueous liquids, semi-solids or reactive solids into less leachable solids that can then be deposited directly into the secured landfill in compliance with the concentration limits/criteria stipulated by SPCB (Annexure III). The treatment/stabilization operations will be carried out for all wastes identified for the purpose, so as to minimize their contaminant leaching potential. This will change the nature of these wastes to a less hazardous category. Treatment/stabilization involves immobilization of leachable materials by fixation as non-reactive solids, reduction of volume, reducing contaminant level of organic/inorganic components. Selection of technology would depend on the nature of waste, physical properties, options for technology applications, cost etc. Suggested flow chart for screening the wastes going to treatment/stabilization for developing treatment plant is given in CPCB - document: HAZWAMS/17/2000-01. The treated wastes before disposal in the landfill shall be assessed for compatibility with other wastes as well as with liner system The term treatment/stabilization is intended to cover a number of mechanisms including: Immobilization/Chemical fixation - the chemical binding of contaminants within a cementing structure to reduce the mobility or leachability of the waste constituents Encapsulation-the occlusion or entrapment of contaminant particles within a solid matrix Solidification-the conversion of slurries that do not readily de-water into solids by addition of solidification and adsorption agents. Typical reagents that would be used for the stabilization process may include lime, fly-ash, bentonite (clay), cement, saw dust etc., in combination with sodium silicate solution, if required to create additional binding properties of the wastes. General operations for waste treatment/stabilization shall include: Receiving waste for its storage in appropriate/designated place Adding of reagents as per the pre-estimated quantities Mixing and curing Thermal treatment to remove moisture, organics etc. Analysis of the stabilized sample (TCLP) Transfer of stabilized material to landfill
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The above process operations generally have the potential to create gaseous and particulate emissions into the air. This can be controlled by various management practices as stipulated by SPCB/PCC including masking (and would have to be properly managed). Also ambient odour near facility coming from the industrial wastes has to be neutralized in the following manner by the operator: As indicated at Section 3.5, placing bulk, containerized, or non-containerized liquid hazardous wastes containing free liquids (whether or not absorbents have been added, liquids that have been absorbed in biodegradable materials and liquids that have been stabilized by sorbents but will release liquids when compressed under normal pressure that might occur during and after land-filling) in any landfill is prohibited regardless of the length of time, presence of liners or leachate collection system. Hence, TSDF shall use the paint filter liquid test (PFLT) to comply with this requirement. This test determines whether the waste can be accepted to landfill subject to its passing the PFLT. The waste is not subject to a ban if it passes the PFLT. However, it if does not, it must be treated before it can be placed in the landfill. Waste treatment/stabilization would have to be performed on all wastes that find their final disposal into a landfill but do not meet the landfill disposal criteria. Typical analysis protocol for waste treatment/ stabilization would be as indicated in Annexure I (comprehensive analysis). Finger printing analysis for the same would be as indicated in Annexure II. 3.6.2 Identification Parameters for Waste Treatment / Stability Waste treatment/stabilization parameters shall include both physical and chemical tests. Physical tests shall be performed to characterize wastes before and after stabilization/solidification/treatment. The chemical tests shall primarily be the leaching tests, which will be conducted to evaluate the performance of specific treatment processes. The analysis shall be in line with the parameters as indicated in Annexure I. 3.6.3 Analysis Protocol to confirm treatment/stabilization of waste Physical Tests The TSDF operator has to conduct and document the results of the following physical tests applicable to incoming waste as well as on treated/stabilized hazardous waste. The physical tests shall be classified into the following categories: TEST Index Property Tests Particle size analysis (PSA) Moisture Content Paint filter liquid test (PFLT) To determine the presence of free liquids in a representative sample of bulk or non-containerized waste. To determine the particle size distribution of a material PURPOSE

Density Testing Bulk Density Compaction testing Moisture density relations Permeability Testing Falling head permeability /constant head (FHP/CH) Strength testing Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) Flexural strength (FS) Cone index (CI) Durability Testing Wet and dry durability To determine how the stabilized waste behaves or (WDD) degrades after repeated wet-dry cycles. To evaluate how cohesive the stabilized materials behave under mechanical stress To evaluate the stabilized wastes ability to withstand loads over a large area To evaluate a stabilized wastes stability and bearing capacity To measure the rate at which water will pass through a stabilized waste To determine the in-place density To determine relation between moisture content and density of the waste

Table 3.6.3 Analysis Protocol for Treatment/ Stability of Waste Chemical Tests Leaching tests shall be used in evaluating the performance of treatment/stabilization/solidification processes for wastes as per the recommended TCLP procedure for the identified chemical constituents in the stabilized waste. The waste stabilized should meet the Best Demonstrable Available Technology (BDAT) standards of Unites States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) before their disposal to the landfill till the BDAT standards are notified/stipulated under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, and rules made there under.

3.7 Waste Storage


Owner/operator of TSDF shall store such wastes in lined containers solely for the purpose of the accumulation of such quantities of hazardous waste as necessary to facilitate proper recovery, treatment or disposal for which economically viable treatment/disposal techniques are presently not available at or outside the facility. Each container shall be clearly marked to identify its contents and the date(s) of accumulation at the facility and such information for each consignment is recorded and maintained in the operating records at the facility.

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Separate area should be earmarked for storing the waste at TSDF. The storage area may consist of different cells for storing different kinds of hazardous wastes. In designing these cells, the following points may be taken into consideration: Those ignitable, reactive and non-compatible wastes shall be stored separately.That wastes containing volatile solvents or other low vapour pressure chemicals should be adequately protected from direct exposure to sunlight. The storage area should have a proper containment system. The containment system should have a collection area to collect and remove any leak, spill or precipitation. It should be designed in such a way that the floor level of the storage area is at least 150 mm above the maximum flood level The operator of the TSDF should put in place a system for inspection of the storage area to check the conditions of the containers, spillages, leakages etc., and maintain proper records as may specified by the SPCB/PCC in the authorization to operate TSDF. The hazardous wastes should not be stored for more than two weeks at this temporary storage area. In case of waste is not in accordance with the authorization issued by the SPCB/PCC to the generator, the TSDF operator shall reject the waste for the waste for further treatment and disposal. Information to this effect shall be immediately sent to the SPCB/PCC for advice.

