You are on page 1of 233

© 2002 Steven Donahue

REDUCE YOUR ACCENT


In 10 Steps
An Irreverant Pronunciation Manual
Professor Steven Donahue

Miami-Dade Community College

This book and CDs cover about 100 features of the English
Sound System.

© 2004 Steven Donahue


All Rights Reserved

1
© 2002 Steven Donahue

REDUCE YOUR ACCENT!


(in ten steps)
By Professor Steven Donahue

Introduction

Dear Dr. Pronunciation,

I coming to U.S on a rafter from Cuba about two years ago. Even thought I ben
intense to studi inglish eberytime I saying the words “Third” people laff at me and asking
“Do you need go restroom?” Pleez help mi, I no understanding the joke bekuz I no tired!

Maria the Basalero-- Rafter,

Dear Rafert,

This is a common problem with foreign speakers. The TH sound is unique to English and
Greek. When you are saying “Third” it is coming out of your mouth like “Turd,” which is
feces. This is what your friends find facetious (funny). Your remedy is when making the
TH sound, stick your tongue out really far between the teeth. Practice these words:
Thick Tick
Thin Tin
Thesis Teeth
Both Boat
Thigh Tie
Gather Gator

For homework, go see the movie Rush Hour, and repeat the actor’s lines 10 times a day,
“ Can you understand the words coming out of my mouth?”

Note: Dr. Pronunciation is on vacation where the rain mostly falls on the plain—Spain.

2
© 2002 Steven Donahue

………………………………………………………………………………………….

By taking this course and using this CD you have begun an important learning
process—discovering your wonderfully unique accent and voice. Really, the term
“Accent Reduction” is not the best. Perhaps it should be called Accent Improvement or
Accent Enhancement. After all, there are very successful people with accents in television
and movies! Think of some: Salma Hayek, Arnold Shwarznegger, Danny Thomas, Tony
Curtis, and Charlie Chan.

Most of us know that there are areas of our pronunciation that need improvement. Some
of us may have a foreign accent because we speak English as a second language. For
native speakers, we may have a US regional accent that marks us in some way in our new
location or in the workplace. And for some, due to our social or educational backgrounds,
we have give-away pronunciation markers that identify us. In fact, we know that the
moment that we open our mouth to speak, we reveal a wealth of information about
ourselves: age, gender, educational background, even physical size.

Can you reduce your accent? Yes! The art and science of reducing an accent has
come along way since the days of Professor Henry Higgins in My Fair Lady and the
repetitive practice of phrases such as “It rains mainly in the plain in Spain.” In this
Manual and CD, we will discover some fantastic techniques for analyzing and fixing your
individual accent.

The first step is to analyze your accent.

The second step is to take the lessons that are responsive to your particular accent
problem.
As you read take this course, practice in front of the mirror, with audio
cassettes or a video camera, or with a person whose accent you like. Listen to speakers
who you admire on the radio or television. Your efforts at becoming a better speaker of
English will be rewarded as people remark on how well you enunciate you words and
phrases.

3
© 2002 Steven Donahue

REDUCE YOUR ACCENT!


(in 10 steps)
1. Step One: Test Your Pronunciation

2. Step Two: Identify Accent Interference

3. Step Three: Master English Consonants

4. Step Four: Conquer English Vowels

5. Step Five: Hit the Right Rhythm

6. Step Six: Perfect Your Pitch

7. Step Seven: The Perfect Voice

8. Step Eight: Speak with Confidence

9. Step Nine: Build Vocabulary & Spelling Skills

10.Step Ten: Practice—Read Aloud

Step One: Test Your Pronunciation

The following CD includes a comprehensive pronunciation analysis of your


accent patterns. In addition, in the back of this manual is a series of test words and
phrases for all the consonants and vowels in English. Say them to your teacher or an
native speaker of English. Be sure to do all of the exercises in the accompanying CD.

4
© 2002 Steven Donahue

Step Two: Identify Accent Interference


Now that you have identified some possible areas of concern for you pronunciation
patterns, it is time to try and figure out what some of the causes of an accent might be.
Make a list of the words in English that you have a problem with. Words like
“vegetable,” or “shrimp.”

Step Three: Master English Consonants


There are about 24 English consonants. The good news is that 16 are
the easy ones. They are almost “universal” because similar ones exist in most
languages. Make a list of English consonants and divide into two groups:
• English Consonants
• The easy ones
• The hard ones

Step Four: Conquer English Vowels


In this chapter we cover the 16 vowels present in English. Just like the consonants, some
are going to be pretty easy. Others however are going to be challenging. a list of English consonants and divide into two groups:

• Vowels
• The easy ones
• The hard ones

Step Five: Hit the Right Rhythm


By Rhythm we mean the drum beat that goes on while we are speaking. In the dictionary,
Rhythm is indicated by small stress signs ‘. We are going to cover some basic Rhythm
patterns of English, which if mastered, will make you a clearer speaker.

• Rhythm

Step Six: Perfect Your Pitch


Intonation is how the emotional content of a spoken message is carried. If you use no
intonation, you will sound like a computer or robot or machine like. No matter how important your message, people will not respond
to it because it will seem unimportant, trivial, or boring.
• Intonation

Step Seven: The Perfect Voice


Have you ever been present when someone is speaking publicly, but they do not speak loudly enough? Or have you ever been on the
phone with someone who mutters or is
incoherent? Voice quality is something that gives an impression of you, as
a speaker, to others.

• Voice Quality

Step Eight: Speak with Confidence


How do you feel if you are called on to speak publicly, even before a small group? Do
your hands sweat? Do you feel butterflies in your stomach? Does your mind suddenly go
blank?

• Speak Confidently

5
© 2002 Steven Donahue

Step Nine: Test Your Progress

Now it’s time to see how far we have come. Take the following tests again. Do not check the answers in the back beforehand.
Compare your results from the first test. I am sure that if you have followed the preceding chapters you will find dramatic
improvement. If you still need to improve some area, go back and practice those units. Also continue to practice the exercises in the
next chapter, Step Ten. And remember, give yourself some encouragement, you’ve come a long way to accent improvement!
• Progress Test

Step Ten: Practice—Read Aloud


• Practice the following words in this book and in the accompanying CD and Speech Recognition
• Read short passages of books and magazines to feel comfortable with your voice in English.

Step One: Test Your Pronunciation

The chart below covers all of the consonants and vowels in English. For really a really
accurate description of the words, a special alphabet called the International Phonetic
Alphabet (IPA) is used.

6
© 2002 Steven Donahue

7
© 2002 Steven Donahue

IPA: English
Consonants US
IPA Examples ɑ father
p English pen i see
b English but ɪ city
t English two ɛ bed
d English do ɜ˞ bird
English chair, æ bad, cat

nature
ɑr arm
dʒ English gin, joy
ʌ2 run, enough
English cat, kill,
k ɑ not, cough
queen
ɔ law , caught
g English go, get
ʊ put
English fool,
f u soon, through
enough
v English voice ə1 about
θ English thing
ð English this US
English see, pass e(
s day
, city ɪ)
English zoo, aɪ my
z
roses oɪ boy
English she, sure, o(
ʃ no
emotion ʊ)
ʒ English pleasure aʊ now
h English ham ir near , here
m English man er hair, there
n English no ur tour
English singer, ju pupil
ŋ
ring
Note that the parentheses indicate optionality; the IPA code does
l English left not actually contain parentheses.
English milk
ɫ 1. US winner might be pronounced /ˈwɪnər/ (Gen.Am.), /
(dark l)
ˈwɪnə/ (non-rhotic Southern US), or /ˈwɪnɐ/ (New
r English run, very England, US region).
ɾ US English better
2. Realization may occasionally be /ə/.
w English we

8
© 2002 Steven Donahue

Vowel
Keyword Transcribed Consonants Keyword Transcribed
s
i key ki p pea pi
I pit pɪt b bee bi
e pet pet t toe təʊ
ae pat pæt d doe dəʊ
ɑ hard hɑd k cap kæp
ɒO pot pɒt g get get
ɔ raw rɔ f fat fæt
U put pʊt v vet vet
u coo ku Ɵ thin Ɵɪn
ʌ hut hʌt ð then ðen
3 cur k3 s sack sæk
ə about/mother əbaʊt/mʌðə z zoo zu
eɪ bay beɪ ʃ ship ʃɪp
aɪ buy baɪ ʒ measure meʒə
ɔɪ boy bɔɪ h hide haɪd
əʊ go gəʊ m man mæn
aʊ cow kaʊ n no nəʊ
ɪə peer pɪə ŋ sing sɪŋ
eə pair peə l lie laɪ
ʊə poor pʊə r red red
j year jɪə
w wet wet
ʧ chin ʧɪn
ʤ judge

Test 1: Listen while a native speaker or your teacher says these words
randomly. Circle the word you hear.
1. eat it seat sit
neat knit eel ill
i: i beat bit heel hill

9
© 2002 Steven Donahue

green grin Ben ban so saw


teen tin Ken can low law
reach rich den Dan hole hall
sheep ship bed bad bowl ball
2. head had coal call
said sad wrote rot
lr leg lag note not
light right
6. boat bought
lice rice
coat caught
lot rot hf coast cost
low row hall fall
long wrong honey funny 10.
lead read heat feet z/d th
led red hold fold bays bathe
lung rung hollow follow sues soothe
load road hear fear breeze breathe
lock rock hit fit close clothe
3. hill fill Z thee
hell fell den then
ie hat fat dare there
pit pet
7. Dan than
knit net
die thy
mitt met ae a
sit set cat cot 11.
ill L hat hot ou
bill bell pat pot cob cub
fill fell rat rot rob rub
will well cap cop sob sub
hill hell map mop cop cup
did deal mass moss pop pup
4. math moth dock duck
band bond lock luck
bv lack lock stock stuck
base vase
8. not nut
berry very
won one
boat vote s th
bolt volt sink think 12.
best vest sank thank sh s
beer veer sing thing ship sip
bent vent some thumb sheet seat
bat vat sick thick she sea, see
ban van sin thin shed said
curb curve use youth shelf self
5. mass math shell sell
pass path shingle single
e ae worse worth shit sit
bet bat
9. show sew
met mat
leash lease
set sat ou au/a: fished fist

10
© 2002 Steven Donahue

Test 2: Pronounce these words and phrases while a native speaker of


English or your teacher listens and marks your mistakes.
Vowel Inventory

[i ] 1. We see people and speak to bees.

[ I] 2. It hit the mitt a bit and made Juan sit.

[ ey ] 3. Obey and pay is a great way to pray.

[E ] 4. They led the dead leopard to the egg.

[{ ] 5. The trash made a splash and a crash.

[ a ] 6. Father had a massage at the spa.

[ aI ] 7. Try a diamond in your eye.

[ aw ] 8. How does an owl sit on a bough?

[ @ ] 9. The balloon on the sofa is from Africa.

[ @r ] 10. That person went early to church.

[ OI ] 11. The boy found oil in the oyster.

[ O ] 12. You ought to draw the ball.

[ ow ] 13. Do you own your old toe?

[u ] 14. She threw the shampoo in the zoo.

[U ] 15. I mistook the book in the bush.

Consonant Inventory

[l ] 1. A little old lady.

[ r ] 2. Robert borrowed a car.

[p ] 3. The pet was chirping on the rope.

[b ] 4. He bit the robber on the rib.

[t ] 5. The teen was bitter and hurt.

[d ] 6. The dean was sudden and hard.

[k ] 7. Keep the walker in Texas.

[ g ] 8. Don’t give yoga to a dog.

[f ] 9. Phone the surfer on the roof.

[v ] 10. Vanish forever and live.

[ T ] 11. She has thin youthful teeth.

[D ] 12. This father can bathe.

[ s ] 13. See the thirsty mice.

[ z ] 14. Zen is not lazy jazz.

11
© 2002 Steven Donahue

[S ] 15. Shout to the ocean a wish.

[Z ] 16. The gendarme had the usual cortege.

[tS ] 17. Choose a mixture each.

[ dZ ] 18. Jane is at a fragile age.

[ h ] 19. Did he have a mishap?

[ y ] 20. The groom said yes in the churchyard.

[ w ] 21. Which witch is going to sweep?

[m ] 22. Mom had a bamboo stem.

[ n ] 23. Nancy gave money for a gun.

[Î ] 24. That’s a strong song.

PLURALS

Place your papers, pens and books on the desks.

PAST TENSE

The teacher watched the students, answered a question, and laughed.

INTONATION

What time is it? Is it raining? His English is better than mine. We have pens, pencils, and paper.

COMMENTS:

Test 3: Circle the word you hear while a native speaker of English or
your teacher says them aloud.

1. Stops vs Affricates SIWI tear - chair tease - cheese tin - chin top - chop talk - chalk ticks
- chicks tiled - child tip - chip tips - chips tore - chore two – chew
2. Fricatives vs Affricates SIWI sore - chore sum - chum sip - chip sick - chick sat - chat
Sue - chew silly - chilly soak - choke suck - chuck sill - chill search – church
3. Stops vs Fricatives and Affricates SFWF rat - rash out - ouch write - rice cat - catch
late - lace hut - hush mat - match road - rose head - hedge hit - hiss coat – coach
4. Voiced vs Voiceless Alveolar Stops SIWI /d/vs /t/ deer tear die tie din tin doll toll door
tore doze toes dent tent dead Ted dim Tim
5. Voiced vs Voiceless Affricates SIWI jeer cheer joke choke jeep cheap Jane chain jaw
chore jump chump jest chest gin chin Jess chess
6. Voiceless Velars vs Alveolars SIWI: /k/ vs /t/ car tar core tore cape tape cub tub cool
tool cap tap key tea call tall corn torn
7. Final Consonant Inclusion tea team tie tide hoe hope play plane car calf pea peep shoe
shoot low load
8. Final Consonant Inclusion high hide see seat shoe shoot she sheep cow couch sore
sort sea seed say save
9. Final Consonant Inclusion buy bike sew soap ow! out bee beach pie pile row road moo
move car card
10. Initial Glottal Inclusion: /h/ "A" hay "E" he "I" high "O" hoe ("U" who - yoo-hoo) eye high
air hair old hold eel heel art heart edge hedge

12
© 2002 Steven Donahue

11. Initial Fricative Inclusion: /f/ arm farm eel feel in fin air fair oar four ace face eat feet ill
fill oh foe ox fox ale fail
12. Initial Velar Inclusion: /k/ "R" car art cart ache cake oar core ape cape air care old cold
aim came ill kill arm calm off cough
13. Init Consonant Inclusion 'sh' shower hour share air shy eye shake ache shape ape
shawl all shell "L shout out
14. Init Consonant Inclusion /s/ seal eel sell "L" seat eat sad add soak oak sold old saw oar
soil oil sour hour
15. Fricative Contrasts sort fort short sore four shore sign fine shine sell fell shell seat feet
sheet
16. Initial Alveolar Inclusion /t/ in tin eye tie ache take aim tame air tear ape tape old told
art tart
17. Initial Consonant Inclusion us bus ape tape out shout eye pie eel peel air chair ache
take old fold
18. Glottal Fric vs Alveolar Stop SIWI /h/ vs /t/ hop top hall tall horn torn high tie hose toes
hair tear hen ten hot tot
19. Glottal vs Labio-dental Fricative SIWI: /h/ vs /f/ hat fat hit fit hold fold hive five hall fall
horse force hall fall heel feel hole foal hairy fairy - - - -
20. Glottal vs Palato-alveolar Fricative SIWI hall shawl head shed horn Sean horn Shawn
harp sharp hop shop hook shook high shy hut shut heap sheep hoe show hair share heat
sheet hip ship
21. Glottal vs alveolar Fricative SIWI: /h/ vs /s/ sauce horse soup hoop sold hold side hide
sit hit sand hand suit hoot sole hole soap hope seat heat sip hip seal heel - -
22. Liquid vs Fricative SIWI /l/ vs /s/ line sign low sew lock sock long song lick sick lip sip
lend send lift sift lead seed look sook
23. Liquids vs Glides SIWI /r/ vs /w/ one run wig rig wing ring wok rock whale rail wake
rake weed read witch rich wave rave west rest
24. Fricatives vs Glides SIWI /f/ vs /w/ feel wheel fig wig fight white fork walk fall wall fish
wish feel wheel full wool fail whale fade wade
25. Fricatives vs Glides SIWI /v/ vs /w/ vest west veil whale vine wine vet wet volley Wally
veal wheel Vic wick –
26. Palato-alveolar Fricative vs Affricates SFWF mash match dish ditch wish witch wash
watch cash catch hush hutch crush crutch marsh march
27. Palato-alveolar Fricative vs Affricates SIWI shops chops shoes choose ships chips
share chair Shane chain shin chin sheep cheep shock chock
28. Liquids vs Alveolars SIWI: /l/ vs /d/ lots dots log dog lazy daisy leap deep love dove - -
---
29. Nasals vs Liquids SIWI /n/ vs /l/ knead lead nip lip night light name lame knock lock
neigh lay no low nine line knot lot nap lap
30. Labio-dental Fricatives vs Stops SIWI: /f/ vs /d/ file dial fish dish fan Dan four door five
dive foam dome fig dig - - -
31. Alveolar vs Palato-alveolar Fricatives SIWI suit shoot sock shock sore shore sip ship
sack shack sour shower seat sheet Sue shoe –
32. Alveolar vs Labio-dental Fricatives SIWI: /s/ vs /f/ sold fold sauce force sort fort six fix
sit fit sole foal cell fell sole foal sore four –
33. Alveolar vs Labio-dental Fricatives SIWI: /s/ vs /f/ sun fun seed feed sound found seat
feet seal feel socks fox saw four sunny funny sat fat sign fine
34. /n/ vs 'sh' SIWI gnaw shore knee she nip ship nine shine neat sheet nut shut no show
knock shock
35. /w/ vs /l/ SIWI wok lock wine line weed lead white light week leek weigh lay wet let wick
lick

13
© 2002 Steven Donahue

36. /w/ vs /l/ SIWI why lie wake lake wait late weep leap wink link Wally lolly
37. Alveolar vs Palato-alveolar Fricatives SIWI sign shine sew show sip ship saw shore
sock shock
38. /n/ vs /s/ SIWI gnaw saw nine sign nails sails kneel seal neat seat nip sip knock sock no
sew
39. /n/ vs 'ng' SFWF Ron wrong pin Ping win wing thin thin
40. 'th' vs /f/ SIWI thin fin thaw four thought fort thread Fred thorn fawn three free thirst first
41. /v/ vs /b/ SIWI vase bars vest best vat bat V B (Vee-Bee) vote boat van ban vow bow
very berry
42. /l/ vs /j/ SIWI lawn yawn Lou you lap yap less yes lucky yucky luck yuck
43. /p/ vs /sp/ pie spy peach speech pot spot pit spit pin spin pill spill
44. /s/ vs /sl/ leap sleep lip slip low slow - -
45. /s/ vs /sk/ sails scales sip skip see ski sore score
46. /s/ vs /st/ sick stick sack stack seal steal soup stoop –
47. /t/ vs /st/ SIWI take stake talk stork tar star tack stack top stop tool stool tick stick
48. /t/ vs /st/ SFWF beat Beast Bert burst wet west coat coast goat ghost wait waist net nest
pet pest feet feast vet vest
49. /w/ vs /sw/ wing swing weep sweep well swell wheat sweet witch switch
50. /k/ vs /sk/ key ski cat scat car scar core score cool school
51. /n/ vs /sn/ nail snail knees sneeze no snow nought Snort nap snap
52. /m/ vs /sm/ Mog smog mash smash mall small mile smile Mac smack
53. /l/ Clusters low glow lip flip lap clap loud cloud lock block leap sleep lean clean lime
climb low blow love glove
54. /r/ vs /tr/ rash trash ray tray rim trim rain train rack track Rick trick
55. /r/ Clusters root fruit rat brat red bread rip drip rain train row throw
56. /sk/ vs /st/ scoop stoop school stool scout stout score store sky sty skate state skill still
scamp stamp
57. /k/ vs /g/ SIWI cap gap gate Kate game came gum come coat goat coast ghost cot got
58. /d/ vs /t/ SFWF cord caught Bert bird wade wait wed wet bad bat bead beat write ride
sat. sad sort sword hid hit pot pod feet feed wrote road wheat weed
59. /k/ vs /g/ SFWF peck peg buck bug pick pig lock log back bag stack stag tack tag –
60. /p/ vs /b/ SFWF cup cub nip nib cap cab lap lab rope robe - - - -
61. Voicing SFWF peach beach town down fan van pole bowl peas bees buy pie bear pear
sip zip pig big tore door

Test 4: Say these words aloud while a native speaker of English or your
teacher circles the incorrect pronuciations. Calculate your reading age
afterwards.

Schonell Reading Test


Directions: Read the words left to right.

tree little milk egg


book school sit frog

14
© 2002 Steven Donahue

playing bun flower road

clock train light picture


think summer people something
dream downstairs biscuit shepherd

thirsty crowd sandwich beginning


postage island saucer angel
ceiling appeared gnome canary

attractive imagine nephew gradually


smolder applaud disposal nourished
diseased university orchestra knowledge

audience situated physics campaign


choir intercede fascinate forfeit
siege recent plausible prophecy

colonel soloist systematic slovenly


classification genuine institution pivot
conscience heroic pneumonia preliminary

antique susceptible enigma oblivion


scintillate satirical sabre beguile
terrestrial belligerent adamant sepulcher

statistics miscellaneous procrastinate tyrannical


evangelical grotesque ineradicable judicature
preferential homonym fictitious rescind

metamorphosis somnambulist bibliography idiosyncrasy

Reading age = ( (Number of words correct) / 10 ) + 5

Step Two: Identify Accent Interference. Find your first language below
and see the types of language interference common for it.

Arabic
1. 1 . The R is formed in the front of the mouth, and it is trilled or rolled.
2. The aspirated P as in put does not exist. The sound will resemble a B sound. Paper > baber.
3. The TH sound does not exist in Arabic.
4. Voiceless initial TH will be replaced with S. thin > sin.
5. Voiced initial TH will be replaced with Z or D. that > zat or dat.

15
© 2002 Steven Donahue

6. The aspirated T will sound more like D. too > doo.


7. CH does not exist. It is replaced by SH. cheep > sheep.
8. There is no hard G as in go. The G is always soft as in gentle.
9. The short vowel sounds can cause difficulties for the ESL learner.
Czech
1. W is replaced with a V sound. want > vant
2. Y, when used as a vowel, is a long "E" sound. symbol > seembol
3. J is a Y sound. January > Yanuary
4. The TH sound does not exist.
5. Voiceless initial TH becomes T. think > tink
6. Voiced initial Th becomes D. these > dese
7. Voiceless final TH becomes F, S, or T. with > %if, @s, or wit
8. Voiced middle TH becomes D. mother > modder
9. Final G is replaced by K. pig > pik

10. Final D is replaced by T. bad > bat


Chinese
1 . Consonant clusters are rare in Chinese. Since English has many of them, this can create pronunciation problems for the
ESL student.
2. The TH sound does not exist.
3. Voiceless TH will be replaced by T or F. think > tink or fink
4. Voiced TH will be replaced by D or V. that > dat or vat
5 . The L and R sounds are difficult to produce since students cannot distinguish the difference between the two sounds. Some
will always use "R" for both sounds, while others will always use "L." glass > grass or grass > glass blew > brew or brew >
blew
6. In the initial position a sound resembling L will usually replace an R. road > load
7. Chinese has no Z sound. It is replaced with SH or S. zip > ship or sip
Croatia
1 . Voiced and voiceless TH do not exist. Students will tend to pronounce these sounds as D or T. both > bod or hot; these >
dese or tese
2. The short English vowel sounds are very difficult. Generally, the student tends not to hear the slight variations in these
sounds.
3. The letter R is rolled.
4. The letter W does not exist. It is replaced by V or F. want > vant or fant
5. In many cases V > B, C > S, and X > H. vat > bat; cold > sold; Texas > Tehas
Farsi
1. Farsi lacks some of the letters/sounds that occur in the English alphabet. They include 0, Q, U, W, and X. This can cause
much difficulty in pronunciation.
2. Initial voiceless Th becomes T or S. think > tink or sink
3. The sound W is replaced by V. want > vant
4. Final D becomes T. bad > bat
5. Initial G may be replaced by C. goat > coat
6. Short vowels will be difficult.
French
1. The Th sound does not occur in French.
a. Voiceless initial TH becomes S. think > sink b. Voiced initial TH becomes Z. them > zem
2. The CH sound does not occur in French. It is replaced with SH. cheek > sheek
3 . The sound of J as in "jeep" does not occur in French. It has the sound of "rouge".
4. The R sound is difficult. Many French speakers substitute the R made at the back of the throat - a "growled" sound. Some
will substitute the trilled R.
5. ING as in "ring" does not occur. Ring may become fin.
6. Final S is not pronounced, and final T after a vowel is also not pronounced.
7. P, T, and K are not aspirated. They sound more like B, D, and G respectively. cap > cab; bat > bad; back > bag
German
1. Voiceless initial TH will usually be replaced by S. think > sink
2. Voiced initial TH will usually be replaced by Z. that > zat
3. W has the sound of V in German. want > vant
4. The letter S is difficult for Germans.
5. S before a vowel becomes Z. so > zo
6. S followed by P, T, or L becomes SH. spell > shpell; step > shtep; sleep > shleep
7. When B, D, or G occur at the end of an English word, the ESL student will usually use P, T, or K respectively. cab > cap; bad
> bat; bag > back
8. The R sound can be difficult. In German, the R is made at the back of the throat and has a "growled" sound.
Ghana

16
© 2002 Steven Donahue

1. /?/ is sometimes pronounced /a/ as in "cupboard" for instance; consonants clusters might be dropped after long vowels, e.g.:
"past" pronounced almost the same way as "pass"
2. Use of plural morpheme with uncountable nouns, e.g.:" many damages"
3. Semantic extension, e.g.: " sorry" to express one's compassion to other people, e.g.: Sorry for your daughter's misfortune.
4. Local borrowing: "chewing stick" for a fresh twig chewed for cleaning the teeth; "herbalist" for traditional doctor,
especially those endowed with magical power , "high life" for a special Ghanaian dance and music in the then newly
independent Ghanaian society. Today, coping with modern technology, a cell-phone is called in Ghana: "I'm-on-the-way!"
Hong Kong
1. Voiceless TH will be replaced by T or F. think > tink or fink,
2. Voiced TH will be replaced by D or V. that > dat or vat
3. L and R sounds are difficult to pronounce, students cannot distinguish the difference between the two sounds. Some will
always use "R" for both sounds, while others will always use "L." glass > grass or grass > glass blew > brew or brew > blew; in
the initial position a sound resembling L will usually replace an R. road > load
4. Chinese has no Z sound; it is replaced with SH or S. zip > ship or sip
5. Words and phrases from Chinese: dim sum (snacks served in Chinese restaurants), gweilo ("ghost person", a European
man)
6. Loan translations from Chinese: dragon boat(a long canoe-like boat raced at festivals)
7. Terms from other languages: amah (Portuguese: a maid)
8. local uses of general words: triad (a secret criminal society)
Hmong
1. Initial B and P have the same sound. bad > bad; pad > bad
2. The TH sound causes difficulty.
3.. Initial voiceless TH becomes T. think > tink
4.. Initial voiced TH becomes D. that > dat
5. The sound of T in the middle of a word will become D. better > bedder
6. The consonants P, T, and K in the final position are replaced with B, D, and G respectively, and become voiced. hip > bib; hit
> hid; sick > sig
Hungarian
1. Some Hungarian vowel sounds have no English equivalents.
2. There is no sound for W in Hungarian. It is replaced with a V sound. want > vant
3. The letter J has a Y sound. January > Yanuary
4. The TH sound causes difficulty in Hungarian.
5. Voiceless initial TH becomes S or T. think > sink or tink
6. Voiced initial TH becomes Z or D. that > zat or dat
7. The letter R is trilled or rolled.
India
1. Voiced and voiceless TH becomes T. three > tree; think > tink
2. The sound P is replaced by B. pig > big
3. The sound W becomes V. want > vant
4. The sound CH becomes SH. cheep > sheep
5. Final consonants are often omitted, especially the G from NG. doing > doin
6. Short vowel sounds cause much difficulty, since the ESL student does not hear the slight variations.
7. The consonants F, Q, V, X, and Z do not exist as separate characters in the Hindi alphabet.
8. Indian English is rhotic, /r/ being pronounced in all positions
9. weak vowels are pronounced as full vowels in such words as photography and student
10. word stress is used primarily for emphasis and suffixes are stressed
11. voiced and voiceless TH becomes T: three > tree; think > tink
12. Voiced and voiceless TH becomes T. three > tree; think > tink
13. the sound P is replaced by B. pig > big
14. the sound W becomes V. want > vant
15. CH becomes SH. cheep > sheep
16. Final consonants are often omitted, especially the G from NG. doing > doin
17. Distinct kinds of pronunciation lead to different kinds of IndE: Bengalis using /b/ for /v/, making bowel and vowel
homophones.
18. Interrogative constructions without subject/auxiliary inversion: What you would like to buy?
19. One used rather than the indefinite article: He gave me one book.
20. Stative verbs given progressive forms: She is having two books.
21. reduplication used for emphasis and to indicate a distributive meaning: He bought some small small things.
22. yes and no as question tags: He is coming, yes?
23. isn't it? as a generalized question tag: They are coming tomorrow, isn't it?
24. reflexive pronouns and only used for emphasis: They live like that only.
Italy
1. /?/+/g/ instead of /?/ in words like sing.
2. TH, which is often pronounced /t/.
3. Schwa insertion after a /t/ in word-final position that gives an Italian’s English a very peculiar accent.

