REMEDIATION

1. PREFACE: "GRAMMAR MASTER?"
NEVER A STUPID QUESTION There comes a day of fear and trembling in the life of every teacher when the answers to students' questions don't come easy. One semester, Maria, a Level 6, Spanish ESL student asked me: "How can I turn this statement into a question: "It was a faulty wire that caused the fire" ?I hesitated for a moment, afraid that the class would devolve into an unproductive session on English linguistics. "Why do you want to know?," I asked. "Because it was on the CPT (Computerized Placement Test) and I failed the test," she said. Thus obliged, I reluctantly went to the blackboard and began to write the sentences: Statement: "It was a faulty wire that caused the fire." Question : "Was it a faulty wire that caused the fire?" Immediately, I was bombarded by questions on this topic and other questions the students remembered, sometimes imperfectly, from the practice and actual CPT administered at Miami-Dade College as the protocol for exiting the top-level, Level 6, of English as a Second Language writing. "Can you start a question with 'Was'?" they chorused. Now, I was afraid to answer, but ventured forth anyway.

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"Yes. You can. This sentence is a rare construction called a 'Cleft'." I visualized the grammar snowball gathering mass as it rolled down the hill. These students lived and breathed English grammar. They were hard core experts. They didn't accept just answers. They wanted the reasons behind the answers. "What's 'Cleave'?," someone asked. More trouble. "Cleave means divide into two. Cleave. Cleft. Cleft." "Huh?," they asked. So I explained. Normally, you can have two verbs in a sentence. "John ate and drank at the party." But in a 'Cleft' sentence there is an additional verb: "It was at a party that John ate and drank." So, to turn it into a question, you render it "Was it at a party that John ate and drank." BREAK ON THROUGH TO THE OTHER SIDE ... OF ESL But who cares? Students taking the CPT care because it is one of the structures probed on the test. Moreover, it and other structures are not covered well enough in the minimum competencies incorporated by the EAP program at the College. Therefore, teachers should care to teach to these competencies expected in college English and not leave 'gaps' in students' competencies. So a hard grammar rain drenches the teacher and astute students alike. Then, as the explanations progressed, it got worse and worse. I was in a Level 6 dilemma: forced to teach to the students who had "Swiss-cheese-like" holes in their prior levels of grammar; compelled to address the needs of desperate students trying to break through to the other side of the ESL program into full-fledged college. So, I used a shotgun on the class. In order to address the real needs of my writing classes, I developed the accompanying CD and other Web tools to teach to the lowest and the highest levels in the same class. I focused on the holes in the "Swiss cheese" (Grammar), Formal Errors (Boo-Boos), Sentence Skills(Transformations), and TestTaking Strategies. It has been a process of discovery for me and my students as we sought answers and reasons. So, here are some of the advanced topics covered in a CPT-preparation class:

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2. INTRODUCTION
About
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Be a student for a moment. Take this test: "Their is four errors in this sentance. Can you find them?"(1) Error 1: Error 2: Error 3: THEIR should be IS should be SENTANCE should be THERE ARE SENTENCE

What is the 4th Error?
(1) "Metamagical Themas," Scientific American, 235, No.[1981],22-32.

__ The 4th Error is the TRUTH proposition of the actual sentence. It is false that there are 4 errors--there are in fact, only 3 errors. ---------------------------------------------------------------In the movie, "Swept Away," Madonna's sailor-boyfriend, tired of being corrected and voicing his frustration with the idiosyncracies of English, decrees loudly, " From now on, the plural of FISH is FISHES!" ---------------------------------------------------------------QUESTION? What exactly is the link between teaching grammar explicitly in the classroom and the resulting improvement of writing ability by students?_ ANSWER ... In fact, nearly 100 years of studies have confirmed that there is no " relationship between a knowledge of technical grammar and the ability to use English and to interpret the language."(2) -------------------------------------------------------------------The goal is then clear. Formal grammar errors have long been considered a result of carelessness on the part of the writer. So, this link becomes a crucial one for ESL students, who must pass standardized tests, such as the Computerized Placement Test (CPT), and succeed in Freshman College English (1101). --------------------------------------------------------------------

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Mina Shaughnessy said of students' errors or formal errors, " [They are] unintentional and unprofitable intrusions upon the consciousness of the reader."(3)
(2) "The Place of Grammar in Elementary Curriculum," Hoyt, Teachers College Record, 7 [1906], 483-484. (3) Shaughnessy, Mina P. ERRORS AND EXPECTATIONS: A GUIDE FOR THE TEACHING OF WRITING. New York: Oxford UP, 1977.

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In short, the reasons for a student making an error are more important than the error itself.
--------------------------------------------------------------The hope is that this CD and accompanying materials will allow students to 'Discover' the reasons motivating their grammar errors. --------------------------------------------------------------Part One, ERRORS, is inspired by the Robert J. Connors and Andrea Lunsford's study of college writing errors on over 20,000 essays(4). Part Two, SENTENCES, is based upon Bateman and Zidonis' study that sentence-combining improves student writing. These are the same skills probed by the CPT.(5) Part Three, GRAMMAR, is modeled upon the English for Academic Purposes (EAP) competencies taught at Miami-Dade College. They are keyed to an online diagnostic test at http://www.glearner.com/grammar. In addition, the Irregular English Verbs are presented with movies as a sequence --------------------------------------------------------------(4) Robert J. Connors and Adrea Lunsford. "Frequency of Formal Errors in Current College Writing or Ma and Pa Kettle Do Research." From College Composition and Communication, December 1988. (5) Bateman and Zidonis. Sentence-Combining: Improving Student Writing Without Formal Grammar Instruction. (Urbana, Ill. : NCTE, 1971)_

3. TEST-TAKING SKILLS
High-stakes tests are the ones which can change your life depending on whether or not you pass them. Examples include the CPT, GRE, LSAT, SAT, CLEP, and so on. On a whole, the tests are "Good." That means that they are VALID and measure the skill sets they are supposed to measure, and they are RELIABLE and measure most students well. However, if you wish to do well on a Sentence Skills Test, such as the CPT, here are some suggestions:_

1. Come to the Testing Center Early.

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Rushing in to take a high-stakes test at the last moment is not a good idea. Take the test seriously and arrive early enough and well-prepared._

2. Don't take the test while hungry or thirsty.
Make sure you are comfortable to sit through a test that could take well over an hour. _

3. Meditate, Pray, or use other Confidence Boosters.

You can get your psychology in the mood to do better on a test by practicing centering activities._

4. SAY IT ALOUD
Say the sentences aloud and their possible solutions. When you hear a sentence aloud, if it "sounds right" it probably is. Frequently, when it "sounds wrong"--it is wrong._