4.0 Incineration
4.1 Introduction
Incineration is an ultimate treatment process, applied to certain wastes that cannot be recycled, reused or safely deposited in a landfill. It is a high temperature, thermal oxidation process in which hazardous wastes are converted in presence of oxygen in the air into gases and incombustible solid residue. The gases are vented into the atmosphere through gas cleaning system as may be necessary while the solid residue is sent for direct disposal into the landfill. Applicability of incineration of hazardous waste depends on certain considerations illustrated as under: The waste is biologically hazardous It is resistant to biodegradation and persistent in the environment It is volatile and therefore easily dispersed It cannot safely be disposed into a landfill even after stabilization/treatment Volume reduction of waste is necessary Incineration may take place either in dedicated, custom-built facility or in suitably adapted high-temperature process plants which maintain the required temperature for complete incineration of the material and are equipped to control air emissions as per the norms stipulated by the SPCB/PCC.

3.8 Acceptance / Rejection of Waste Consignments for Storage


Owner/operator of TSD facility shall store such wastes for upto two years(s) unless MoEF / CPCB / SPCB/PCC demonstrates that such storage is not solely for the purpose of accumulation of such quantities of hazardous waste as are necessary to facilitate proper recovery, treatment or disposal. Otherwise, such wastes shall be stored at the facility beyond the stipulated period and owner/operator of the facility bears the burden of proving that such storage is solely for the purpose of accumulation of such quantities of hazardous waste as are necessary to facilitate proper recovery, treatment or disposal. The operator of TSDF shall accept the hazardous wastes as per the authorization issued by SPCB/PCC to the generator and then undertake the operations for treatment/stabilization and disposal as per the conditions stipulated by the SPCB/PCC to the operator of TSDF.

4.2 Incinerable Waste


In general, if the waste is organic, then it has a high potential for incineration in view of its high calorific value. Typical wastes that would need to be incinerated by the operator of TSDF may include: Solvent wastes (spent solvents) Waste oils, oil emulsions and oil mixtures Hospital wastes of categories 1,2,3,............and 10 of the Schedule I of the Notification No. S.O. 746 E, dated 20th July 1998, of MoEF, GOI, subject to authorization by the SPCB/PCC. Pesticide wastes Pharmaceutical wastes Refinery wastes Phenolic wastes Grease and wax wastes Organic wastes containing halogens, sulphur, phosphorous or nitrogen compounds Capacitors containing PCBs Solid materials contaminated with oils Others with calorific value >2500 Kcal/Kg. Whether or not these wastes can be properly incinerated depends on the choice of incinerator temperature and its gas cleaning system - an important qualification, since the act of disposal should not itself cause a threat to the environment.

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4.3 Guidelines for Incineration


The primary aim of incineration is completely destroy the toxicity of wastes and to get products (solids and gases) of combustion that are harmless. To achieve these aims, attention must be given to the Three Ts of Combustion: Temperature Time Turbulence Availability of oxygen is an additional parameter, which forms an integral part of the incineration system. When the waste is burnt at the higher temperature destruction would be complete and formation of un-burnt waste, formation of organic by-products etc. would also be eliminated. The longer the waste is held at high temperature, the greater will be the degree of destruction and the less-likelihood of formation of Products of Incomplete Combustions (PICs). Turbulence relates to the degree of mixing between the waste and oxygen in the combustion air and to the absence of temperature gradients within the furnace. Greater turbulence provides better control, better access to air and more complete oxidation destruction of the waste being burnt. Finally, availability of oxygen is important for combustion of material. CPCB publication No. HAZWAMS/30//2005-2006 on Guidelines for Common Hazardous Waste incineration may please be referred. The recommended standard for tail gas & operating conditions are placed at Annexure IV for reference.

5.0 Leachate Treatment and Disposal


Having considered leachate quantity, quality and the variations associated properties, it is also essential to identify the components of the leachate that are to be treated or removed such as: Removal of high concentrations of degradable organic compounds Removal of high concentrations of non-degradable organic compounds Removal of varying concentrations of specific hazardous organics Removal of varying concentrations of specific hazardous inorganics Removal of ammonia Denitrification of nitrates/nitrites Removal of odours including sulphides Removal of suspended solids and Disinfection (if required) TSDF operations shall comply with the consent conditions stipulated by the SPCB/PCC under the provisions of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, with reference to collection, treatment and disposal of leachate originating from the secured landfill (Refer Annexure - III).

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6.0 Banthar Leather Technology Park's Secured Landfill Project


6.1 Industrial areas of Unnao
6.1.1 UPSIDC Industrial Area, Unnao This is a planned industrial area developed by UPSIDC in the year 1986 on the NH-25 about 30 kms from Kanpur. The area comprises of two parts, site 1 & site 2 which are on either sides of NH 25 and a third part, site 3 of Kundan Road side units. Unnao industrial area is a mixed cluster which includes tanneries, leather processing & leather products manufacturing units as well as allied chemical, fertilizer & manure, steel, engineering and paper & packaging units. There are 30 tanneries operational in this industrial area which is spread over an area of 421 acres. 6.1.2 UPSIDC Leather Technology Park Banthar, Unnao This area has been developed by UPSIDC as a Leather Technology Park in the year 2001 on the NH 25 about 9 kms from Kanpur. The industrial area is planned for 45 tanneries and 150 leather goods producing units. All the plots in this industrial area have been sold. Currently, about six tanning industries are awaiting the individual clearances from Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) for commencing their operations. Twenty leather goods producing units have started operations. The total area of the Leather Technology Park is about 286 acres. The Combined Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) has been commissioned and awaiting supply of raw effluent from the member units for treatment.

CETP Unnao and CETP Banthar including other similar waste generating units have jointly formed a separate registered company Industrial Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services (India) Ltd. to set-up and operate the proposed secured landfill at Banthar. The MoEF, GoI, has sanctioned a project proposal prepared by IL&FS with the help of UPSIDC under 'Industrial Infrasatructure Upgradation Scheme' (IIUS). Industries had made their first contribution into an escrow account as per guidelines of Ministry of Commerce (MoC), GoI. The EIA of the site was already done and environmental clearance from MoEF, GoI & No objection Certificate (NOC) from UPPCB already received for the project site. A Draft Project Report (DPR) has already been submitted exclusively for this secured landfill project to UPPCB & MoEF for their approval to start the work at site. The project came in operation in October 2008.