17
© 2002 Steven Donahue

Japanese
1. The letter C may be pronounced as SH. cent > shent
2. The sound W is replaced by V. want > vant
3. Initial V becomes B. vine > bine
4. The TH sound does not occur in Japanese.
5. Initial voiceless TH becomes S. think > sink
6. Initial voiced TH becomes D. these > dese
7. Final TH becomes S. with > wis
8. The L sound is usually replaced by an R type sound. led > red
Korean
1. The TH sound does not occur in Korean.
2. Initial TH becomes D. think > dink; that > dat
3. Final voiceless TH is replaced with S. with > wis
4. Final voiced TH becomes D. smooth > smood
5. The sound L is usually replaced with an R sound. led > red
6. The sound B becomes V. bat > vat
7. The J sound becomes a Z sound. jeep > zeep
8. The H or WH sounds become an F sound. held > feld; white > fight
Nigeria
1. Long vowels or diphthongs are shorter.(e.g.: car /kar/ instead of /ka:r/).
2. Local words (borrowings: e.g. "Na wa!" An interjection used to express positive feelings. Its meaning depends strongly on
context of use and speaker's intonation; e.g.: Na wa for you, that you got that scholarship!)
3. Some initial English expression which went through semantic extension; e.g.: How far or how bodi? (from the human body!)
to mean How are you/ How are you feeling?
Norway
1. /z/, which does not exist in Norwegian. For this reason, some Norwegians have difficulties pronouncing words with voiced s
and use unvoiced s.
2. Long o is normally pronounced /u:/ in Norwegian, while long u becomes /y:/. “Pool” might be heard like /py:l/ in a
Norwegians English.
Polish
1. In the initial position, the letter J will always sound like a Y. January > Yanuary
2. There is no TH sound in Polish.
3. Initial voiceless TH can become T or F. three > tree or free
4. Initial voiced TH usually becomes D. that > dat
5. Final TH can be replaced by S or T. with > wis or wit
6. The letter W becomes V, want > vant
Portuguese
1. CH will sound like SH. cheep > sheep
2. The letter H is never pronounced.
3. Since Portuguese has many nasal sounds, this may cause the ESL student some problems in pronunciation.
Russian
1. English short vowel sounds are very difficult.
2. There is no TH sound in Russian.
3. Voiceless initial TH becomes S. think > sink
4. Voiced initial TH becomes Z. that > zat
5. Voiceless final TH becomes F, S, Z, or T. with > wif, wis, wiz, wit
6. Middle TH becomes Z. father > fazer
7. There is no W sound in Russian. It is replaced by the V sound. want > vant
8. The letter R is rolled or "growled" at the back of the throat.
9. A hard G sound replaces the letter H in foreign words. Ohio > Ogio
Sierra Leone
1. Long and short vowels: e.g.: words like lean, speak, east, beast are all produced with the same sound /i/, as well as the pairs
sleep-slip, beat-
bit; "
2. "Past" is rather pronounced /pass/.
3. /? / is realised in various ways, mostly as the sound is written: e.g.: as [o] in "mother", as [u] in "us", "but", "bus"
4. Ends of word are hardly produced: "old" as /o:l/, find as /fain/.
5. The personal pronoun "yu" for you; e.g.: Yu no fo se(as for meaning: you know). A typical Krio expression is: Aw di wok?
(How is it going?)
Singapore
1. Equal stress on all syllables
2. Intonation has many short tone groups-there is no contrastive stress
3. final consonants are often unreleased, resulting in glottal stops /hi/ for hit

18
© 2002 Steven Donahue

4. final consonant clusters are generally reduced to one spoken consonant: 'juss' for just, 'slep'/'sle' for slept
5. vowels in words like 'take', 'so' and 'dare' are often monophthongs
6. Tendency to omit articles
7. The present-tense inflection -s/
8. The plural inflection -s/
9. The past-tense inflection -ed,-t/
10. Word Order: You have pen or not?/I got three sister./She come from China.
11. 'Already' is used as a marker of completive aspect
12. 'Use to' occurs as a marker of habitual aspect: She use to go to the market. (She goes to the market.)
13. 'Would' is used for future events
14. Direct/indirect objects are preposed: This book we don't have.
15. There is a preference for 'also' over 'too'
16. Chinese particles, such as lah and aa, are a common means of conveying emphasis and emotion: You wait me, aa? (Will you
wait for me?)

17. Words borrowed from regional languages: makan (food).-non-English interjections: ay yaah! (suggest exasperation), che!
(express irritation or regret)
South Africa
1. Tendency to raise vowels such as "a, e, ä" so as to get /de'de/ for daddy.
2. Stress of /r/ in clusters such as /kr, gr,tr, dr/
Spanish
1. There are no voiceless consonant blends beginning with "S"; consequently, an "e" sound will precede these blends. street >
estreet, school > eschool
2. There is no SH sound. It becomes CH. shoe > choe
3. The letters R and RR are formed in the front of the mouth and are trilled.
4. The letter H has no sound. The letter J always carries the H sound as does G before the vowels E or I.
5. The sound TH exists in Spanish, but the letters TH are never used together. D will have the TH sound wherever possible in a
Spanish sentence. In Spanish, Z and C (before E or I ) carry the sound TH.
6. In many cases V will sound like a soft B sound. have> hab
Tagalog
1. The letter V has a B sound. vest > best; vat > bat
2. The letter J has a Y sound. jam > yam
3. S and Z have the S sound. zip > sip; zebra > sebra
4. All words ending in TAIN have the same sound as the ending of the word "maintain." fountain > fountain
5. The TH sound is difficult.
6. Voiceless initial TH sounds like T. think > tink
7. Voiced initial TH sounds like D. these > dese
8. Final TH sounds like T. tooth > toot
9. The letter F has a P sound. fan > pan
Thai
1. Voiced final consonants in English are omitted.
2. Multiple final consonant clusters are impossible.
3. Voiceless consonant blends at the beginning of English words are difficult. ESL students will tend to voice them. stop >
sadop; spend > sabend
4. The TH sound does not exist in the Thai language.
5. Voiceless initial TH becomes T. three > tree
6. Voiced initial TH becomes D. that > dat
7. Voiceless final TH becomes T. with > wit
8. The letter V has a W sound. visit > wisit
9. The letters R and L are interchanged because they sound the same. free > flee; fly > fry
10. CH sounds like SH. cheep > sheep
Turkish 1. There are no initial consonant clusters in Turkish.
1. Insert a vowel before or after the S. store > istore or sitore
2. The TH sound does not occur in Turkish.
3. Voiceless initial TH becomes S or T. thin > sin or tin
4. Voiced TH becomes Z or D. that > zat or dat
3. The letters V and W are confusing. V is especially difficult to produce before vowels.
4. W is replaced by oo as in noon. white > ooite
5. Words ending in B, D, or G will be substituted with P, T, or K respectively. nab > nap; lid > lit; pig > pik
6. Where P, T, or K occur in the middle of a word, B, D, or G will be substituted. dipper > dibber; butter > budder; bicker >
bigger
Vietnamese
1. Pronunciation may be choppy for ESL students because the English language has so many words of more than one syllable.
2. The TH sound is difficult.
3. Voiceless initial TH can become T or S. think > tink or sink

19
© 2002 Steven Donahue

4. Voiced initial TH can become Z. that > zat


5. CH has the Sh sound. cheep > sheep
6. The L can have the sound of R. load > road
7. The letter D is confusing. It may be replaced by J, Y, or Z. dig > zig; jig > yig or zig

20
© 2002 Steven Donahue

Step Three: Master English Consonants


Hamlet. Speak the speech, I pray you, as I pronounc’d it to you, trippingly on the tongue;
--Shakespeare

There are about 29 consonants in English. Consonants cannot be made alone, but only
with nearby vowels. For example, you cannot make just the B sound without saying BEE
or EBB or something like that. The 21 Consonant letters in the English alphabet are B,
C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Z, and sometimes Y . But the letter Y
can stand for the consonant [j] in "yes" or for the vowel [i] in "myth.”.

With only 21 English alphabet consonants, but 29 sounds in English, we need to use a
special alphabet to refer to all of the sounds. This alphabet is the IPA or International
Phonetic Alphabet. You will notice that it does not have, for example, a C because a C
either sounds like a K or an S.

Some Consonants can also act as vowels at times. For example, in the word “mit,” the m
is a true consonant, but in the word “prism,” it acts as a vowel.

21
© 2002 Steven Donahue

ENGLISH CONSONANTS
No. IPA Examples
1. p English pen
2. b English but
3. t English two
4. d English do
5. tʃ English chair, nature
6. dʒ English gin, joy
7. k English cat, kill, queen
8. g English go, get
9. f English fool, enough
10
.
v English voice
11
.
θ English thing
12
.
ð English this
13
.
s English see, pass , city
14
.
z English zoo, roses
15
.
ʃ English she, sure, emotion
16
.
ʒ English pleasure
17
.
h English ham
18
.
m English man
19
.
n English no
20
.
ŋ English singer, ring
21
.
l English left
22
.
ɫ English milk “Dark L”
23
.
r English run, very

22
© 2002 Steven Donahue

24
.
ɾ US English better
25
.
w English we
26
.
j English yes
27
.
ʔ bottle
28
.
ʍ what

Dear Dr. Pronunciation,

I work for one of the most powerful men in America. His initials are GB. As you know,
there is a brewing crisis over North Korea. In major addresses, my boss keeps calling
that region “The Korean Peninsular.” But when he says Peninsular, it sounds like “Ben’s
-SHOE-lar”—an embarrassment for sure. Keep in mind that my boss has his finger on
the button, and I don’t want him to go ballistic. The North Koreans have been translating
his speeches as Ben’s Shoe and are becoming extremely belligerent at the continuing
verbal insult. How can I help him out linguistically and prevent WWIII?

Ben’s Shoe

Dear Ben’s Shoe,

This is an interesting pronunciation problem on many levels. These are similar to


“Spoonerisms” named after William Archibald Spooner (1844-1930) who was a famous
mis-pronouncer of sentences. Spooner would say things like: “ Let me sew you to your
sheet, “ meaning “Let me show you to your seat.”

23
© 2002 Steven Donahue

Your boss is probably taking the rule for words like “Ensure” and “Insure” where
the initial vowel plus the N sound is followed by a SH sound. He is also mixing up the B
and P sounds. Possibly, the word INSURE or ENSURE is on the tip of your boss’ tongue,
and is interfering with the target word: Pennisula, where the S is used instead of SH. He
or she should practice these words:

Bush Bash
Insert Insure it
Insulate He’s sure late
George Gorge
She Sea
Shrew Sue

Perhaps all diplomatic communications in this hot spot should be prefaced with
the proverb “The apple does not fall far from the tree.” By the time they translate this, a
major diplomatic controversy should be averted.

Dr. Pronunciation

CONSONANTS

1. /p/

This consonant is a voiceless stop.

DIRECTIONS

1. Relax lower jaw


2. Let tip of tongue rest behind lower teeth
3. Close lips firmly against each other so as to stop air from leaving mouth
4. Quickly release build up of pressure.

24
© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


pea p}iy
reaper riyp@r
peep p}iyp
pit p}It
lippy lIpiy
rip rIp
poise p}Oyz
opal owp}@l
cowpoke kawpowk

COMPARISONS

/p/ Phonetic /b/ Phonetic


pea p}iy bee biy
reaper riyp@r Reba riyb@
peep p}iyp plebe pliyb
pit p}It bit bIt
lippy lIpiy Libby lIbiy
rip rIp rib rIb
poise p}Oyz boys bOyz
opal owp}@l global glowb@l

25
© 2002 Steven Donahue

cowpoke kawpowk cowboy kawbOy

2. /b/

Dear Dr. Pronunciation,

My husband, who is of Hispanic extraction, keeps confusing words like “Pea” and
“Bee”. Actually, all of his “Ps” sound like “Bs.” I feel like I am living in an I Love Lucy
episode. Please help us with this embarrassing speech pattern.

P-Less in Detroit

Dear P-Less,

This is a common problem with speakers whose first language is Spanish. Hold up a
piece of paper and say the word “ Pea”. There should be a breath of air that moves the
paper. (Don’t cheat and shake the paper with your hand!) Now, have your husband try it
with this series of words:

Pete Beat
Pill Bill
Pan Ban
Poor Boor
Pet Bet

. Counsel him that there needs to be a burst of air with the English P at the
beginning of the word. For everyone he gets right, give him a kiss. For everyone he gets
wrong, blow on his cheek.

Dr. Pronunciation

26
© 2002 Steven Donahue

This consonant is a voiced stop.

DIRECTIONS:

1. Relax lower jaw


2. Let tip of tongue rest behind lower teeth
3. Close lips firmly against each other so as to stop air from leaving mouth
4. Quickly release build up of pressure
5. Vibrate vocal chords

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


bee biy
Reba riyb@
plebe pliyb
bit bIt
Libby lIbiy
rib rIb
boys bOyz
global glowb@l
cowboy kawbOy

COMPARISONS

27
© 2002 Steven Donahue

/p/ Phonetic /b/ Phonetic


pea p}iy bee biy
reaper riyp@r Reba riyb@
peep p}iyp plebe pliyb
pit p}It bit bIt
lippy lIpiy Libby lIbiy
rip rIp rib rIb
poise p}Oyz boys bOyz
opal owp}@l global glowb@l
cowpoke kawpowk cowboy kawbOy

3. /t/

This consonant is a voiceless stop.

DIRECTIONS:

1. Relax lower jaw


2. Let tip press firmly against upper gum ridge, behind the front teeth.
3. Quickly drop the tongue as the air is expelled.

28
© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


teen tiyn
till tIl
tents tEnts
heating hiytIÎ
bitter bIt@r
renting rEntIÎ
beat biyt
sit sIt
set sEt

COMPARISONS

/t/ Phonetic /d/ Phonetic


teen tiyn dean diyn
till tIl dill dIl
tents tEnts dents dEnts
heating hiytIÎ heeding hiydIÎ
bitter bIt@r bidder bId@r
renting rEntIÎ rending rEndIÎ
beat biyt bead biyd
sit sIt Sid sId
set sEt said sEd

29
© 2002 Steven Donahue

63. /d/

This consonant is a voiced stop.

DIRECTIONS:

1. Relax lower jaw


2. Let tip press firmly against upper gum ridge, behind the front teeth.
3. Quickly drop the tongue as the air is expelled.
4. Vibrate vocal chords.

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING

30
© 2002 Steven Donahue

dean diyn
dill dIl
dents dEnts
heeding hiydIÎ
bidder bId@r
rending rEndIÎ
bead biyd
Sid sId
said sEd

COMPARISONS

/t/ Phonetic /d/ Phonetic


teen tiyn dean diyn
till tIl dill dIl
tents tEnts dents dEnts
heating hiytIÎ heeding hiydIÎ
bitter bIt@r bidder bId@r
renting rEntIÎ rending rEndIÎ
beat biyt bead biyd
sit sIt Sid sId
set sEt said sEd

64. /k/

This consonant is a voiceless stop.

DIRECTIONS:

1. Relax lower jaw


2. Rest tongue lightly behind lower teeth
3. Raise the back of the tongue toward the soft palate
4. Stop the air flow
5. Quickly drop the tongue as the air is expelled

31
© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


keys kiyz
Meeker mIk@r
leek liyk
kilt kIlt
wrecker wrEk@r
back b{k
curl k@rl
buck b@k
cod kad

COMPARISONS

/k/ Phonetic /g/ Phonetic


keys kiyz geezer giyz@r
Meeker mIk@r meagre miyg@r
leek liyk league liyg
kilt kIlt guilt gIlt
wrecker wrEk@r reggae rEgey
back b{k bag b{g
curl k@rl girl g@rl
buck b@k bug b@g
cod kad God gad

32
© 2002 Steven Donahue

65. /g/

This consonant is a voiced stop.

DIRECTIONS:
1. Relax the lower jaw
2. Open the mouth slightly.
3. Raise the back of the tongue towards the roof of the mouth
4. Stop the air stream
5. Quickly drop the tongue and release the air.
6. Vibrate the vocal chords.

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


geezer giyz@r
meagre miyg@r
league liyg
guilt gIlt
reggae rEgey
bag b{g
girl g@rl
bug b@g
God gad

COMPARISONS

/k/ Phonetic /g/ Phonetic


keys kiyz geezer giyz@r
Meeker mIk@r meagre miyg@r
leek liyk league liyg

33
© 2002 Steven Donahue

kilt kIlt guilt gIlt


wrecker wrEk@r reggae rEgey
back b{k bag b{g
curl k@rl girl g@rl
buck b@k bug b@g
cod kad God gad

66. /T/

This consonant is a voiceless interdental fricative.

DIRECTIONS

1. Relax lower jaw


2. Let tip of tongue rest between the upper and lower teeth.
3. Keep the tongue in contact with the upper molars.
4. Direct air over the tongue and under the top teeth.

34
© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


theme Tiym
arithmetic @rITm@tIk
pith pIT
thatch T{T
catheter k{T@t@r
bath b{T
thigh Tay
oath’s owTs
thousand TowZ@nd

COMPARISONS
/T/ Phonetic /D/ Phonetic
theme Tiym thee Diy
arithmetic @rITm@tIk rhythm rIDIm
teeth tiyT teethe tiyD
thatch T{T that D{t
catheter k{T@t@r gather g{D@r
bath b{T bathe beyD
thigh Tay thy Day
oath’s owTs oaths owDz
thousand TowZ@nd thou Daw

Dear Dr. Pronunciation,

When I met Larry at a “straight” party 10 years ago, I knew that he was gay like me
because of his charming “gay lisp.” Now that we have adopted a 2 year old baby girl
from China, I am terribly afraid that our young daughter will grow up imitating his
speech, and be marked for life. Now, I shudder every time he lisps in front of our child.
What can I do to get his speech back to ‘normal?’
Lisping in Manhattan

Dear Lisping,

35
© 2002 Steven Donahue

The gay lisp is characterized by dentalized or interdental /S/ pattern as an indirect


statement about wanting to identify with, and be a part of, the homosexual community. It
has a number of other features, such as, pursing the lips, touching the teeth with the lips,
and prolonging sounds. Frequently, words like “Steven” come out like “TH-even.” If it is
one of Larry’s goals to correct his speech, have him practice these minimum pairs of
words:

This Sis
So Special Not: ssso sspecial
Shake Not: with “T” ‘Take’
So Gorgeous Not: sooo gooorgeous
Fabulous Ffffabulous

But, you shouldn’t be overly concerned about your daughter’s speech. Children
before puberty will invariably adopt the language that they are in contact with in pre-
school onwards, so you shouldn’t worry too much. Of course, there is more to Gay
speech than just the lisp, so here is your checklist:

67. /D/

This consonant is a voiced interdental fricative.

DIRECTIONS:

1. Relax lower jaw


2. Let tip of tongue rest between the upper and lower teeth.
3. Keep the tongue in contact with the upper molars.
4. Direct air over the tongue and under the top teeth.
5. Vibrate the vocal chords.

36
© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


bee biy
Reba riyb@
plebe pliyb
bit bIt
Libby lIbiy
rib rIb
boys bOyz
global glowb@l
cowboy kawbOy

COMPARISONS

/p/ Phonetic /b/ Phonetic


pea p}iy bee biy
reaper riyp@r Reba riyb@
peep p}iyp plebe pliyb
pit p}It bit bIt
lippy lIpiy Libby lIbiy
rip rIp rib rIb
poise p}Oyz boys bOyz
opal owp}@l global glowb@l
cowpoke kawpowk cowboy kawbOy

37
© 2002 Steven Donahue

68. /s/

This consonant is a voiceless sibilant.

DIRECTIONS:

1. Keep the teeth close together


2. Make the body of the tongue grooved
3. Let the tip of the tongue be free and pointing toward the gum ridge.
4. Sides of tongue may or may not touch sides of upper teeth.
5. Do not vibrate vocal chords.

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


see siy

38
© 2002 Steven Donahue

policing p@liycIÎ
obese owbiys
Sioux suw
Macy meysiy
rejoice r@DOyc
moose muws
bets bEts
sinks sI Îks

COMPARISONS

/s/ Phonetic /z/ Phonetic


see siy Z ziy
policing p@liycIÎ pleasing pliyzIÎ
obese owbiys bees biyz
Sioux suw zoo zuw
Macy meysiy mazey meyziy
rejoice r@DOyc joys jOyz
moose muws moos muwz
bets bEts beds bEdz
sinks sI Îks sings sIÎz

69. /z/

This consonant is a voiced stop.

DIRECTIONS:

1. Keep the teeth close together


2. Make the body of the tongue grooved
3. Let the tip of the tongue be free and pointing toward the gum ridge.
4. Sides of tongue may or may not touch sides of upper teeth.
5. Vibrate vocal chords.

39
© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


Z ziy
pleasing pliyzIÎ
bees biyz
zoo zuw
mazey meyziy
joys jOyz
moos muwz
beds bEdz
sings sIÎz

COMPARISONS

/z/ Phonetic /s/ Phonetic


Z ziy see siy
pleasing pliyzIÎ policing p@liycIÎ
bees biyz obese owbiys
zoo zuw Sioux suw
mazey meyziy Macy meysiy
joys jOyz rejoice r@DOyc
moos muwz moose muws
beds bEdz bets bEts
sings sIÎz sinks sI Îks

40
© 2002 Steven Donahue

70. /S/

Dear Dr. Pronunciation,

I have been happily married to Fidel in Miami for three blissful years. Problems started
when he lost his job last year. He has been thus far unsuccessful in finding a new one. I
think the problem is his heavy Cuban accent. He mixes up his J and Y sounds: he says
that he is looking for a “Yob” and tried the “Majors” office (Mayor). I need some
emergency measures to cure his accent. What can I do?

Yob-less in Miami.

Dear Yob-Less,

First, try a little compassion and tolerance for a foreign accent. In many cases, Americans
find an accent exotic, interesting or sexy. Discriminating based on accent is illegal, so if
he has lost a job due to that, seek legal counseling. Have him practice this series of
words, shouting them in the bathroom (with the door closed), as loud as he can:

- --
Rich Reach
Rich Ridge
Age Edge
Wretch Ratch
Job Profession; Position; Opening

Dr. Pronunciation
This consonant is a voiceless palato-alevolar fricative continuant.

DIRECTIONS:
1. Relax lower jaw
2. Raise tip and blade of tongue to gum ridge without touching it
3. Touch sides of tongue to upper teeth.
4. Arch front of tongue
5. Direct breath over tip of tongue in a narrow stream
6. Keep lips neutral
7. Do not vibrate vocal chords.

41
© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


she Siy
shut S@t
shrew Sruw
ocean owS@n
Russia r@S@
tissue tISuw
essential @sEnS@l
racial reyS@l
fashion f{S@n

COMPARISONS

/S/ Phonetic /Z/ Phonetic


she Siy genre Zanrey
shut S@t Zsa Zsa ZaZa
shrew Sruw gendarme Zandarm
ocean owS@n leisure liyZUr
Russia r@S@ vision viyZ@n
tissue tISuw regime r@Ziym
essential @sEnS@l prestige pr@stiyZ
racial reyS@l camouflage k{m@flaZ
fashion f{S@n beige beyZ

42
© 2002 Steven Donahue

71. /Z/

This consonant is a voiced patato-alevolar fricative continuant.

DIRECTIONS:
1. Relax lower jaw
2. Raise tip and blade of tongue to gum ridge without touching it
3. Touch sides of tongue to upper teeth.
4. Arch front of tongue
5. Direct breath over tip of tongue in a narrow stream
6. Keep lips neutral
7. Vibrate vocal chords.

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


genre Zanrey
Zsa Zsa ZaZa

43
© 2002 Steven Donahue

gendarme Zandarm
leisure liyZUr
vision viyZ@n
regime r@Ziym
prestige pr@stiyZ
camouflage k{m@flaZ
beige beyZ

COMPARISONS

/S/ Phonetic /Z/ Phonetic


she Siy genre Zanrey
shut S@t Zsa Zsa ZaZa
shrew Sruw gendarme Zandarm
ocean owS@n leisure liyZUr
Russia r@S@ vision viyZ@n
tissue tISuw regime r@Ziym
essential @sEnS@l prestige pr@stiyZ
racial reyS@l camouflage k{m@flaZ
fashion f{S@n beige beyZ

72. /h/

This consonant is a voiceless glottal fricative consonant

DIRECTIONS

1. relax lower jaw


2. rest tongue behind lower teeth
3. emit a puff of air through mouth.

44
© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


he hiy
heavy hEviy
hurry h@riy
height hayt
huge huwD
whore hOr
Houston hyust@n
humid hYumId
who huw

/h/ Phonetic No “H” Phonetic


hair heyr air eyr
heart hart art art
hear hiyr ear iyr
hand h{nd and {nd
inhibit InhIb@t inhibition In@bIS@n
prohibit prowhIb@t prohibition prow@bIS@n
historic hIstOrIk prehistoric priyIstOrIk

73. /y/

Dear Dr. Pronunciation,

45
© 2002 Steven Donahue

My Dominican girlfriend and I love to go swimming and Roller Blading on the


boardwalk. However, much to my embarrassment in front of my ‘Gringo’ friends,

46
© 2002 Steven Donahue

she pronounces “Beach” to rhyme with “Pitch” (as in the female dog) and calls our
favorite sport “Roller Bleeding.” I’m at the end of my linguistic rope. What can I do to
cure her speech faux pas?

No Blood on the Tracks

- --

Dear No Blood,

Your girlfriend has a vowel “problema”. She does not discriminate the long EE sound
from the short I sound. Have her practice these words:

Rip Reap
Pip Peep
Crypt Creep
Fist Feast
Pit Pete

You should encourage her to use synonyms for words she has not yet conquered in
English: Seashore, Ocean, etc. If that fails, remember that The Greek orator
Demosthenes had a lisp. Legend has it that he put pebbles in his mouth, went to the beach
and screamed as loud as he could over the ocean’s roar. That might be a fun thing for you
to do.

---

This consonant is a voiced palatal consonant glide.

DIRECTIONS:

1. Let lower jaw hang relaxed


2. rest tip of tongue behind lower teeth.
3. Arch front of tongue toward hard palate.
4. As sound is produced, quickly drop tongue down.