5. WRITE IT DOWN
If you are allowed to, write down the original problem sentence and the possible solution sentences. Then SAY IT as in Suggestion 4._

6. READ DIRECTIONS TWICE
Be sure that you are not confused or tripped up on Negative Words, which ask you to reverse something. For instance, LIKE might need to be changed to UNLIKE.)_

7. READ THE PROBLEM TWICE
Remember that sometimes the presented question or sentence is the correct one and is repeated as one of the choices._

8. ELIMINATE.

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Use the Process of Elimination to discard obviously wrong answers. Choose between two potentially close answers to reduce your odds of a right choice to 50-50. _

9. DON'T GET WEIRD

Don't try to make an unfamiliar, odd, or wrong answer right by stretching it. Many times, your first choice or intuition will be the correct answer._

10. REVIEW BEFOREHAND
Review before hand using this CD, --Online Resources (such as http://www.stevendonahue.com or http://www.glearner.com/grammar). --Know your weak points and work on them. --Ask other students who have successfully passed other high-stakes tests. --Use the library reference desk as a resource for answering your questions._

GOOD LUCK!_

4. SENTENCE SKILLS
Take this test online at http://www.stevendonahue.com
think the original sentence is best, choose that answer. Knocked sideways, the statue looked as if it would fall A.The statue, looking knocked sideways, B.Knocked sideways, the statue looked C.he statue was knocked sideways, looked 3. Rewrite the sentence in your head, following the directions given below. Keep in mind that your new sentence should be well written and should have essentially the same meaning as the sentence given you. When you cross the street in the middle of the block, this is an example of jaywalking. A.When you cross the street in the middle of the block, this B.Crossing the street in the middle of the block C.he fact that you cross the street in the middle of the block 4. Select the best version of the part of the sentence. If you think the original sentence is best, choose that answer. To walk, biking, and driving are Pat’s favorite ways of getting around A.To walk, to bike, and also driving B.Walking, biking, and driving C.To walk, biking, and to drive

Exam: Writing#17-SentenceSkills1 0. Select the best version of the part of the sentence. If you think the original sentence is best, choose that answer. The baby was obviously getting too hot, then Sam did what he could to cool her. A.hot; Sam, trying to do B.hot; Sam, therefore, did C.hot, then Sam did 1. Select the best version of the part of the sentence. If you think the original sentence is best, choose that answer. She hoped to find a new job. One that would let her earn money during the school y A.job. The kind that B.job, one that C.job. One that 2. Select the best version of the part of the sentence. If you

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5. Select the best version of the part of the sentence. If you think the original sentence is best, choose that answer. Walking by the corner the other day, a child, I noticed, was watching for the light to change A.there was, I noticed, a child watching B.I noticed a child watching C.a child, I noticed, was watching 6. In his songs, Gordon Lightfoot makes melody and lyrics intricately intertwine. Rewrite, beginning with Melody and lyrics A.does Gordon Lightfoot B.in Gordon Lightfoot’s C.Gordon Lightfoot has 7. It is easy to carry solid objects without spilling them, but the same cannot be said of liquids Rewrite, beginning with Unlike liquids, … A.it is easy to B.solid objects can easily be C.solid objects are easy to be 8. Excited children ran toward the loud music, and they told others about the ice cream truck outside. Rewrite, beginning with Excited children, who had run toward the loud… A.music, they told B.music, told C.music, telling 9. If he had enough strength, Todd would move the boulder. Rewrite, beginning withTodd cannot move the boulder… A.without enough B.because he C.when lacking 10. The band began to play, and then the real party started Rewrite, beginning withThe real party started… A.the band beginning B.after the band began C.and the band began 11. Chris heard no unusual noises when he listened in the park. Rewrite, beginning withListening in the park,… A.no unusual noises could be heard B.Chris heard no unusual noises C.and hearing no unusual noises 12. Select the best version of the part of the sentence. If you think the original sentence is best, choose that answer. Mr. Jones planning to teach a course on pronunciation next fall. A.with a plan B.Plans C.planning 13. Select the best version of the part of the sentence. If you think the original sentence is best, choose that answer. The teacher listing only four journals on biology

A.Listing B.Listed C.with a list 14. Being a female judge, she was often interviewed Rewrite beginning with She was often interviewed A.Being as she was B.Because she was C.On account of she was 15. Copies of the proposed legislative rules were provided by the president of the Senate to the members of the committee Rewrite beginning with The president of the Senate A.to the members of the committee B.provided copies of the proposed C.proposed copies of the rules 16. Having no air conditioning, her house is very hot. Rewrite, beginning with Her house is very hot. A.by it being B.Because it has C.On account of it has 17. The praise of the other soldiers was earned by the young corporal who solved the war crime. Rewrite beginning with Having solved the murder A.Praising of B.Earned the praise C.Earning the praise 18. Select the best version of the part of the sentence. If you think the original sentence is best, choose that answer. According to some scientists, the pollution of our air and water is not so hazardous to our health as is the pollution of our food. A.but the pollution of our food. B.as in the pollution of our food. C.as polluting our food. 19. Modern science has made one notable advance of spiritual nature: it has created a sense of the existence of universal law. Rewrite beginning with By creating A.law, there is one B.… law, modern science C.law, one notable advance ==========================ANSWERS ========================== Explanation for #0 hot; Sam, therefore, did Explanation for #1 job, one that Explanation for #2 Knocked sideways, the statue looked Explanation for #3 Crossing the street in the middle of the block Explanation for #4 Walking, biking, and driving Explanation for #5

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I noticed a child watching Explanation for #6 in Gordon Lightfoot’s Explanation for #7 solid objects can easily be Explanation for #8 music, told Explanation for #9 because he Explanation for #10 after the band began Explanation for #11 Chris heard no unusual noises Explanation for #12 Plans Explanation for #13 Listed Explanation for #14 Because she was Explanation for #15 provided copies of the proposed Explanation for #16 Because it has Explanation for #17 Earned the praise Explanation for #18 as in the pollution of our food. Explanation for #19 … law, modern science Made by Steven Donahue

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Gerunds
1. Gerunds are equivalent to Nouns. "GOING to school is fun." 2. Gerunds take Possessive Pronouns. "HIS having done that upset me." 3. Personal Subjects of Gerunds usually take Possessive apostrophes. "Jane's complaining really bothered the teacher." _

Participles as Modifiers
Both Past and Present Participles can be used as modifiers 1. "The EDITED paper was 500 words long."