6.3 Hazardous Solid Waste Disposal/Storage arrangements of Leather Industries of Unnao


There are two Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) companies in the Unnao Industrial area viz. 1. M/S Unnao Tanneries Pollution Control Company - looking after waste management of all tanneries of this location since 1996 and, 2. Banthar Industrial Pollution Control Company - recently formed as per advice of UPSIDC in their new project leather technology park at Banthar in Unnao. This Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) has been set up as per the environmental clearance by MoEF, GoI to UPSIDC under A tri-partite agreement with UPSIDC, BIPCC & CLRI. Currently, there are no activities at the Leather Technology Park (LTP) Banthar and only Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) is under trial run.

6.2 Background
6.2.1 Hazardous Waste from Tanneries The management of hazardous waste (HW) is of extreme importance in view of its constituents, which may pose a threat to the environmental & human health, if left un-managed/improperly managed. In order to manage these wastes properly, the Ministry of Environment & Forest, Government of India under Environmental Protection Act, 1986 has formulated Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989, amended in 2000 and 2003. The Hazardous Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2003 specify the processes generating HW (in Schedule I) as well as types of HW based on concentration limits (in Schedule II). As per rules, waste conforming to any of the schedules has to be considered hazardous and thus managed as per the requirements given under the rules and guidelines. The concerned State Department, Industry association and the Occupier are responsible for identification of disposal sites for disposal of HW. The identified site needs to be developed as a secured landfill facility. The waste produced by tanneries and leather industries falls in the category of hazardous waste too. In view of the above, the Industries in Unnao decided to develop a Common Raw-Hide Storage and Management Center (CRHWDF) to ensure that HW is disposed off in an environmentally safe manner and these industries are able to comply with the HW (M&H) Rules. 6.2.2 Current Situation Before implementation of a common Secured landfill Facility (SLF), CETP Banthar developed a secured landfill capsule for hazardous waste disposal in 2 acres of land within its premises based on double liner system of CPCB as conceived by CLRI's Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). The expected life of this cell was 3-5 years. CETP, Unnao has already got a temporary storage facility in accordance with the parameters of UPPCB. All industries have their own pucca tanks in their premises to hold 6-12 months waste temporarily before they dispose it in a Secured Landfill Facility at Banthar. All the units of Unnao get timely authorization from UPPCB for hazardous waste storage/disposal in order to comply with the guide lines of the board.

6.4 Other Techno-commercial study issues of the project when it was submitted as DPR in the ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India
6.4.1 Common Hazardous Waste Disposal Project component proposed under IIUS and cost estimates Based on the diagnostic study and discussions with the various stakeholders the following projects have been identified and prioritized for implementation with assistance from IIUS. Table 6.4.1 presents the proposed project components and their cost estimates. The project is proposed to be implemented in a phased manner: Table 6.4.1: Proposed Project Component and Cost Estimates S. N. Project Component Phase I I Construction of Common Hazardous Waste Disposal Facility (CHWDF) 179.21 Estimated Cost (in Rs. Millions)

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6.4.2 Proposed Means of Finance In accordance with the IIUS guidelines the proposed means of finance for different project component is summarized at Table 6.4.2 As per the guidelines of the IIUS the user contribution in the project should be 25% of the total project cost. The industries have agreed to contribute 10% of total project cost as equity in the SPV, the balance 10% of the project cost would be put by GoUP on behalf of the industries as support to the project and the remaining amount would be funded by IL&FS. Table 6.4.2: Proposed Means of Finance Project Construction of Common Hazardous Waste Disposal Facility GoI Grant under IIUS 129.2 (72%) Industry GoUP support Contribution via UPSIDC 17.9 (10%) 17.90 (10%) UPSIDC support 0.00 (0%) Debt Total Cost IL&FS (in Rs Millions) 14.1 (8%) 179.5 (100%)

6.5 Common Hazardous Waste Disposal Facility


6.5.1 Component Description - Summary Solid Waste generated in tanneries and leather finishing processes are classified under hazardous waste category and require appropriate storage, handling and disposal. Tanneries generate solid wastes like hair, raw trimmings, splitting, fleshing, buffing dust, shavings and finished trimmings apart from the chemical and biological sludge generated by the CETP. The hazardous waste generation of the Kanpur-Unnao Leather cluster is estimated to be about 18,000 MT/year (source UPSIDC-Tetratech report on Hazardous Waste Management). Presently, there is no provision for disposal of the hazardous waste generated by the tanneries and leather units. Moreover, Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) has given a conditional consent for establishment of Leather Technology Park (LTP) at Banther subject to provision of proper Hazardous Waste Disposal Facility. Based on this assessment a site of 33 acres has been identified as secured landfill for a period of 15-20 years requirement. The site is located at the Leather Technology Park Banther adjoining the CETP facility existing at Bather. The proposed facility would have a capacity to accommodate 4,22,700 MT of hazardous waste. The proposed CHWDF would be a common facility for the tanneries and leather units existing at Kanpur-Unnao region. 6.5.2 Component Analysis - Technical The hazardous waste from processes like trimming and fleshing contain organic solids and salts, whereas processes like liming/deliming generate inorganic wastes. Post-tanning processes generate shavings & buffing dust which contain chemical constituents like chromium, dyes, pigments and fat liquors. The solid waste generated at primary clarifier of CETP consist inorganic waste, while the solid waste generated at the secondary clarifier is organic in nature. The typical characteristics of sludge generated from a CETP of tanneries are presented at Table 6.5.2 Table 6.5.2 Typical Characteristic of CETP sludge from tannery S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Parameter pH Moisture Content Dry Solids Volatile Solids COD (Dry Solids weight basis) Cr, Total Chlorides Sodium Calcium Value 7.9-8.8 67%-90% 10%-33% 32%-68% 27%-55% 0.2%-3.8% 1.0%-7.7% 1.3%-8.2% 0.8%-10.0%

The contribution of GoUP through UPSIDC would be 10% of Project Cost. However, since cost of land cannot be financed through IIUS, UPSIDC would contribute Rs.24.38 Million i.e. 26% of project cost for the CRHSMC component, in the form of support to the project. The total contribution of 36% of Project Cost would finance the cost of land required for CRHSMC component. The support from GoUP/UPSIDC would be repaid by the SPV. In case of CRHSMC it would be repaid in three equated annual installments from the start of operations and for CHWDF the support would be repaid in two equal installments during the 8th and 9th year of operations. It may be noted that as per the guidelines of IIUS, the one-time grant requirement estimated for the proposed project component under the IIUS scheme does not include the cost of land. 6.4.3 Sustainability of Project Components The projects have been structured on sustainable format with levying of user charges for operation and maintenance of the assets created. Provision for a Maintenance Reserve Fund which would set aside funds for future expansion & growth of the cluster is also included. Tables 6.4.1 & 6.4.2 present the user charges & profitability projections proposed for the various project components. Table 6.4.3 : Proposed User Charges for different project components Sl. I Project Common Hazardous Waste Disposal Facility User Charges Rs. 1000/MT of waste disposed