47
© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


yes yEs
yet yEt
yell yEl
yam y{m
you yuw

young y@®
yowl yawl
reuinion riyuwny@n
Dracula dr{kyul@

COMPARISONS

/y/ Phonetic /D/ Phonetic


yes yEs jest DEst
yet yEt jet DEt
yell yEl gel Del
yam y{m jam D{m
you yuw Jew Duw
young y@® junk D@Îk
yowl yawl jowl wl
reuinion riyuwny@n rejuvenate r@Duwv@neyt
Dracula dr{kyul@ tragic tr{DIk

48
© 2002 Steven Donahue

74. /w/

Dear Dr. Pronunciation,

I’ve fallen in love with a Brazilian man, and we are now engaged. I am returning with
him to make introductions to my family that lives in Wisconsin. But I’m afraid that the
visit is going to explode in my face because my father is a stuffy English teacher and a
pronunciation maven. Yet, Erico, my lover is unable to say even the word “Wisconsin”
correctly—it sounds like “Vees-Coe-Sin.” Please give me some emergency advice for his
accent and save my wedding day!

Tongue-tied in Rio.

---

Dear Tongue-Tied,

Pardon the expression, but your primary accent should be on nurturing your budding
relationship by instilling confidence into your lover as he crosses over to another culture.
Portuguese, the language of Brazil, happens to not have a W sound, so Erico is probably
substituting the U sound—or something in between a U and a V. In addition,
Portuguese is very nasal, while American English is not—so he is probably passing over
the N sound in the middle of the word. Sit down with him and show him how to make a
full W sound. Put your hands on his face so that he says it fully—“Double U” and “Wah
Wah Wah” like a baby. Then blind fold him and say these words:

Wheel Veal
Whale Vail
Worse Verse
Wet Vet
We “V”
Womb Voom

49
© 2002 Steven Donahue

Then have him lift his right hand if he hears a W; Left for V. If his score is over 50%--
give him a passionate kiss and get on to the altar.
This consonant is a voiced bilabial consonant glide.

DIRECTIONS:
1. Relax the lower jaw
2. Rest tongue behind lower teeth
3. Round lips
4. Arch back of tongue as for vowel sound /uw/

50
© 2002 Steven Donahue

5. Lips move to shape of following vowel (always followed by a vowel in English)


6. Vibrate vocal chords

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


weed wiyd
witch wIT
wig wiyg
wit wIt
wither wID@r
weather wED@r
wet wEt
wealth wElT
wend wEnd

COMPARISONS
w Phonetic ÷ Phonetic v Phonetic
we’ll wiyl wheel ÷iyl veal viyl
witch wIT which ÷IT vale veyl
wit wIt whit ÷It vim vIm
women wIm@n whim ÷Im vim vIm
worse w@rs when ÷En verse v@rs
weed wiyd wheat ÷iyt Vedic viydIk
wet wEt whet ÷Et vet vEt
why way whine ÷ayn vine vayn
wile wayl while ÷ayl vile vayl

51
© 2002 Steven Donahue

75. /÷/

Dear Dr. Pronunciation,

I am the secretary to a well-known college president. He is a great guy, but he has an


extremely heavy accent. Most of the times this is not an issue, as he is a great
communicator. However, one of his favorite words is “Focus.” When he makes a major
speech and uses this word, it sounds like, well, the synonym for “Screw Us.” How can I
diplomatically get him to pronounce his favorite word correctly?

Screwed-in-Miami

- --

Dear Screwed,

Actually, you are not “screwed.” Your president is using the wrong vowel for this word.
Instead of using OW, he is using the short vowel , UH. The best synonym for this word
is, perhaps, “Concentrate.” In addition, you can try mis-pronouncing this word in front of
him several times, nonchalantly, and see if he subconsciously picks up on it. If he needs
some practice words, suggest these:

Focus Use: Concentrate


Bowl Bawl
Tone Tan
Vogue Vague
Owe awe

- --

52
© 2002 Steven Donahue

This consonant is a voiceless bilabial consonant glide..

DIRECTIONS:

1. Relax the lower jaw


2. Rest tongue behind lower teeth
4. Round lips
5. Arch back of tongue as for vowel sound /uw/
6. Lips move to shape of following vowel (always followed by a vowel in English)

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


wheel ÷iyl
which ÷IT
whit ÷It
whim ÷Im
when ÷En
wheat ÷iyt
whet ÷Et
whine ÷ayn
while ÷ayl

COMPARISONS

53
© 2002 Steven Donahue

w Phonetic ÷ Phonetic v Phonetic


we’ll wiyl wheel ÷iyl veal viyl
witch wIT which ÷IT vale veyl
wit wIt whit ÷It vim vIm
women wIm@n whim ÷Im vim vIm
worse w@rs when ÷En verse v@rs
weed wiyd wheat ÷iyt Vedic viydIk
wet wEt whet ÷Et vet vEt
why way whine ÷ayn vine vayn
wile wayl while ÷ayl vile vayl

76. /f /

This consonant is a voiceless labio-dental fricative continuant.

DIRECTIONS:

1. Let lower jaw hang relaxed.


2. Touch tongue to back of lower teeth.
3. Press lower lip to edges of upper lip.
4. Force out air between teeth and lower lip.

54
© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


fees fiyz
beefy biyfI
sheaf Siyf
fervor f@rv@r
perfume p@rfyum
fane feyn
focal fowk@l
fear fI@r
fire us fayr@s

COMPARISONS
f Phonetic v Phonetic p Phonetic
fee fiy vee viy pea piy
fat f{t vat v{t pat p{t
fast f{st vast v{st past p{st
few fyuw view vyuw pew pyuw
coffee cafiy covey k@viy copy kapiy
loaf lowf loave lowv lope lowp
scarf skarf carve karv carp karp
Sheaffer Sef@r shaver Seyv@r shaper Seyp@r
woeful wowf@l oval owv@l opal owp@l

77. /v/

This consonant is a voiced labio-dental fricative continuant.

DIRECTIONS:
1. Let lower jaw hang relaxed.
2. Touch tongue to back of lower teeth.

55
© 2002 Steven Donahue

3. Press lower lip to edges of upper lip.


4. Force out air between teeth and lower lip.
5. Vibrate vocal chords.

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


vee viy
van v{n
voo vuw
vie vay
veer vI@r
have h{v
civility s@vIl@tiy
Venus viyn@s
strive strayv

COMPARISONS

f Phonetic v Phonetic b Phonetic


fee fiy vee viy bee biy
fan f{n van v{n ban b{n
few do fyuwduw voodoo vuwduw boohoo buwhuw
fie fay vie vay buy bay
fear fI@r veer vI@r beer bI@r
half h{f have h{v rehab riyh{b
affinity @fIn@tiy civility s@vIl@tiy ability @bIl@tiy
feed us fiyd@s Venus viyn@s bean us biyn@s
strife strayf strive strayv tribe trayb

56
© 2002 Steven Donahue

78. /m/

This consonant is a voiced bilabial nasal continuant consonant.

DIRECTIONS

1. Bring lips together gently.


2. Relax lower jaw
3. Relax tongue on floor of mouth
4. Lower the soft palate
5. Resonate through the nasal passage

WORDS

57
© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


me miy
match m{T
mud m@d
moo muw
maul ma@l
mob mab
jamming D{mIÎ{
cab k{b
tub t@b

COMPARISONS
/m/ Phonetic /b/ Phonetic
me miy bee biy
match m{T batch b{T
mud m@d bud b@d
moo muw boo buw
maul ma@l bawl bawl
mob mab bob bab
jamming D{mIÎ{ jabbing j{bIÎ
cam k{m cab k{b
tum t@m tub t@b

79. / n/

This consonant is a voiced alveolar continuant consonant sound.

DIRECTIONS:

1. Let lower jaw be relaxed.


2. Relax and lower soft palate
3. Touch tip of tongue to gum ridge
4. Resonate vibrated breath through nasal passage

58
© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


nil nIl
nub n@b
neigh ney
no now
runner r@n@r
raining reynIÎ
seen siyn
den dEn
pane peyn

COMPARISONS

/n/ Phonetic /d/ Phonetic


nil nIl dill dIl
nub n@b dub d@b
neigh ney day dey
no now doe dow
runner r@n@r rudder r@d@r
raining reynIÎ raiding reydIÎ
seen siyn seed siyd
den dEn dead dEd
pane peyn paid peyd

80. /l/

This consonant is a voiced alveolar lateral continuant.

59
© 2002 Steven Donahue

DIRECTIONS:

1. Relax the jaw


2. Open the mouth
3. Broaden the tongue
4. Put the tip of the tongue on the gum ridge
5. Let air pass over sides of tongue.

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


lap l{p
leap liyp
lick lIk
loquacious lowkweyS@s
low low
silly sIliy
relish rElIS
valley v{liy
foliage fOylID

COMPARISONS

/l/ Phonetic /r / Phonetic


late leyt rate reyt
cloud klawd crowd krawd
glue gluw grew gruw
lime laim rhyme raym
alive @layv arrive @raiv
play pley pray prey
blush bl@S brush br@S
fly flay fry fray
glass gl{s grass gr{s

60
© 2002 Steven Donahue

81. /Î/

61
© 2002 Steven Donahue

This consonant is a voiced velar nasal continuant.

DIRECTIONS:

1. Let lower jaw hang relaxed


2. Lower soft palate
3. Raise back of tongue as for sounds /k/ and /g/
4. Maintain contact while air resonates through nasal cavity

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


English IîlIS
ping pIÎ
bing bIÎ
clung kl@Î
tongue t@Î
length leyÎT
shrink SrIÎk
precincts priysIÎks
banks b{Îks

COMPARISONS

/Î/ Phonetic /n/ Phonetic


English IîlIS nil nIl
ping pIÎ nub n@b
bing bIÎ neigh ney
clung kl@Î no now
tongue t@Î runner r@n@r
length leyÎT raining reynIÎ
shrink SrIÎk seen siyn
precincts priysIÎks den dEn
banks b{Îks pane peyn

62
© 2002 Steven Donahue

82. / tS /

This consonant is a voiceless affricate.

DIRECTIONS:
1. Let the lower jaw hang relaxed
2. Have the upper and lower teeth almost touch
3. Blend a quick /t/ sound followed by /S/
4. Arch front of tongue
5. Direct breath over tip of tongue in a narrow stream
6. Protrude the lips slightly
7. Do not vibrate vocal chords.

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


each iyT
rich rIT

63
© 2002 Steven Donahue

wretch wrET
catch k{T
birch b@rT
much m@T
blotch blaT
aitch eyT
coach kowT

COMPARISONS

/ T/ Phonetic /D/ Phonetic


each iyT siege siyD
rich rIT ridge rID
wretch wrET dredge drED
catch k{T cadge c{D
birch b@rT Burge b@rD
much m@T smudge sm@D
blotch blaT lodge laD
aitch eyT age eyD
coach kowT cogent kowD@nt

83. /D S /

This consonant is a voiced affricate.


DIRECTIONS:
1. Let the lower jaw hang relaxed
2. Have the upper and lower teeth almost touch
3. Blend a quick /t/ sound followed by /S/
4. Arch front of tongue
5. Direct breath over tip of tongue in a narrow stream
6. Protrude the lips slightly
7. Vibrate vocal chords.

64
© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


siege siyD
ridge rID
dredge drED
cadge c{D
Burge b@rD
smudge sm@D
lodge laD
age eyD
cogent kowD@nt

COMPARISONS

/T/ Phonetic /D/ Phonetic


each iyT siege siyD
rich rIT ridge rID
wretch wrET dredge drED
catch k{T cadge c{D
birch b@rT Burge b@rD
much m@T smudge sm@D
blotch blaT lodge laD
aitch eyT age eyD
coach kowT cogent kowD@nt

84.
/ r/

"
This consonant is a voiced post-alveolar fricative continuant.

DIRECTIONS:
METHOD I METHOD II

1. Relax the jaw 1. Relax the jaw


2. Place tongue behind tongue ridge 2. Bunch back of tongue

65
© 2002 Steven Donahue

3. Curl tip backwards

66
WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


rate reyt
crowd krawd
grew gruw
rhyme raym
arrive @raiv
pray prey
brush br@S
fry fray
grass gr{s

COMPARISONS

/l/ Phonetic /r/ Phonetic


late leyt rate reyt
cloud klawd crowd krawd
glue gluw grew gruw
lime laim rhyme raym
alive @layv arrive @raiv
play pley pray prey
blush bl@S brush br@S
fly flay fry fray
glass gl{s grass gr{s

85. /à /

This consonant is a voiced lateral continuant. It is called “dark l”. When /l/ follows a vowel, as in ball /baà/, the tongue has more
contact with the upper teeth and has a different characteristic than intial /l/.

DIRECTIONS:

1. Relax the jaw


2. Open the mouth
3. Broaden the tongue
4. Put the tip of the tongue on the gum ridge
5. slide the sides of the tongue back along the upper teeth.
6. Let air pass over sides of tongue.
WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


eel iyà
meal miyà
we’ll wiyà
he’ll hiyà
ill Ià
pill pIà
Jill D Ià
hell hEà
curl k@rà

COMPARISONS

/l / Phonetic /à/ Phonetic


leaf liyf eel iyà
leash liyS meal miyà
lilly lIliy we’ll wiyà
little lit@à he’ll hiyà
lisp lIsp ill Ià
lit lIt pill pIà
limn lIm Jill D Ià
lend lEnd hell hEà
ladle leyd@l curl k@rà
86. /?/

This consonant is a glottal stop.

DIRECTIONS:
1. Tighten vocal cords
2. Close the glottis
3. Cut off the flow of air for an instant.
WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


oh oh! (dismay) o?o
kitten kiy?@n
button b@?n
uh-oh (trouble) ?@?ow
sudden s@?dn
bidden bI?dn
uh-uh (no) ?@?@

COMPARISONS

/?/ Phonetic /t/,/d/ Phonetic


kitten kiy?@n kitten kIt@n
button b@?n button b@t@n
sudden s@?dn sudden s@d@n
bidden bI?dn bidden bIdEn

87. /Q/

This consonant is a flap or a tap..

DIRECTIONS:
1. Briefly touch the gum ridge with the tongue.
WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


data deyQ@
city cIQiy
party parQiy
dirty d@rQiy
catty k{Qiy
ladder l{Q@r

butter b@Q@r

COMPARISONS

/?/ Phonetic /t/,/d/ Phonetic


dirty d@rQiy dirty d@rtiy
catty k{Qiy catty k{tiy
ladder l{Q@r ladder l{d@r
butter b@Q@r butter b@t@r

" " " "


88. / t/ /n/ /d/ /l/

These consonants are syllabic consonants. They function as a syllable without an accompanying vowel. They occur when a syllable
ends in /t/,/d/,/n/, or/l/ and the next syllable is unstressed and contains an /l/ or /n/.

DIRECTIONS:
1. Bring tongue in contact with gum ridge
2. Force the tongue to remain in contact
3. Make the following /l/ or /n/ sound.
.
WORDS

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


little lItl
sudden s@dn
saddle s{dl
cotton katn
kettle kEQl
tunnel t@nl
shouldn’t SUdnt

COMPARISONS

/?/ Phonetic /t/,/d/ Phonetic


kitten kiy?@n kitten kIt@n
button b@?n button b@t@n
sudden s@?dn sudden s@d@n
bidden bI?dn bidden bIdEn

89. / t9/ /d/ These consonants are dentalized consonants. They are formed when /t/ or /d/ are produced with the

9 9
tongue resting on the back of the front upper teeth rather than on the alveolar ridge (gum ridge).
WORD PHONETIC SPELLING
teen tiyn
till tIl
tents tEnts
heating hiytIÎ
bitter bIt@r
renting rEntIÎ
beat biyt
sit sIt
set sEt

WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


dean diyn
dill dIl
dents dEnts
heeding hiydIÎ
bidder bId@r
rending rEndIÎ
bead biyd
Sid sId
said sEd

Vowels

VOWELS

Vowels are produced by the continual vibration of the vocal cords. The air is allowed to escape the mouth without interruption.

US
ɑ father
i see
ɪ city
ɛ bed
ɜ˞ bird
æ bad, cat
ɑr arm
ʌ2 run, enough
ɑ not, cough
ɔ law , caught
ʊ put
u soon, through
ə1 about

US
e(
day
ɪ)
aɪ my
oɪ boy
o(
no
ʊ)
aʊ now
ir near , here
er hair, there
ur tour
ju pupil
44. /iy/
This is the highest front vowel in English.

DIRECTIONS

1. Press the sides of the tongue against the upper bicuspid (two-pointed) teeth and the roof of the mouth.
2. You may press the tip of the tongue against the cutting edge of the lower front teeth.
3. The upper and lower teeth almost touch.
4. The lips spread, almost in a tight smile.
5. Air escapes between the narrow opening of the tongue and front teeth.
6. The muscle under your jaw is somewhat tight.
COMPARISON

/iy/ Phonetic / I/ Phonetic


deed diyd did dId
teams tiymz Tim’s tImz
keen kiyn kin kIn
green griyn grin grIn
glean gliyn glint glInt
clean kliyn din dIn
demeaned d@miyn@d mint mInt
leave liyv live (v) lIv
bean biyn been bIn

45. /I/

This vowel is just below /i/ on the vowel chart.

DIRECTIONS

1. Drop the jaw and relax it slightly.


2. Relax the pressure of the tongue against the upper bicuspids.
3. The forced smile of the /i/ vowel is relaxed.
4. The muscle under the jaw is somewhat lax.
/i/ Phonetic /I/ Phonetic /ey/ Phonetic
reap riyp rip rIp ace eys
antique antiyk tick tIk eight yet
peep piyp pip pIp bay bey
creep kriyp crypt krIpt gay gey
feast fiyst miss mIs save seyv
reef riyf fist fIst fail feyl
Pete piyt bit bIt laid leyd
eat iyt mint mInt inane Ineyn
keen kiyn din dIn hay hey

46 /ey/

Down and back of /I/ is the vowel /ey/. This vowel is really a diphthong and is its diphthongization is greatest in final position,
when followed by a voiced consonant, or when pronounced with a slide at the end of an intonation unit.

DIRECTIONS

1. The jaw drops a little more than in /I/


2. The sides of the tongue press slightly against the upper bicuspids.
3. The mouth opens just a little wider
4. The lips are open and relaxed
5. At the end of this vowel, the tongue moves upward toward /iy/
COMPARE

/ey/ Phonetic /E/ Phonetic /{/ Phonetic


ate yet tech tEk grand gr{nd
rain reyn pep pEp gland gl{nd
pray prey fest fEst Dan d{n
great greyt left lEft ban b{n
gauge geyD pet pEt bat b{t
cliché klISey bet bEt lavish l{v@S
ballet baley effort Ef2t crass kr{s
matinee m{tIney kettle kEt@l cat c{t
blame bleym pest pEst attack @t{k

Caesar's/ scissors
Scenically/ cynically
Cervices/ services
Forefeet/ forfeit
Liter/ litter
lever /liver
Parsees/ passes
Reason/ risen
re-sole/ rissole
Streaked/ strict
Treacle/ trickle
Tureen/ Turin.

antique/antic artistes/artists bailees/baileys


antiques/antics axes/axes bargees/barges
Aries/eyries B's/biz bases/bases
artiste/artist bailee/bailey bases/basses
beach/bitch deems/dims he's/his
beached/bitched deep/dip heal/hill
beaches/bitches deeper/dipper heals/hills
beaching/bitching deeps/dips heap/hip
bead/bid defect/defect heaps/hips
beading/bidding defects/defects heat/hit
beads/bids defile/defile heater/hitter
beaker/bicker defiles/defiles heats/hits
beakers/bickers defuse/diffuse heating/hitting
bean/bin defused/diffused heed/hid
beans/bins dilettanti/dilettante/ heel/hill
beat/bit draftee/draughty heels/hills
beaten/bitten DTs/ditties jean/djinn
beats/bits E's/is jeans/djinns
beater/bitter e'en/in Jean/djinn
beaters/bitters e'en/inn jean/gin
beech/bitch each/itch jeans/gins
beef/biff ease/is Jean/gin
beefed/biffed eat/it jeep/gyp/
beefing/biffing eats/its jeeps/gyps/
beefs/biffs eats/it's keel/kill
been/bin eel/ill keeled/killed
bees/biz eels/ills keeling/killing
beet/bit ellipses/ellipsis/ keels/kills
beets/bits feast/fist keen/kin
beta/bitter feasts/fists keep/kip
betas/bitters feat/fit keeper/kipper
bleats/blitz feats/fits keepers/kippers
bleep/blip feel/Phil keeping/kipping
bleeps/blips feel/fill keeps/kips
bootee/booty feeling/filling Keith/kith
breaches/breeches feelings/fillings keyed/kid
bream/brim feels/fills kneel/nil
Caesars/scissors fees/fizz lead/lid
cc/sissy feet/fit leads/lids
ceased/cyst field/filled leafed/lift
ceases/cissies fleet/flit leak/lick
cede/Sid fleeting/flitting leaked/licked
Celia/sillier fleets/flits leaking/licking
cervices/services forefeet/forfeit leaks/licks
cheap/chip foresees/forces lean/Lynn
cheat/chit freely/frilly leap/lip
cheats/chits frees/frizz leaped/lipped
cheek/chick freezes/frizzes leaps/lips
cheeks/chicks freezing/frizzing leas/Liz
cheep/chip freesia/frizzier leased/list
cheeped/chipped freeze/frizz least/list
cheeping/chipping frieze/frizz leave/live
cheeps/chips gelatine/gelatin/ leaves/lives
crease/Chris/ Gene/djinn leaving/living
clique/click/ gene/djinn leavings/livings
cliques/clicks/ genes/djinns Leeds/lids
colleen/Colin/ Gene/gin leek/lick
creak/crick gene/gin leeks/licks
creaked/cricked genes/gins lees/Liz
creaking/cricking glebe/glib lever/liver
creaks/cricks greased/grist levers/livers
crease/Chris greed/grid lied/lit
creek/crick green/grin litre/litter
creeks/cricks greens/grins litres/litters
Deal/dill greet/grit leas/Liz
deal/dill greeted/gritted mead/mid
dean/din greeting/gritting meal/mill
deans/dins greets/grits meals/mills
decoy/decoy grippe/grip/ measles/mizzles
decoys/decoys grippes/grips meat/mitt
deed/did guarantee/guaranty meats/mitts
deem/dim guarantees/guaranties Meath/myth
deemed/dimmed he'd/hid meek/Mick
deeming/dimming he'll/hill mealie/Millie
meet/mitt rebounds/rebounds sheen/shin
meets/mitts reed/rid sheep/ship
mete/mitt reeds/rids sheet/shit
metes/mitts reef/riff sheeting/shitting
neap/nip reefed/rift sheets/shits
neaps/nips reefs/riffs Sikh/sic
neat/knit/ reek/rick Sikh/sick
neater/knitter/ reeks/ricks Sikhs/sicks
neat/nit reeked/ricked Sikhs/six
Neil/nil reeked/ricked skeet/skit
Parsees/passes reeking/ricking skeets/skits
peace/piss reek/wrick ski'd/skid
peach/pitch reeked/wricked sleek/slick
peached/pitched reeking/wricking sleeker/slicker
peaches/pitches reeks/wricks sleekest/slickest
peaching/pitching reel/Rhyl sleeks/slicks
peak/pick reel/rill sleep/slip
peaked/picked reels/rills sleeper/slipper
peaking/picking refund/refund sleepers/slippers
peaks/picks refunds/refunds sleeping/slipping
peaks/pyx reject/reject sleeps/slips
peal/pill rejects/rejects sleepy/slippy
peals/pills re-join/rejoin sleet/slit
peat/pit re-joined/rejoined sleeting/slitting
peek/pick re-joins/rejoins sleets/slits
peeked/picked re-mark/remark sneak/snick
peeking/picking re-marks/remarks sneaked/snicked
peeks/picks re-marked/remarked sneakers/snickers
peeks/pyx re-marking/remarking sneaking/snicking
peel/pill re-proof/reproof sneaks/snicks
peels/pills re-proofs/reproofs speak/spick
peeler/pillar reseed/recede steal/still
peelers/pillars reseeded/receded stealing/stilling
peep/pip reseeds/recedes steals/stills
peeping/pipping reseeding/receding steel/still
peeped/pipped re-sole/rissole steeled/stilled
peeps/pips re-soles/rissoles steels/stills
peke/pick Rheims/rims steely/stilly
pekes/picks Riga/rigger steeple/stipple
pekes/pyx Riga/rigour steeples/stipples
penis/pinnace scene/sin stelae/stilly
penises/pinnaces scenes/sins streaked/strict
Pete/pit scenic/cynic/ teak/tic
pique/pick scenically/cynically/ teak/tick
piqued/picked schema/skimmer teal/till
piquing/picking schemas/skimmers team/Tim
piques/picks scheme/skim teases/tizzies
piece/piss schemed/skimmed teat/tit
pieced/pissed schemer/skimmer teats/tits
pieces/pisses schemes/skims teem/Tim
piecing/pissing scheming/skimming teen/tin
peal/pill seal/sill teens/tins
piques/pyx seals/sills teenier/tinnier
prima/primmer sealer/Scylla teeniest/tinniest
PT/pity sealers/Scyllas teeny/tinny
queen/quin seat/sit teeter/titter
queens/quins seater/sitter teetered/tittered
reach/rich seats/sits teetering/tittering
reaches/riches seating/sitting teeters/titters
read/rid seed/Sid treacle/trickle
reading/ridding seek/sic trustee/trusty
reads/rids seek/sick tureen/Turin
ream/rim seeking/sicking 'tween/twin
reams/rims seeks/sicks tweet/twit
reap/rip seeks/six tweeted/twitted
reaped/ripped seen/sin tweeter/twitter
reaping/ripping seep/sip tweeters/twitters
reaps/rips seeped/sipped tweeting/twitting
reason/risen seeping/sipping V's/viz
rebound/rebound seeps/sips warrantee/warranty
warrantees/warranties week/Wick wheels/wills
we'll/will week/wick wheeze/whizz
weak/wick weeks/wicks wheezed/whizzed
weaker/wicker weeny/whinny wheezes/whizzes
weal/will weep/whip wheezing/whizzing
weals/wills weeping/whipping wield/willed
weald/willed weeps/whips weeny/Winnie
wean/whin wees/whiz wreak/rick
wean/win wheat/whit wreaked/ricked
weans/wins wheat/wit wreaks/ricks
weaned/wind wheel/will wreak/wrick
weaner/winner wheeled/willed wreaked/wricked
weaning/winning wheeling/willing wreaks/wricks

47. /EI

Below /ey/ is this vowel. Unlike /ey/ it is not diphthongized.

DIRECTIONS

1. The tongue DOES NOT touch the bicuspids with pressure.


2. The jaw is lowered from the position for /ey/
3. Allow the tip of the tongue to relax behind the lower front teeth.
4. Arch the tongue half-high.
5. The lips are in a neutral position.