(Past Participle EDITED modifies PAPER) 2. "The Teacher EDITING your paper is young." (Present Participle EDITING modifies TEACHER) _

Absolute Phrases
Absolute Phrases modify the basic sentence. They can be formed in two ways: 1. His arms were weak with pain, but John drove the car carefully. --> His arms weak with pain, John drove the car carefully. (HIS ARMS WEAK WITH PAIN modifies main sentence) 2. His arms trembled with pain, but John drove the car carefully. --> His arms trembling with pain, John drove the car carefully. (HIS ARMS TREMBLING WITH PAIN modifies main sentence) _

Appositives
Appositives position a second noun in opposition or besides another noun. 1. "Paula, an old friend, is a great person." (PAULA is next to the Appositive AN OLD FRIEND) 2. My country, Cuba, is an island. (MY COUNTRY is next to the Appositive CUBA) Note: Appositives are set off with Commas as above._

Past Participles
Past Participles are used in one of three ways: A. As ADJECTIVES "John's depleted bank account was closed." ( DEPLETED modifies BANK ACCOUNT) B. As a MAIN VERB with HAVE " The student had decided to drop the course because he was overwhelmed."

(DECIDED with HAD makes the Verb Past Perfect) C. As a PASSIVE with BE. "The soccer ball was kicked by Pele." (WAS and the Participle of KICK makes the Verb Passive) _

Present Participles
The Present Participle has three uses: A. As a GERUND "The breaking of dishes was vandalism" ( BREAKING modifies DISHES) B. As a MAIN VERB with BE " John said that he was driving over right now" (DRIVING with WAS makes the Verb Progressive or Continuous) C. As an ADJECTIVE. "The temperature rose at an alarming rate" (ALARMING modifies RATE)_

Auxiliary Verbs
Auxiliary Verbs are Helping Verbs. There are three types: A. BE "I am going" ( AM makes GOING Progressive) B. HAVE " John said that he had called before he drove over yesterday" (HAD makes CALLED Past Perfect and the CALL preceded the DRIVING) C. DO "Do you care?"/"I do care!"/"I don't care." (DO is used for Questions, Emphasis, or Negation)_

Transitive & Intransitive
Transitive Verbs take objects. 1. "Pele scored the goal." ( The verb SCORE takes the object GOAL) ONLY Transitive Verbs can be made PASSIVE

2. "The goal was scored by Pele." ( In Passive, the Object is emphasized) Intransitive Verbs cannot take Objects. Intransitive Cannot be made Passive. 3. "The student smiled" (SMILED is an Intransitive verb)_

Subjunctive

Subjunctive shows that the writer believes the action is unreal or hypothetical. In Subjunctive, the bare verb is used, without "S". 1. Subjunctive can be preceded by words such as: " I recommend she study more" (not she studies) " I suggest he study more" (not he studies) "I insist John study more" (not John studies) 2. Do not use WAS after IF " If John were a millionaire, he would still teach" (WERE not Was) 3. Subjunctive is used after AS IF or AS THOUGH) "She swims as if she were a fish" (WERE not WAS) "He writes quickly as though he were in a race." (WERE not WAS) 4. Use Subjunctive after THAT when expressing Requirement, Request, Urging, or Recommendation " I think it is important that he write more." (WRITE not WRITES)_

Subordination
If a sentence begins with a Subordinating Conjunction (Danger Word), it is a Dependent Clause. Danger Words include: After, Because, Although, If, Though, Unless, While, etc.) 1. Always put a comma after a clause beginning with a Danger Word: "Though he may have a high school diploma, he can't read it." (The Comma comes after the Clause beginning with THOUGH) 2. Don't mix Coordinating Conjunctions (FANBOYS) with Danger Words: Wrong: "Because he was sick, so he went to the doctor." Right: "Because he was sick, he went to the doctor." 3. Do not put a comma before a Danger Word if it is not the first word: Wrong: " He went to the doctor, because he was sick" Right: "He went tot the doctor because he was sick"_

Dangling Modifiers

When a sentence begins with a Participial Clause, make sure its reference is right after the comma. Wrong: After studying the homework, the teacher gave the students the test. (It is not clear who STUDYING--the teacher or the students) Right: After studying the homework, the students were given a test by the teacher. (Now it is clear that the Students were the ones STUDYING) _

Limiting Modifiers
Take care not to change the meaning of a sentence when moving Limiting Modifiers. Limiting Modifiers include: Almost, Even, Just, Nearly, Only, Simply. Example: "The students trusted only him" (Here, the students trust a particular person) Example: "Only the students trusted him" (Here, particular students trusted a person)_

Parallel Words
Keep words and Phrases Parallel Wrong: "The teacher was a visionary and liked realism" Right : "The teacher was a visionary and realistic" (both words are adjectives now) Wrong: Right : (All the Right: (All the " Judy loved to skate, swimming, and to jog" " Judy loved skating, swimming, and jogging" words are now -ING words) "Judy love to skate, to swim, and to jog" words are now Infinitives)

Wrong: " Jim loved breakfast, dinner, and lunch." Right : " Jim love, breakfast, lunch, and dinner." (All the words are in Chronological order now) _

Cleft Sentences
Cleft Sentences have a Verb that "Cleaves" or divides the sentence into two parts. Normal: " A faulty wire caused the fire." Cleft : "It was a faulty wire that caused the fire" (Here WAS divides the Sentence into two parts) To change a Cleft Sentence into a Question, begin with WAS not WHAT.

"Was it a faulty wire that caused the fire?" A second type of Cleft is called "Pseudo Cleft" Normal: " A faulty wire caused the fire." Pseudo: " What caused the problem was a faulty wire." To change a Pseudo Cleft Sentence into a Question, begin with WAS not WHAT. "Was it a faulty wire that caused the fire?" Note: WHAT Questions can be formed by adding THAT "What was it that caused the fire?" BUT the Cause--Faulty Wire is NOT mentioned._

WHOSE
Normally, WHOSE refers to Persons, but can also refer to things. PERSON: "The teacher whose briefcase was stolen is upset." (Here, WHOSE shows who owns the briefcase--the teacher) THING: " The government whose ambassador was kidnapped made a rescue attempt." (Here, WHOSE shows who "owns" the ambassador--the government) THING: " The two planets whose atmospheres are similar include Earth and Venus." (Here, WHOSE shows who "owns" the atmospheres--two planets.)_

Adverbial Modifiers
There are three placement guidelines for Adverbial Modifiers 1. Locate directly before a Transitive or Intransitive Verb No : " Joe finished cheerfully his homework" Yes: " Joe cheerfully finished his homework" 2. Locate directly after BE or Helping Verbs No : " Joe frequently was late for class" Yes: " Joe was frequently late for class" 3. Place before Negatives in Inverted Sentences No : " I don't frequently study" Yes: " I frequently don't study" _

5. ERRORS

1. Comma and Introductory Element a. b. c. d. Because of the dry weather, many fires broke out in the Everglades.* Because of the dry weather many fires broke out in the Everglades. Because, of the dry weather, many fires broke out in the Everglades. Because of the dry weather many fires, broke out in the Everglades.