Source: Comprehensive EIA Report for LTP-Banther, CLRI

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The solids from the processing yards of the tanneries should be collected in forms containing 30%-60% average moisture content. They can be solar dried and stored for manufacturing by-products. On-site storage of solid wastes in wet form/dry form could be planned for maximum period of 90 days and/or a maximum quantity of 10 tonnes at any time, in accordance with guidelines of MoEF. The biomethanation process and land filling of solid wastes are considered as common methods of disposal. In landfills, biochemical reactions may take place to release bound water rich in soluble organic and inorganic chemical constituents. The leachate thus emerged from such sites may contaminate land and groundwater environment in the vicinity of the disposal facility. Appropriate leachate collection and treatment system should be designed. Based on the tanning process existing in the various tanneries and feedback received from the industries the total quantum of hazardous waste generated from the tanneries is estimated to be about 18,000 MT/year. Tables 6.5.3 and 6.5.4 present the details of quantum of solid waste generated by the tanneries and leather industries in the Kanpur-Unnao region and the characteristics of the waste respectively. Table 6.5.3: Quantum of Hazardous Waste generated at LTP Banthar-Unnao Cluster S. No. 1. 2. Region
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Table 6.5.5: Design Criterion for CHWDF S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Parameter Quantum of Waste to be managed Land Required Moisture Content, allowed Design Life of Landfill Value 17, 955 MT/year 33 Acres 40%-60% 20 years

Source: Comprehensive EIA Report for LTP-Banther, CLRI Some of the salient features of the proposed design for the CHWDF have been briefly summarized hereunder:

Quantity of Solid Waste generated (in MT/year) 14,805 3150 17,955

LTP-Banther Unnao Site 1&2 Total

Source: Report on Hazardous Waste, UPSIDC-Tetratech Table 6.5.4: Characteristics of Hazardous Waste generated at Kanpur-Unnao Cluster S. No. 1. 2. 3. Type of Waste Lime Sludge Buffing Dust Chemical & Biological Sludge from CETPs Total Quantity of Solid Waste generated (in MT/year) 2101.00 141.50 13,753.00 17,955.50

Source: Report on Hazardous Waste, UPSIDC-Tetratech The criteria for design of the land-fill are presented at Table 6.5.5 It is proposed that the land-fill would be designed for a period of 20 years and the land required for this purpose is estimated to 33 acres. Figure 1 The typical cross-section of the foundation

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(a) Foundation After excavating the soil to the desired depth, a compacted clayey soil to a depth of 1m has to be laid. The minimum top width of 3m has been considered in order to allow sufficient room for equipment and personnel movement during liner installation as well as during operation & maintenance period. Figure1 presents the typical cross-section of the foundation

6.6 Project Cost Estimates


Based on the designs as presented in the previous the costs estimates have been prepared and is presented at Table Table 6.6: Cost Estimates for CHWDF in Rs Million S. No. Item 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Land Cost Site Preparation Earthwork in Embankment & Slope Preparation Preparation of Landfill Bottom, Inner Slope & Berms Laying of Double-liner with HDPE Pipe collection system Leachate Collection & Detection Cell Installation of Leachate Treatment System Laying of Roads and Storm-water drains Provision for Support Facilities Provision of Plantation Sub-Total (A) Detailed Design, Engineering and Development costs Administrative Expenses (@ 3% of (B)) Pre-Operative Expenses Contingencies (@ 5% of (B)) Total(B) Total 6.75 0.34 50.00 5.00 75.00 0.53 7.50 4.20 7.00 0.60 156.92 4.81 5.38 2.52 9.58 179.21

6.7

Means of Finance

In accordance with the IIUS guideline, the proposed means of finance for implementation of the CHWDF is presented as Table 6.7. It may be noted as per the guidelines of the IIUS scheme the cost of land has been exclude for the purpose calculation of grant from GoI under the IIUS scheme. UPLIA has agreed to provide 10% of Total Project Cost as equity in the SPV. GoUP would provide 10% of Total Project Cost on behalf of industries as support towards the project the SPV would repay this amount to GoUP after servicing the longterm debt in two-equal installments. Figure 2 The typical cross-section of the liner system (b) Liner System A double layer synthetic liner system has been proposed for the CHWDF, the crosssection of the liner system is illustrated at Figure 2. The liner system consists of two layers of geotextile, sand, gravel and clay. (c) Leachate Management System In order to prevent leachate migration and contamination a leachate collection, removal and holding system has been proposed. Figure 2 illustrate the leachate management system. Source Grant from GoI under IIUS Equity User Contribution Support from GoUP Debt Finance IL&FS Total Table 6.7: Means of Finance for CHWDF % of Component Cost 72% 10% 10% 8% 100%
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Amount in Rs. Million 129.20 17.90 17.90 14.10 179.10

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In case actual cost of the component exceeds the Estimated Cost of the component then the additional increase in cost would be contributed by increase in equity or raised through additional borrowing from IL&FS

6.8.2 Inventorization and characterization of HW The industries that will be sending their HW for disposal on the proposed CHWDF include manufacturing products such as finished leather, leather board, lube oil, and basic chrome sulphate. There are 80 industries from Banthar and Unnao which will be sending their HW for disposal to the CHWDF. The HW generation from most of the industries is sludge from waste water treatment. Apart from this, other types of HW from these industries includes heavy metal bearing wastes from Basic Chrome Sulphate manufacturing industry and waste oil from lube oil refineries. The table 6.8.2 (a) & (b) below provide a break-up of this HW: Table 6.8.2 (a) A break-up of other HW S. No. 1. 2. Region Banthar Unnao TOTAL Total HW generated/expected per annum (in MT) 14805 3150 17955