COMPARE:

/I/ Phonetic /E/ Phonetic /{/ Phonetic


it It tech tEk grand gr{nd
did dId pep pEp gland gl{nd
kin kIn fest fEst Dan d{n
din dIn left lEft ban b{n
litter lIt@r pet pEt bat b{t
riff rIf bet bEt lavish l{v@S
rich rIT effort Ef2t crass kr{s
pistol pIst@l kettle kEt@l cat c{t
rip rIp pest pEst attack @t{k
acetic ascetic
beacon beckon
ceiling selling
heedless headless
meeker Mecca
Peking pecking
weeding wedding
yield yelled

acetic/ascetic ee/ /leagues/legs


beacon/beckon eels/L's/ /leaguing/legging
/beacons/beckons e'en/N/ lean/Len/
bead/bed ekes/X/ leaned/lend
/beading/bedding eland/Elland/ leans/lens
/beads/beds Ely/Ellie/ leaped/leapt
beak/beck Eva/ever leas/Les/
beaks/becks feed/fed/ lease/less
bean/ben/ fee/fell leased/lest
/beans/bens /feeler/feller least/lest
beast/best /feeling/felling Leeds/leads
/beasts/bests /feels/fells lees/Les
beat/bet feeler/fellah lied/let/
/beater/better fees/fez liege/ledge/
/beaters/betters f(o)eta/fettle /lieges/ledges/
/beating/betting field/felled lip-read/lip-read
/beats/bets fiend/fend/ Lisa/lesser
beater/bettor /fiends/fends/ litre/letter/
/beaters/bettors force-feed/force-fed /litres/letters/
been/ben freed/Fred/ mead/Med/
beet/bet geese/guess mean/men
/beets/bets gene/gen/ meanie/many/
beta/better /genes/gens meat/Met/
/betas/betters genie/Jenny meats/Metz/
beta/bettor /genies/jennies meed/Med
/betas/bettors glean/glen/ meeker/Mecca
bleed/bled/ /gleans/glens meet/met
breastfeed/breastfed/ hea/hell meets/Metz
breed/bread healed/held mete/met
breed/bred heals/hells metes/Metz
cede/said Heanor/henna mien/men
ceiling/selling heap/hep mislead/misled
cheek/check he'd/head misread/misread
/cheeked/checked/ heed/head neat/net
/cheeking/checking/ /heeded/headed neat/nett
/cheeks/checks /heeding/heading/ neatly/Netley/
cheek/cheque /heeds/heads need/Ned
/cheeks/cheques heedless/headless/ needy/Neddy/
cheek/Czech he'l/hell Nei/knell
/cheeks/Czechs hee/hell Nei/Nell
cleanly/cleanly /heels/hells Nice/ness
cleans/cleanse heeled/held niece/ness
cleaver/clever interbreed/interbred/ /nieces/nesses/
crease/cress jean/gen overfeed/overfed/
creased/crest /jeans/gens overleaped/overleapt
crossbreed/crossbred/ Jeanie/Jenny peak/peck
C's/says keen/ken/ /peaked/pecked
dea/dell /keened/kenned /peaking/pecking
/deals/dells /keening/kenning /peaks/pecks
dean/den /keens/kens peat/pet
/deans/dens knead/Ned/ peaty/petty
deceiver/dissever knee/knell /peatier/pettier
/deceivers/dissevers knee/Nell /peatiest/pettiest
deed/dead/ lead/lead Peebles/pebbles
deep/dep /leading/leading peek/peck
D's/Des /leads/leads /peeked/pecked
each/etch lead/led /peeking/pecking
Easter/Esther leafed/left /peeks/pecks
eat/ate/ league/leg peep/pep
/peeped/pepped /seals/sells undersea/undersell
/peeping/pepping /sealer/seller wea/well
/peeps/peps /sealers/sellers /weals/wells
peeper/pepper sealer/cellar/ weald/weld
/peepers/peppers /sealers/cellars/ /wealds/welds
peke/peck seas/says weald/welled
/pekes/pecks seat/set wean/wen
Peking/pecking /seating/setting /weans/wens
Pete/pet /seats/sets wean/when
pieced/pest/ seat/sett weaned/wend
pique/peck/ /seats/setts we'd/wed
/piqued/pecked/ seed/said weed/wed
/piques/pecks/ seek/sec/ /weeded/wedded/
/piquing/pecking/ seek/sec /weeding/wedding/
plead/pled /seeks/secs /weeds/weds/
priest/pressed/ seeks/sex we'l/well
proofread/proofread seeped/Sept/ wheat/wet/
reach/retch sees/says wheat/whet
/reached/retched seize/says whee/well
/reaches/retches sheaf/chef/ /wheeled/welled
/reaching/retching she'd/shed /wheeling/welling
reach/wretch she'l/shell /wheels/wells
/reaches/wretches shield/shelled/ wheeled/weld
read/read siege/sedge wheeling/welling/
read/red /sieges/sedges/ wield/weld
/reader/redder signor/se~nor /wielded/welded/
/reads/reds Sikh/sec /wielding/welding/
reading/Reading/ /Sikhs/secs /wields/welds
reap/rep Sikhs/sex wield/welled
reaps/reps speak/spec wreak/wreck
reed/read /speaks/specs /wreaked/wrecked
reed/red speak/speck /wreaking/wrecking
/reeds/reds /speaks/specks /wreaks/wrecks
reedy/ready/ speed/sped/ wreaks/Rex
/reedier/readier/ spoonfeed/spoonfed/ yield/yelled
/reediest/readiest/ steam/stem
reef/ref /steamed/stemmed
reefed/reft /steaming/stemming
reek/wreck /steams/stems
/reeked/wrecked steed/stead/
/reeking/wrecking steely/stele
/reeks/wrecks steep/step
reeks/Rex/ /steeped/stepped
reeve/rev/ /steeping/stepping
/reeves/revs /steeps/steps
repea/repel steep/steppe
/repealed/repelled /steeps/steppes
/repealing/repelling suite/sweat
/repeals/repels /suites/sweats
re-present/represent sweet/sweat
/re-presented/represented /sweets/sweats
/re-presenting/representing sweeter/sweater/
/re-presents/represents sweetie/sweaty/
re-read/re-read teak/tec
reseat/reset teak/Tech/
/reseating/resetting tea/tel
/reseats/resets tea/tell
Riesling/wrestling teed/Ted
scenes/sends teen/ten/
sea/cel/ /teens/tens/
/seals/cells/ Tina/tenner
sea/sell Tina/tenor
/sealing/selling treed/tread/

assist
assessed
cinder
sender
innovate
enervate

listening
lessening
livid
levied
middle
medal
sickened
second
symmetry
cemetery

agin/again/ clinch/clench /fills/fells


assist/assessed/ /clinched/clenched fin/fen
axis/access/ /clinches/clenches /fins/fens
below/bellow /clinching/clenching Finn/fen
bid/bed conviction/convection /Finns/fens
/bidding/bedding crypt/crept fitted/fetid
/bids/beds decayed/decade fitter/fetter
big/beg depose/depots /fitters/fetters
bigger/beggar descant/descant fizz/fez
bill/bell /descants/descants /fizzes/fezes
/billed/belled Dick/deck flick/fleck
/billing/belling dicker/decker /flicked/flecked
/bills/bells /dickers/deckers /flicking/flecking
bill/belle did/dead /flicks/flecks
/bills/belles differ/deafer flicks/flex
billow/bellow differential/deferential gild/geld
/billowed/bellowed /differentially/deferentiall /gilded/gelded
/bellowing/billowing y /gilding/gelding
/billows/bellows dill/dell /gilds/gelds
billy/belly din/den gill/gel
/billies/bellies /dins/dens /gills/gels
bin/ben dint/dent gill/jell
/bins/bens /dints/dents /gills/jells
bit/bet dip/dep gin/gen
/bits/bets disc/desk /ginned/genned
bitter/better /discs/desks /ginning/genning
/bitters/betters disparate/desperate /gins/gens
bitter/bettor disposition/dispossession gist/jest
/bitters/bettors djinn/gen /gists/jests
bliss/bless /djinns/gens guild/geld
blithering/blethering escort/escort /guilds/gelds
build/belled /escorts/escorts gym/gem
built/belt excise/excise /gyms/gems
chick/check exploit/exploit hick/heck
/chicks/checks /exploits/exploits /hicks/hecks
chick/cheque export/export hid/head
/chicks/cheques /exports/exports hill/hell
chick/Czech expose/expos /hills/hells
/chicks/Czechs extract/extract him/hem
Chris/cress /extracts/extracts hip/hep
cinder/sender fib/Feb hither/heather
/cinders/senders fill/fell hymn/hem
cliff/clef /filled/felled /hymned/hemmed
/cliffs/clefs /filling/felling /hymning/hemming
/hymns/hems lintel/lentil /pinned/penned
id/ed /lintels/lentils /pinning/penning
if/eff Linz/Lents /pins/pens
if/f lipped/leapt pinny/Penny/
ilk/elk list/lest //pinnies/pennies/
ill/l listen/lessen pip/pep
ills/l's /listened/lessened /pipped/pepped
immigrant/emigrant /listening/lessening /pipping/pepping
/immigrants/emigrants /listens/lessens /pips/peps
immigrate/emigrate listen/lesson pissed/pest
/immigrated/emigrated /listens/lessons pit/pet
/immigrates/emigrates lit/let /pits/pets
/immigrating/emigrating litter/letter /pitting/petting/
immigration/emigration /littered/lettered pity/petty
/immigrations/emigrations /littering/lettering pitied/petted
imminent/eminent /litters/letters position/possession
/imminence/eminence livid/levied/ /positions/possessions
/imminently/eminently Liz/Les primmest/premised/
impress/empress Lois/loess pyx/pecks
/impresses/empresses Lynn/Len quill/quell
in/n mid/Med /quills/quells
/ins/n's middle/medal record/record
infield/Enfield /middles/medals /records/records
inflict/inflect middle/meddle rich/retch
/inflicted/inflected /middled/meddled /riches/retches
/inflicting/inflecting /middles/meddles rich/wretch
/inflicts/inflects /middling/meddling/ /riches/wretches/
infliction/inflection milt/melt rick/wreck
/inflictions/inflections mint/meant /ricked/wrecked
inn/n miss/mess /ricking/wrecking
/inns/n's /missed/messed /ricks/wrecks
innovate/enervate /missing/messing/ ricks/Rex
/innovated/enervated /missy/messy/ Ricky/recce
/innovating/evervating mist/messed rid/read
/innovates/enervates mitt/met rid/red
into/enter mitts/Metz /rids/reds
it/ate myths/meths ridden/redden
itch/etch nick/neck ridding/Reading/
/itched/etched /nicked/necked ridge/Reg
/itches/etches /nicking/necking riff/ref
/itching/etching /nicks/necks rift/reft
Jill/gel nil/knell rip/rep
Jill/jell nil/Nell /rips/reps
Jim/gem nit/net rip/repp
jimmy/jemmy /nits/nets Scylla/cellar
/jimmies/jemmies nit/nett /Scyllas/cellars
jinn/gen /nits/netts Scylla/seller
jinns/gens nix/necks /Scyllas/sellers
kilt/Celt Phil/fell shilling/shelling
/kilts/Celts pick/peck sic/sec
kin/ken /picked/pecked sick/sec
kindle/Kendal /picking/pecking /sicks/secs
kipped/kept /picks/pecks sicked/sect
kitsch/ketch picker/pecker sickened/second
knit/net /pickers/peckers sicks/sex
/knitted/netted piddle/pedal Sid/said
/knitting/netting /piddled/pedalled signora/senora
/knits/nets /piddles/pedals /signoras/senoras
knit/nett /piddling/pedalling sill/cell
/knits/netts piddle/peddle /sills/cells
lid/lead /piddled/peddled sill/sell
/lids/leads /piddles/peddles /sills/sells
lid/led /piddling/peddling since/sense
lift/left pig/peg sinned/send
limning/lemming /pigged/pegged sinner/senna
Linda/lender /pigging/pegging sins/sends
lint/leant /pigs/pegs sipped/Sept
lint/Lent piggy/Peggy/ sit/set
lint/lent pin/pen /sits/sets
/sitting/setting /tilling/telling win/wen
/sittings/settings /tills/tells /wins/wens
sit/sett tiller/teller win/when
/sits/setts /tillers/tellers /wins/when's
sitter/setter tin/ten wince/whence
/sitters/setters /tins/tens winch/wench
six/secs tinder/tender /winched/wenched
six/sex tinned/tend /winching/wenching
/sixes/sexes tint/tent /winches/wenches
skip/skep /tints/tents wind/wend
/skips/skeps trick/trek /winded/wended
slid/sled /tricked/trekked /winding/wending
slipped/slept /tricking/trekking /winds/wends
spick/spec /tricks/treks windy/Wendy/
spick/speck trimmer/tremor wit/wet
spill/spell /trimmers/tremors /wits/wets
/spilled/spelled victor/vector wit/whet
/spilling/spelling /victors/vectors /wits/whets
/spills/spells vintner/Ventnor wither/weather
spilt/spelt whin/wen /withered/weathered
stiller/Stella whin/when /withering/weathering
stiller/stellar whipped/wept /withers/weathers
swill/swell whist/west wither/wether
/swilled/swelled whit/wet /withers/wethers
/swilling/swelling /whits/wets wither/whether
/swills/swells whit/whet wrick/wreck
sylph/self /whits/whets /wricked/wrecked
symmetry/cemetery/ whither/weather /wricking/wrecking/
tic/tec whither/wether /wricks/wrecks
tic/tech whither/whether wricks/Rex
tick/tec will/well wrist/rest
/ticks/tecs /willed/welled /wrists/rests
tick/tech /willing/welling wrist/wrest
/ticks/techs /wills/wells /wrists/wrests
tics/techs willed/weld writ/ret
till/tel wilt/welt /writs/rets
till/tell /wilts/welts
48. /{/

This is the last of the front vowels.

DIRECTIONS:

1. Relax and lower the jaw


2. Let the mouth be as wide as possible without forcing it
3. The tongue is practically flat
4. Make a light contact is made between the lower teeth and the tongue
COMPARE:

/I/ Phonetic /a/ Phonetic /{/ Phonetic


it It pot pat grand gr{nd
did dId father faD@r gland gl{nd
kin kIn box baks Dan d{n
din dIn calm cam ban b{n
litter lIt@r pa pa bat b{t
riff rIf fob fab lavish l{v@S
rich rIT ma ma crass kr{s
pistol pIst@l hot hat cat k{t
rip rIp dot dat attack @t{k

breezier brassi`ere
diesels dazzles
greenery granary
keyless callous
seaman salmon
seedling saddling

beach/batch beast/bast/ beets/bats


beaches/batches beat/bat/ beetle/battle/
bead/bad/ beating/batting/ beetled/battled/
bead/bade beats/bats beetles/battles/
beak/back/ beaten/batten/ beetling/battling/
beaks/backs/ beater/batter/ beta/batter
beaker/backer/ beaters/batters/ betas/batters
beakers/backers/ beech/batch betel/battle
bean/ban beeches/batches betels/battles
beans/bans been/ban bleak/black/
beans/banns/ beet/bat bleaker/blacker/
bleakest/blackest/ Ely/alley leaking/lacking
breed/brad E's/as leaks/lacks
breeds/brads Eve/Ave/ leaks/lax
breezier/brassi`ere feat/fat leaky/lackey
cedar/sadder feats/fats leaned/land
cede/sad feed/fad leap/lap
cheap/chap/ feeds/fads leaped/lapped
cheat/chat/ feet/fat leaping/lapping
cheated/chatted/ fiend/fanned leaps/laps
cheating/chatting/ fleet/flat leaps/lapse
cheats/chats/ fleetly/flatly lease/lass
cheap/chap fleetness/flatness leases/lasses
cheep/chap fleets/flats leash/lash
cheeped/chapped/ fleeter/flatter leashes/lashes
cheeping/chapping/ fleetest/flattest leave/lav
cheeps/chaps/ geese/gas leaves/lavs
cheese/Chas/ gene/Jan leech/latch
cheetah/chatter gleaned/gland leeches/latches
cheetahs/chatters grebe/grab Leeds/lads
chic/shack grebes/grabs leek/lack
clean/clan greenery/granary leeks/lacks
cleans/clans/ G's/jazz leeks/lax
clique/clack/ greenery/granary Leix/lash
cliques/clacks/ he'd/had lied/lat
creak/crack he'll/Hal lieder/ladder
creaked/cracked heal/Hal litre/latter
creaking/cracking heap/hap mead/mad
creaks/cracks heaped/happed mean/man
cream/cram/ heaping/happing meanly/manly
creamed/crammed/ heaps/haps meaning/manning
creaming/cramming/ he's/has means/mans
creams/crams/ heat/hat meaner/manna
crease/crass heats/hats meaner/manner
creek/crack heater/hatter meaner/manor
creeks/cracks heaters/hatters meat/mat
creep/crap/ heath/hath meats/mats
creeping/crapping/ heave/have meat/matt
creeps/craps/ heaves/haves meed/mad
dean/Dan heaving/having meek/mac
deed/dad heed/had meet/mat
deeds/dads heel/Hal meeting/matting
deem/dam Jean/Jan meets/mats
deeming/damming keen/can meet/matt
deeming/damming keened/canned/ mete/mat
deems/dams keening/canning/ meted/matted
deem/damn keens/cans/ metes/mats
deemed/dammed keen/Cannes meting/matting
deeming/damming keener/canna mete/matt
deems/damns keep/cap/ meter/matter
deeper/dapper keeping/capping/ meters/matters
diesel/dazzle keeps/caps/ meeting/matting
diesels/dazzles Keith/Cath/ metre/matter
dream/drachm keyed/cad/ metres/matters
dreams/drachms keyless/callous/ mien/man
dream/dram keyless/callus miens/mans
dreams/drams kilo/callow/ neap/knap
ease/as leach/latch neaps/knaps
eastern/Aston/ leached/latched neap/nap
Easter/aster leaches/latches neaps/naps
Easters/asters leaching/latching neat/Nat
eat/at/ lead/lad neat/gnat
eater/attar/ leads/lads neater/natter
edict/addict/ leader/ladder overleap/overlap
edicts/addicts/ leaders/ladders overleaped/overlapped
eel/Al/ league/lag overleaping/overlapping
e'en/Ann/ leagued/lagged overleaps/overlaps
e'en/an leagues/lags peach/patch
eked/act/ leaguing/lagging peached/patched
ekes/ax/ leak/lack peaches/patches
Ely/Ali/ leaked/lacked peaching/patching
peak/pack reeks/racks treed/trad
peaked/packed reek/wrack weak/whack
peaking/packing Rheims/rams weaker/whacker
peaks/packs Rita/ratter week/whack
peaked/pact scenes/sans weeks/whacks
peaks/pax scream/scram weeks/wax/
peal/pal screamed/scrammed wreak/rack
peals/pals screaming/scramming wreaked/racked
pealed/palled screams/scrams wreaks/racks
pealing/palling screech/scratch wreaking/racking
peat/pat screeched/scratched wreak/wrack
peaty/Patty screeches/scratches
peed/pad screeching/scratching
peek/pack seaman/salmon
peeked/packed seam/Sam
peeking/packing seaman/salmon
peeks/packs seamen/salmon
peeked/pact seamy/Sammy
peeks/pax seat/sat
peel/pal seed/sad
peeled/palled seedling/saddling
peeling/palling seek/sac
peels/pals seeks/sacs
peeler/pallor seeks/sax
peke/pack seek/sack
pekes/packs seeking/sacking
pekes/pax seeks/sacks
Peking/packing seem/Sam
penal/panel seep/sap
peep/pap seeped/sapped
Pete/Pat seeping/sapping
Peter/patter seeps/saps
peter/patter semen/salmon
petered/pattered sepia/sappier
petering/pattering she'd/shad
peters/patters she'll/shall
pique/pack sheet/shat
piqued/packed Sikh/sac
piques/packs Sikhs/sacs
piquing/packing Sikh/sack
piqued/pact Sikhs/sacks
piques/pax Sikhs/sax
plead/plaid skeet/scat
pleads/plaids sleek/slack
pleat/plait sleeked/slacked
pleated/plaited sleeker/slacker
pleating/plaiting sleekest/slackest
pleats/plaits sleeking/slacking
quiche/cache sleekly/slackly
quiches/caches/ sleekness/slackness
quiche/cash sleeks/slacks
quiches/cashes sleep/slap
reach/ratch sleeping/slapping
reaches/ratches sleeps/slaps
ream/ram sleet/slat
reams/rams sleets/slats
reap/rap sleeted/slatted
reaped/rapped sneak/snack
reaping/rapping sneaks/snacks
reaps/raps steamer/stammer
reaped/rapt steamers/stammers
reap/wrap teak/tack
reaping/wrapping teat/tat
reaped/wrapped teats/tats
reaps/wraps teen/tan
reaper/wrapper teens/tans
reapers/wrappers teeter/tatter
reek/rack teetered/tattered
reeked/racked teeters/tatters
reeking/racking Tina/tanner
49. /a/

This is the lowest vowel in English.

DIRECTIONS:

1. Lower the jaw below a normal relaxed position


2. Make the lips wide open
3. The tongue touches the floor of the mouth.
4. The back of the tongue arches up a bit towards the throat.

COMPARE:

/@/ Phonetic /a/ Phonetic /{/ Phonetic


alive @laiv pot pat grand gr{nd
sofa sOf@ father faD@r gland gl{nd
telephone tEl@fown box baks Dan d{n
possible pas@b@l calm cam ban b{n
oppose @powz pa pa bat b{t
Confucius k@nfyuS@s fob fab lavish l{v@S
labyrinth l{b@rInT ma ma crass kr{s
national n{S@n@l hot hat cat c{t
chorus kOr@s dot dat attack @t{k
50. /uw/

While /i/ is the highest vowel possible at the front of the mouth, /u/ is the highest vowel at the back of the mouth. After the
sound begins, there is an upward and backward glide of the tongue.

DIRECTIONS

1. Round and protrude the lips as much as possible


2. Draw back the tongue as far as comfortable keeping it high.
3. Touch the tongue along the back upper teeth
4. Tense the muscle under the jaw

COMPARE

/i/ Phonetic /uw/ Phonetic


deed diyd rude ruwd
teams tiymz blew bluw
keen kiyn fruit fruwt
green griyn ooze uwz
glean gliyn do duw
clean kliyn soup suwp
demeaned d@miyn@d shoe Suw
leave liyv threw Truw
bean biyn chew Tuw

51. /U/

DIRECTIONS
1. The lips are rounded but less than for the vowel /u/
2. The tips of the lower teeth are close to the upper teeth.
3. The back of the tongue is slightly arched but not as high as /u/
4. The back of the tongue may just touch the upper tooth ridge
5. The muscle under the jaw is relaxed

COMPARE
/uw/ Phonetic /U/ Phonetic /@/ Phonetic
rude ruwd book bUk alive @laiv
blew bluw wolf wUf sofa sOf@
do duw could cUd telephone tEl@fown
ooze uwz pull pUl possible pas@b@l
soup suwp cook cUk oppose @powz
shoe Suw sugar sUg@r Confucius k@nfyuS@s
threw Truw Brooklyn brUklIn labyrinth l{b@rInT
shampoo Sampuw hood hUd national n{S@n@l
kangaroo kaÎ@ruw spook spUk chorus kOr@s

51. /ow/

This vowel consists of two sounds: an initial “o” sound and a “w” sound at the end.

DIRECTIONS

1. Form the lips in the shape of the letter O


2. Relax the jaw
3. Bunch or arch the tongue in the back of the mouth
4. Purse the lips more as the second sound of the diphthong is produced.

COMPARISON
/uw/ Phonetic /O/ Phonetic /ow/ Phonetic
rude ruwd all Ol bethroth b@TrOT
blew bluw draw drO drove drOv
do duw flaunt flOnt bowl bOwl
ooze uwz ball bOl tone tOn
soup suwp ought Ot gnome nOm
shoe Suw awe O vogue vOg
threw Truw jawed DOd abode abOd
shampoo Sampuw thought TOt woe wO
kangaroo kaÎ@ruw sausage sOs@D toe tO

53. /O/

This back vowel is second lowest back vowel. The lowest is /a/. However, the lip position for /a/ entails more widening of the
lips.

DIRECTIONS:

1. Relax the lower jaw.


2. Relax the tongue tip behind the lower teeth.
3. Open the mouth an inch or less across and half an inch high.
4. Bunch the tongue a little in the back of the mouth. Arch the back of the tongue half low toward the soft palate.

COMPARISON

/a/ Phonetic /ow/ Phonetic /@/ Phonetic /O/ Phonetic


pot pat bethroth b@TrOT alive @laiv audition OdIS@n
father faD@r drove drOv sofa sOf@ autumn Ot@m
box baks bowl bOwl telephone tEl@fown austere OstIr
calm cam tone tOn possible pas@b@l alright Owrait
pa pa gnome nOm oppose @powz nautical nOt@k@l
fob fab vogue VoG Confucius k@nfyuS@s applaud Oplad
ma ma abode abOd labyrinth l{b@rInT awe O
hot hat woe wO national n{S@n@l awkward OkwIrd
dot dat toe tO chorus kOr@s call cOà

54. /ay/

This diphthong begins as the /a/ vowel and moves upward towards /iy/.

DIRECTIONS:

1. Relax the lower jaw.


2. Place the tip of the tongue behind the lower front teeth.
3. Arch the front of the tongue forward and low for the first sound /a/
4. Glide the tongue towards the weak second element /i/
5. During this this glide move the jaw from open to half open

COMPARISON

/ay/ Phonetic /aw/ Phonetic /Oy/ Phonetic


eyes ayz now naw boy bOy
despise dIspayz prow praw voice voys
alibis {lIbayz gown gawn oyster Oyst@r
surmise sIrmayz house haws Freud frOyd
thighs Tayz owl awl buoyant bOy@nt
shies Sayz vow vaw oil Oyl
rise rayz Tao taw toys tOys
surprised s@prayz@d Mao maw joys Doyz
white ÷ait mouths mawTs Goya gOy@
55. /aw/

This diphthong begins as the /a/ vowel and moves upward and backward toward /U/.

DIRECTIONS:

1. Relax the lower jaw.


2. Place the tip of the tongue behind the lower front teeth.
3. Arch the front of the tongue forward and low for the first sound /a/
4. Glide the tongue towards the weak second element /U/
5. During this this glide move the jaw from open to half open
6. Move the lips from a relaxed position to a round position

COMPARISON

/ay/ Phonetic /aw/ Phonetic /Oy/ Phonetic


eyes ayz now naw boy bOy
despise dIspayz prow praw voice voys
alibis {lIbayz gown gawn oyster Oyst@r
surmise sIrmayz house haws Freud frOyd
thighs Tayz owl awl buoyant bOy@nt
shies Sayz vow vaw oil Oyl
rise rayz Tao taw toys tOys
surprised s@prayz@d Mao maw joys Doyz
white ÷ayt mouths mawTs Goya gOy@
56. /Oy/

This vowel begins as /O/ and glides toward /iy/.

Directions:
1. Relax the lower jaw.
2. Place the tip of the tongue behind the lower front teeth.
3. Arch the front of the tongue forward and low for the first sound /O/
4. Glide the tongue towards the weak second element /iy/
5. During this glide move the jaw from open to almost closed.
6. Move the lips from a relaxed position to a round position

COMPARISON

/ay/ Phonetic /aw/ Phonetic /Oy/ Phonetic


eyes ayz now naw boy bOy
despise dIspayz prow praw voice voys
alibis {lIbayz gown gawn oyster Oyst@r
surmise sIrmayz house haws Freud frOyd
thighs Tayz owl awl buoyant bOy@nt
shies Sayz vow vaw oil Oyl
rise rayz Tao taw toys tOys
surprised s@prayz@d Mao maw joys Doyz
white ÷ayt mouths mawTs Goya gOy@
57 . /@/
This vowel is neither a front or back vowel, but it is produced centrally. This is the most common vowel in spoken English and
is referred to as “schwa”.

DIRECTIONS

1. Relax the jaw .


2. Slightly spread the lips
3. Place the tongue behind the lower front teeth but do not touch anything.
4. Make sure that all muscles are relaxed.

COMPARISON

/a/ Phonetic /U/ Phonetic /@/ Phonetic /O/ Phonetic


pot pat book bUk alive @laiv audition OdIS@n
father faD@r wolf wUf sofa sOf@ autumn Ot@m
box baks could cUd telephone tEl@fown austere OstIr
calm cam pull pUl possible pas@b@l alright Owrait
pa pa cook cUk oppose @powz nautical nOt@k@l
fob fab sugar sUg@r Confucius k@nfyuS@s applaud Oplad
ma ma Brooklyn brUklIn labyrinth l{b@rInT awe O
hot hat hood hUd national n{S@n@l awkward OkwIrd
dot dat would wUd chorus kOr@s call cOà

58. /@r/
This vowel is the combination of two sounds. The initial sound is very short and barely heard. Nonphonemic variants of this
sound occur in spoken English: [bÅd] stressed and followed by r, and [faD2] unstressed and followed by r.

DIRECTIONS

1 Relax the jaw .


5. Slightly spread the lips
6. Place the tongue behind the lower front teeth but do not touch anything.
7. Make sure that all muscles are relaxed
8. Quickly move to the r sound by either:
(a) turning the tip of the tongue toward the back of the mouth without touching anything.
(b) slide the tongue back on the upper teeth bunching the back of the tongue.

COMPARISON

/@r/ WORD r- sounds WORD


worm w@rm warm wOrm
word w@rd ward wOrd
star st@r steer stI@r
were w@r wear wE@r
burn b@rn barn barn
lurk l@rk lark lark

59. /ö/

This vowel is a nonphonemic variant of schwa. It is usually in stressed syllables.