2. Comma and Introductory Element a. b. c. d. Many fires broke out in the Everglades, because of the dry weather. Many fires broke out in the Everglades because of the dry weather. * Many fires broke out, in the Everglades, because of the dry weather. Many fires, broke out, in the Everglades because of the dry weather.

3. Vague Pronoun Reference. a. b. c. d. Her mother told her that she was going to shop at the mall. Her mother told her, “ I am going to shop at the mall.” * Her mother told she that she was going to shop at the mall. Her mother told she that her was going to shop at the mall.

4. Vague Pronoun Reference. a. b. c. d. His father told him that he was going to visit Egypt. His father told him, “You are going to visit Egypt.” * His father told he that he was going to visit Egypt. His father told he that him was going to visit Egypt.

[Rule: A noun’s possessive form is the antecedent to a possessive pronoun] 5. Vague Pronoun Reference. a. b. c. d. The teacher’s lottery ticket brought him a fortune. The teacher’s lottery ticket brought he a fortune. The teacher’s lottery ticket brought his fortune. * The teacher’s lottery ticket brought he or she a fortune.

6. Vague Pronoun Reference. a. b. c. d. I told my counselor that I planned to drop the writing course, which bothered my parents. My parents were bothered because I told my counselor that I planned to drop the writing course. * I told my counselor that I planned to drop the writing course, and it bothered my parents. It bothered my parents that I told my counselor it planned to drop the writing course.

7. Vague Pronoun Reference. a. b. c. d. They say that you can survive a hurricane by being prepared for it. Experts say that one can survive a hurricane by being prepared.* They say that one can survive a hurricane by being prepared for it. Experts say that you can survive a hurricane by being prepared for it.

8. Vague Pronoun Reference. a. b. c. d. When the student’s car was stolen, it was expected that it would make it a tough day. It was expected that it would be a hard day after the student’s car was stolen.* It would make a hard day of it when the student’s car was stolen. When it was stolen, it was expected that the student’s day would be tough because of it.

9. Vague Pronoun Reference. a. b. c. d. 10. The word donut, which was originally spelled doughnut, is easier to spell. * The word donut, that was originally spelled doughnut, is easier to spell. The word donut, whom was originally spelled doughnut, is easier to spell. The word donut, who was originally spelled doughnut, is easier to spell. Comma and Compound Sentence

[Rule: use a comma after coordinating conjunction and independent clauses] a. b. c. d. 11. a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. c. d. 13. Her pet dog ran away and her little cat was left alone. Her pet dog ran away and her little cat, was left alone. Her pet dog ran away, and her little cat was left alone.* Her pet dog, ran away, and her little cat was left alone. Comma and Compound Sentence The pet dog ran away, and found a new home. The pet dog ran away and found a new home. * The pet dog, ran away, and found a new home. The pet, dog, ran away, and found a new home. Wrong Word I admired the teacher’s patient. I admiration the teacher’s patience. I admired the teacher’s patience. * I admiration the teacher’s patient. Comma and non-restrictive.

[ Rule: Use commas to set off non-essential material] a. b. c. d. 14. a. b. c. d. 15. Some schools test people who are from foreign countries for English proficiency. Some schools test people, who are from foreign countries, for English proficiency. * Some schools test, people, who are from foreign countries, for English proficiency. Some schools, test people, who are from foreign countries for English proficiency. Inflected Endings [Nouns/Adverbs/Adjectives/Pronouns/Prepopsitons/Interjections] The doctor gave the childrens some toys. The doctor gave the childs some toys. The doctors gave the childrens some toys. The doctors gave the children some toys. * Inflected Endings

a. b. c. d.

I told him that he has to get used to the hot weather down here. * I told him that he has to get use to the hot weather down here. I told him that he has get used to the hot weather down here. I told him that he has get use to the hot weather down here.

[Rule: Single-word modal auxiliaries have no s ending in the third-person singular.] 16. a. b. c. d. Inflected Endings The teacher coulds give us a surprise test today. The teacher could be give us a surprise test today. The teacher could give us a surprise test today. * The teacher coulds be give us a surprise test today.

[Rule: Obligation is with a form of be followed by supposed to and simple main verb.] 17. a. b. c. d. Inflected Endings I was suppose to give a Powerpoint presentation. I was supposing to give a Powerpoint presentation. I was to suppose to give a Powerpoint presentation. I was supposed to give a Powerpoint presentation.*

[ Rule: Use used to to convey past habitual action] 18. a. b. c. d. Inflected Endings I used to live in Miami.* I use to live in Miami. I use to lived in Miami. I would to live in Miami.

[Rule: Use uninflected main verb with auxiliary] 19. a. b. c. d. 20. a. b. c. d. 21. a. b. c. d. 22. a. b. Inflected Endings Does the language lab closes on Sunday? Do the language lab close on Sunday? * Does the language lab close on Sunday? Do the language lab be close on Sunday? Preposition I will meet you on my apartment for breakfast. I will meet you over my apartment for breakfast. I will meet you about my apartment for breakfast. I will meet you in my apartment for breakfast.* Comma and Independent Clauses The comet fell in a fiery ball, it burned down half the city. The comet fell in a fiery ball. It burned down half the city. * The comet fell in a fiery ball. And burned down half the city. The comet fell in a firey ball it burned down half the city. Apostrophe The writers pen is mightier than the sword. The writers pen is mightier than the swords.

c. d. 23. a. b. c. d. 24. a. b. c. d. 25. a. b. c. d. 26.

The writer’s pen is mightier than the sword. * The writer’s pen is mightier than the sword’s. Tense Shift She went to the library yesterday and reads a book. She went to the library yesterday and will read a book. She went to the library yesterday reading a book. She went to the library yesterday and read a book. * Shift (Person, Number, Subject, Voice, Tense, Mood, Direct/Indirect) They enjoy going to the lake where you can swim without clothes. They enjoy going to the lake where we can swim without clothes. They enjoy going to the lake where I can swim without clothes. They enjoy going to the lake where they can swim without clothes.* Complete Sentences The car with a CD-player. The car with its CD-player. The car with it’s CD-player. The car is with a CD-player.* Tense

(simple past) a. b. c. d. I watch TV yesterday. I watching TV yesterday. I watched TV yesterday.* I was watch TV yesterday.