6.8

Details of Development of CHWDF

The construction of a CHWDF is very sophisticated in terms of technology and design. Reliable data on the quantity and quality of hazardous wastes is important for the design of an optimal collection, transportation, and treatment and disposal system. The broad steps in the development of a CHWDF up to its closure include: 1. Selection of site for developing CHWDF 2. Environmental Impact Assessment for developing the CHWDF on the selected site and its environmental clearance from Government of India 3. Inventorisation and Characterization of HW generation in targeted industrial areas 4. Site investigation including topography survey, geotechnical and hydrogeological survey and groundwater survey 5. Conceptual Plan for CHWDF 6. Detailed Design and Engineering of CHWDF including a. Waste acceptance and management plan b. Lab facilities and waste storage system c. Treatment and disposal Plan d. Wastewater treatment Plan e. Operation and maintenance plan f. Emergency preparedness plan g. Surveillance and monitoring plan h. Occupational health and safety plan i. Closure and post closure plan j. Environmental monitoring Plan k. Health and Safety Plan 7. Capital and Operating Cost Estimates 8. Construction of CHWDF 9. Operation and Maintenance of CHWDF 10. Closure of CHWDF 11. Post Closure monitoring of CHWDF The task till development of CHWDF is to be accomplished in phases. 6.8.1 Development of CHWDF for hazardous waste industries of Banthar and Unnao Development of CHWDF is being done at Banthar Complex, on a site of 33 acre (18 acre with CETP and rest of 15 acre adjoining land) has already been identified. The EIA of the entire Leather Technology Park has been done by CLRI and MoEF has issued its environmental clearance. As per discussions with CLRI and UPPCB, no EIA would be required for adjacent patch of 15 acre with CETP for Hazardous waste site to be provided by UPSIDC.

Source: As per the information received from the industry unit holders The above generated HW can be characterized as below: Table 6.8.2 (b) Characterization of HW S. No. 1. 2. 3. Type of Waste Lime Sludge Buffing Dust Chemical and Biological Sludge from CETP Quantity per annum (in MT) 2101 141.5 13753

Source: As per the information received from the industry unit holders 6.8.3 Layout of CHWDF The main objective of a secured landfill is to contain the HW, minimize leachate generation and its subsequent migration to the groundwater and to keep it isolated from the surrounding environment. Thus the key issues that will be addressed while framing the conceptual plan for CHWDF are: Type and volume of hazardous wastes to be land filled Life expectancy of the landfill during its active operating period Topography and soil characteristics at the site and in its vicinity Climatic conditions throughout the year Surface and groundwater in the vicinity Collection and treatment of surface runoff Soil cover requirements for individual containment cells Anticipated quality and volume of leachate

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Selection of leachate collection and treatment systems Monitoring of groundwater and surface water during operations and beyond Selection of membrane liners Closures and post-closure plans The landfill site will comprise of the area in which the waste will be filled, as well the additional area for support facilities. The landfill section would be designed keeping in view the topography, ground water table, high flood level (HFL) and availability of the liner and cover material. The landfill would be operated in phases such that at any given time a part of the site will have a final cover, a part getting actively filled, a part getting prepared to receive waste, and a part undisturbed. After conceptual planning, preliminary engineering drawings will be prepared covering the following details: Storage of waste: compatible/Incompatible, Utilities Primary treatment facilities Laboratory Weighing facility Green belt Safety equipment/amenities Monitoring stations General arrangement drawings for the landfill and its components 6.8.4 Detailed Design and Engineering of CHWDF It will cover detailed specifications of the following: Linear System Embankment Leachate collection & treatment System (LCTS) Strom water drainage system Pumping & Piping System alternative methods for taking leachate & run off effluent from the land fill site to ETP Intermediate Cover Final Cover Monitoring wells Specification for civil, mechanical, instrumentation and electrical items Construction Drawings Plan & Sections of different phases of the landfill Bottom and side liner details Section of leachate management system Intermediate and final cover for the landfill Details of embankment Details of anchoring trench Membrane Panel Layout Pipe boot and pipe joint details The detail of liner system and embankments are provided in Fig 1 & 2. The design and detailed engineering of the facility would conform to the guidelines issued by CPCB. Other activities that will be addressed as part of complete design of CHWDF include:
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Waste acceptance and management plan Lab facilities and waste storage system Treatment and disposal Plan Wastewater treatment Plan Operation and maintenance plan Emergency preparedness plan Surveillance and monitoring plan Occupational health and safety plan Closure and post closure plan Environmental monitoring Plan Health and Safety Plan 6.8.5 Detailed Capital and Operating Cost Estimates The capital costs would be estimated based on BOQs prepared on the basis of design and engineering specifications. The operating and maintenance costs would be estimated based on operation and maintenance plan. Once detailed design and engineering is completed and cost estimates have been done, the construction of CHWDF will be initiated. Fig 6.8.5. Suggested Project Implementation Plan for industries Decision by industries to take up development of CHWDF to comply with the legislation Industries to form SPV for taking up this project SPV to organize funds for the study -Complied SPV to identify organisation/expert(s) for conducting EIA of the selected HW landfill site and seek environmental clearance SPV to identify organization/expert(s) for Detailed Design and Engineering of CHWDF SPV to receive drawings and management plans from the selected organization/experts(s) for developing and running the CHWDF SPV to float tenders for selection of private operator for construction and management of the CHWDF Selected Operator to construct the CHWDF and start receiving HW from industry on per tonne fee basis
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6.8.6 Financial Implications The financial estimate has been done with the assumption that in 33 acre site, 3 acre will be used for developing support facilities and 30 acre area will be used for developing the landfill facility. The height of landfill pond has been taken 7m in which HW will be filled upto the height of 6.5 m. Based on the above design parameters, the financial cost attached with the project is subdivided into following heads (excluding cost of the land): Table 6.8.6 (a) Financial Cost of the Project S. No. Description 1. 2. Cost of conducting EIA Cost ( in INR) 3,00,000 6,00,000 Remarks If required again for adjoining land to CETP This would include site investigation work involving topography survey, geotechnical and hydrogeological survey and groundwater survey In this case volume available and double liner system for filling HW will be nearly 1,60,000 Cu.m. In this case volume available double liner system for filling HW will be nearly 2,50,000 Cu.m. Approximately 5% escalation would be applicable on the cost on yearly basis.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Cost of detailed design and 13,00,000 18,00,000 engineering of the CHWDF (including detailed cost estimates and management plans for operation and maintenance of CHWDF) Construction of CHWDF 11,00,00,000 a. Using Earthwork embankment

9. 10. B. 1.

