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Final year project

The final year project is a complete project taken from research and conceptual stages to working drawings and presentation stages. Architectural design 3 is the final project part 1, students are required to design a PENANG RESEARCH AND INNOVATION INCUBATOR CENTRE (PRII) which is located at Lot 12175.

Project details
The development of PRII is in line with Penangs vision of becoming an intelligent and international city. Penang is already a hub for high technology manufacturing and design, with an existing ecosystem of high precision tools and manufacturing. The vibrant and dynamic environment of Penang reinforces the quality academic and research institutions in the state and provides a stimulating platform for further growth of technology and skilled workers. The proposed R&D incubator will build on our strong foundation in science and technology and spearhead Penangs role in the global trend of increasingly rapid growth of scientific discoveries and technological innovations. The establishment of PRII w ill strengthen Penangs commitment to excellence in science and technology. It will be a key component in establishing Penang as a regional hub for research and innovation. PRII would be a scientific research center ( biomedical sciencesm, biotechnology, physics, chemistry or related fields ) coupled with all the attendant facilities that contribute towards a healthy and sustainable living environment that can spark discovery and innovative ideas. - The PENANG RESEARCH AND INNOVATION CENTRE should include

Lobby & info counter Exhibition hall Labs R & D area Multimedia room Conference room Souvenir shop F & B shop Landscape Enough car park and toilet Management / admin office Building services Others

- Building By-laws Local Authoritys Guideline, Surroun ding Development, Construction Cost and Aesthetical Value to be considered.



A lobby is a room in a building which is used for entry from the outside. Sometimes referred to as a foyer or an entrance hall. Many office buildings, hotels and skyscrapers go to great lengths to decorate their lobbies to create the right impression and convey an image, or "power lobby". Since the mid-1980s there has been a growing trend to think of lobbies as more than just ways to get from the door to the elevator, but instead as social spaces and places of commerce. Some research has even been done to develop scales to measure lobby atmosphere in order to improve hotel lobby design. Many places that offer public services, such as a doctor's office, use their lobbies as more of a waiting room for the people waiting for a certain service. In these types of lobbies it is common for there to be comfortable furniture, such as couches and lounge chairs, so that the customer will be able to wait in comfort. Also, there may be television sets, books, and/or magazines to help the customer pass time as they wait to be served. Supertall skyscrapers can often have one or more of what is known as a sky lobby, which is an intermediate floor where people can change from an express elevator that stops only at the sky lobby to a local elevator which stops at every floor within a segment of the building.

Penang G hotel lobby Perfect combination of lighting and material using will bring out the comfortable feeling to guest. High celling and grand column also will give the Psychological effect. source :



A convention center (American English, conference centre outside the USA) is a large building that is designed to hold a convention, where individuals and groups gather to promote and share common interests. Convention centers typically offer sufficient floor area to accommodate several thousand attendees. Very large venues, suitable for major trade shows, are sometimes known as exhibition centres. Convention centers typically have at least one auditorium and may also contain concert halls, lecture halls, meeting rooms, and conference rooms. Some largeresort area hotels include a convention center. An exhibition, in the most general sense, is an organized presentation and display of a selection of items. In practice, exhibitions usually occur within museums, galleries and exhibition halls, and World's Fairs. Exhibitions include [whatever as in major art museums and small art galleries; interpretive exhibitions, as at natural history museums and history museums], for example; and commercial exhibitions, or trade fairs. Exhibitions may be permanent displays or temporary, but in common usage, "exhibitions" are considered temporary and usually scheduled to open and close on specific dates. While many exhibitions are shown in just one venue, some exhibitions are shown in multiple locations and are called travelling exhibitions, and some are online exhibitions. Though exhibitions are common events, the concept of an exhibition is quite wide and encompasses many variables. Exhibitions range from an extraordinarily large event such as a World's Fair exposition to small one-artist solo shows or a display of just one item. Curators are sometimes involved as the people who select the items in an exhibition. Writers and editors are sometimes needed to write text, labels and accompanying printed material such as catalogs and books. Architects, exhibition designers,graphic designers and other designers may be needed to shape the exhibition space and give form to the editorial content. Exhibition also means a scholarship.