27. Tense (simple future) a. b. c. d. I watching TV tomorrow. I was watching TV tomorrow. I will watch TV tomorrow.* I watch TV tomorrow.

28. Tense (simple past) a. b. c. d. I am to watch TV now. I watch TV now.* I am watch TV now. I watched now.

29. Tense (present perfect) a. b. Since I had watched TV since noon today , I know the top story. Since I watched TV since noon today ,I know the top story.

c. d.

Since I watching TV since noon today , I know the top story. Since I have watched TV since noon today , I know the top story.*

30. Tense (present progressive) a. b. c. d. Feyrouz is considering a move to Washington the coming week.* Feyrouz considered a move to Washington in the coming week. Feyrouz considers a move to Washington in the coming week. Feyrouz has considered a move to Washington in the coming week.

31. Tense (present perfect progressive) a. Xiaoling has been sat in that chair for the entire morning. b. Xiaoling has been sitting in that chair for the entire morning.* c. Xiaoling sat in that chair for the entire morning. d. Xiaoling sits in that chair for the entire morning. 32. Tense (past perfect) a. b. c. d. 33. a. b. c. d. The robber left before the police arrived. The robber had been leaving before the police had been arriving. The robber had left before the police arrived.* The robber had left before the police had arrived. Tense (past progressive) Colombus tried to find India when he landed in America. Colombus was trying to find India when he landed in America. * Colombus tried to find India when he was landing in America. Colombus had tried to find India when he had landed in America.

34. Tense (past perfect progressive) a. b. c. d. 35. Before the fire alarm went off, the students had studied the lesson. Before the fire alarm went off, the students had been studying the lesson.* Before the fire alarm went off, the students had been study the lesson. Before the fire alarm had gone off, the students had studied the lesson. Tense (future perfect)

a. By the time this class is finished, I will have read the entire book.* b. By the time this class finishes, I will read the entire book. c. By the time this class will be finished, I will have read the entire book. d. By the time this class will finish, I will have been reading the entire book. 36. a. b. c. d. Tense (future progressive) Within five years, most countries around the world will be enter the Internet age. Within five years, most countries around the world will be entering the Internet age. Within five years, most countries around the world will have entering the Internet age. Within five years, most countries around the world will have enter the Internet age.

37. a. b. c. d. 38. a. b. c. d. 39. a. b. c. d. 40. a. b. c. d. 41. a. b. c. d.

Tense (future perfect progressive) By the time this year is over, I will have studying English for five full years. By the time this year is over, I will have study English for five full years. By the time this year is over, I will study English for five full years. By the time this year is over, I will have been studying English for five full years. Agreement (Subject/Verb) The teacher speak too loudly. The teacher speaks too loudly. The teachers speaks too loudly.* The teacher speaking too loudly. Comma in a Series. Getting an “A” in class requires attendance, attention, and participation.* Getting an “A” in class requires attendance, attention and participation. Getting an “A” in class requires attendance attention and participation. Getting an “A” in class requires attendance attention, and participation. Pronoun Agreement. The dog growls when he feels threatened. The dog growls when she feels threatened The dog growls when it feels threatened.* The dog growls when they feel threatened. Pronoun Agreement Students fill the language lab with sounds when they do their weekly assignments.* Students fill the language lab with sounds when it do their weekly assignments Students fill the language lab with sounds when they do they weekly assignments Students fill the language lab with sounds when they do it weekly assignments

[Rule: Singular antecedents joined by and require a plural pronoun] 42. a. b. c. break. d. * 43. Pronoun Agreement The library and the language lab closed for New Year’s Eve to give its employees a small break. The library and the language lab closed for New Year’s Eve to give they employees a small break. The library and the language lab closed for New Year’s Eve to give his or her employees a small The library and the language lab closed for New Year’s Eve to give their employees a small break. Pronoun Agreement

[Rule: Singular antecedents joined by and and preceded by each require a singular pronoun] e. a. The library and the language lab each closed for New Year’s Eve to give its employees a small break.* b. The library and the language lab each closed for New Year’s Eve to give they employees a small break. c. The library and the language lab each closed for New Year’s Eve to give his or her employees a small break.

d. break. 44. a. b. c. d.

The library and the language lab each closed for New Year’s Eve to give their employees a small Pronoun Agreement My wife and best friend makes his or her best coffee. My wife and best friend makes their best coffee. My wife and best friend make his best coffee. My wife and her best friend make the best coffee.*

45. Pronoun Agreement [Rule: Make verb agree with subject closest to it when joined by or] a. b. c. d. Either the crayon or the pencils need their tips sharpened. * Either the crayon or the pencil need their tips sharpened. Either the crayon or the pencil need its tips sharpened. Either the crayons or the pencils need its tips sharpened.

46. Pronoun Agreement [Rule: Each and Every remain singular when a compound sentence] a. b. c. d. 47. a. b. c. d. 48. a. b. c. d. 49. a. b. c. d. 50. a. b. c. d. 51. Each problem and obstacle has their individual solution.. Each problem and obstacle has them individual solution.. Each problem and obstacle has there individual solution.. Each problem and obstacle has its individual solution..* Pronoun Agreement Everyone taking this grammar test plans to get their results immediately. Everyone taking this grammar test plans to get his or her results immediately. * Everyone taking this grammar test plans to get she or he results immediately. Everyone taking this grammar test plans to get them results immediately. Pronoun Agreement Every student need a number two pencil in their hand. Every student need a number two pencil in his or her hand Every student needs a number two pencil in their hand Every student needs a number two pencil in his or her hand * Pronoun Agreement Everyone hopes that they win the lottery. Everyone hopes that he or she wins the lottery. * Everyone hope that he or she wins the lottery. Everyone hopes that them win the lottery. Comma and Restrictive People who travel to the United States should visit New York. * People, who travel to the United States, should visit New York. People who travel to the United States, should visit New York. People, who travel, to the United States should visit New York. Sentence Boundaries

a. b. c. d. 52. a. b. c. d. 53. a. b. c. d. 54. a. b. c. d. 55. a. b. c. d. 56. a. b. c. d. 57. a. b. c. d. 58. a. b. c. d. 59.