DIRECTIONS:

1. Relax the jaw .


2. .Slightly spread the lips
3. Place the tongue behind the lower front teeth but do not touch anything.
4. Make sure that all muscles are relaxed

COMPARE

/@/ PHONETIC / ö/ PHONETIC


suppose s@powz sup s öp
sofa s@f@ fun f ön
bazooka b@zuwk@ buzz b öz
Tacoma t@kowm@ tuck t ök
soda sowd@ duck d ök
until @ntIl untilled öntIl@d
cocoon k@kuwn cuckold k ökOld
uh @ up öp

STRESS

Stress results when a syllable is given extra energy. The extra energy may be from a change in pitch or energy or both. The extra
emphasis makes the syllable stand out.
Stress is sometimes called accent. Generally, English tries to avoid having stresses too close together. There is a tendency in English
for the stresses to occur at regular intervals even if this “violates” the stress pattern of a certain word said in isolation. This tendency to
keep regular intervals is called rhythm. Primary stress is indicated by /2/ (AIGU) and secondary stress is shown by /1/.(GRAVE)

28. ONE SYLLABLE

The ten most frequent words ( 25%) in written and spoken English include: the, of, and, to, a, in, that, it, is, and I. These words are
usually unstressed, unless said in citation form or in isolation. These common words tend to be reduced and pronounced as the weak
forms-- /@/ , / I/ , or / U/.
Word Stressed Form Weak Form Example
A /ey/ /@/ In a train.
An /{n/ /@n/ Shoot an arrow
And /{nd/ /@n/ You and I
Are /ar/ /@r/ Who are you?
Can /k{n/ /k@n/ She can go.
Had /h{d/ /@d/ They had to leave.
Has /h{z/ /@z/ She has to speak.
Have /h{v/ /@v/ You have to come.
Of /av/ /@v/ Two of us
Or /Or/ /@r/ Win or lose
That /D{t/ /D@t/ I saw that.
The /Diy/ /D@/ or /Di/ On the shelf
To /tuw/ /t@/ or /tU/ Ten to two
was /waz/ /w@z/ It was fun

29. TWO SYLLABLE (STRESS ON FIRST SYLLABLE)

About 75% of two-syllable words are accented on the first syllable. For words derived from German, many are stressed on the first
syllable. Of the 1,000 most frequent words in English, about 83% are of Germanic origin. Primary stress is indicated by /2/ (AIGU)
and secondary stress is shown by /1/.(GRAVE)

Word Phonetic spelling


NEver nE2v@r
BREAkfast brE2kf@st
MONday m@2ndI
FAther fa2D@r
SISter sI2st@r
FROLic fra2l@k
WISdom wI2zd@m
YELlow YE2low
OFten a2f@n
TWENty twE2ntI
FIFty fI2fti
FINger fI2Î@r
ELbow E2lbow
HAMmer h{2m@r
WATer wa2t@r

30. TWO SYLLABLE ( STRESS ON SECOND SYLLABLE)

Approximately 25% of English words are stressed on the second syllable. Most of these words begin with a prefix. Most of these
words are accented on the second syllable.

Nouns Phonetic Adjectives Phonetic Verbs Phonetic


aWard @wO2rd unHEALthy @nhE2lTi deCLARe D@klE2r
surPRISE s@paI2z berREAVed b@ri2v@d exPLAIN Ekspley2n
proPOSal pr@pow2z@l ASLEEP @sli2p forGET f@rgE2t
ComPLAInt k@mplei2’nt inCREDible InkrE2d@bl obTAIN Abtey2n

31. COMPOUND NOUNS

Compound nouns usually have primary accent on the first part and a secondary accent on the second portion.

Compound Noun Phonetic Spelling


BLACkbird bl{2kb@1rd
BIRD’s –nest b@2rdznE1st
DRUGstore dr@2gstO1r
THOROUghfare T@2r@fE@1r
WEATHerman wE2D@rm{1n
AIRplane E2rpley1n
COWboy kow2bOy2
HOTdog ha1tdO1g

32. COMPOUND VERBS

Unlike compound nouns, compound verbs usually receive secondary stress on the first element and primary stress on the second
component.

COMPOUND VERB PHONETIC SPELLING


underSTAND @1 nd@rst{2and
overLOOK o1wverlU2k
outRUN a1wtr@2n

33. PRONOUNS

Reflexive pronouns receive the stronger accent on the second element.

REFLEXIVE PRONOUN PHONETIC SPELLING


mySELF ma1ysE2lf
yourSELF yU1rsE2lf
himSELF hI1sE2lf
themSELVES DE1msE2lvz

34. NUMBERS

Numbers which end in –teen may receive stress on either syllable. However, for clarity it is recommended to place the stress on the
last syllable.

NUMBER PHONETIC SPELLING


thirTEEN D@1rti2yn
THIRty D@2rtI
fourTEEN fO1ti2yn
FOURty fO2rtI
fifTEEN fI1fti2yn
FIFty fI2ftI
sixTEEN si1ksti2yn
SIXty si2kstI
sevenTEEN sE1v@nti2yn
SEVenty sE2v@ntI
eightTEEN a1yti2yn
EIGHTy a2ytI
nineTEEN na1yti2yn
NINEty na2yntI

35. NOUN VERB PAIRS.

There is a large group of words which may be used as either nouns or verbs. A difference in stress indicates a difference in usage.

NOUN WORD VERB


ka2ns@rt Concert k@ns@2rt
ka2nd@kt Conduct k@nd@2kt
ka2nflIkt Conflict k@nflI2kt
ka2ntEst Contest k@ntE2st
ka2ntr{1kt Contract k@ntr{2kt
ka2ntr{1st Contrast k@ntr{2st
ka2nv2@rt Convert k@nv@2rt
dE2z@rt Desert dIz@2rt
I2nkla1yn Incline Inkla2yn
I2krI1ys Increase IkrI2ys
I2ns@rt Insert Ins@2rt
I2ns@lt Insult Ins@2lt
a2bDIIkt Object @bDE2kt
o2wv@rflo1w Overflow o1wv@rflo2w
p@2rmIt Permit p@rmI2t
prE2z@nt Present prIzE2nt
pra2grIs Progress pr@grE2s
pra2DE1kt Project pr@DE1kt
pro2wtE2st Protest pr@wtE2st
rE2b@l Rebel r@b@2l
rE2k@rd Record rIkO2rd
s@2rve1y Survey s@rve2y

36. POLYSYLLABIC WORDS

Many polysyllabic words in English ending in –ate can be used as an adjective, noun, or verb. If these words are used as an adjective
or a noun, the vowel of the ending is left unstressed and pronounced as /I/ or /@/ . If they are used as a verb, the ending is given
secondary stress and pronounced as the vowel /ey/.

ADJECTIVE OR NOUN WORD VERB


{2dv@kIt advocate {2dv@ke1yt
{2gr@gIt aggregate {2gr@ge1yt
O2lt@rnIt alternate O2lt@rne1yt
{2nImIt animate {2nIme1yt
@pro2prIIt appropriate @pro2prIe1yt
@pra2ksImIt approximate @pra2ksIme1yt
dIlI2b@rIt deliberate dIlI2b@re1yt
dE2s@lIt desolate dE2s@le1yt
Il{2b@rIt elaborate Il{2b@re1yt
E2stImIt estimate E2stIme1yt
gr{2 DUIt graduate gr{2 Due1yt
I2ntImIt intimate I2ntIme1yt
ma2d@rIt moderate ma2d@re2yt
prIsI2pItIt precipitate prIsI2pIte2yt
sE2p@rIt sE2prIt separate sE2p@re1yt

37. PHRASAL VERBS

Phrasal verbs consist of two or three words. They are composed of verbs followed by adverbial particles and/ or prepositions.
Prepositions in phrasal verbs are unstressed. The verb is always stressed. However, the particles following the verb are stressed while
the prepositions are unstressed.
PATTERN ONE
VERB STRESS PREPOSTION PHONETIC SPELLING
LOOK at lU2k{t
TALK about tO2k@bowt
DisPENSE with dIspE2nswIT
ApPROVE of @1pru2v@v
PATTERN TWO
FIGure OUT fI2gy@row2t
DROP OFF dra2pa2f
TAKE Over tey2kow2v@r
LOOK BACK lU2kb{2k
PATTERN THREE
RUN aWAY with r@2n@we2I
WALK OUT on wO2kow2t
TALK DOWN to tO2kdaw2n
GET aHEAD of gE2t@hE2d
38. ADDED SUFFIX

When a suffix is added to a word, the new form is generally stressed on the same syllable as the basic word.

BASIC WORD NEW FORM PHONETIC SPELLING


abandon abandonment @b{2nd@n 
ab{2nd@nm@nt
happy happiness h{2pI  h{2pInIs
reason reasonable rI2yz@n  rI2z@n@b@l

39. SPECIAL ENDINGS

Words ending in :

--ition --ical
--sion -- ity
--ic ---graphy
usually have stress on the syllable preceding the ending.

BASIC WORD NEW FORM PHONETIC SPELLING


contribute contribution k@ntrI2byUt 
ka1ntrIbyu2S@n
biology biological ba1ya2l@DI 
ba1y@la1DIk@l
public publicity p@2blIk 
p@blI2sItI
photograph photograph fo2wt@gr{1f 
f@ta2fr@fI

40. Sentence Stress

Word stress and sentence stress combine to create rhythm in English. Rhythm is the regular beat of stressed syllables, unstressed
syllables and pauses. The length of an utterance depends not on the number of syllables but on the number of stresses.The following
sentences differ in their number of actual syllables, but are equivalent in the number of stresses. Even though the sentences are getting
longer, the time that it takes to say each one is about the same.

SENTENCE PHONETIC SPELLING


dogs eat bones dO2gzi2tbo2wnz
the dogs eat bones D@dO2gzi2tbo2wnz
the dogs will eat bones D@dO2gili2tbo2wnz
the dogs will eat the bones D@dO2gili’2tD@bo2wnz
the dogs will have eaten the bones D@dO2gil@vi2t@nD@bo2wnz

41. CONTENT WORDS

Content words are words that usually carry information and have a meaning in themselves. Content words are usually stressed.

CATEGORY WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


Nouns cat k{2t
Verbs run r@2n
Adjectives brown bra2wn
Adverbs differently dIfr@ntlI2
Demonstratives this TI2s
Interrogatives who ÷u2

42. FUNCTION WORDS

Function words signify grammatical relationships and have little or no meaning by themselves. They are usually unstessed unless the
speaker wants to give them some special emphasis.

CATEGORY WORD PHONETIC SPELLING


Articles the D@
Simple Prepositions of @v
Personal Pronouns I aI
Possessive Adjectives my maI
Relative Pronouns that D{t
Common Conjunctions but b@t
“One” used as a noun substitute one D@blu2w@n
The blue one
Verbs used with auxiliaries be,have,do,will,would, bi,h{v,du,wIl,wUd,S{l,Sud,k{n,k
shall,should,can,could, Ud,maI,maIt,m@st
may, might, must.

43. THOUGHT GROUPS

Rhythm consists of the alternation of stressed syllables, unstressed syllables, and pauses. Almost every sentence has a pause in it when
spoken. So a thought group is a portion of a sentence set off by pauses. Usually, the pauses are indicated by a “/”.

TO CLARIFY
When the wind blows / the cradle will rock
TO EMPHASIZE
Truthfully, / I’m not sure I believe you.
TO BREAK UP A LONG SENTENCE
Intonation Type The professorDescription
wrote a very
of long paper Pattern
Intonation that involved / some intricacies of pronunciation.

1. STATEMENT STATEMENTS or declarative sentences have FALLING Intonation.

2. WH-QUESTION Questions that begin with WH- (What, Who, etc.) have a FALLING pattern.

3. YES-NO QUESTION General Questions that can be answered with a Yes or No usually rise HIGH.
Intonation Patterns in English
4. ECHO QUESTION WH- Questions that rise HIGH mean “Is that really what you said” or “Repeat that.”

5. COMPARISON Both items of a Comparison rise HIGH. One may rise Higher than the other.

6. SUSPENSE If the first part of a sentence end in a rising HIGH pattern, this creates SUSPENSE

7. SERIES (AND) A SERIES of items with AND has the first two items rise HIGH, and the last item
FALLS.
8. ALTERNATIVE QUESTION (OR) ALTERNATIVE Questions with OR that have one item HIGHER than the other require a
choice between the items by the listener.
9. DOUBLE YES-NO QUESTION (OR) DOUBLE YES-NO questions have equally rising HIGH notes on the two items. The
speaker does not necessarily want the listener to choose between the two items.
10. DIRECT ADDRESS In DIRECT ADDRESS, the speaker starts off on a LOW note and the goes up to a HIGH
note.
11. TAG QUESTION--REAL REAL TAG QUESTIONS end with rising HIGH intonation and words such as “Aren’t
you?” and should be answered.
12. TAG QUESTION--RHETORICAL RHETORICAL TAG QUESTIONS end with falling LOW intonation and words such as
“Aren’t you?” and should NOT be answered.
13. FOCUS FOCUS on a particular word in a sentence is indicated by a HIGHER pitch on the word.

14. PERFUNCTORY PERFUNCTORY intonation barely rises HIGH before it FALLS and indicates a lack of
Enthusiasm.
15. ENTHUSIASM ENTHUSIASTIC intonation rises very HIGH before FALLING. It indicates genuine
excitement.
16. COAXING COAXING begins on a HIGH note, comes down to a LOW note, then rises to a
NORMAL note.
17. IRONY IRONY can be indicated when a Yes-No question begins on a NORMAL note, rises to a
HIGH note, then returns to a NORMAL note.
18. SHOCK SHOCK is indicated by an EXTRA HIGH note on the adjective or adverb that makes the
sentence more intensive.
19. SURPRISE SURPRISE is indicated by an EXTRA HIGH note
on the adjective or adverb that makes the sentence more intensive.
20. APPROVAL APPROVAL is indicated by an EXTRA HIGH note on the adjective or adverb that makes
the sentence more intensive.
21. PLACE NAMES PLACE NAMES have HIGH notes on both items.

22. NEW INFORMATION NEW INFORMATION is usually highlighted by a HIGH note.

23. MEANING SHIFT MEANING SHIFT can be indicated by the placement of the HIGH intonation in the word
or words.
24. DETERMINED DETERMINATION can be indicated by a series of downward FALLING intonation
slides.
INTONATION:

Intonation involves pitch: stretched vocal cords make for higher pitch; relaxed vocal
cords for lower. Pitch can convey additional meaning to speech. Some of these additional

Meanings may simply reflect the lexical information or personal characteristics of the
speaker such as surprise or anger. Others can signal grammatical information: a question,
a rhetorical question, or a statement that is final. Pitch can change during an utterance and
produce different tones. If the change in these tones takes place between syllables, it is
called a shift. If it takes place within a syllable, it is called a slide. Intonation patterns are
not necessarily fixed, but can vary from speaker to speaker.

1. STATEMENTS

Simple statements of facts or Declarative sentences usually have falling intonation at the
end of the sentence.
2. WH- QUESTIONS

Questions that begin with interrogative words such as what, who, which, why , when ,
where, and how have a falling pattern at the end of the word.
3. YES-NO QUESTIONS

General questions that may be answered with a yes or no usually rise at the end of the
utterance.
4. ECHO QUESTIONS
Pronouncing a Wh-question with a rising intonation creates an Echo Question. An echo
question seems to ask: “Is that really what you said?” or “Could you repeat that?”

5. COMPARISONS AND CONTRASTS

With this intonation pattern, two ideas are being compared and receive a higher pitch.
Usually, one item is given an extra high note. It does not seem to matter which item gets
the extra emphasis.
.

6.IMPLICIT CONTRASTS

Implicit contrasts do not mention the second item to be compared with.


7.NON FINAL INTONATION

When a sentence is divided into two thought groups (or more), each thought group has its
own intonation pattern. If the end of the group is a rising-falling pattern—up to a high
note on the final stress, then down to a low note—then the two sentences are distant or
almost separate thoughts.

DISTANT
CLOSE
If the group ends on a high note on its final stress, then returns to normal, there is more of
a connection between the two sentences.

SUSPENSE

If the beginning group ends with a rising pattern, this will create suspense.
8. SERIES WITH AND

There is a rising pattern of intonation on all members except the last. On the last item
there is rising-falling intonation.

9. ALTERNATIVE QUESTIONS

Alternative questions require a choice. One of the items must be on an extra high note. It
does not seem to matter which one.
10. ALTERNATIVES WITH OR

The first and second items of the utterance have rising intonation. The last item has rising
–falling intonation. This indicates that the items are intended to be heard as a sequence of
items.

11. DOUBLE YES-NO

With this type of intonation pattern, the speaker does not necessarily want the listener to
make a choice between the two items mentioned. The pattern can either have rising
intonation at the end or can have a series of rising intonations.
12. DIRECT ADDRESS

Direct address requires starting off on a low note and then rising. Direct address may also
come at the end of a sentence.
13. TAG QUESTION REAL.

Tag questions begin with words such as aren’t you and will he or she. If the tag is
pronounced with a rising pattern, it is a genuine question.

14. TAG QUESTIONS—RHETORICAL

Tag questions begin with words such as aren’t you and will he or she. If the tag is
pronounced with a rising-falling pattern, it is not a genuine question.
Your’re hungry, aren’t you?

I can speak well, can’t I?

15. FOCUS

Attention is focused on the word in a thought group by singling it out with a higher pitch
note occurring on the syllable of that word.
Was it you who baked the cake?

I took the new course. (Who took the course?)

I took the new course. (Did you take the course, or skip it?)

I took the new course. (Did you take the old course or the new one?)

16. PERFUNCTORY

Perfunctory intonation indicates no genuine feeling. It is slightly rising-falling intonation.


17. ENTHUSIASM

Enthusiastic intonation starts off at a extra-high point and falls.


18. COAXING

Coaxing or Persuading intonation begins on a high note, comes down to a low note, and
then rises to normal at the end of a sentence.
19. IRONY

When a Yes-No question begins on a normal note, then rises to high on the last sentence
stress, and returns to normal usually indicates irony.
20. SHOCK

Shock can be indicated by an extra high note that seems to intensify the force of the
adjective or adverb.

21. SURPRISE

Surprise, like shock puts an extra high note on the word that is important.
22. APPROVAL

Approval is signalled by an extra high note on the adjective or adverb.


23. PLACE-NAMES

To signal an important name of a city or state the following pattern is used.

24. NEW INFORMATION

New information tends to take special intonation attention. In English, the new
information tends to have higher pitch and is located at the end of the sentence.
25. MEANING SHIFT

Nominal compounds and sequences of individual words can be distinguished with the
high note that falls on the last sentence-stress.

26. SLIDE

If the last sentence-stress and the high note come on the very last syllable, the intonation
pattern is a slide or glide rather than a shift.
25. DETRMINED

With Determination, a separate stress and a downward slide is given to every word.
LINKING

Linking is the connecting of a final sound of one word or syllable to the initial sound of the next word.

90. Linking and /y/ glides

If a word ends in a tense vowel or a diphthong and the next word or syllable begins with a vowel, a /y/ may be inserted.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC


be able biyÙeyb@l
create kriyÙeyt
say it seyÙyIt
layette leyÙyEt
my own mayÙyown
naïve nayÙYiyv
toy airplane tOyÙyErpleyn
boyish bOyÙyish
see evil siyÙyiyv@l

91. Linking and /w/glides

If a word ends in a tense vowel or a diphthong and the next word or syllable begins with a vowel, a /w/ may be inserted.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC


blue ink bluwÙwInk
Stuart stuwÙwart
no art nowÙwart
Noel nowÙwel
How is it? hawÙwIzIt
flour flawÙw@r
tower tawÙw@r
tour tuwÙwOr

92. Glottal stop linking--/?/

If two low tense vowels that do not end in a glide occur, a glottal stop may be inserted between them.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC


spa owners spa?own@rs
saw Al saw?n
Pa Adams pa?d@mz

128
93. Linking and /r/ insertion

If two low tense vowels that do not end in a glide or after /@/, some speaker add an intrusive /r/ sound.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC


spa owners sparown@rs
saw Ann sawr{n
vanilla ice cream v@nIl@raiskriym
media event miyd@r@vEnt
law enforcement lawrEnfOrsm@nt
lawyer lawryer

94. Linking and Intervocalic Consonants

If a word or syllable ends in a single consonant and is followed by a word with a vowel, the consonant is produced as if it belonged to
both words.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC


dog eat dog dOgÙiytdOg
black and grey bl{kÙ@ndgrey
Dean Avenue diynÙ{v@nuw
red apple redÙ{p@l
great abs greyÙt{bz
fake air feykÙeyr

95. Linking and Resyllabification

If a word ends in a consonant cluster and the next word begins with a vowel, the final cluster is sometimes pronounced as part of the
following syllable.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC


right arm ray/t{rm
wept over wEp/towv@r
find out fayn/dawt
pushed up pUS/t@p
lasting l{s/tIÎ
adaptable @d{p/t@b@l
sprint over sprIn/tOv@r

96. Linking and Consonant Elongation

129
If two identical consonants are next to each other, the single consonant is elongated and not just produced twice.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC


stop pushing stap:USI Î
short time Sort:aym
quick cure kwIk:y@r
classroom management kl{sruwm:{n@Dm@nt
rob Bill rab:Il
bad dog b{d:Og
big gap bIg:{p
less cereal lEs:@riy@l

97. Linking and Unreleased

If a stop consonant is followed by a stop or an affricate, the first stop is unreleased.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC


pet cat pet§k{t
black board bl{k §bOrd
good jury gUd§D@riy
soap dish sowp§dIS
big dipper bIg§dIp@r
big church bIg§ T@rT
piture pIt§tSUr

DELETION

In this form of adjustment in speech, sounds are omitted.

98. Deletion in Medial Position

• If a word has /nt/ between two vowels or before syllabic /l/ ,it can be deleted.

• If a word has /t/ or /d/ as the second members of a triple cluster, it can be deleted.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC


winter wIn@r
Toronto t@ranow
enter En@r
mantle m{n@l
restless rEsl@s
exactly egs{liy
windmill wInmIl
hands h{nz

130
99. Deletion in Final Position

If a word ends with /t/ or /d/ in a cluster, and the following word begins in a consonant,
/t/ or /d/ may be deleted.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC


east side iysayd
blind man blaynm{n
wild boar waylbOr
told Steve tOlstiyv

Exceptions:

1. If the second word begins with a /w/, /h/, /y/, or /r/ there is no deletion.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC


east hill iysthIl
blind youth blayndyuwT
wild ride wayldrayd
the west won D@wEstw@n

2. In some consonant cluster ending with /nt/ ,/lt/, /rt/, or /rd/ there is no deletion.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC


plant food pl{ntfuwd
felt pen fEltpEn
bird feeder b@rdfiyd@r
shortstop Sortstap
fast food f{stfuwd

100.Deletion and Syncope

If a multisyllabic word has an unstressed medial vowel /@/ or /I/ following a stressed syllable, they can optionally
drop out.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC

131
chocolate tSa2wkl@t
every E2vriy
history hI2striy
vegetable vE2gt@b@l
laboratory la2br@tOriy
different dI2frEnt
beverage bE2vr@dZ
emerald E2mr@ld

101. Deletion of initial syllable

If a word begins with an unstressed vowel or syllable, it may be deleted in informal speech.. This is also called aphesis.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC


because k@z
about bawt
around rawnd
esquire skwayr

102. Deletion of noninitial /r/

If a word contains two /r/ sounds, the second /r/ is sometimes deleted.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC


February fEbyuwEriy
governor g@vnOr
surprise s@prayz
temperature tEmp@tSUr

103. Deletion of Final /v/

Before words with initial consonants, /v/ may be reduced to /@/.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC


lots of luck lats@l@k
waste of time weyst@taym
hearts of palm harts@palm
ace of spades eys@speydz

132
104. Deletion of initial /h/

In connected speech, /h/ when in a pronominal form.

WORD or PHRASE PHONET IC


ask her {sk@r
ask him {skIm
help her hElp@r
help him hElpIm
get her get@r
get him gEtIm

105. Deletion and /D/

In connected speech, /D/ may be deleted in pronominal forms.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC


ask them {skEm
tell them tElEm
help them hElpEm
get them gEtEm

Assimilation

If one sound causes changes in a neighboring sound, this is called assimilation. It can occur in words or between words.

106. Progressive Assimilation

If the first sound affects the following sound, this is known as progressive assimilation.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC


1.guessed gEst
2.bags b{gZ
3.backs b{ks
4.moved mUvd
5.fished fISt
6.it is  it’s It Iz  Its
7.had to  had a h{d tuw  h{d@

1. /d/ is devoiced to/ t/ by the / s/


2. /s/ is voiced to /z/ by the /g/
3. /s/ is devoiced to /s/ by the /k/
4. /d/ is voiced to /d/ by the /v/

133
5. /t/ is devoiced to /t/ by the /S/
6. /s/ is voiced to /t/ by vowel /I/
7. /d/ affects /t/

107. Regressive Assimilation

In regressive assimilation, the second sound influences the characteristics of the first sound.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC


1. have to h{vtuw  h{ft@
2. has to h{z tuw  h{st@
3. used to yuwzdtuw yuwst@
4. impossible Impas@b@l
5. horseshoe hOrSuw
6. his shirt hISIrt
7. good boy gUbOy
8. pet kitten pEkIt@N
9. He’s in pain hiyzImpeyn
10. Be on guard biyaÎ@rd
11. give me a call gImiy@kOl

1. /t/ causes /v/ to devoice to /f/


2. /t/ causes /z/ to devoice to /s/
3. /t/ causes /d/ to devoice to /t/
4. /p/ makes negation take /m/
5. /s/ becomes /S/
6. /z/ becomes /S/
7. /d/ becomes /b/
8. /t/ becomes /k/
9. /n/ becomes /p/
10. /n/ becomes /Î/

108. Palatalization Assimilation

In coalescent assimilation( or palatalization), two sounds come together to create a third sound.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC

134
1. issue ISuw
2. pleasure plEZy@r
3.stature st{tSy@r
4. He lets you talk hiylEtSyuwtOk
5. procedure prowsiydZy@r
6. She needs your advice SiyniydZy@r{dvays

EPENTHESIS

This adjustment involves insertion of a vowel or consonant into an existing word

109. Epenthesis

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC


1.places pleys@z
buzzes buz@z
2.planted pl{nt@d
handed h{nd@d
3.prince prInts
4.tense tEnts
5.since sints
6.comfort compfort

1. schwa inserted
2. schwa inserted
3. /t/ inserted
4. /t/ inserted
5. /t/ inserted
6. /p/ inserted

110. Dissimilation

Dissimilation occurs when two adjacent sounds become more different from one another.

WORD or PHRASE PHONETIC


fifths fIfTs  fIfts
sixths sIksTs  sIks
Fifth Steet fIfTstriyt fiStriyt

Perfect Pronunciation Through Poetry

Steven Donahue

135
Teachers have all lamented the crazy arbitrariness of English spelling and pronunciation. In “My Fair Lady,” George
Bernard Shaw pled for spelling reform with the word 'GHOTI" arguing GH as in "rough" + O as in "women" +TI as in "nation" =
GHOTI = "fish." In the same vein, here are some poems which can be used in the language classroom to understand the spoken
patterns of English.

The New Colossus

Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,


With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor, that twin cities frame.
"Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she
With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-post to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"

Emma Lazarus, New York City, 1883


Cough and Dough

I take it you already know


Of tough and bough and cough and dough.
Others may stumble but not you,
On hiccough, through, lough and through.
Well done! And now you wish, perhaps,
To learn of less familiar traps.

Beware of heard, a dreadful word


That looks like beard and sounds like bird,
And dead--it's said like bed, not bead.
For goodness's sake, don't call it deed!
Watch out for meat and great and threat:
They rhyme with suite and straight and debt.

A moth is not a moth in mother,


Nor both in bother, broth in brother,
And here is not a match for there,
Nor dear and fear for bear and pear,
And then there's dose and rose and lose--
Just look them up--and goose and choose,
And cork and work and card and ward,
And font and front and word and sword,
And do and go and thwart and cart.
Come, come, I've hardly made a start.