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A laboratory is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific research, experiments, and measurement may be performed. The title of laboratory is also used for certain other facilities where the processes or equipment used are similar to those in scientific laboratories. These notably include: film laboratory or darkroom computer lab media lab medical lab (involves handling of chemical compounds) public health lab clandestine lab for the production of illegal drugs

In recent years government and private centers for innovation in learning, leadership and organization have adopted "lab" in their name to emphasize the experimental and research-oriented nature of their work. Scientific laboratories can be found in schools and universities, in industry, in government or military facilities, and even aboard ships and spacecraft. A laboratory might offer work space for just one to more than thirty researchers depending on its size and purpose.


Labs used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science. A physics lab might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber, while a metallurgy lab could have apparatus forcasting or refining metals or for testing their strength. A chemist or biologist might use a wet laboratory, while a psychologist's lab might be a room with one-way mirrors and hidden cameras in which to observe behavior. In some laboratories, such as those commonly used by computer scientists, computers (sometimes supercomputers) are used for either simulations or the analysis of data collected elsewhere. Scientists in other fields will use still other types of laboratories. Despite the great differences among laboratories, some features are common. The use of workbenches or countertops at which the scientist may choose to either sit or stand is a common way to ensure comfortable working conditions for the researcher, who may spend a large portion of his or her working day in the laboratory. The provision of cabinets for the storage of laboratory equipment is quite common. It is traditional for a scientist to record an experiment's progress in a laboratory notebook, but modern labs almost always contain at least one computer workstation for data collection and analysis.


In some laboratories, the conditions are no more dangerous than in any other room. In many labs, though, hazards are present. Laboratory hazards are as varied as the subjects of study in laboratories, and might include poisons; infectious agents;flammable, explosive, or radioactive materials; moving machinery; extreme temperatures; lasers, strong magnetic fields or high voltage. In laboratories where dangerous conditions might exist, safety precautions are important. Rules exist to minimize the individual's risk, and safety equipment is used to protect the lab user from injury or to assist in responding to an emergency. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the United States, recognizing the unique characteristics of the laboratory workplace, has tailored a standard for occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. This standard is often referred to as the "Laboratory Standard". Under this standard, a laboratory is required to produce a Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) which addresses the specific hazards found in its location, and its approach to them. In determining the proper Chemical Hygiene Plan for a particular business or laboratory, it is necessary to understand the requirements of the standard, evaluation of the current safety, health and environmental practices and assessment of the hazards. The CHP must be reviewed annually. Many schools and businesses employ safety, health, and environmental specialists, such as a Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO) to develop, manage, and evaluate their CHP. Additionally, third party review is also used to provide an objective "outside view" which provides a fresh look at areas and problems that may be taken for granted or overlooked due to habit. Inspections and audits like also be conducted on a regular basis to assess hazards due to chemical handling and storage, electrical equipment, biohazards, hazardous waste management, housekeeping and emergency preparedness, radiation safety, ventilation as well as respiratory testing and indoor air quality. An important element of such audits is the review of regulatory compliance and the training of individuals who have access to and/or work in the laboratory. Training is critical to the ongoing safe operation of the laboratory facility. Educators, staff and management must be engaged in working to reduce the likelihood of accidents, injuries and potential litigation. Efforts are made to ensure laboratory safety videos are both relevant and engaging. Source :



Sample of laboratory layout plan

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All room and areas shall be adequately ventilated

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Incubator room must maintained the temperature below 30c ; house only incubators operating at temperatures between 10c to 45c ; microbiological quality of air monitored less rigorously.
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Separate female and male facilities at a ratio 1 unit per 8 staff members
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The phrase research and development (also known as R and D or R&D), according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers to "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications" Research and development is often scientific or towards developing particular technologies and is frequently carried out as corporate or governmental activity.