Bill Gates is the richest man in the world he is a multi-billionaire. Bill Gates is the richest man in the world, he is a multi-billionaire. Bill Gates is the richest man in the world and he is, a multi-billionaire. Bill Gates is the riches man in the world, and he is a multi-billionaire.* Modifiers Dipped under hot water, you get the soap bubbles off the dishes. After dipped under hot water, soap bubbles easily come off the dishes. Dipped under hot water, they get the soap bubbles off the dishes. After the dishes are dipped under hot water, soap bubbles easily come off.* Its and It’s Its time to give the dog its bone. Its time to give the dog it’s bone. It’s time to give the dog it’s bone. It’s time to give the dog its bone.* Quotation Marks The dean said “school has been cancelled.” The dean said, “school has been cancelled.”* The dean said ‘ school has been cancelled.’ The dean said, ‘ school has been cancelled.’ Words I’ve proofread paragraph a dozen times. I’ve proofread paragraph dozen times. I’ve proofread the paragraph a dozen times.* I’ve proofread the paragraph a dozen. Capitalization. I think that it is important to learn English. I think that it is Important to learn English.* I think that it is important to learn english. i think that It is important to learn English. Which/That & Who/Whom My present car which I got from my parents needs urgent repairs. My present car that I got from my parents needs urgent repairs. My present car, which I got from my parents, needs urgent repairs.* My present car, that I got from my parents, needs urgent repairs. Which/That & Who/Whom The house, which I want to buy, has a pool. The house, that I want to buy, has a pool. The house that I want to buy has a pool.* The house where I want to buy has a pool. Which/That & Who/Whom

a. College teachers go to high schools hoping to enroll students which others have ignored. b. College teachers go to high schools hoping to enroll students who others have ignored.* c. College teachers go to high schools hoping to enroll students that others have ignored. d. College teachers go to high schools hoping to enroll students whom others have ignored. 60. a. b. c. d. 61. Which/That & Who/Whom The students wondered whom would be the winner of the contest’s prize. The students wondered which would be the winner of the contest’s prize. The students wondered who would be the winner of the contest’s prize.* The students wondered whose would be the winner of the contest’s prize. Idiomatic Word Use

[Below, the previous situation is reversed] a. b. c. d. Now, the shoe is on the other shoe Now, the foot is on the other foot. Now, the shoe is on the other foot.* Now, the foot is on the other shoe.

62. Idiomatic Word Use [Below, someone has become angry] a. b. c. d. 63. a. b. c. d. 64. a. b. c. d. 65. a. b. c. d. 66. a. b. c. d. 67. a. When dad saw the F on my report card, he hit the wall. When dad saw the F on my report card, he hit the ceiling.* When dad saw the F on my report card, he hit me. When dad saw the F on my report card, he hit the floor. Idiomatic Word Use I intend on doing my homework regularly.* I intend do my homework regularly. I intend to do my homework regularly. I intend doing my homework regularly. Idiomatic Word Use The student is happy to except the scholarship. The student is happy to accept the scholarship.* The student is happy to excepted the scholarship. The student is happy to accepted the scholarship. Idiomatic Word Use That teacher gave us alot of homework for the weekend. That teacher gave us a lot of homework for the weekend. That teacher gave us a great deal of homework for the weekend.* That teacher gave us a lot a homework for the weekend. Idiomatic Word Use The math problem was debated between the three students. The math problem was debated within the three students. The math problem was debated among the three students.* The math problem was debated between and among the three students. Idiomatic Word Use The workers concluded that fewer jobs means fewer money for them.

b. c. d.

The workers concluded that less jobs means fewer money for them. The workers concluded that less jobs means less money for them. The workers concluded that fewer jobs means less money for them.*

68. Comma and Subject and Verb a. b. c. d. I , love to see horror movies. I love to see horror movies.* I love, to see, horror movies. I , love, to see horror movies.

69. Comma and Subject and Verb a. The students, made a wonderful multimedia project. b. The students made, a wonderful multimedia project. c. The students made a wonderful multimedia project.* d. The students made, a wonderful, multimedia project. 70. Apostrophe a. b. c. d. The students paper was sent by email instantly. The students paper’s was sent by email instatantly. The student’s paper was sent by email instantly.* The students papers’ was sent by email instantly.

71. Apostrophe a. The cause of the powerfailure was no one’s fault.* b. The cause of the powerfailure was no ones fault. c. The cause of the powerfailure’s was no one’s fault. d. The cause of the powerfailure was on ones’ fault. 72. Apostrophe a. Researchers are seeking explanations for children’s creativity.* b. Researcher’s are seeking explanations for children’s creativity. c. Researchers’ are seeking explanations for childrens’ creativity. d. Researchers’ are seeking explanations for children’s creativity. 73. Comma and Complex Sentence

a. Steve was always happy on Valentine’s Day because that was his grandfather’s birthday, and the date usually marked the end of winter. * b. Steve was always happy on Valentine’s day, because that was his grandfather’s birthday, and the date usually marked the end of winter. c. Steve was always happy on Valentine’s day, because that was his grandfather’s birthday and the date usually marked the end of winter. d. Steve was always happy on Valentine’s day because that was his grandfather’s birthday and the date usually marked the end of winter. 74. a. b. c. d. 75. a. Hyphenation I don’t get along too well with my brotherinlaw. I don’t get along too well with my brother in law. I don’t get along too well with my brother in-law. I don’t get along too well with my brother-in-law.* Hyphenation The teacher was well-dressed in my opinion.

b. c. d. 76. a. b. c. d. 77. a. b. c. d. 78. a. b. c. d. 79. a. b. c. d.

In my opinion, that was a well-dressed teacher. The teacher was dressed-well in my opinion. In my opinion, that was a well dressed teacher. * Hyphenation I paid over two hundred and twenty-five dollars for the blazer.* I paid over two-hundred and twenty-five dollars for the blazer. I paid over two hundred and twenty five dollars for the blazer. I paid over two-hundred and twenty five dollars for the blazer. Comma and Direct Object. The students ate apples at the county fair.* The students ate, apples at the county fair. The students ate, apples, at the county fair. The students , ate, apples at the county fair. Idiomatic Sentence Pattern Stand for this I will not. I will not stand for this.* This not stand for this I will. I for this will not stand. Idiomatic Sentence Pattern The reason why is because it gets so hot in the summer. The reason is because it gets so hot in the summer.* The reason why is it gets so hot in the summer. The reason it gets so hot in the summer is why.

[ Rule: Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives] 80. Coordinate Adjectives a. b. c. d. The rhythmic pulsating music made the huge restless crowd ecstatic. The rhythmic, pulsating music made the huge restless crowd ecstatic. The rhythmic pulsating music made the huge, restless crowd ecstatic. The rhythmic, pulsating music made the huge, restless crowd ecstatic.*

81. Coordinate Adjectives a. b. c. d. 82. a. b. c. d. 83. JoHanna was adorned with a silver antique beautiful necklace. JoHanna was adorned with a antique silver beautiful necklace. JoHanna was adorned with a beautiful antique silver necklace.* JoHanna was adorned with an antique silver beautiful necklace. Titles The title to the student’s five-paragraph essay was How To Bounce Back. The title to the student’s five-paragraph essay was How To Bounce Back. The title to the student’s five-paragraph essay was “How To Bounce Back.”* The title to the student’s five-paragraph essay was ‘How To Bounce Back.’ Sentence Clarity/Mixed

a. b. c. d. 84. a. b. c. d. 85. a. b. c. d. 86. a. b. c. d. 87. a. b. c. d. 88. a. b. c. d. 89. a. b. c. d. 90. a. b. c. d.