Earthwork in embankment and slope protection Preparation of landfill bottom, inner slopes and berms of embankment using clay foundation Laying of double liner system including HDPE Pipes for leachate collection Leachate Collection and Leachate Detection Sump Installation of leachate treatment system Laying of road and storm water drain and site fencing Providing support facilities such as Chemical House, MCC Room, Administrative Building, Temporary Storage Area, Pretreatment Raea, Laboratory Building, Security Room, Car Parking Area, Truck Parking Area, Truck Washing Area and other Accessories Providing Plantation Contingency (10%) Using RCC Embankment and Double Liner System Site preparation including clearing of vegetation; stripping, grading and removal of top soil, and compacting of area Civil work for embankment Laying of double liner system including HDPE Pipes for leachate collection Leachate Collection and Leachate Detection Sump Installation of leachate treatment system Laying of road and storm water drain and site fencing Providing support facilities such as Chemical House, MCC Room, Administrative Building, Temporary Storage Area, Pretreatment Raea, Laboratory Building, Security Room, Car Parking Area, Truck Parking Area, Truck Washing Area and other Accessories Providing Plantation Contingency (10%)

3,00,00,000 30,00,000 4,50,00,000 5,25,000 75,00,000 42,00,000 70,00,000

6,00,000 9716500

3.

20,40,000

b. Using RCC embankment and

17,00,00,000*

2. 3. 5. 6. 7. 8.

8,00,00,000 6,68,71,567 5,25,000 75,00,000 28,00,000 72,00,000

4.

Operation and maintenance cost

75,00,000 per year

5.

Cost of closure

1,50,00,000

*Without provision for contingency Table 6.8.6 (b) Broad break-up of cost of construction S.No. Descriptions A. 1. Using Earthwork Embankment and double liner system Site preparation including clearing of vegetation; stripping, grading and removal of top soil, and compacting of area Cost (INR) Remarks 9. 10.

6,00,000 1,67,00,000

* Above cost estimates are budgetary and can change depending upon the changing unit rates of raw material, equipments and labour cost. Note: The cost of common SLF as revised by industries and Government of India is now Rs.10.00 crores only

20,40,000

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6.8.7 Expected life of landfill (assuming that density of waste in Landfill is 1.1 MT/Cu. m) Table 6.8.7 Expected life of a landfill S. No. Landfill Design 1. 2. Using earthwork embankment and double liner system Using RCC embankment and double liner system Expected Life 11.5 Years* 17 Years*

6.8.10 Implementation Framework UPLIA proposes to implement the CHWDF component with assistance from DoIPP under IIUS scheme through a Special Purpose Vehicle incorporated for this purpose. The SPV is a company registered of Indian Companies Act, 1956. For construction and operations & maintenance two approaches have been proposed: Separate contracts for construction and operations & maintenance BoT contract for construction and operations & maintenance or Annuity model could be examined BoT-Concession It is felt that the latter would be advantageous for the SPV, since it would transfer the risks of construction as well as operations & maintenance to a private sector developer. The proposed CHWDF would be constructed, operated and maintained through a suitable BoT framework. However, the SPV would retain the responsibility for collection of disposal charges, which would done through a take-or-pay contract. Figure 3 presents the indicative implementation structure for CHWDF. 6.8.11 Financial Analysis Financial analysis has been undertaken to structure the roads component as well as to address IIUS requirement from sustainability perspective. Financial analysis has been performed to enable its implementation as a stand-alone component without any cross-subsidy element from revenue streams of other components. Some of the key assumptions used for this analysis are presented as Table 6.8.11(a) Table 6.8.11 (a) List of Key Assumptions Variable Date of First Disbursement Construction Start Date Construction End Date Operations period(excluding construction period) Year of base Cost Estimates Average Rate of Inflation Capital Costs Operation & Maintenance Costs Description April 01, 2005 October 31, 2005 October 31, 2006 20 years FY2006 6.50% per annum As presented in Table 7.2.6 (a) & (b) above Operation & Maintenance Costs - Rs.300/MT at FY2006 prices Post-Closure Costs Lump-sum amount of Rs.25.00 Million at FY2006 prices Applicable Annual Interest Rate 11.0% Tenor 7 years Moratorium period 2 year Debt Service Reserve Fund
34

* Here quantity of HW generation per annum is taken constant for calculation purpose. It is expected that HW quantity will increase with increase in production. While calculating the expected life of the landfill it has been assumed that initially for 1-2 years HW quantity received on site will be approximately 2000 Tonnes per annum. The HW quantity received will increase upto 18000 Tonnes per annum within three years and will stabilize at this level.

6.8.8 Design Decision


We shall start in the first phase with the first option of the Earthen work embankment design of CHWDF as per design recommendations of CPCB as also given in the environmental clearance given by MOEF, GoI for CETP/tannery complex at UPSIDC leather Technology Park Banthar. In case we find any practical problems with the option, next cells of CHWDF will be made using the second option depending upon financial grant availabilities too under IIUS of MoC&I, GOI. 6.8.9 Revenue Model Different strategies for revenue collection and cost recovery were examined, these include: Disposal charges based on number of hides/production capacity The SPV could levy user charges linked to number of hides/production capacity processed. Although this may be an indicator of the total hazardous waste, but difference in production method and technology results in difference in quantum of waste. Moreover, disclosure of number of hides processed/production for levy of disposal charges may be a sensitive issue and may be difficult for the SPV to monitor. Disposal charges based on quantum of waste disposed with a Take-or-Pay arrangement SPV would levy a disposal charge for handling, management and disposal of hazardous waste. This would ensure that direct users and beneficiaries of the facility pay for availing the service. The SPV would enter into an annual take-or-pay arrangement for levying of disposal charges. The arrangement could be renewed at the end of each year. Capacity based charges & Recurring charges - Alternate tariff structures could be examined and finalized. This could be include capacity based fixed charge and a recurring monthly charge to cover monthly costs. Suitable tariff structure would have to be evolved at a later stage

Debt Terms IL&FS

33

Variable Support Terms GoUP Quantum of Hazardous Waste Tax Depreciation Reserves

Description Total Support Amount to be repaid in two-equal installments after servicing of Senior Debt As presented at Tables above As applicable Tax Depreciation Rate 10% General Reserves: An annual appropriation of 10% of PAT. Maintenance Reserve: An Annual appropriation of 10% of PAT To meet major maintenance & repair expenses as well as create a fund for future capital requirements.