A dreadful language? Man alive,


I'd mastered it when I was five.

THE CHAOS

Dearest creature in creation,


Study English pronunciation.

136
I will teach you in my verse
Sounds like corpse, corps, horse, and worse.
I will keep you, Suzy, busy,
Make your head with heat grow dizzy.
Tear in eye, your dress will tear.
So shall I! Oh hear my prayer.
Pray console your loving poet,
Make my coat look new, dear sew it.

Just compare heart, beard, and heard,


Dies and diet, lord and word,
Sword and sward, retain and Britain.
(Mind the latter, how it's written.)
Now I surely will not plague you
With such words as plaque and ague.
But be careful how you speak:
Say break and steak, but bleak and streak;
Cloven, oven, how and low,
Script, receipt, show, poem, and toe.

Hear me say, devoid of trickery,


Daughter, laughter, and Terpsichore,
Typhoid, measles, topsails, aisles,
Exiles, similes, and reviles;
Scholar, vicar, and cigar,
Solar, mica, war and far;
One, anemone, Balmoral,
Kitchen, lichen, laundry, laurel;
Gertrude, German, wind and mind,
Scene, Melpomene, mankind.

Billet does not rhyme with ballet,


Bouquet, wallet, mallet, chalet.
Blood and flood are not like food,
Nor is mould like should and would.
Viscous, viscount, load and broad,
Toward, to forward, to reward.
And your pronunciation's OK
When you correctly say croquet,
Rounded, wounded, grieve and sieve,
Friend and fiend, alive and live.

Ivy, privy, famous; clamour


And enamour rhyme with hammer.
River, rival, tomb, bomb, comb,
Doll and roll and some and home.
Stranger does not rhyme with anger,
Neither does devour with clangour.
Souls but foul, haunt but aunt,
Font, front, wont, want, grand, and grant,
Shoes, goes, does. Now first say finger,
And then singer, ginger, linger,
Real, zeal, mauve, gauze, gouge and gauge,
Marriage, foliage, mirage, and age.

Query does not rhyme with very,


Nor does fury sound like bury.
Dost, lost, post and doth, cloth, loth.
Job, nob, bosom, transom, oath.
Though the differences seem little,
We say actual but victual.
Refer does not rhyme with deafer.
Feoffer does, and zephyr, heifer.
Mint, pint, senate and sedate;
Dull, bull, and George ate late.
Scenic, Arabic, Pacific,
Science, conscience, scientific.

Liberty, library, heave and heaven,


Rachel, ache, moustache, eleven.

137
We say hallowed, but allowed,
People, leopard, towed, but vowed.
Mark the differences, moreover,
Between mover, cover, clover;
Leeches, breeches, wise, precise,
Chalice, but police and lice;
Camel, constable, unstable,
Principle, disciple, label.

Petal, panel, and canal,


Wait, surprise, plait, promise, pal.
Worm and storm, chaise, chaos, chair,
Senator, spectator, mayor.
Tour, but our and succour, four.
Gas, alas, and Arkansas.
Sea, idea, Korea, area,
Psalm, Maria, but malaria.
Youth, south, southern, cleanse and clean.
Doctrine, turpentine, marine.

Compare alien with Italian,


Dandelion and battalion.
Sally with ally, yea, ye,
Eye, I, ay, aye, whey, and key.
Say aver, but ever, fever,
Neither, leisure, skein, deceiver.
Heron, granary, canary.
Crevice and device and aerie.

Face, but preface, not efface.


Phlegm, phlegmatic, ass, glass, bass.
Large, but target, gin, give, verging,
Ought, out, joust and scour, scourging.
Ear, but earn and wear and tear
Do not rhyme with here but ere.
Seven is right, but so is even,
Hyphen, roughen, nephew Stephen,
Monkey, donkey, Turk and jerk,
Ask, grasp, wasp, and cork and work.

Pronunciation -- think of Psyche!


Is a paling stout and spikey?
Won't it make you lose your wits,
Writing groats and saying grits?
It's a dark abyss or tunnel:
Strewn with stones, stowed, solace, gunwale,
Islington and Isle of Wight,
Housewife, verdict and indict.

Finally, which rhymes with enough --


Though, through, plough, or dough, or cough?
Hiccough has the sound of cup.
My advice is to give up!!!

OUGH

I'm taught p-l-o-u-g-h


Shall be pronounced "Plow."
"Zat's easy when you know," I say,
"Mon Anglais I'll get through."

My teacher say zat in zat case


O-u-g-h is "oo."
And zen I laugh and say to him
"Zees Anglais make me cough."

138
He say, "Not coo, but in zat word
O-u-g-h is `off.'"
O sacre bleu! Such varied sound
Of words make me hiccough.

He says, "Again my friend is wrong;


O-u-g-h is `uff.'"
I say, "I try to spik your words,
I can't pronounce them, though."

"In time you'll learn, but now you're wrong;


O-u-g-h is `owe'!"
"I'll try no more, I shall go mad,
I'll drown me in ze lough."

Teaching Pronunciation with Mother Goose Rhymes

By Steven Donahue

Story and verse are a primary way that English children absorb the linguistic lessons
of their first language. Embedded in the seemingly simple rhymes are complex
language patterns about intonation, rhythm, stress, and individual vowels and
consonants. In this paper, the various ways that Mother Goose Rhymes can be used
in the English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom are explored. By pointing out
these linguistic phenomena to ESL learners, they will be better able to sort out the
seeming inconsistencies of what they are hearing in the real English speaking world.

Practice of P, T, K

[rule: difference between voiced and voiceless stops and aspiration of initial voiceless
stops]

Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake, baker’s man!


So I will, master, as fast as I can;
Pat it, and prick it, and mark it with T,
Put it in the oven for Tommy and me.

With Pat-a-Cake, the student is told to focus on pronouncing the voiceless stop series :
P, T, K. The student is shown how P is pronounced fully in the front of the mouth with
both lips ; T is pronounced with the tip of the tongue touching just behind the front teeth;
and K is pronounced with the back of the tongue touching the roof of the mouth. For
most students it is not necessary to invoke the precise terminology such as bilabial,
alveolar, or velar. The student is told to focus on the voiceless pattern of the sounds P, T,
K as compared to their twin voiced sounds B, D, G.

139
A second pattern that can be demonstrated with this rhyme is the aspiration
that occurs after the voiced stops P, T, K. Students can hold a piece of paper close to their
lips while reciting the poem and watch the paper move from the aspirated air.

Linking

[ rule: If a word or syllable ends in a single consonant and is followed by a word with a
vowel, the consonant is produced as if it belonged to both words]

Jack be nimble,
And Jack be quick;
And Jack jump over
The candlestick.

Linking is a linguistic phenomena where the end of one word starts the beginning of a
second word. In this Mother Goose Rhyme, “jump over” actually sounds like “JUM”
and “POVER”. This is no small issue for second language learners who may run to
the dictionary trying to look up a non-existent “Pover”. Here, the linking rule is gone
over so that the student understands that it occurs with words that end in other
consonants. Examples include “gone over” GO NOVER; “stop it” STO PIT, and
“bug off”  BU GOFF.

Tapped T

[ rule: when double “t” comes in the middle of a word, it sounds somewhat like a quickly
tapped “d”]

[rule: if a word has /t/ or /d/ as a second member of a triple cluster, it can be deleted]

Come, butter, come


Come, butter, come!
Peter stands at the gate,
Waiting for a buttered cake;
Come, butter, come.

The accent of many foreigners is partly exhibited by the hypercorrect pronunciation of


certain words. Here the word “butter” sounds like “budder” and the word “waiting”
sounds like “wading”. Few native speakers would pronounce the “t” sound in the middle
of this word. At times it is revelatory for the ESL student to realize that they are correctly
hearing the “d” sound and not the spelling convention “t”.

140
A second pronunciation point in this short poem is the line “Peter stands at the gate”.
Here, native speakers will delete the “d” sound so that it sounds like “Stan’s”. This is
is a common adjustment that native speakers use to more easily handle challenging
consonant clusters such as “n-d-s”. Other common examples of this occur with the
words “winter” as “winner” , “printer” as “prinner” and “ Atlanta” as “Adlana”.

TH [T] and TH [D]

[ rule: differentiate between voiced and voiceless TH]


[ rule: function words are unstressed, unless at the end of a sentence]

One misty, moisty morning,


When cloudy was the weather,
There I met an old man
Clothed all in leather;

Clothed all in leather,


With cap under his chin—
How do you do, and how do you do,
And how do you do again?

Have students count the voiced and voiceless occurrences of TH. There are six
voiced TH sounds and one voiceless TH sound.

A second point in this short rhyme is the difference between the two “do’s” in
“how do you do” . The stress falls on the second “do” not the first. Have students
recite the rhyme reversing the stress to see if it sounds funny to them. Point out
that the vowel in the first “do” is reduced to schwa @ sounds like “duh”. Here
the first “do” is an unstressed auxiliary while the second “do” is stressed because it falls
at the end of a sentence. This is a basic rule in English: Content Words that have a
meaning in and of themselves are stressed (dog, run, December) ; Function Words with
mostly grammatical meanings are unstressed (for, a, who).

141
Double Consonants

[ rule: If two identical consonants are next to each other, the single consonant is
elongated and not just produced twice]

Star bright, starlight,


First star I’ve seen tonight.
Wish I may, wish I might,
Have the wish I wish tonight.

The mainpoint about this wonderful rhyme is that “first star” is not produced as two
separate sounds “first” and then “star” . The sounds run together as “firsstar”. The
consonant is almost imperceptibly lengthened. This happens frequently in English when
the final consonant is the same as the beginning consonant of the next word. For
example: “bad dog” is “baddog” or “ less serious” is “lesserious”.

Intonation in a Series

[rule: the first two items of a series rise and the last falls]
[rule: Wh-questions fall ; Yes-No questions rise at the end]

Bow, wow, wow!


Whose dog art thou?
Little Tom Tinker’s dog.
Bow, wow, wow!

This rhyme exhibits two patterns. First, the fun-to-say series “bow, wow, wow” has
a rise on the first two items and a fall on the last “wow”. Second, the question, “ Whose
dog art thou? follows the falling pattern of Wh-questions. Only Yes-No questions rise
at the end. So the falling pattern of the final “wow” parallels the falling pattern after
“thou.”

Intonation

Hush-a-bye, baby, on the treetop,


When the wind blows, the cradle will rock;
When the bough bends, the cradle will fall.
Down will come baby, bough, cradle, and all.

142
ESL classes are sometimes pleasantly startled to hear this rhyme sung, as if to a baby. It’s
important to really get into it and demonstrate the uninhibited sound patterns. The
lengthening on “baby” , “blows” “bends” contrasts nicely with the relative shortness
of “treetop”, “rock”, and “fall”. The intonation falls at the end of the sentences which fits
with the meaning of the words. In the final line “baby” is again long while “bough,
cradle, and all” is crushed together and reduced to “bowcrdlnall” so that it is virtually
the same length as the endings of the previous three stanzas.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Job English in the Pronunciation Classroom

Steven Donahue
Language Magazine

Steven Donahue examines the use of simple technology and handouts to help second
language learners improve their production of English sounds aimed at landing a job
and attaining the “American Dream”.

Job English “Big Bang”

The perfect pronunciation class should not end at the four walls of the classroom
or the end of the semester exam. Students should take with them lessons on the sound
patterns of English, which will last a lifetime and have real world improvements on their
ability to communicate. A core criterion for effectively communicating is the ability to
come across well during an oral interview for a job—and success gauged by getting the
position.

“Before 1976, there were no papers on teaching English as a Second Language to


guest workers trying to function on the job,” notes Allen Grognet, director of the Center
for Applied Linguistics (CAL) Sunbelt Office in Sarasota, Florida. The first real-world
text to address the issue of employment oriented English was Industrial English, by
Tom Jopp in the 1970s.

Industrial English was developed to address the influx of foreign workers into the
Great Britain. Similar ESL worker influxes hit the United States with the fall of Saigon
in 1975 when over 200,000 refugees were airlifted from Southeast Asia. Subsequent
waves of refugees brought over the Hmong, who did not even have a written language—
presenting tremendous hurdles for ESL teachers. Grognet says, “Basically, teachers
through up their hands and said, ‘What are we going to do?’”

Notional/Functional Syllabus

143
What the education community did to address these issues was to adapt the
British Notional Functional Syllabus or NTS. The NTS is distinguished by its attention
to "functions" as the organizing elements of English language. It is focused strongly and
exclusively on the pragmatic purposes to which we put language.
While a syllabus may also contain English for Academic Purposes, the hallmark
of the NTS is, as Grognet explains, “ The enabling words such as ‘twist’, ‘stir’, ‘pour’
can be crucial for understanding. Pouring acid and pouring milk are radically different.
But if you don’t know the word ‘pour’, you’re in trouble.”

Oral Job Resumes

As a capstone activity for English as a Second Language pronunciation classes,


having students record an oral resume of their top qualifications can provide feedback
about enunciation weak points in the context of using real language. The focus can be on
consonants, vowels, volume, content or a combination of these aspects of the effective
speech.

Step 1: Students are given a worksheet to construct an oral description of their three top
skills (as below).
• The teacher previews some of the areas of pronunciation concern, particular to
each student, and offers suggestions, such as synonyms for difficult-to-pronounce
words.
• Words that describe students’ particular qualifications are reviewed, brainstormed,
and added to the list.

Step 2: Students either record their Oral Resume at home or in the classroom. They
should record it at least three times. (Keep in mind that valuable time will be lost if the
recordings take place in the classroom). Note: Ask students to cue up tapes before class.

Step 3: The tapes should be played in the classroom so that each student hears the
others. While the students are listening, they should evaluate each other on a written form
and give the form to the student. (The instructor can make a separate and private
evaluation for a grade and feedback).

Oral Resume Worksheet

THREE REASONS TO GIVE ME THE JOB

144
Experience (this means the jobs you have had)

Expertise (this means the duties you can perform)

Passion ( this means that you love to do a certain job)

Bilingual ( this means you are fluent in two language.


Trilingual is three languages)

Punctual or Timely ( This means you are always on time for


appointments)

Flexible (this means you will work different shifts)

Heart (this means you have compassion or care


about other human beings)

Professional and Thorough I do a job from A to Z”

Efficient . (this means you do the work on time)

Patience (this means that you do not rush things.


Remember after “BE” you say I am Patience.
After “HAVE” you say I have Patience.)

Team work and Team Player (this means you get along with others on the
job)

· Multi task (this means you can do several things at


once, well)

ADD YOUR OWN WORDS

· Oral Resume CLOZE


ORAL RESUME (Fill in the blanks with the words and examples that apply to you. Please only
use three qualities for this exercise)

My name is ___________ and I am seeking the position at your company _________.


I believe that I am qualified for the position for three reasons: _________,, _______, and
__________.

First, I have _______. For example, I have ________ because __________..

145
Second, I have ________. For example, I ___________________________.

Last, I have _________________ for the position. For example_________________________

In conclusion, you should consider hiring me for three strong reasons _________________,
_____________, and _______________________ . Thank your for your time and good luck
with your decision.

· Oral Resume FEEDBACK FORM

Student____________________________________

5 = Great 3= middle 1 = Needs improvement

Volume of Speaker 5 4 3 2 1

Speed of Speaker 5 4 3 2 1

Understand Speaker? 5 4 3 2 1

Intonation of Speaker 5 4 3 2 1

Confidence of Speaker 5 4 3 2 1

Which words/Consonants/Vowels need improvement __________,


_______________, _________, ___________, _______________, _________

Comments/Suggestions?

Keys to Keeping a Job

In 1990, the Secretary of Labor appointed a commission to determine the skills


our young people need to succeed in the world of work. Allene Grognet, the only linguist
to sit on the commission, says that the report identified key areas for getting and keeping
a job in America. She notes, “Workers must be able to follow a schedule or know how
much cleaner to mix with water to clean a room, read a manual, interpret and relay
telephone messages, or report on the status of a machine.”

146
Perhaps even more important is the small talk and banter in the workplace.
Grognet says, “ On a basic level, knowledge of ‘safety language,’ is important. But so is
the small talk, ‘ How was the baseball game?’ ‘Where are you going on vacation?’ and
other such exchanges, if absent, lead to total isolation.”

I’m Bond. James Bond.

Incorporating real-world situations that adult ESL students will encounter can
make a pronunciation class last a lifetime for the learner. Learning how to say the
consonants and vowels of one’s name should be part of every pronunciation class. Or as
James Bond says in the movies. “I’m Bond. James Bond.”

============================================================
Notes from an Actual Class:

1. Juana went first. She spoke a little quickly and too softly at first. She re-recorded
and it was much better. I made some gentle suggestions.
2. Michael was next. He stressed honesty because he worked at Publix. He
integrated some of the things we had discussed in prior classes and our before
class talk. I suggested he use “Lots of “ with the word “Patience” for clarity. He
spoke with confidence and provided many examples.
3. Martha, who was ecstatic from coming from a successful job interview (the
lecture had really helped her, she said) spoke with livliness and a winning smile.
She effectively used the word “punctual”, but seem to use “has” when she should
have used “have” after the pronoun “I”.
4. Janeth was next. She was going for a clerk’s position at the Post Office. She
tended to drop the K from Clerk. I suggested that she substitute Assignement for
Job.
5. Marigen needed more volume. For Like the job, she needs to say “Would like the
job.”
6. Vanessa stressed being bilingual. Suggested that she say “I am bilingual” instead
of just the word.
7. Reyna was soft spoken and said “Sells Person” for “Sales Person”. She also said
“Waiting to convince the customers.” The class suggested she use “Talk them into
buying.
8. Marina had trouble with the word “experience.”
9. Darilys was soft spoken and needed to add I have A LOT of patience. She added
an S to Children.
10. Jenny spoke well but perhaps a little to quickly. She used medical jargon, since
she is a nurse, but knew that what the interviewers would expect. She had just
came from an interview and returned a book that I loaned her. She said the class
had helped her with the interview.

147
11. Irma spoke well and with compassion. She is a slow careful speaker, but it is
obvious she is very serious about her speech.
12. Noelia had a very organized speech that was very good. She had trouble with one
word in particular—Leasing Agent which sounded like Listening Agent. She is
looking for a substitute word. I asked her to record all the words she needs for real
estate.

Perfect Pronunciation Through Poetry


Steven Donahue

Teachers have all lamented the crazy arbitrariness of English spelling and
pronunciation. In “My Fair Lady,” George Bernard Shaw pled for spelling reform with
the word 'GHOTI" arguing GH as in "rough" + O as in "women" +TI as in "nation" =
GHOTI = "fish." In the same vein, here are some poems which can be used in the
language classroom to understand the spoken patterns of English.

Cough and Dough

I take it you already know


Of tough and bough and cough and A moth is not a moth in mother,
dough. Nor both in bother, broth in brother,
Others may stumble but not you, And here is not a match for there,
On hiccough, through, lough and Nor dear and fear for bear and pear,
through. And then there's dose and rose and lose--
Well done! And now you wish, perhaps, Just look them up--and goose and
To learn of less familiar traps. choose,
And cork and work and card and ward,
Beware of heard, a dreadful word And font and front and word and sword,
That looks like beard and sounds like And do and go and thwart and cart.
bird, Come, come, I've hardly made a start.
And dead--it's said like bed, not bead.
For goodness's sake, don't call it deed! A dreadful language? Man alive,
Watch out for meat and great and threat: I'd mastered it when I was five.
They rhyme with suite and straight and
debt.

148
THE CHAOS

Dearest creature in creation, Viscous, viscount, load and broad,


Study English pronunciation. Toward, to forward, to reward.
I will teach you in my verse And your pronunciation's OK
Sounds like corpse, corps, horse, and When you correctly say croquet,
worse. Rounded, wounded, grieve and sieve,
I will keep you, Suzy, busy, Friend and fiend, alive and live.
Make your head with heat grow dizzy.
Tear in eye, your dress will tear. Ivy, privy, famous; clamour
So shall I! Oh hear my prayer. And enamour rhyme with hammer.
Pray console your loving poet, River, rival, tomb, bomb, comb,
Make my coat look new, dear sew it. Doll and roll and some and home.
Stranger does not rhyme with anger,
Just compare heart, beard, and heard, Neither does devour with clangour.
Dies and diet, lord and word, Souls but foul, haunt but aunt,
Sword and sward, retain and Britain. Font, front, wont, want, grand, and grant,
(Mind the latter, how it's written.) Shoes, goes, does. Now first say finger,
Now I surely will not plague you And then singer, ginger, linger,
With such words as plaque and ague. Real, zeal, mauve, gauze, gouge and
But be careful how you speak: gauge,
Say break and steak, but bleak and Marriage, foliage, mirage, and age.
streak;
Cloven, oven, how and low, Query does not rhyme with very,
Script, receipt, show, poem, and toe. Nor does fury sound like bury.
Dost, lost, post and doth, cloth, loth.
Hear me say, devoid of trickery, Job, nob, bosom, transom, oath.
Daughter, laughter, and Terpsichore, Though the differences seem little,
Typhoid, measles, topsails, aisles, We say actual but victual.
Exiles, similes, and reviles; Refer does not rhyme with deafer.
Scholar, vicar, and cigar, Feoffer does, and zephyr, heifer.
Solar, mica, war and far; Mint, pint, senate and sedate;
One, anemone, Balmoral, Dull, bull, and George ate late.
Kitchen, lichen, laundry, laurel; Scenic, Arabic, Pacific,
Gertrude, German, wind and mind, Science, conscience, scientific.
Scene, Melpomene, mankind.
Liberty, library, heave and heaven,
Billet does not rhyme with ballet, Rachel, ache, moustache, eleven.
Bouquet, wallet, mallet, chalet. We say hallowed, but allowed,
Blood and flood are not like food, People, leopard, towed, but vowed.
Nor is mould like should and would. Mark the differences, moreover,

149
Between mover, cover, clover; Face, but preface, not efface.
Leeches, breeches, wise, precise, Phlegm, phlegmatic, ass, glass, bass.
Chalice, but police and lice; Large, but target, gin, give, verging,
Camel, constable, unstable, Ought, out, joust and scour, scourging.
Principle, disciple, label. Ear, but earn and wear and tear
Do not rhyme with here but ere.
Petal, panel, and canal, Seven is right, but so is even,
Wait, surprise, plait, promise, pal. Hyphen, roughen, nephew Stephen,
Worm and storm, chaise, chaos, chair, Monkey, donkey, Turk and jerk,
Senator, spectator, mayor. Ask, grasp, wasp, and cork and work.
Tour, but our and succour, four.
Gas, alas, and Arkansas. Pronunciation -- think of Psyche!
Sea, idea, Korea, area, Is a paling stout and spikey?
Psalm, Maria, but malaria. Won't it make you lose your wits,
Youth, south, southern, cleanse and Writing groats and saying grits?
clean. It's a dark abyss or tunnel:
Doctrine, turpentine, marine. Strewn with stones, stowed, solace,
gunwale,
Compare alien with Italian, Islington and Isle of Wight,
Dandelion and battalion. Housewife, verdict and indict.
Sally with ally, yea, ye,
Eye, I, ay, aye, whey, and key. Finally, which rhymes with enough --
Say aver, but ever, fever, Though, through, plough, or dough, or
Neither, leisure, skein, deceiver. cough?
Heron, granary, canary. Hiccough has the sound of cup.
Crevice and device and aerie. My advice is to give up!!!

OUGH

I'm taught p-l-o-u-g-h


Shall be pronounced "Plow." He says, "Again my friend is wrong;
"Zat's easy when you know," I say, O-u-g-h is `uff.'"
"Mon Anglais I'll get through." I say, "I try to spik your words,
I can't pronounce them, though."
My teacher say zat in zat case
O-u-g-h is "oo." "In time you'll learn, but now you're
And zen I laugh and say to him wrong;
"Zees Anglais make me cough." O-u-g-h is `owe'!"
"I'll try no more, I shall go mad,
He say, "Not coo, but in zat word I'll drown me in ze lough."
O-u-g-h is `off.'"
O sacre bleu! Such varied sound
Of words make me hiccough.

150
Fibbing in a Second Language
Steven Donahue

Language Magazine

Words: 1322

Born down in a dead man's town


The first kick I took was when I hit the ground
You end up like a dog that's been beat too much
Till you spend half your life just covering up
Born in the USA--Springsteen

Covering Up

Yudelkis’ face blushed bright red as she struggled to explain why she was finding the
resume assignment impossible. She had come to America on a raft three years ago, and
had worked as a maid “cleaning toilets,” before landing a more respectable job
distributing automotive parts.

After discussing how to modify her essay, Yudelkis was able to recast her experience as a
maid, because in fact she had sold her client list to someone else, and was able to add a
more entrepreneurial flavor to it.

In fact, telling jokes, lively intonation, and stretching the truth are hallmarks of English
mastery. But many students need to be guided in how to expand on their written and oral
resumes, if they are to be successful in obtaining the American dream.

Famous Lies

Indeed, reinventing one’s self is a solid American tradition stretching back to immigrant’s
first encounter at Ellis Island and truncating names to accommodate English ears.
Apparently, there is no shame in telling a good lie: in England, each year, a contest is held
at The Bridge Inn, Santon Bridge, to award the title of 'The Biggest Liar in the World'.

151
As an indication of how prevalent lying is, there are a number of synonyms for it.

SLANG STANDARD ENGLISH


Lie through one’s teeth. Prevaricate
Pull the wool over one’s eyes. Malinger
Speak with a forked tongue Mendacious
Zig zag Falsehood
Stretch the truth Untruth
Fib Fabricate

One of the most famous lies, was told in 1998 when President Bill Clinton held a White
House press conference and stated: “I want you to listen to me. I’m going to say this
again: I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Miss Lewinsky.” According to the
National Health Museum, Clinton’s fib “[. . .] was associated with a remarkable increase
in 20 of the 23 verbal and nonverbal signs measured in the study. Half of the signs
increased more than 100%.”

Aristotle, Plato, and St. Thomas Aquinas all discussed lying. Mark Twain noted that,
“There are 869 forms of lying.” Generally, lies fall on a spectrum from harmless to
harmful. Common lies are white lies, promotional lies, and protective lies.

• White lies make other feel better, such as complimenting a woman’s new hair-do,
even if it is less than ravishing.
• Promotional lies are told to make a speaker look better. For example, buffing up
prior work experience during a job interview.
• Protective lies are intended to shield someone. A secretary telling a caller that the
boss is in a meeting

Lying in a Second Language

152
In “Never Be Lied to Again,” David J. Lieberman, PhD informs readers, “How to get to
the truth in five minutes or less in any conversation,” by paying attention to 10 Verbal and
Physical signs of lying.

153
Verbal Clues of Lying

1 CONTRACTIONS Expanding contractions.” It’s” or “I didn’t”


indicates truthfulness. “It is” or “I did not” can
mean a lie.
Example: “ I did not cheat on the test.”
2 PAUSING Taking too much time between words or
sentences. Inserting too many non-words: “uh”
; “er”; “ah”; “you know.”
Example: “I ah did ah not ah cheat ah on
the test.”
3 SPEECH ERRORS Making grammar, pronoun, or tense mistakes.
Saying, “You do not do that,” when meaning “I
didn’t do that.”
Teacher: “Did you cheat on the test?”
Student: “ You don’t cheat on a test.”
4 TONGUE TIED If a speaker stutters, mumbles, stammers, or
loses track of thoughts, this may indicate lying.
Example: “I di di di did not do that.”
5 THROAT SOUNDS If a speaker frequently clears the throat, sighs
heavily, or coughs, it could be an indication of
lying.
Example: “Ahhh… I did not cheat Ahhh ..
on the test.”
6 MODIFIERS If a person adds words or phrases such as,
Frankly, Honestly, Truthfully, Let me be
perfectly clear, or In Truth, this can indicate
lying.
Example: “Honestly, I did not cheat on the
test.”
7 PHRASING Repeating the question can be an indication of
lying.
Teacher: “Did you cheat on the test?”
Student: “ Did I teach on the test?”
8 VERBALIZING If a person begins a reply beginning with
words such as, “ You know I would never lie
about something so important,” or “ I would
never lie about that,” beware this could be a
sign of lying.
Teacher: “Did you cheat on the test?”
Student: “ Teacher, you know I would never
cheat on a test!”
9 INTONATION Rising intonation at the end of a declarative
statement can be a sign of a lie:
Example: “I did not cheat on the
test.”(rising at end like a question.)