I beginned after 26 dec I send the 6 enormes to the bookseller. I beginned after December 26 to send six enormes to the bookseller. I sent six enormes after 26 dec I beginned to the bookseller. I sent six chapters to the bookseller after the twenty-sixth of December.* Adjectives and Adverbs. A good computer lab must run smooth and promptly. A well computer lab must run smoothly and promptly. A good computer lab must run smooth and prompt. A good computer lab must run smoothly and promptly.* Adjectives and Adverbs The cook felt bad that the food smelled bad because he had cooked badly. The cook felt bad that the food smelled badly because he had cooked bad. The cook felt bad that the food smelled bad because he had cooked badly.* The cook felt badly that the food smelled bad because he had cooked bad. Correct Pronoun Case My family consists of two sisters and me. My family consists of two sisters and I.* Me family consists of two sisters and me. Me family consists of two sisters and I. Correct Pronoun Case Jose and me went to their party. Jose and me went to them party. Jose and I went to them party. Jose and I went to their party.* Correct Pronoun Case The teacher told Jose and I that this test was going to be tough. The teacher told Jose and me that this test was going to be tough.* The teacher told I and Jose that this test was going to be tough. The teacher told Jose and me myself that this test was going to be tough. Correct Pronoun Case The ones who will graduate are them and me. The ones who will graduate are them and I. The ones who will graduate are theirselves and me. The ones who will graduate are they and I.* Correct Pronoun Case My brother loved his wife more than I. My brother loved his wife more than me.* My brother loved his wife more than myself. My brother loved his wife more than himself.

91. a. b. c. d. 92. a. b. c. d. 93. a. b. c. d. 94. a. b. c. d. 95. a. b. c. d. 96. a. b. c. d. 97. a. b. c. d. 98. a. b. c. d.

Dashes America’s challenges—better education, less crime, more equality—are still urgent ones.* America’s challenges are—better education, less crime, more equality—still urgent ones. America’s challenges—better education, less crime, more equality are still urgent ones. America’s challenges, better education, less crime, more equality—are still urgent ones. An / A I bought book, pencil, and package of paper. I bought a history book, a pencil, and a package of paper.* I bought book, a pencil, and a package of paper. I bought an history book, a pencil, and a package of paper. An / A I learned a good English at a interactive Web site. I learned a good English at an interactive Web site. I learned good English at a interactive Web site. I learned good English at an interactive Web site.* An / A I bought book today. It was a pronunciation dictionary. I bought an book today. It was the pronunciation dictionary. I bought the book today. It was a pronunciation dictionary. I bought a book today. It was a pronunciation dictionary.* The I have a car in the city. However, the car is often in the shop.* I have the car in a city. However, a car is often in a shop. I have a car in the city. However, the car is often in shop. I have the car in city. However, the car is often in a shop. The I’ve been in United States for most of a year. I’ve been in the United States for most of a year. I’ve been in United States for most of the year.* I’ve been in the United States for most of the year. The The moon rose above a skyline. A moon rose above the skyline. The moon rose above the skyline.* A moon rose above a skyline. The The governor wants an alligator to be a state symbol for Florida. The governor wants the alligator to be the state symbol for Florida.* A governor wants an alligator to be a state symbol for the Florida. The governor wants the alligator to be the state symbol for the Florida.

99. a. b. c. d. 100. a. b. c. d. 101. a. b. c. d. 102. a. b. c. d. 103. a. b. c. d.

The A test that I took yesterday gave me an incredible migraine. The test that I took yesterday gave me the incredible migraine. A test that I took yesterday gave me the incredible migraine. The test that I took yesterday gave me an incredible migraine.* The Designing good Web sites requires much forethought.* The designing good Web sites requires much forethought. The designing of good Web sites requires much forethought. The designing of the good Web sites requires much forethought. The The orchids are the flowers that can grow on the air alone. Orchids are flowers that can grow on air alone.* The orchids are flowers that can grow on the air alone. Orchids are the flowers that can grow on air alone. Question Mark How many times have I taken this stupid test. ? How many times have I taken this stupid test? How many times have I taken this stupid test! How many times have I taken this stupid test?* The The actors debated what to do next. Quit? Protest? Let the show go on?* The actors debated what to do next. Quit Protest? Let the show go on? The actors debated what to do next. Quit. Protest. let the show go on? The actors debated what to do next quit protest let the show go on?

104. Verb Form (Infinitive/Gerund/Participle/Irregular/Mood/Voice [ Rule: Use infinitive after be + complement ] a. b. c. d. The students are eager going to the graduation ceremony. The students are eager be going to the graduation ceremony. The students are eager to go to the graduation ceremony.* The students are eager for going to the graduation ceremony.

105. Verb Form [Rule: use infinitive after expression such as the first and the last] a. b. c. d. The best students are the first to arrive to class and the last to leave.* The best students are the first arriving to class and the last leaving. The best students are the first to arrive to class and the last leaving. The best students are the first arriving to class and the last to leave.

106. Verb Form [Rule: use unmarked infinitive after feel,hear,have,let,listen to,look at, notice,see,watch] a. I will ask the teacher to let us leave out early.*

b. c. d.

I will ask the teacher to let us to leave early. I will ask the teacher letting us out early. I will ask the teacher for letting us out early.

107. Verb Form [Rule: Use gerund after words such as admit, avoid, enjoy, imagine, mind, quit, suggest, etc.] a. b. c. d. I enjoy to learn advanced English composition. I enjoy learned advanced English composition. I enjoy learning advanced English composition.* I enjoy be learning advanced English composition.

108. Verb Form [Rule: Generally use a gerund rather than an infinitive as the subject of a sentence] a. b. c. d. Choose the right college classes is important. To choose the right college classes is an important. Choosing the right college classes is important.* To chose the right college classes is important.

109. Verb Form [Rule: Always use a gerund, not an infinitive as the object of a preposition] a. b. c. d. The college is committed to upgrade the computer system. The college is committed upgrade the computer system. The college is committed to upgrading the computer system.* The college is committed to be upgrade the computer system.