Based on the above findings it is felt that the CHWDF could be implemented by the SPV as a stand-alone component.

6.9 Project Risks


Delays in construction Delay in construction may result in increase of cost affecting ability to achieve financial closure and hence could affect project sustainability. Selection of a reputed contractor with good track record and timely construction, appropriate contractual framework with incentives for early completion and provision of disincentives for delayed completion and liquidated damages would mitigate this risk. Design Risk The CHWDF has been designed for an annual hazardous waste of about 18,000 MT, but with change in process-technology or use of cleaner production techniques there could be a change in waste characteristics. This risk is allocated to the SPV. Demand Risk The demand risk for CHWDF has been mitigated through a suitable waste off-take agreement which would be based on Take-or-Pay contract with the industries for collection, handling and disposal of hazardous wastes. Moreover, with the recent Supreme Court decision and strict enforcement of environmental regulation this occurrence of this risk event is minimal. Change in waste quantity generation may be expected due to cleaner production or optimization of chemical application in the process. Post-Closure risks The closed landfill areas have to be regularly monitored in order to mitigate the risk of leakage of hazardous wastes from the closed landfill especially during the monsoon period. This risk is borne by the SPV. Regulatory risks The existing facility would have to meet with the regulatory and compliance requirements as stipulated from time to time. There would therefore be compliance issues due to more stringent requirements being imposed with regard to treatment and/or disposal during the design horizon. The need for performance monitoring is envisaged to meet compliance requirements.

Sustainability of the project is based on its ability to meet the operation & maintenance expenses as well as service debt and equity. Furthermore, from sustainability perspective a provision of Maintenance Reserve has also been made, in order to meet major maintenance expenses as well as provide funds that could be used to meet the funding requirement for closure of the CHWDF. Based on the abovementioned assumptions, financial analysis was carried out to assess the average disposal charge that would be levied on the industries. A summary of impact of different disposal charges on project financials have been presented at Table 6.8.11 (b) Table 6.8.11 (b) Impact of Disposal Charges on Project Financials Parameter Disposal Charge of Rs.900/MT Disposal Charge of Rs.1000/MT Disposal Charge of Rs.1200/MT Project IRR (on Post-tax basis) 6.21% 7.71% 8.78% Min. DSCR 2.78 3.25 3.73

The above analysis suggests that disposal charges between Rs.900/MT and Rs.1000/MT could be considered which would be necessary for financial sustainability of the component. Table below presents the profitability projections for the CHWDF component. Table 6.8.11 (c) Profit & Loss Statement for CHWDF
All Figures in Rs. Million

FY ending 31st March Revenues OPEX PBDIT Depreciation


(By SLM)

2008 18.25 6.21 12.04 8.83 1.55 0.32 1.98 0.00 1.98

2012 24.62 8.54 16.09 8.83 0.47 2.10 8.89 0.00 8.89

2016 33.25 11.75 21.50 8.83 0.00 3.42 16.09 1.90 14.19
35

2020 44.92 16.17 28.75 8.83 0.00 6.44 26.36 2.69 23.67

2024 60.75 22.29 38.46 8.83 0.00 9.75 39.39 16.84 22.54

2027 76.22 28.36 47.86 8.83 0.00 6.63 45.66 19.54 26.12 ~8%
36

Interest Other Income PBT Tax PAT Post-Tax IRR

Revenues calculated at Rs.1000/MT as Disposal Charge

Annexure I Comprehensive Analysis Requirements for Hazardous Wastes Generator /TSDF Operator
Method of Analysis Physical Analysis Comprehensive Analysis to be submitted by the Generators of Hazardous Wastes Physical State of the waste (liquid / slurry / sludge / Semisolid / solid: inorganic, organic, metallic) Description of different phases of the wastes (in cases of solid wastes slurries and sludge) contained in aqueous / non-aqueous liquids / solutions Colour and Texture Whether the waste is multi-layered (Yes/No)? If yes, quantify each layer Specific Gravity Viscosity Calorific Value USEPA, SW-846; Method 1010 and 1020 Flash Point % Moisture content loss on ignition at 105C % Organic content loss on ignition at 550 C USEPA, SW-846; Method 9095 Chemical Analysis USEPA, SW-846; Methods 9040, 9041 and 9045 Method of Analysis Inorganic Parameters Analysis USEPA; SW-846; Vol. 1C Part II; Test Method to determine HCN released from Wastes USEPA; SW-846; Vol. 1C Part II; Test Method to determine H2S released from wastes Reactive Cyanide (ppm) ph Comprehensive Analysis to be submitted by the Generators of Hazardous Wastes Paint Filter Liquid Test (PFLT)

USEPA; SW-846; 9010, 9011, 9012 USEPA; SW-846; Vol. 1A, 1B, 1C and Vol. 2 Organic Parameters Analysis

Sulphur (elemental) Concentration of In-organics [as per Schedule 2 of HW (M&H) Rules, 1989, as amended]. Oil & Grease Extractable Organic (in special cases only) % Carbon % Nitrogen % Sulphur % Hydrogen Concentration of individual organics [as per Schedule 2 of HW (M&H) Rules, 1989, as amended] Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (For the parameters identified in Section 2, Annexure -III and the listed parameters as presented in Method 1311 of SW 846; USEPA)

USEPA; SW-846; Vol. 1A, 1B, 1C and Vol. 2 USEPA; SW-846; Method 1311, 1330

Reactive Sulfide (ppm)

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38

Annexure II Fingerprint Analysis Requirements for Hazardous Wastes - TAD Facilities


Method of Analysis Physical Analysis Fingerprint Analysis by the Operators of TSD Facilities Physical State of the waste (liquid/slurry/sludge/semisolid/solid: inorganic/organic/metallic) Identification of different phases of the wastes (in cases of solid wastes contained in aqueous/non-aqueous liquids/solutions for slurries and sludge) Colour & Textures Whether the waste is multi-layered (yes/no)? If yes, quantify each layer Specific Gravity Viscosity USEPA, SW-846; Method 1010 and 1020 Flash Point Loss on ignition at 105 C Loss on ignition at 650 C