154
10 OMISSION If a speaker de-personalizes a story and puts it
in the third person, they may be inventing it.
Example: “I was born in NY. The mom
worked as a lawyer. The brother went to
Harvard.”

Physical Clues of Lying

1 EYES Averting the eyes, avoiding eye contact,


looking at the floor can be interpreted as
untruthfulness
2 HANDS Hand wringing, interlocking the fingers, not
pointing with the index finger can signal a lie.
3 ARMS/LEGS Crossing arms or legs or sitting back in a chair
can indicate a lie.
4 SHRUGGING Shrugging shoulders or flipping the palms of
the hands can indicate a lie.
5 SWALLOWING Excessive swallowing, hiccups, or drinking
liquids before speaking can be signs of
mendacity.
6 FACE TOUCHING Scratching the nose, back of the neck, or
tugging on a collar, ear, or the hair can mean a
lie.
7 HANDLING If a speaker handles pencils, paper, Kleenex, or
other objects, this can mean a lie is underway.
8 BLINKING If a person stares too long, or blinks too much,
this can indicate lying.
9 LIPS Tightening, licking, puckering or whistling, can
mean a lie is being said.
10 SMILING/LAUGHING Smiling or laughing too much can mean the
person is lying.

Lying Activities in the Classroom

155
1. In the speech class, students are asked to state three facts about themselves, one of
which is an untruth. They are instructed to key attentive listeners into the lie by
exhibiting one of the verbal or gesture clues which indicate a fib.

2. In the writing class, students are directed to recast their bios by stretching the
truth in a favorable and undetectable way. Usually this is a matter of verbiage.

3. For classification essays, students can write about the three types of lies: White
lies, Promotional lies, and Protective lies.

4. When late or absent students come into the classroom, the teacher should ask
them, in front of the class, why they are late or were absent. Students then decide
the veracity of the student’s statement.

5. During lectures, the teacher can insert a lie, and then scratch the nose to see how
many students pick up that it was a fib. Like, “There will be a major test on
Friday. “ (Scratch Nose).

6. For vocabulary, review the key words and synonyms for lying: be untruthful,
beguile, break promise, bull, con, concoct, deceive, delude, dissemble,
dissimulate, distort, dupe, equivocate, exaggerate, fabricate, fake, falsify, fib,
forswear, frame, fudge, invent, jazz, jive, make believe, malign, misguide,
misinform, mis-instruct, mislead, misrepresent, misspeak, misstate, overdraw,
palter, perjure, pervert, phony up, plant, prevaricate, promote, put on, queer,
snow, soft-soap, string along, victimize.

7. Search the Internet for Jokes on Lying. Examples:

Q: Why shouldn’t you believe a person in bed?


A: Because he is lying.

Q: How can you tell when a lawyer is lying?


A: His lips start moving.

End

Resources:

National Health Museum: http://www.accessexcellence.org/WN/SU/lying599.html

156
Festival of Lying: , http://www.grizedale.org/lying/festival/index.htm

157
General Northern (green, yellow, and blue)
This is sometimes also refered to as General American and is used in almost two-thirds of the country. It breaks down into the dialect
regions below.
Northern
New England
Many of the Northern dialects can trace their roots to this dialect which was spread westward by the New England settlers as they
migrated west. It carries a high prestige due to Boston's early economic and cultural importance and the presence of Harvard
University. A famous speaker is Katherine Hepburn. They sometimes call doughnuts cymbals, simballs, and boil cakes.
New England, Eastern (1)
This is one of the most distinctive of all the American dialects. R's are often dropped, but an extra R is added to words that end with a
vowel. A is pronounced AH so that we get "Pahk the cah in Hahvahd yahd" and "Pepperidge Fahm remembuhs."
Boston Urban (2)
Like many big cities, Boston has its own dialects that are governed more by social factors like class and ethnicity than by geographic
location. Greater Boston Area is the most widely spoken and is very similar to Eastern New England. Brahmin is spoken by the upper
aristocratic class like Mr. Howell on Gilligan's Island. Central City Area is what most of us think of as being the "Boston Accent." In
the last few years, Saturday Night Live has featured this dialect among a group of rowdy teenagers who like to videotape themselves.
Also think of Cliff on Cheers, the only character on this Boston-based show to actually speak a Boston dialect.
New England, Western (3)
Less distinctive than Eastern, but more influential on the other Northern dialects.
Hudson Valley (4)
New York was originally a Dutch colony, and that language influenced this dialect's development. Some original Hudson Valley words
are stoop (small porch) and teeter-totter. They call doughnuts (which were invented by the Dutch) crullers and olycooks.
New York City (5)
Unlike Boston and other urban dialects, New York City stands by itself and bears little resemblence to the other dialects in this region.
It is also the most disliked and parodied of any American dialect (even among New Yorkers), possibly because many Americans tend
dislike large cities. When an R comes after a vowel, it is often dropped. IR becomes OI, but OI becomes IR, and TH becomes D as in
"Dey sell tirlets on doity-doid street" and fugedaboudit (forget about it). This pronounciation is particularly associated with Brooklyn
but exists to some extent throughout the city. The thickness of a speaker's dialect is directly related to their social class, but these
features have been fading within all classes over recent decades. Famous speakers are Rosie Perez, Joe Pesci and Marisa Tomei in My
Cousin Vinnie, Archie Bunker, Bugs Bunny, and (if you're old enough to remember) the Bowery Boys.
Bonac (6)
Named for Accabonac Creek in eastern Long Island, this dialect is rapidly dying out due to the influx of people from other areas. Back
when New York City belonged to the Dutch, this area was part of New England, and Bonac shows elements of both dialects.

Inland Northern (7)


Combines elements of Western New England and Upper Midwestern. Marry, merry, and Mary are pronounced the same. They call
doughnuts friedcakes.
San Francisco Urban (8)
Unlike the rest of California, which in the early twentieth century saw an influx of people from the South and other parts of the West,
San Francisco continued to be settled by people from the Northeast and Northern Midwest, and elements of their dialects (North
Midland, Upper Midwestern, Inland Northern) can be found. Mission dialect, spoken by Irish Catholics in a specific part of the city is
very much like the New York City dialect.
Upper Midwestern (9)
Originally settled by people from New England and New York State who brought those dialects, this area was also influenced by
Southerners coming up the Mississippi River as well as the speech patterns of the German and Scandinavian immigrants and the
Canadian English dialects from over the border. It's sometimes referred to as a "Midwestern twang." They call jelly doughnuts
bismarks. Minnewegian (Minnesota / Norwegian), a subdialect spoken in the northernmost part of this region was spoofed in the
movies Fargo and Drop Dead Gorgeous.
Chicago Urban (10)
Influenced by the Midland and Southern dialects. Often spoken by the late John Belushi (Chicago's Second City comedy theater
supplied many Saturday Night Live actors). SNL used to spoof it in the "Da Bears, Da Bulls" sketches. They call any sweet roll
doughnuts.
North Midland (11)
Created as the people in Pennsylvania migrated westward and influenced by Scotch-Irish, German, and English Quaker settlers. This
and the South Midland dialect can actually be considered a separate Midland Dialect region that serves as a transition zone between
the north and south. They call doughnuts belly sinkers, doorknobs, dunkers, and fatcakes.
Pennsylvania German-English (12)
This was strongly influenced by Pennsylvania Dutch, a dialect of German spoken by people in this area (in this context, "Dutch" is
actually a mispronunciation of the German word, "Deutsch," which means "German"). Its grammar allows sentences like "Smear your
sister with jam on a slice of bread" and "Throw your father out the window his hat." They call doughnuts fasnacht, and they also
invented dunking - from the German "dunken" (to dip).
Western
Compared with the Eastern United States, the Western regions were settled too recently for very distinctive dialects to have time to
develop or to be studied in detail. Many words originally came from Spanish, cowboy jargon, and even some from the languages of
the Native Americans: adobe, beer bust, belly up, boneyard, bronco, buckaroo, bunkhouse, cahoots, corral, greenhorn, hightail,
hoosegow, lasso, mustang, maverick, roundup, wingding.
Rocky Mountain (13)
Originally developed from the North Midland and Northern dialects, but was then influenced by the Mormon settlers in Utah and
English coal miners who settled in Wyoming. Some words that came from this dialect are kick off (to die), cache (hiding place), and
bushed (tired). They also call jelly doughnuts bismarks.
Pacific Northwest (14)
Influenced by settlers from the Midwest and New England as well as immigrants from England, Germany, Scandinavia, and Canada.
Much earlier, a pidgin called Chinook Jargon was developed between the languages of the Native American tribes of this area. It
would later also be used and influenced by the European settlers who wished to communicate with them. A few words from Chinook
Jargon like high muckamuck (important person) are still used in this dialect today. (Note that, in this case, the word "jargon" has a
different meaning from the one discussed above)
Alaska (not shown)
Developed out of the Northern, Midland, and Western dialects. Also influenced by the native languages of the Alutes, Innuit, and
Chinook Jargon. Some words that originated here are: bush (remote area), cabin fever, mush (to travel by dog sled), parka, stateside.
Pacific Southwest (15)
The first English speakers arrived here from New York, Ohio, Missouri, New England, and other parts of the Northeast and Midwest
in the 1840s, bringing the Northern and North Midland dialects with them. Words originally used by the gold miners of this period are
still used today: pay dirt (valuable discovery), pan out (to succeed), and goner (doomed person). The early twentieth century saw an
influx of people from the South and other parts of the West. The people here are particularly fond of creating new slang and
expressions, and, since Hollywood is located here, these quickly get spread to the rest of the country and the world (the influence of
Buffy the Vampire Slayer was examined in Verbatim : part one, part two). During the late 1970s and early 1980s, an extreme
exaggeration of this dialect that came to be known as "Valley Girl" or "Surfer Dude" was popular among teenagers and much parodied
in the media with phrases like "gag me with a spoon" and "barf me back to the stone age." Sean Penn in Fast Times at Ridgemont
High and Whoopie Goldberg in her one women show are two famous examples.
Southwestern (16)
By the time this area became part of the United States, there had already been as many as ten generations of Spanish speaking people
living here, so the Mexican dialect of Spanish had an important influence on this area that became a melting pot for dialects from all
over the USA. Some local words are: caballero, cantina, frijoles, madre, mesa, nana, padre, patio, plaza, ramada, tortilla.
Hawaii (not shown)
The original language of the Native Hawaiians is part of the Polynesian family. English speakers arrived in 1778, but many other
settlers also came from China, Portugal, Japan, Korea, Spain, and the Philippines to influence the modern dialect. Hawaiian Creole
developed from a pidgin English spoken on the sugar plantations with workers from Hawaii and many other countries. Some words
are: look-see, no can, number one (the best), plenty (very). It isn't widely spoken anymore. Nonstandard Hawaiian English developed
from Hawaiian Creole and is spoken mostly by teenagers. Standard Hawaiian English is part of the Western dialect family but shows
less influence from the early New England dialect than any other American dialect. It has many words borowed from the original
Hawaiian as well as some from the other Asian languages mentioned above: aloha, hula, kahuna, lei, luau, muumuu, poi, ukulele.

Click on the map for a larger version


General Southern (purple and red)
This dialect region matches the borders of the Confederate states that seceded during the "Confederate War" and is still a culturally
distinct region of the United States. Since it was largely an agricultural area, people tended to move around less than they did in the
north, and as a result, the subdialects are much less uniform than those of the General Northern regions and have much more clearly
defined boundaries. Other languages that had an important influence on it are French (since the western region was originally French
territory) and the African languages spoken by the people brought over as slaves. People tend to speak slower here than in the north
creating the famous southern "drawl." I is pronounced AH, and OO is pronounced YOO, as in "Ah'm dyoo home at fahv o'clock." An
OW in words like loud is pronounced with a slided double sound AOO (combining the vowel sounds in "hat" and "boot"). Some local
words are: boogerman, funky (bad smelling), jump the broomstick (get married), kinfolks, mammy, muleheaded, overseer, tote, y'all.
South Midland (17)
This area, dominated by the Appalachian Mountains and the Ozark Mountains, was originally settled by the Pennsylvania Dutch
moving south from the North Midland areas and the Scotch-Irish moving west from Virginia. A TH at the end of words or syllables is
sometimes pronounced F, and the word ARE is often left out of sentences as they are in Black English. An A is usually placed at the
beginning of verb that ends with ING, and the G is dropped; an O at the end of a word becomes ER. ("They a-celebratin' his birfday
by a-goin' to see 'Old Yeller' in the theatah"). A T is frequently added to words that end with an S sound. Some words are: bodacious,
heap, right smart (large amount), set a spell, and smidgin. American English has retained more elements of the Elizabethan English
spoken in the time of Shakespeare than modern British English has, and this region has retained the most. Some Elizabethan words
that are extinct in England are: bub, cross-purposes, fall (autumn), flapjack, greenhorn, guess (suppose), homely, homespun, jeans,
loophole, molasses, peek, ragamuffin, reckon, sorry (inferior), trash, well (healthy).
Ozark (18)
Made famous by the Beverly Hillbillies, this isolated area was settled by people from the southern Appalachian region and developed
a particularly colorful manner of speaking.
Southern Appalachian (19)
It is a popular myth that there are a few remote regions here that still speak an unchanged form of Elizabethan English, but it isn't true.
Linguists are still studying the specific differences with South Midland.
Southern
As the northern dialects were originally dominated by Boston, the southern dialects were heavily influenced by Charleston, Richmond,
and Savannah. They tend to drop Rs the way New Englanders do, but they don't add extra Rs. Some words are: big daddy
(grandfather), big mamma (grandmother), Confederate War (Civil War), cooter (turtle), fixing to (going to), goober (peanut), hey
(hello), mouth harp (harmonica), on account of (because).
Virginia Piedmont (20)
When an R comes after a vowel, it becomes UH, and AW becomes the slided sound, AH-AW. Thus, four dogs becomes fo-uh
dahawgs. Some local words are: hoppergrass (grasshopper), old-field colt (illegitimate child), school breaks up (school lets out),
weskit (vest).
Coastal Southern (21)
Very closely resembles Virginia Piedmont but has preserved more elements from the colonial era dialect than any other region of the
United States outside Eastern New England. Some local words are: catty-corner (diagonal), dope (soda, Coca-Cola), fussbox (fussy
person), kernal (pit), savannah (grassland), Sunday child (illegitimate child). They call doughnuts cookies.
Gullah (22)
Sometimes called Geechee, this creole language is spoken by some African Americans on the coastal areas and coastal islands of
Georgia and South Carolina and was featured in the novel on which the musical, Porgy and Bess, was based. It combines English with
several West African languages: Mende, Yoruba, Wolof, Kongo, Twi, Vai, Temne, Ibo, Ewe, Fula, Umbundu, Hausa, Bambara, Fante,
and more. The name comes either from the Gola tribe in Liberia or the Ngola tribe in Angola. The grammar and pronunciation are too
complicated to go into here, but some words are: bad mouth (curse), guba (peanut - from which we get the English word goober),
gumbo (okra), juju (magic), juke (disorderly, wicked), peruse (to walk leisurely), samba (to dance), yam (sweet potato).
Gulf Southern (23)
This area was settled by English speakers moving west from Virginia, Georgia, and the Carolinas, as well as French speaking settlers
spreading out from Louisiana, especially the Acadians (see "Cajuns" below). Some words are: armoire (wardrobe), bayou (small
stream), bisque (rich soup), civit cat (skunk), flitters (pancakes), gallery (porch), hydrant (faucet), neutral ground (median strip), pecan
patty (praline).
Louisiana (24)
There's a lot going on down here. Many people in southern Louisiana will speak two or three of the dialects below. Cajun French (the
Cajuns were originally French settlers in Acadia, Canada - now called Nova Scotia - who were kicked out when the British took over;
in 1765, they arrived in New Orleans which was still French territory) carries the highest prestige of the French dialects here and has
preserved a number of elements from the older French of the 1600s. It has also borrowed some words from the Spanish who once
controlled this area. There are many local variations of it, but they would all be mutually understandable with each other as well as -
with some effort - the standard French in France. Cajun English borrows vocabulary and grammar from French and gives us the
famous pronunciations "un-YON" (onion) and "I ga-RON-tee" as well as the phrase "Let de good times role!", but movies about
cajuns usually get the rest wrong. A famous authentic speaker is humorist Justin Wilson, who had a cooking show on PBS, with his
catch phrase, "How y'all are? I'm glad for you to see me." New Orleans is pronounced with one syllable: "Nawlns." There is another
dialect of English spoken in New Orleans that is informally, and some would say pejoratively, called Yat (from the greeting, "Where
y'at"), that resembles the New York City (particularly Brooklyn) dialect (more info). Provincial French was the upper class dialect of
the pre-Cajun French settlers and closely resembles Standard French but isn't widely spoken anymore since this group no longer exists
as a separate social class. Louisiana French Creole blends French with the languages of the West Africans who were brought here as
slaves. It is quite different from both the Louisiana and standard dialects of French but is very similar to the other creoles that
developed between African and French on various Caribbean Islands. Married couples may speak Creole to each other, Cajun French
with other people, and English to their children.

ANIMAL SOUNDS
MOUTH SOUNDS
SPELLING
VOCABULARY BUILDING
DIALECTS
MOUTH EXCERCISES
HOMONYMS
WORD JOURNAL

The level of vibration of the vocal cords determines whether a sound is voiced or
unvoiced. If the vocal cords are apart, then air can escape unimpeded. Sounds produced
in this way are said to be voiceless. The easiest example of this is to whisper. When you
whisper, your glottis is wide open and, therefore, all the sounds produced are voiceless.
However, if the vocal cords are very close together, the air will blow them apart as it
forces its way through. This makes the cords vibrate, producing a voiced sound.

To feel the distinction between voiced and voiceless sounds is very easy. Place your
finger and thumb lightly on your throat. Say ssssssss to yourself. Then say zzzzzzz.
Repeat these a few times. Then substitute fffffff and vvvvvvv sounds. You should be able
to feel the vibration of the cords when you say zzzzzz and vvvvvv, but nothing when you
say sssssss and fffffff.

It is also possible to hear the vibration. Instead of putting your fingers on your throat, put
your index fingers in your ears and repeat the above sounds. You should hear a low
buzzing sound when you articulate zzzzzz and vvvvvv, but hear almost nothing for the
other two sounds.

Voicing is important in a language like English because the meaning of a sound often
depends on whether that sound is voiced or not.

For example, 'big' carries a very different meaning from 'pig'.

English has many sounds that are paired up in this manner where articulation and manner
are the same, but the meaning is dependant upon whether the sound is voiced or not.
past present future conditional

simple I wrote I write I will write I would write

perfect I had written I have written I will have written I would have
written

progressive I was writing I am writing I will be writing I would be


writing

passive it was it is written it will be written it would be


written written

perfect progressive I had been I have been writing I will have been I would have
writing writing been writing
perfect passive it had been it has been written it will have been it would have
written written been written

progressive passive it was being it is being written it will be being it would be


written it is getting written written being written
it was it will be getting it would be
getting written getting written
written
perfect progressive it had been it has been being it will have been it would have
passive being written written being written been being
it had been it has been getting it will have been written
getting written getting written it would have
written been getting
written

Job English in the Pronunciation Classroom

Steven Donahue
Language Magazine

Steven Donahue examines the use of simple technology and handouts to help second
language learners improve their production of English sounds aimed at landing a job
and attaining the “American Dream”.

Job English “Big Bang”

The perfect pronunciation class should not end at the four walls of the classroom
or the end of the semester exam. Students should take with them lessons on the sound
patterns of English, which will last a lifetime and have real world improvements on their
ability to communicate. A core criterion for effectively communicating is the ability to
come across well during an oral interview for a job—and success gauged by getting the
position.

“Before 1976, there were no papers on teaching English as a Second Language to


guest workers trying to function on the job,” notes Allen Grognet, director of the Center
for Applied Linguistics (CAL) Sunbelt Office in Sarasota, Florida. The first real-world
text to address the issue of employment oriented English was Industrial English, by
Tom Jopp in the 1970s.

Industrial English was developed to address the influx of foreign workers into the
Great Britain. Similar ESL worker influxes hit the United States with the fall of Saigon
in 1975 when over 200,000 refugees were airlifted from Southeast Asia. Subsequent
waves of refugees brought over the Hmong, who did not even have a written language—
presenting tremendous hurdles for ESL teachers. Grognet says, “Basically, teachers
through up their hands and said, ‘What are we going to do?’”

Notional/Functional Syllabus

What the education community did to address these issues was to adapt the
British Notional Functional Syllabus or NTS. The NTS is distinguished by its attention
to "functions" as the organizing elements of English language. It is focused strongly and
exclusively on the pragmatic purposes to which we put language.
While a syllabus may also contain English for Academic Purposes, the hallmark
of the NTS is, as Grognet explains, “ The enabling words such as ‘twist’, ‘stir’, ‘pour’
can be crucial for understanding. Pouring acid and pouring milk are radically different.
But if you don’t know the word ‘pour’, you’re in trouble.”

Oral Job Resumes

As a capstone activity for English as a Second Language pronunciation classes,


having students record an oral resume of their top qualifications can provide feedback
about enunciation weak points in the context of using real language. The focus can be on
consonants, vowels, volume, content or a combination of these aspects of the effective
speech.

Step 1: Students are given a worksheet to construct an oral description of their three top
skills (as below).
• The teacher previews some of the areas of pronunciation concern, particular to
each student, and offers suggestions, such as synonyms for difficult-to-pronounce
words.
• Words that describe students’ particular qualifications are reviewed, brainstormed,
and added to the list.

Step 2: Students either record their Oral Resume at home or in the classroom. They
should record it at least three times. (Keep in mind that valuable time will be lost if the
recordings take place in the classroom). Note: Ask students to cue up tapes before class.

Step 3: The tapes should be played in the classroom so that each student hears the
others. While the students are listening, they should evaluate each other on a written form
and give the form to the student. (The instructor can make a separate and private
evaluation for a grade and feedback).

Oral Resume Worksheet


THREE REASONS TO GIVE ME THE JOB

Experience (this means the jobs you have had)

Expertise (this means the duties you can perform)

Passion ( this means that you love to do a certain job)

Bilingual ( this means you are fluent in two language.


Trilingual is three languages)

Punctual or Timely ( This means you are always on time for


appointments)

Flexible (this means you will work different shifts)

Heart (this means you have compassion or care


about other human beings)

Professional and Thorough I do a job from A to Z”

Efficient . (this means you do the work on time)

Patience (this means that you do not rush things.


Remember after “BE” you say I am Patience.
After “HAVE” you say I have Patience.)

Team work and Team Player (this means you get along with others on the
job)

· Multi task (this means you can do several things at


once, well)

ADD YOUR OWN WORDS

· Oral Resume CLOZE


ORAL RESUME (Fill in the blanks with the words and examples that apply to you. Please only
use three qualities for this exercise)

My name is ___________ and I am seeking the position at your company _________.


I believe that I am qualified for the position for three reasons: _________,, _______, and
__________.

First, I have _______. For example, I have ________ because __________..

Second, I have ________. For example, I ___________________________.

Last, I have _________________ for the position. For example_________________________

In conclusion, you should consider hiring me for three strong reasons _________________,
_____________, and _______________________ . Thank your for your time and good luck
with your decision.

· Oral Resume FEEDBACK FORM

Student____________________________________

5 = Great 3= middle 1 = Needs improvement

Volume of Speaker 5 4 3 2 1

Speed of Speaker 5 4 3 2 1

Understand Speaker? 5 4 3 2 1

Intonation of Speaker 5 4 3 2 1

Confidence of Speaker 5 4 3 2 1

Which words/Consonants/Vowels need improvement __________,


_______________, _________, ___________, _______________, _________

Comments/Suggestions?

Keys to Keeping a Job

In 1990, the Secretary of Labor appointed a commission to determine the skills


our young people need to succeed in the world of work. Allene Grognet, the only linguist
to sit on the commission, says that the report identified key areas for getting and keeping
a job in America. She notes, “Workers must be able to follow a schedule or know how
much cleaner to mix with water to clean a room, read a manual, interpret and relay
telephone messages, or report on the status of a machine.”

Perhaps even more important is the small talk and banter in the workplace.
Grognet says, “ On a basic level, knowledge of ‘safety language,’ is important. But so is
the small talk, ‘ How was the baseball game?’ ‘Where are you going on vacation?’ and
other such exchanges, if absent, lead to total isolation.”

I’m Bond. James Bond.

Incorporating real-world situations that adult ESL students will encounter can
make a pronunciation class last a lifetime for the learner. Learning how to say the
consonants and vowels of one’s name should be part of every pronunciation class. Or as
James Bond says in the movies. “I’m Bond. James Bond.”