110. Verb Form [Rule: Use standard form of be in college writing] a. b. c. d. She be working late tonight at the gallery. She be work late tonight at the gallery. She is work late tonight at the gallery. She is working late tonight at the gallery.*

111. Verb Form [Rule: Modal auxiliary verbs are always followed by simple form of verb.] a. b. c. d. The student might going to the movies tonight. The student might to go to the movies tonight. The student might go to the movies tonight.* The student might be go to the movies tonight.

112. Verb Form [Rule: Subject usually omitted in imperative mood] a. b. c. d. You be quiet. Be quiet!* You quiet! Quiet, you!

113. Verb Form [Rule: For wishes use subjunctive were not was] a. If I were the president, I would feed the poor people of the world.*

b. c. d.

If I was the president, I will feed the poor people of the world. If I were the president, I will feed the poor people of the world. If I was the president, I would feed the poor people of the world.

114. Verb Form [Rule: Use passive when doer of action unknown or unimportant] a. b. c. d. The student’s car was being stolen in the afternoon. The student’s car was stole in the afternoon. The student’s car was stoled in the afternoon. The student’s car was stolen in the afternoon.*

115. Verb Form [Rule: Use correct form of irregular verbs] a. b. c. d. When the sun rose, he had already risen.* When the sun rose, he had already rose. When the sun rises, he had already risen. When the sun risen, he rose.

116. Verb Form [Rule: simple form of lie with modal could] a. b. c. d. 117. a. b. c. d. 118. a. b. c. d. 119. a. b. c. d. 120. a. b. c. d. With three days off, I could lay on the beach all day. With three days off, I could lie on the beach all day.* With three days off, I could laid on the beach all day. With three days off, I could laying on the beach all day. Transition First, it’s a hot day. It’s very humid. Last, the air conditioner is broken. It’s a hot day. Second, it’s very humid. Last, the air conditioner is broken.* First, it’s a hot day. Second, it’s very humid. Last, the air conditioner is broken. It’s a hot day. It’s very humid. The air conditioner is broken. Quotation Marks Who said, “ All’s fair in love and war? Who said. ‘ All’s fair in love and war?’ Who said , “ All’s fair in love and war?’ Who said, “All’s fair in love and war?”* Semicolon and Parentheses My favorite film; (The Godfather), is better than There’s Something About Mary. My favorite film, (The Godfather), is better than There’s Something About Mary. My favorite film (The Godfather), is better than There’s Something About Mary.* My favorite film-- (The Godfather), is better than There’s Something About Mary. That The house, I buy will have a swimming pool. The house, that I buy will have a swimming pool. The house, which I buy will have a swimming pool. The house that I buy will have a swimming pool.*

121. a. b. c. d. 122.

Comma and Et cetera. I went to many Web sites such as Yahoo!, Dogpile, Direct Hit etc. I went to many Web sites such as Yahoo!, Dogpile, Direct Hit et cetera. I went to many Web sites such as Yahoo!, Dogpile, Direct Hit, etc. I went to many Web sites such as Yahoo!, Dogpile, Direct Hit and so forth. Semicolon

[Rule: Use semicolon optionally before coordinating conjunctions with independent clauses that contain commas] a. Because the bookstore lacked texts, the students could not buy needed materials and some teachers became frustrated. b. Because the bookstore lacked texts, the students could not buy needed materials; and some teachers became frustrated.* c. Because the bookstore lacked texts, the students could not buy needed materials: and some teachers became frustrated. d. Because the bookstore lacked texts, the students could not buy needed materials-- and some teachers became frustrated. 123. Semicolon [Rule: Use semicolon when transitional expressions connect independent clauses] a. The college bookstore remained closed, nevertheless, students managed to find the needed texts. b. The college bookstore remained closed nevertheless, students managed to find the needed texts. c. The college bookstore remained closed; nevertheless; students managed to find the needed texts. d. The college bookstore remained closed; nevertheless, students managed to find the needed texts. 124. Semicolon

a. Once opened, the language lab will have three types of materials: video, audio, and computer animation.* b. Once opened; the language lab will have three types of materials; video, audio, and computer animation. c. Once opened, the language lab will have three types of materials; video, audio, and computer animation. d. Once opened: the language lab will have three types of materials: video, audio, and computer animation. 125. a. b. c. d. 126. a. b. c. d. Repetition The teacher she said that the test it would be on Monday. The teacher she said that the test would be on Monday. The teacher said that the test would be on Monday.* The teacher she said that the test the test would be on Monday. Repetition The storeclerk said that he likes flowers as much as I like flowers. The storeclerk said that he likes flowers as much as I do like flowers. The storeclerk said that he likes flowers as much as I do.* The storeclerek said that he likes flowers as much as I like.

127. a. b. c. d.

Gerund Modifier Eating in the school cafeteria can be an incredible adventure.* Eaten in the school cafeteria can be an incredible adventure. Eat in the school cafeteria can be an incredible adventure. Eating the school cafeteria can be an incredible adventure.

128. Gerund Modifier [Rule: Use possessive case before gerunds] a. b. c. d. 129. a. b. c. d. I concluded that the man was drunk when I noticed him staggering. I concluded that the man was drunk when I noticed his staggering.* I concluded that the man was drunk when I noticed him stagger. I concluded that the man was drunk when I noticed his stagger. Negation The visiting students did not have no money. The visiting students never did have no money. The visiting students did not have any money.* The visiting students never did have none money.

130 . Apostrophe and Contractions a. b. c. d. 131 Its an important day, so lets all behave properly. It’s an important day, so lets all behave properly. Its an important day, so let’s all behave properly. It’s an important day, so let’s all behave properly.* Colon

a. If you really want to be an A student, remember three key words; attendance, homework, participation. b. If you really want to be an A student, remember three key words: attendance, homework, participation.* c. If you really want to be an A student, remember three key words, attendance, homework, participation. d. If you really want to be an A student, remember three key words attendance, homework, participation. 132. a. b. c. d. 133. a. b. c. Colon The students bought: books, pencils, and paper. The students bought ; books, pencils, and paper. The students bought books, pencils, and paper.* The students bought books: pencils: and paper. Parallelism The students had tried complaints, screaming, and even shouting. The students had tried complaining, screams, and shouts. The students had tried complaints, screams, and shouting.

d. 134. a. b. c. d. 135. a. b. c. d. [#end#]

The students had tried complaining, screaming, and shouting.* Parallelism Truth and being honest are virtues that go together. Being truthful and honest are virtues that go together. Truth and honesty are virtues that go together.* Truthful and honesty are virtues that go together. Parallelism Avoiding the language lab for too long not only can lead to frustration but also to failure. Avoiding the language lab for too long not only can lead to frustration but to failure also. Avoiding the language lab for too long can not only lead to frustration but also to failure.* Avoiding the language lab for too long can only not lead to frustration also but to failure.

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