Annexure III Concentration Limits/criteria For Acceptance of Hazardous Wastes for Direct Disposal To Secured Landfill
Leachate Quality * pH Total Phenols Arsenic Lead Cadmium Chromium-VI Copper Nickel Mercury Zinc Fluoride Ammonia Cyanide Nitrate Adsorbable organic bound Chlorine Water soluble compounds except salts Calorific value Strength Concentration 4 - 12 < 100 mg/l < 1 mg/l < 2 mg/l < 0.2 mg/l < 0.5 mg/l < 10 mg/l < 3 mg/l < 0.1 mg/l < 10 mg/l < 50 mg/l < 1,000 mg/l < 2 mg/l < 30 mg/l < 3 mg/l < 10% < 2500 K.Cal/kg

USEPA, SW-846; Method 9095 USEPA, SW-846; Method 9096 Chemical Analysis

Paint Filter Liquid Test (PFLT) Liquid Release Test (LRT)

Transversal strength (Vane Testing) Unconfined Compression Test Axial Deformation

> 25 KN/m2 >50 KN/m2 < 20 %

Degree of Mineralization or Content of Organic Materials (Original Sample) USEPA, SW-846; Method 9040, 9041 and 9045 USEPA, SW-846; Vol. 1C Part II; Test Method to determine HCN released from Wastes USEPA, SW-846; Vol. 1C Part II; Test Method to determine H2S released from Wastes pH Annealing loss of the dry residue at 550C Reactive Cyanide (ppm) < 20% by weight (for non-biodegradable waste) < 5% by weight (for biodegradable waste) < 4% by weight

Reactive Sulfide (ppm)

Extractible Lipophilic contents (Oil & Grease)

*Leachate quality is based on Water Leach Test

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40

Leachate Disposal Standards S. No. Parameter Standards (mg/l) Inland Surface STP CETP (See note) Marine Coastal Areas

Annexure IV Emission Standards For Common Hazardous Wastes Incinerator


A. Flue Gas Emission Standards Treated flue gas emissions discharge through stack to atmosphere shall always be less than or equal to the following parameter-specific emission standards: Parameter Particulates 0.059 0.059 HCl 0.14 0.08 0.32 0.14 0.08 0.32 So2 CO 50 mg/Nm
3

Additional Parameters Recommended 1. 2. Adsorbable Organic Halogens (AOX) Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) (each) Benzene Toluene Xylene (sum of o, m, p-xylene) 0.50 0.50

Emission standard 50 mg/Nm3 Standard refers to half hourly average value Standard refers to half hourly average value
3

3. 4. 5.

200 mg/Nm 100 mg/Nm 50 mg/Nm3

Standard refers to half hourly average value Standard refers to half hourly average value Standard refers to daily average value Standard refers to half hourly average value Standard refers to half hourly average value Standard refers to half hourly average value

Note : 1. In addition to the above, General Standards for discharge of environment pollutants Part-A: Effluents notified, vide G.S. R. 422 (E), dated 19.5.1993 and published in the Gazette No. 174, dated 19.5.1993 under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, and rules made thereunder, shall also be applicable for disposal of leachate into sewage treatment plant, common effluent treatment plant, Inland surface water bodies or coastal areas. 2. For each CETP and its constituent units, the SPCB/PCC shall prescribe standards as per the local needs and conditions; these can be more stringent than those prescribed above. However, in case of clusters of units, the SPCB/PCC may prescribe suitable limits. 3. Leachates having high COD shall be concentrated through evaporation (forced) and fed to the incinerator of the integrated TSDF in view of its high calorific value, and the residue ash shall be disposed off in their secured landfill.

Total Organic Carbon HF Nox (NO and No2 expressed as NO2) Total dioxins and furans

20 mg/Nm3 4 mg/Nm
3

400 mg/Nm3

0.1 ng TEQ/Nm

Standard refers to 6-8 hours sampling. Please refer guidelines for 17 concerned congeners for toxic equivalence values to arrive at total toxic equivalence. Standard refers to sampling time anywhere between 30 minutes and 8 hours. Standard refers to sampling time anywhere between 30 minutes and 8 hours. Standard refers to sampling time anywhere between 30 minutes and 8 hours.

Cd + Th + 0.05 mg/Nm their compounds Hg and its compounds Sb + As + Pb + Cr + Co + Cu + Mn + Ni + V + their compounds

0.05 mg/Nm3 0.05 mg/Nm


3

4. The Bioassay test shall be substituted by 'Fish Toxicity' test, and a dilution factor of 2 (two) may be considered.

Note: All values corrected to 11% oxygen on a dry basis.

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B. Operating Standards:
I. All the facilities shall be designed to achieve a minimum temperature of 1100C in secondary combustion chamber and with a gas residence time in secondary combustion chamber not less than 2 (two) seconds.

References
Hazardous Waste Management Series: HAZWAMS/32/2005-2006, Management of Hazardous Wastes: Guidelines for proper functioning and upkeep of disposal sites. Indian Leather Sector Network Report , Sector Overview and SWOT Analysis by Sustainable Industrial Network and Its Application on Micro Regional Environmental Planning (SINET) Tchobangolous, G.,Kreith ,I., 2002, Handbook of solid waste management, Mc Graw Hills, New York. Thangamani, A., Rajakumar, S., Ramanujam, R.A.,Clean Techn Environ Policy Kaul, S.N., Nandy. T., Szpyrkowicz.L., Gautam. A., Khanna. D.R., Waste Water Management with special reference to tanneries 2005 .

II. The incineration facilities after initial operation of minimum one year, as per the guidelines and standards, can submit a proposal for relaxation in temperature and retention time requirement if it can be demonstrated that the flue gas standards and operation standards can be complied with at lower temperatures and residence times. The State Pollution Control Board / Pollution Control Committee, upon successful demonstration of compliance with flue gas standards by the facility, can recommend the proposal made by the incineration facility for relaxation in temperature and residence time, but in any case not less than 950 C and 1.5 seconds, for the consideration and approval of the Central Board. III. Incineration plants shall be operated (combustion chambers) with such temperature, retention time and turbulence, so as to achieve Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content in the slag and bottom ashes less than 3%, or their loss on ignition is less than 5% of the dry weight of the material. IV. Guidelines published by the Central Board from time to time for common incineration facilities shall be referred for implementation. V. All the project proposals submitted for establishment of the common incineration facilities shall be examined and cleared by the Task Force constituted by the Central Board. VI. Notification of compliance: The operator of the incinerator shall undertake comprehensive performance test. Within 90 days of completion of comprehensive performance test, the operator shall issue a notification of compliance documenting compliance or non-compliance, as the case may be, for public information / notice.

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Notes

45

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