A home media room is a room in a house that is designated for enjoying different kinds of media. Its important to note that this term has somewhat replaced other traditional room names like entertainment room or rec room. The popularity of the term home media room for a room of the house demonstrates how entertainment has changed as more high-tech forms of digital media become dominant in society. One of the most common outfits in a home media room is a large screen television. The term home media room is an apt one for a room that contains one of these big screens, especially if it is outfitted with the ability to display not only cable television, but the monitor output for a computer. A room with a large screen where family members can view television or Internet visual media is truly an example of a modern home media room. Most dedicated media rooms will often have advanced sound equipment as well. These items complement a large screen television or monitor display. The most sophisticated home media rooms also have dimmers or other adjustable lighting to complement the combination of screen and sound, providing a kind of theater experience. Thats why the label of home media room is also sometimes interchangeable with the term home theater. One of the big challenges for home media rooms is providing the right kinds of cabling and wiring needed to accommodate cable hookups, lighting, sound equipment and more. Some advanced home media rooms offer builtin risers, outlet extensions, or other electronic setups to help route cables effectively. These creative systems can help designers to work cabling into a setup that also involves seating and aisle spaces. Another element of a home media room is the sometimes complex storage arrangements. The home media area of a home will usually have to accommodate quite a bit of storage. This includes storing some of the extra cabling and electronic equipment, as well as the vast array of CDs, DVDs and other media that are viewed or used in the room. When these items are not in use, it is important to have designated storage areas for them, and the most elaborate home media rooms often include high floor-standing cabinets.

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A conference hall or conference room is a room provided for singular events such as business conferences and meetings. It is commonly found at large hotels and convention centers though many other establishments, including even hospitals, have one. Sometimes other rooms are modified for large conferences such as arenas or concert halls. Aircraft have been fitted out with conference rooms. Conference rooms can be windowless for security purposes. Typically, the facility provides furniture, overhead projectors, stage lighting, and a sound system. Smoking is normally prohibited in conference halls even when other parts of buildings permit smoking.

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A gift shop or Souvenir gift shop is a store primarily selling souvenirs relating to a particular topic or theme. The items sold often include coffee mugs, stuffed animals, t-shirts, postcards, handmade collections and other souvenirs. Gift shops are normally found in areas visited by many tourists. Hotels and Motels in Canada and the United States often feature a gift shop near their entrance. Venues such as zoos, aquariums, national parks, and museums have their own gift shops; in some cases these shops sell items of higher value than gift shops not associated with a venue, as well as trinkets. These stores are sometimes a source of financial support for educational institutions. A gift shop can be defined as a shop which has the primary purpose of selling items that will be given to others for no material gain. There are many mainstream shop businesses that target gift-buyers as their primary customer base. These retailers can vary in size from small independent boutiques, to chain stores, to large department stores. Each will have different business strategies however will typically sell various product ranges that appeal to different customer groups, with gender, age, celebration or personal interest differentiation. Many shops that are not primarily gift shops become gift shops during typical gift-giving periods such as Christmas and Valentines Day, offering ranges of gift products for a limited time period in the build-up to these celebrations.

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F&B is a common abbreviation in the United States and Commonwealth countries, including Hong Kong. F&B is typically the widely accepted abbreviation for "Food and Beverage", which is the sector/industry that specializes in the conceptualization, the making of, and delivery of foods. The largest section of F&B employees are in restaurants and bars, including hotels, resorts, and casinos. Cafteria A cafeteria is a type of food service location in which there is little or no waiting staff table service, whether a restaurant or within an institution such as a large office building or school; a school dining location is also referred to as a dining hall or canteen. Cafeterias are different from coffeehouses. Instead of table service, there are food-serving counters/stalls, either in a line or allowing arbitrary walking paths. Customers take the food they require as they walk along, placing it on a tray

As cafeterias require few employees, they are often found within a larger institution, catering to the clientele of that institution. For example, schools, colleges and their residence halls, department stores,hospitals, museums, military bases, prisons, and office buildings often have cafeterias.

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Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including: 1. living elements, such as flora or fauna; or what is commonly referred to as gardening, the art and craft of growing plants with a goal of creating a beautiful environment within the landscape. 2. natural elements such as landforms, terrain shape and elevation, or bodies of water; 3. human elements such as structures, buildings, fences or other material objects created and/or installed by humans; and 4. abstract elements such as the weather and lighting conditions. Landscaping is both science and art, and requires good observation and design skills. A good landscaper understands the elements of nature and construction and blends them accordingly. Thales, an early Greek philosopher known for his view that "all is water," spent a considerable time thinking about the nature and scope of landscaping. Some of his students believed that in order for human activity to be considered landscaping, it must be directed toward modifying the physical features of the land itself, including the cultivation and/or manipulation of plants or other flora. Thales rejected this notion, arguing that any aspect of the material world affecting our visual perception of the land was a proper subject for landscaping. Both Plato and Aristotle praised Thales' analysis as a model for philosophy. In the early 20th century, British philosopher G.E. Moore cited Thales' reasoning as one of the few historical examples of how philosophical inquiry has led to genuine human understanding and progress. Philosophers in the 17th century debated whether visual beauty was a necessary goal of landscaping. With the advent of the positivists by the early 20th century, however, most western philosophers had rejected the notion of an objective esthetic standard for any form of art, including landscaping. Practitioners since the mid-20th century have experimented with jarring visual panoramas that are now generally accepted, at least in western societies, as falling within the scope of landscaping.

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An office is generally a room or other area in which people work, but may also denote a position within an organization with specific duties attached to it (see officer, office-holder, official); the latter is in fact an earlier usage, office as place originally referring to the location of one's duty. When used as an adjective, the term "office" may refer to business-related tasks. In legal writing, a company or organization has offices in any place that it has an official presence, even if that presence consists of, for example, a storage silo rather than an office. An office is an architectural and design phenomenon and a social phenomenon, whether it is a small office such as a bench in the corner of a small business of extremely small size (see small office/home office) through entire floors of buildings up to and including massive buildings dedicated entirely to one company. In modern terms an office usually refers to the location where white-collar workers are employed. Office space The main purpose of an office environment is to support its occupants in performing their job - preferably at minimum cost and to maximum satisfaction. With different people performing different tasks and activities, however, it is not always easy to select the right office spaces. To aid decision-making in workplace and office design, one can distinguish three different types of office spaces: work spaces, meeting spaces and support spaces. For new, or developing businesses, remote satellite offices and project rooms, Serviced Offices can provide a simple solution and provide all of the former types of space. Work spaces Work spaces in an office are typically used for conventional office activities such as reading, writing and computer work. There are nine generic types of work space, each supporting different activities.

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open office

team space


Open office - An open work space for more than ten people, suitable for activities which demand frequent communication or routine activities which need relatively little concentration Team space - A semi-enclosed work space for two to eight people; suitable for teamwork which demands frequent internal communication and a medium level of concentration Cubicle - A semi-enclosed work space for one person, suitable for activities which demand medium concentration and medium interaction

private office

shared office

team room

Private office - An enclosed work space for one person, suitable for activities which are confidential, demand a lot of concentration or include many small meetings Shared office - An enclosed work space for two or three people, suitable for semi-concentrated work and collaborative work in small groups Team room - An enclosed work space for four to ten people; suitable for teamwork which may be confidential and demands frequent internal communication

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study booth

work lounge

touch down

Study booth - An enclosed work space for one person; suitable for short-term activities which demand concentration or confidentiality Work lounge - A lounge-like work space for two to six people; suitable for short-term activities which demand collaboration and/or allow impromptu interaction Touch down - An open work space for one person; suitable for shortterm activities which require little concentration and low interaction.

Meeting spaces Meeting spaces in an office are typically used interactive processes, be it quick conversations or intensive brainstorms. There are six generic types of meeting space, each supporting different activities.

small meeting room

large meeting room

Small meeting space

Small meeting room - An enclosed meeting space for two to four persons, suitable for both formal and informal interaction Large meeting room - An enclosed meeting space for five to twelve people, suitable for formal interaction Small meeting space - An open or semi-open meeting space for two to four persons; suitable for short, informal interaction.

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large meeting space

brainstorm room

meeting point

Large meeting space - An open or semi-open meeting space for five to twelve people; suitable for short, informal interaction Brainstorm room - An enclosed meeting space for five to twelve people; suitable for brainstorming sessions and workshops Meeting point - An open meeting point for two to four persons; suitable for ad hoc, informal meetings

Support spaces Support spaces in an office are typically used for secondary activities such as filing documents or taking a break. There are twelve generic types of support space, each supporting different activities.

filing space

storage space

print and copy area

Filing space - An open or enclosed support space for the storage of frequently used files and documents Storage space - An open or enclosed support space for the storage of commonly used office supplies Print and copy area - An open or enclosed support space with facilities for printing, scanning and copying

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mail area

pantry area

break area

Mail area - An open or semi-open support space where employees can pick up or deliver their personal mail Pantry area - An open or enclosed support space where people can get coffee and tea as well as soft drinks and snacks Break area - A semi-open or enclosed support space where employees can take a break from their word

locker area

smoking room


Locker area - An open or semi-open support space where employees can store their personal belongings Smoking room - An enclosed support space where employees can smoke a cigarette Library - A semi-open or enclosed support space for reading of books, journals and magazines

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games room

waiting area

circulation space

Games room - An enclosed support space where employees can play games (e.g. computer games, pool, darts) Waiting area - An open or semi-open support space where visitors can be received and can wait for their appointment Circulation space - Support space which is required for circulation on office floors, linking all major functions Source :

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Corporate office interior design may increase privacy for users. Source :

Sample of office layout plan Source :

Enough lighting may reduce electrical using and make the room brighter.
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Building Services Engineering, technical building services, Building Services Architect, architectural engineering, or building engineeringor facilities and services planning engineering {b tech} is the engineering of the internal environment and environmental impact of a building. It essentially brings buildings and structures to life. Building services engineers are responsible for the design, installation, operation and monitoring of the mechanical, electrical and public health systems required for the safe, comfortable and environmentally friendly operation of modern buildings. The term "building services engineering" is widely used in the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia, but in the United States of America, the field is also known as architectural engineering or building engineering, though these terms can also have other meanings, even in the United States. In India the engineers are known as facilities planners. A Building Services Architect is an engineer with experience in the integration of all Building Services.

Building services engineering comprises mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and plumbing or public health (MEP) engineering, all of which are further sub-divided into the following: Communication lines, telephones and IT networks (ICT) Energy supply - gas, electricity and renewable sources Escalators and lifts Fire detection and protection Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) Lightning protection Low voltage (LV) systems, distribution boards and switchgear Natural lighting and artificial lighting, and building facades Security and alarm systems Ventilation and refrigeration Water, drainage and plumbing

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Building services engineers work closely with other construction professionals such as architects, structural engineers and quantity surveyors. They influence the architecture of a building and play a significant role on the sustainability and energy demand of a building. Within building services engineering, new roles are emerging, for example in the areas of renewable energy, sustainability, low carbon technologies and energy management. With buildings accounting for around 50% of all carbon emissions, building services engineers play a significant role in combating climate change. As such, a typical building services engineer has a wide-ranging career path: Design: designing layouts and requirements for building services for residential or commercial developments. Construction: supervising the construction of the building services, commissioning systems and ongoing maintenance and operation of services. Environmental: developing new energy saving methods for construction, designing new and improved energy conservation systems for buildings. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC): specialising in the design, development, construction and operation of HVAC systems. Electrical technology: specialising in the design and development of electrical systems required for safe and energy sustaining operation of buildings. In 1976 Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) was founded and received a Royal Charter in the United Kingdom, and formally recognising building services engineering as a profession. Its objectives of the Institution are to: support the Science, Art and Practice of building services engineering, by providing our members and the public with first class information and education services and promoting the spirit of fellowship which guides our work. In recent years there has been increasing emphasis on sustainable and green design by the UK government, including in engineered building systems. Building services engineers increasingly seek BREEAM (BRE Environmental Assessment Method), CIBSE Low Carbon Consultants (LCC) and Energy Assessors (LCEA) status in addition to their Professional Engineering registration.

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Learning Resource Centre (LRC) is a term which is used in the United Kingdom to describe a type of library that exists within an educational setting such as Secondary Schools, Further Education Colleges and Universities. LRC can also stand for Library Resource Centre and in some cases Learning Resource Centre has been shortened to Learning Centre. These centres contain traditional educational resources such as books, journals, software and audio/visual materials, but they also exist to promote electronic information resources. Examples of these are subscription electronic journals, databases, free websites and other web based resources. The traditional Librarian role has been replaced with the LRC Manager who is an Information Professional with qualifications recognised by CILIP. As well as managing the physical environment of the LRC the LRC Manager is usually involved in editing LRC web pages and making contributions to the Virtual Learning Environment, in order to provide access to quality and timely resources to colleagues and students. LRCs usually have a responsibility for the teaching of Information Literacy and/or Study Skills within the institution they are in. Although this role is firmly established in further and higher education, it has only become a serious responsibility for the Secondary School LRC since the publication of Key Stage 3 National Strategy in 2003. The schools inspectorate OfSTED have also made this a key area for school LRCs to evaluate themselves on in their self evaluation document for LRCs in 2003.

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