/L/ VS /J/ LAWN


YAWN
LOU
YOU
LAP
YAP
LESS
YES
LUCKY
YUCKY
LUCK
YUCK
/S/ VS /SL/
LEAP
SLEEP
LIP
SLIP
LOW
SLOW
/W/ VS /L/
WHY
LIE
WAKE
LAKE
WAIT
LATE
WEEP
LEAP
WINK
LINK
WALLY
LOLLY
/CH/ VS /SH/
SHOPS
CHOPS
SHOES
CHOOSE
SHIPS
CHIPS
SHARE
CHAIR
SHANE
CHAIN
SHIN
CHIN
SHEEP
CHEEP
SHOCK
CHOCK
/D/ VS /T/
CORD
COT
COD
CAUGHT
BERT
BIRD
WADE
WAIT
WED
WET
BAD
BAT
BEAD
BEAT
WRITE
RIDE
SAT.
SAD
SORT
SWORD
HID
HIT
POT
POD
FEET
FEED
WROTE
ROAD
WHEAT
WEED
/DJ/ VS /TSH/
JEER
CHEER
JOKE
CHOKE
JEEP
CHEAP
JANE
CHAIN
SHORE
CHORE
JUMP
CHUMP
JEST
CHEST
GIN
CHIN
JESS
CHESS
/F/ VS /D/
FILE
DIAL
FISH
DISH
FAN
DAN
FOUR
DOOR
FIVE
DIVE
FOAM
DOME
FIG
DIG
/F/ VS /W/
FEEL
WHEEL
FIG
WIG
FIGHT
WHITE
FORK
WALK
FALL
WALL
FISH
WISH
FEEL
WHEEL
FULL
WOOL
FAIL
WHALE
FADE
WADE

/H/ VS /F/ HAT


FAT
HIT
FIT
HOLD
FOLD
HIVE
FIVE
HALL
FALL
HORSE
FORCE
HALL
FALL
HEEL
FEEL
HOLE
FOAL
HAIRY
FAIRY
/H/ VS /S/
SAUCE
HORSE
SOUP
HOOP
SOLD
HOLD
SIDE
HIDE
SIT
HIT
SAND
HAND
SUIT
HOOT
SOLE
HOLE
SOAP
HOPE
SEAT
HEAT
SIP
HIP
SEAL
HEEL
/H/ VS /SH/
HALL
SHAWL
HEAD
SHED
HORN
SEAN
HORN
SHAWN
HARP
SHARP
HOP
SHOP
HOOK
SHOOK
HIGH
SHY
HUT
SHUT
HEAP
SHEEP
HOE
SHOW
HAIR
SHARE
HEAT
SHEET
HIP
SHIP
/H/ VS /T/
HOP
TOP
HALL
TALL
HORN
TORN
HIGH
TIE
HOSE
TOES
HAIR
TEAR
HEN
TEN
HOT
TOT
/K/ VS /G/
CAP
GAP
GATE
KATE
GAME
CAME
GUM
COME
COAT
GOAT
COAST
GHOST
COT
GOT
/K/ VS /G/
PECK
PEG
BUCK
BUG
PICK
PIG
LOCK
LOG
BACK
BAG
STACK
STAG
TACK
TAG
/K/ VS /SK/
KEY
SKI
CAT
SCAT
CAR
SCAR
CORE
SCORE
COOL
SCHOOL
/K/ VS /T/
CAR
TAR
CORE
TORE
CAPE
TAPE
CUB
TUB
COOL
TOOL
CAP
TAP
KEY
TEA
CALL
TALL
CORN
TORN
/L/ CLUSTERS
LOW
GLOW
LIP
FLIP
LAP
CLAP
LOUD
CLOUD
LOCK
BLOCK
LEAP
SLEEP
LEAN
CLEAN
LIME
CLIMB
LOW
BLOW
LOVE
GLOVE
/L/ VS /D/
LOTS
DOTS
LOG
DOG
LAZY
DAISY
LEAP
DEEP
LOVE
DOVE
/L/ VS /S/
LINE
SIGN
LOW
SEW
LOCK
SOCK
LONG
SONG
LICK
SICK
LIP
SIP
LEND
SEND
LIFT
SIFT
LEAD
SEED
LOOK
SOOK
/M/ VS /SM/
MOG
SMOG
MASH
SMASH
MALL
SMALL
MILE
SMILE
MAC
SMACK
/N/ VS /L/
KNEAD
LEAD
NIP
LIP
NIGHT
LIGHT
NAME
LAME
KNOCK
LOCK
NEIGH
LAY
NO
LOW
NINE
LINE
KNOT
LOT
NAP
LAP
/N/ VS /NG/
RON
WRONG
PIN
PING
WIN
WING
THIN
THIN
/N/ VS /S/
GNAW
SAW
NINE
SIGN
NAILS
SAILS
KNEEL
SEAL
NEAT
SEAT
NIP
SIP
KNOCK
SOCK
NO
SEW
/N/ VS /SH/
GNAW
SHAW
KNEE
SHE
NIP
SHIP
NINE
SHINE
NEAT
SHEET
NUT
SHUT
NO
SHOW
KNOCK
SHOCK
/N/ VS /SN/
NAIL
SNAIL
KNEES
SNEEZE
NO
SNOW
NAP
SNAP
/P/ VS /B/
CUP
CUB
NIP
NIB
CAP
CAB
LAP
LAB
ROPE
ROBE
/P/ VS /SP/
PIE
SPY
PEACH
SPEECH
POT
SPOT
PIT
SPIT
PIN
SPIN
PILL
SPILL
/R/
ROOT
FRUIT
RAT
BRAT
RED
BREAD
RIP
DRIP
RAIN
TRAIN
ROW
THROW
/R/ VS /TR/
RASH
TRASH
RAY
TRAY
RIM
TRIM
RAIN
TRAIN
RACK
TRACK
RICK
TRICK
/R/ VS /W/
ONE
RUN
WIG
RIG
WING
RING
WOK
ROCK
WHALE
RAIL
WAKE
RAKE
WEED
READ
WITCH
RICH
WAVE
RAVE
WEST
REST
/S/ VS /F/
SORT
FORT
SHORT
SORE
FOUR
SHORE
SIGN
FINE
SHINE
SELL
FELL
SHELL
SEAT
FEET
SHEET
/S/ VS /F/
SOLD
FOLD
SAUCE
FORCE
SORT
FORT
SIX
FIX
SIT
FIT
SOLE
FOAL
CELL
FELL
SOLE
FOAL
SORE
FOUR
/S/ VS /F/
SUN
FUN
SEED
FEED
SOUND
FOUND
SEAT
FEET
SEAL
FEEL
SOCKS
FOX
SAW
FOUR
SUNNY
FUNNY
SAT
FAT
SIGN
FINE
/S/ VS /SH/
SUIT
SHOOT
SOCK
SHOCK
SORE
SHORE
SIP
SHIP
SACK
SHACK
SOUR
SHOWER
SEAT
SHEET
SUE
SHOE
/S/ VS /SH/
SIGN
SHINE
SEW
SHOW
SIP
SHIP
SAW
SHORE
SOCK
SHOCK
/S/ VS /SK/
SAILS
SCALES
SIP
SKIP
SEE
SKI
SORE
SCORE
/S/ VS /ST/
SICK
STICK
SACK
STACK
SEAL
STEAL
SOUP
STOOP
/SH/ VS /TSH/
MASH
MATCH
DISH
DITCH
WISH
WITCH
WASH
WATCH
CASH
CATCH
HUSH
HUTCH
CRUSH
CRUTCH
MARSH
MARCH
/SK/ VS /ST/
SCOOP
STOOP
SCHOOL
STOOL
SCOUT
STOUT
SCORE
STORE
SKY
STY
SKATE
STATE
SKILL
STILL
SCAMP
STAMP
/T/ VS /TSH/
TEAR
CHAIR
TEASE
CHEESE
TIN
CHIN
TOP
CHOP
TALK
CHALK
TICKS
CHICKS
TILED
CHILD
TIP
CHIP
TIPS
CHIPS
TORE
CHORE
TWO
CHEW
/T/ VS /ST/
TAKE
STAKE
TALK
STORK
TAR
STAR
TACK
STACK
TOP
STOP
TOOL
STOOL
TICK
STICK
/T/ VS /ST/
BEAT
BEAST
BERT
BURST
WET
WEST
COAT
COAST
GOAT
GHOST
WAIT
WAIST
NET
NEST
PET
PEST
FEET
FEAST
VET
VEST
/TH/ VS /F/
THIN
FIN
THAW
FOUR
THOUGHT
FORT
THREAD
FRED
THORN
FAWN
THREE
FREE
THIRST
FIRST
/TSH/ VS /S/
SORE
CHORE
SUM
CHUM
SIP
CHIP
SICK
CHICK
SAT
CHAT
SUE
CHEW
SILLY
CHILLY
SOAK
CHOKE
SUCK
CHUCK
SILL
CHILL
SEARCH
CHURCH
/V/ VS /B/
VASE
BASE
VEST
BEST
VAT
BAT
V
B
VOTE
BOAT
VAN
BAN
VOW
BOW
VERY
BERRY
/V/ VS /W/
VEST
WEST
VEIL
WHALE
VINE
WINE
VET
WET
VOLLEY
WALLY
VEAL
WHEEL
VIC
WICK
/VOICING/
PEACH
BEACH
TOWN
DOWN
FAN
VAN
POLE
BOWL
PEAS
BEES
BUY
PIE
BEAR
PEAR
SIP
ZIP
PIG
BIG
TORE
DOOR
/W/ VS /L/
WOK
LOCK
WINE
LINE
WEED
LEAD
WHITE
LIGHT
WEEK
LEEK
WEIGH
LAY
WET
LET
WICK
LICK
/W/ VS /SW/
WING
SWING
WEEP
SWEEP
WELL
SWELL
WHEAT
SWEET
WITCH
SWITCH
INITIAL /F/
ARM
FARM
EEL
FEEL
IN
FIN
AIR
FAIR
OAR
FOUR
ACE
FACE
EAT
FEET
ILL
FILL
OH
FOE
OX
FOX
ALE
FAIL
INITIAL /H/
"A"
HAY
"E"
HE
"I"
HIGH
"O"
HOE
"U"
WHO
EYE
HIGH
AIR
HAIR
OLD
HOLD
EEL
HEEL
ART
HEART
EDGE
HEDGE
INITIAL /K/
"R"
CAR
ART
CART
ACHE
CAKE
OAR
CORE
APE
CAPE
AIR
CARE
OLD
COLD
AIM
CAME
ILL
KILL
ARM
CALM
OFF
COUGH
INITIAL /S/
SEAL
EEL
SELL
"L"
SEAT
EAT
SAD
ADD
SOAK
OAK
SOLD
OLD
SAW
OAR
SOIL
OIL
SOUR
HOUR
INITIAL /T/
IN
TIN
EYE
TIE
ACHE
TAKE
AIM
TAME
AIR
TEAR
APE
TAPE
OLD
TOLD
ART
TART
INITIAL /SH/
SHOWER
HOUR
SHARE
AIR
SHY
EYE
SHAKE
ACHE
SHAPE
APE
SHAWL
ALL
SHELL
"L “
SHOUT
OUT
V /D/VS /T/
DEER
TEAR
DIE
TIE
DIN
TIN
DOLL
TOLL
DOOR
TORE
DOZE
TOES
DENT
TENT
DEAD
TED
DIM
TIM
FINAL
CONSONANT1
TEA
TEAM
TIE
TIDE
HOE
HOPE
PLAY
PLANE
CAR
CALF
PEA
PEEP
SHOE
SHOOT
LOW
LOAD
FINAL
CONSONANT2
HIGH
HIDE
SEE
SEAT
SHOE
SHOOT
SHE
SHEEP
COW
COUCH
SORE
SORT
SEA
SEED
SAY
SAVE
FINAL
CONSONANT3
BUY
BIKE
SEW
SOAP
OW!
OUT
BEE
BEACH
PIE
PILE
ROW
ROAD
MOO
MOVE
CAR
CARD
FINAL
CONSONANT4
RAT
RASH
OUT
OUCH
WRITE
RICE
CAT
CATCH
LATE
LACE
HUT
HUSH
MAT
MATCH
ROAD
ROSE
HEAD
HEDGE
HIT
HISS
COAT
COACH
INITIAL
CONSONANT
US
BUS
APE
TAPE
OUT
SHOUT
EYE
PIE
EEL
PEEL
AIR
CHAIR
ACHE
TAKE
OLD
FOLD

Accent Reduction Final


Below is a list of some of the topics that we covered in Accent Reduction.
(1) Pick out the one that most benefited you.
(2) Pick out one that was least helpful.
(3) Please describe the activity, and why it was, or was not helpful in the context of
the definition of Accent Reduction we have discussed in class, Knowledge,
Awareness, and Treatment.
===========================================================
(1) Accent Analysis
(2) Adjustments
(3) Be bold with and proud of your name.
(4) Body Language
(5) Booklet
(6) CDs
(7) Consonants
(8) Famous people who have accents.
(9) Finding your pronunciation Strong points
(10)Finding your pronunciation Weak points
(11)Games: Taboo, Photos, Flash Cards.
(12)Individual sessions with teacher
(13)Interference from native language
(14)Intonation
(15)IPA—International Phonetic Alphabet
(16)Irregular Verbs
(17)Job Interviews
(18)Knock Knock Jokes
(19)Lab
(20)Lectures
(21)Listening and the 7 Laws of Good listening
(22)Loudness
(23)Lying and Language

(24)Memorizing stories and scripts for conversation starters


(25)Opening mouths
(26)Playing with sounds like a child does
(27)Pushing out words
(28)Repetition
(29)Rhymes
(30)Self-monitoring through tape recordings.
(31)Slowing down
(32)Smiling
(33)Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. and elements of a good speech.
(34)Spelling Rules
(35)Stress
(36)Suggestions
(37)Techniques
(38)Telephone Skills.
(39)Tongue-Twisters
(40)Using pauses
(41)Videos
(42)Vital Vocabulary of 2600 Words
(43)Vowels
(44)Watching novellas and Deco drive
(45)Words you should know in College
(46)Whispering

Accent Reduction Class Review

1. Accent Reduction may imply that a person with a foreign or regional accent, like
an overweight person, needs some not-so-nice sound to be reduced or an obese
body that needs to lose weight. Perhaps there are better phrases for an Accent
Reduction course, such as Accent Enhancement, or Accent I IMPROVEMENT or
Accent A AWARENESS..

2. Of course, many famous people have an accent, yet have become successful.
Some of them are Arnold Shwarzenegger (who said “Hasts la vista, Baby” in
Terminator), Salma HAYEK, Jackie CHAN, Penelope CRUZ, and Desi Arnez
in the TV show I LOVE LUCY.

3. What do you think this song means from the play, My Fair Lady?

Why can't the English teach their children how to speak?


Norwegians learn Norwegian; the Greeks are taught their Greek.
In France every Frenchman knows his language from "A" to "Zed"
The French don't care what they do, actually, as long as they pronounce
it properly.
Arabians learn Arabian with the speed of summer lightning.
And Hebrews learn it backwards, which is absolutely frightening.
But use proper English, you're regarded as a freak.

ENGLISH CAN BE CHALLNGING. SOMETIMES HOW YOU SAY THE WORD


IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE MEANING OF THE WORD.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
4. There are three steps to improving one’s speech patterns: K. A. T.---
KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS, TREATMENT.

5. By K, KNOWLEDGE _, we mean understanding the sound system of English.

6. In this course we have divided the Sound System of English into 9 categories:
a. I for INTONATION__________________________________________
b. S for STRESS__________________________________________
c. V for VOWELS __________________________________________
d. C for CONSONANTS_________________________________
e. A for ADJUSTMENTS__________________________________
f. BL for BODY LANGUAGE__________________________
g. IR for IRREGULAR VERBS__________________________
h. R for RYHYTHM__________________________________________
i. T for TONGUE TWISTERS________________________

7. By A, AWARENESS_, we mean understanding our own Sound System, compared


with English.

8. English may be different from your native language sound system. What sounds
does your sound system have that English does not have? ( DEPENDS ON
STUDENT). What sounds does English have that are not in your native tongue?
( DEPENDS ON STUDENT)

9. In this course, I have discovered this about my own Sound System:

Category Example of Your Most-Needed Exercise


from booklet or CD.
(1) I INTONATION_ ____________________________
(2) S_STRESS____ ____________________________
(3) V VOWELS______ _____________________________
(4) C_CONSONANTS___ ____________________________
(5) A _ADJUSTMENTS__ ____________________________
(6) BL BODY LANGUAGE ____________________________
(7) IR _IRREGULAR VERBS _____________________________
(8) R _RHYTHM _____________________________
(9) T __TONGUE TWISTER_ ______________________________

8. By T, _TREATMENT_, we mean the things that we can do to improve our


communication abilities. As a general idea, if you have “weaknesses” or _WEAK
POINTS________, you should try to transform them into your _STRONG POINTS . A
critical factor in communicating effectively is to feel sure of yourself, or to speak with
C__CONFIDENCE

9. One way that a foreign or regional accent can be made into a strength is that usually
people will listen MORE_ attentively to you because they like the music of your voice.
Another technique is to find the words your Hate-To-Pronounce and record them on a
tape recorder or find SSYNONYMS or similar words that are easier to say.

10. There are several Strategies for T, TREATMENT, of an accent. These strategies
include P_PRACTICE , L LISTENING __, and S___SPEECH.

11. Included in P_PRACTICE are a number of techniques. You can remember these
techniques with the acronym PERLS. Some of these include:

(1) P_PLAYING. This is why children succeed at language learning—they are not
afraid to make mistakes. If you have problems with a particular sound pattern, do
all sorts of things with it to make it fun. For example, you can speak the word
very low in a _WHISPER, and then shout them. Alternatively, you can try all the
different kinds of Intonation: Frightened, Determined, Funny, and Ironic.
(2) E _ELONGATE. This means to make the consonant or vowel longer. If you want
to say the vegetable BEET, make it longer. If the similar sounding word BIT is
not understood, try to lengthen it a little bit too.
(3) R_REPETITION_ . An example of this is when you say a name as in the movie,
“Hi! I’m Bond. James Bond.” This gives the listener two chances to get your
name.
(4) L_LOUDNESS this means to raise the volume of your voice. As a rule, try and
“throw” your voice to the back wall of a room.
(5) S _SPEEED People will listen to you more attentively and will not be bored if
your language is well paced. If you speak between 80 and 120 words per minute
(you can record and test yourself), this is good. If you speak faster than 120
words per minute, that is probably too fast.

12. Included in L__LISTENING_ are a number of techniques. You can remember these
techniques with the acronym GIFINSA. Some of these include:

(1) G_GAG yourself. Spend more time listening. Don’t cut people off in mid-
sentence.
(2) I_INTERESTING. Find something I INTERESTING_______ to discuss or
in the other person. Become good at starting a conversation with an English-
speaking person. For example, “Where did you buy that purse?” or “Who
won the football game on Sunday?” are ways to engage in a conversation or
keep yourself alert. Remember—no one is boring!
(3) F FEEDBACK. Show people you are listening by little signs, such as eye
contact, and the small words like: Ohh!, Really?, Wow!, That’s Interesting.,
What happened next?, You’ve got to be kidding!, and Hmmm. Nodding your
head shows comprehension and should be used, even when listening to the
teacher in a classroom.
(4) I IN BETWEEN is for listening between the lines or listening to not just the
words people say but how they say them. What is the true feeling of what
they are saying. Are they sincere? Do they think it is important or funny? Is
there a “secret” message? Remember the lines in My Fair Lady? --The
French don't care what they do, actually, as long as they pronounce it
properly.
(5) N_NOTES . Having a paper and pad can be an important tool to aid
communication. It can be used to take messages over the phone, during job
interviews, or when communication breaks down. For instance, if someone
does not understand that you are saying “Shrimp” or “Circle”, simply draw a
quick one on a piece of paper.
(6) S STANCE . When you are listening, you can signal attentiveness with your
posture. If you Sl_SLOUCH_, or cross you’re A_ARMS or K_KNEES_
this can signal disinterest. Scratching your nose can be interpreted as
L_LYING. If you are too _FAR from someone you may seem remote. On
the other hand if you are too _CLOSE_, they may feel they are being
“grilled,” like in a police station. Remember, making a mistake is not that
crucial—it is how you handle a communication breakdown. Usually, a smile
is the best way to communicate when there is a breakdown.
(7) A AWARE of Filters is also crucial to being a good listener. For example,
many men want to get directly to the point and solve a problem. On the other
hand, many women want many details and want to understand a problem.
Filters are also important for second language situations. Be alert to
Misunderstandings over filters, which could arise because of a lack of
I_INTONATION in a question, for instance. Alternatively, if you tell a
JOKE and nobody laughs. Or if someone says, “You’re really bad,” and they
are being ironic, and really mean the opposite,” You’re really _GOOD .”

13. Included in S SPEECH are a number of techniques. You can remember these
techniques with the acronym VVV. Some of these include:
(1) V is for VERBAL . This means that you prepare the words that you are going
to be using for specific purposes, such as a speech, in advance. For example,
you should practice and master small speeches or scripts for a job interview,
for talking about yourself, for talking about something of interest, such as a
hobby, music, or sport.
(2) The second V is for VOCAL. This refers to the quality of your voice. When a
person is nervous, they may tend to talk like a R ROBOT_______ in a
M_MONOTONE_____. Always try to speak __LOUD__________ enough
and use appropriate I __INTONATION___________. Look at good speakers,
such as the news announcers on television, a Novella, or even Deco Drive.
See how they open their mouths and really push out the words. It is good to
be dramatic like this for effective communication, rather than being shy.
When you see a great speech, such as by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., pay
attention to their voice quality and how they use a great deal of repetition,
such as, “ Let Freedom Ring.” When speaking on the telephone, do not M
MUMBLE or speak indistinctly and use polite words like, “Do you mind if I
put you on hold for a minute?”
(3) The final V is for VISUAL. This is how you look or present yourself. When
you speak to a person or persons, you should maintain eye _CONTACT. You
should also use appropriate B_BODY_ L __LANGUAGE_. Finally, you
should D_DRESS for the situation or job.

14. There is a special alphabet used for the study of pronunciation. It is called the IPA
I______INTERNATIONAL
P______PHONETIC
A______ALPHABET

15. Let’s test your knowledge of the IPA. “Translate” the following:
(1) sI2st@r SISTER
(2) kow2bOy2 COWBOY
(3) D@1rti2yn THIRTEEN
(4) D@2rtI THIRTY
(5) dO2gzi2tbo2wnz DOGS EAT BONES
(6) ISuw ISSUE
(7) plEZy@r PLEASURE
(8) st{tSy@r STATURE
(9) hiylEtSyuwtOk HE LETS YOU WALK
(10) prowsiydZy@r PROCEDURE
(11) SiyniydZy@r{dv SHE NEEDS YOUR ADVICE
ays

16. Another important area of improving one’s accent is mastering the IRREGULAR
verbs. In the booklet there are _200 listed. However, there are only about ______ in
frequent use. What’s the best way to practice these? You should record your voice
saying them and play it back. You might even try singing them, like rhymes. For
example, Do: Did, Done, Doing. Draw: Drew, Drawn, Drawing. Now, do the same
for the verb Mow: MOWED_, _MOWN_, MOWING.

17. Tongue twisters occur in all languages. Spanish has: Mi mama me mima much.
French has: Le ver vert v avers le verre vert. Hebrew has: Sah-ra sha-ra sheerrr sa-
mayach. German has: Fischers Fritz fischt frische Fische. The hardest Tongue twister
in English probably is __PEGGY __ _____BABCOCK____. So never, name a child
by this name! Which tongue twister is good for practicing the two different WH
sounds in our booklet? ____WHICH IS THE WITCH THAT WISHED THE
WICKED WISH?_________________
____________________________________________________________________
___________

18. Story and verse are a primary way that English children absorb the linguistic lessons
of their first language. Embedded in the seemingly simple rhymes are complex
language patterns about intonation, rhythm, stress, and individual vowels and
consonants.
One misty, moisty morning,
When cloudy was the weather,
There I met an old man
Clothed all in leather;

Clothed all in leather,


With cap under his chin—
How do you do, and how do you do,
And how do you do again?

Circle all of the TH sounds in the rhyme.


Count the voiced and voiceless occurrences of TH.
There are _6_ voiced TH sounds and _____1_______ voiceless TH sounds.

19. Vocabulary is a final issue of an Accent Reduction course. At the beginning of the
semester you were given a list of _________2,460 words, almost from A to Z, or
really from the word ability to the word youth. This list includes the defining words
in the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDOCE). You should be
familiar with all of these words and their pronunciations. By knowing this core or
basic vocabulary in English, you can then learn all the other words necessary for
communication and college. Many of the words you already know. The ones that you
do not know should be learned as soon as possible. As a rule, you should be learning
5 to 10 new words everyday.

20. The art and science of reducing an accent has come along way since the days of
Professor Henry Higgins in My Fair Lady and the repetitive practice of phrases such as
“_The rain in Spain falls mainly on the plain _.” The central point of an accent
improvement course is to give you the tools to be a better communicator outside of the
four walls of the classroom and beyond the end of the semester.
Good luck with becoming even better communicators!

==========================##==================================

( all answers given in class or from accompanying booklet and CD)

How To Reduce an Accent1


2
Do you have a foreign accent?3 Do you know someone who does? Below is a “recipe” on how to
reduce an accent in three easy steps.4 The three steps5 involve knowledge of the English sound system,
awareness of your individual sound system, and treatment of any differences between the two sound
systems.6

First7, a complete knowledge of the English sound system is an important step. There are three
important parts to the English sound system.8 Of primary importance are the consonants. For example,
English has 24 consonants. However, the English vowels are important too. To illustrate, English has about
16 vowels. Finally, English does some weird things with words. The weird things that it does are called
“adjustments.” For example, when you say the word “Printer,” many times it will sound like “Prinner,” if
said quickly, with no T sound. Another example is phrases such as “Good Boy,” which sounds like
“GooBoy,” when spoken rapidly. Therefore, you can see, knowledge of English consonants, vowels, and
adjustments is an important subject.9

Next, an awareness of your individual sound system is essential to improving your English accent.
10
Now, you probably speak your first language perfectly. However, you may not have some of the sounds
that are in English. For example, if you speak Spanish, you do not have the TH sound like in the word
“Thin.” If you are a French speaker, you may have trouble with the H sound in the word “Hotel.” In
summary, you can see that it is important to be aware of you own language’s sound system.11

Finally, now that you have knowledge of English and awareness of your language’s sound system,
what should you do?12 You should treat your accent with exercises. First, you should make a list of all your
problem words. For example, if you are a Spanish speaker, you may want to make a list of all the important

1
What is this called? T_____________
2
The name of this first Paragraph is, the I________________________
3
What is this called? A_____________ or H____________
4
For an Essay, this main idea is called a __________________
5
What is this called? R ___________of __________________
6
What is parallel about the three words?
7
This is a T__________ word
8
For the Paragraph this main idea is called a T________________
9
This is the C______________________ for the Paragraph
10
This is a T_______________ sentence of the Paragraph
11
What kind of sentence is this? _____________________________
12
The name of this Paragraph is C___________________________
words that contain TH, such as “Teeth” or “Through.” Another example for French speakers is to make a
list of all the important words that begin with H and practice them, such as “Help” or “Hero”. Finally, you
should tape record yourself making these words and play it back while riding in the car. To summarize, to
treat your accent you should identify the sounds that are causing your accent and practice them.

In conclusion, there are three steps to reducing a foreign accent. First, gain knowledge about the
English sound system. Second, become aware of your own language’s sound system. Last, treat your accent
with exercises or practice. Believe me, if you follow this advice, you will be speaking English perfectly!13

1.
(a) This is my son. [rising intonation]
(b) This is my son. [falling intonation]*
(c) This is my son. [no intonation]

2.
(a) What time is it? [rising intonation]
(b) What time is it? [falling intonation]*
(c) What time is it? [no intonation]

3.
(a) Did she answer? [ rising intonation]*
(b) Did she answer? [falling intonation]
(c) Did she answer? [no intonation]

4.
Note: Here you want the question repeated.
(a) Where was I? [rising intonation]*
(b) Where was I? [falling intonation]
(c) Where was I? [no intonation]

5.
Note: Here you are comparing two things.
(a) He sounds like his father. [ two rising curves]*
(b) He sounds like his father. [ two falling curves]
(c) He sounds like his father. [ no intonation]

6.
Here, the item being compared is not present.
(a) I couldn't do that. [ rising intonation]*
(b) I couldn't do that. [ falling intonation]
(c) I couldn't do that. [ no intonation]

13
What kind of sentence is this? It is a F____________________ T___________________
7A.
Here, the two thoughts of a group are distant or not closely related to each other.
(a) I don't want to write; it's too difficult. [ both rise]
(b) I don't want to write; it's too difficult. [ both fall to low note]*
(c) I don't want to write; it's too difficult. [ no intonation]

7B.
Here, the two thoughts of a group are close or related to each other.
(a) You said it was easy, but you won't do it. [both rise]
(b) You said it was easy, but you won't do it. [both fall] to normal note]*
(c) You said it was easy, but you won't do it. [no intonation]

7C.
Here, the first thought group presents suspense, and the second thought group offers a
conclusion or outcome.
(a) If you want to learn English, you have to read that book. [first rises; second falls]*
(b) If you want to learn English, you have to read that book. [first falls; second rises]
(c) If you want to learn English, you have to read that book. [no intonation]

8.
(a) She went to the bank, the bakery, and the beauty shop. [all rise].
(b) She went to the bank, the bakery, and the beauty shop. [ first two rise, last one falls]*
(c) She went to the bank, the bakery, and the beauty shop. [ no intonation]

9.
(a) Do you prefer email or snail mail. [ both rise equally]
(b) Do you prefer email or snail mail. [ email is higher]*
(c) Do you prefer email or snail mail. [ no intonation]

10.
(a) We study at home, or in the library, or on the computer. [all rise].
(b) We study at home, or in the library, or on the computer. [ all rise, but last falls ]*
(c) We study at home, or in the library, or on the computer. [ no intonation]

11.
(a) Have you ever had rice or beans? [ both items rise]*
(b) Have you ever had rice or beans. [both items fall]
(c) Have you ever had rice or beans. [no intonation.]

12.
(a) Mr. Lopez, when is the test? [ rise on Lopez]
(b) Mr. Lopez, when is the test? [ low note, then rise on Lopez]*
(d) Mr. Lopez, when is the test? [ no intonation]

13.
For this question, the person expects an answer.
(a) It's a nice day, isn't it? [ rise at end]*
(b) It's a nice day, isn't it? [fall at end]
(c) It's a nice day, isn't it? [no intonation]

14.
For this question, the person does not expect an answer.
(a) It's a nice day , isn't it? [rise at end]
(b) It's a nice day, isn't it? [fall at end]*
(c) It's a nice day, isn't it? [no intonation]

15A.
Here answer: Focus on who baked the pie.
(a) Was it you who baked the pie? [ rise on baked]
(b) Was it you who baked the pie? [ rise on you]*
(c) Was it you who baked the pie? [ no intonation]

15B.
Here answer: Focus on who took the course.
(a) I took the new course. [rise on I]*
(b) I took the new course [rise on new]
(d) I took the new course [no intonation]

15C.
Here answer : Focus on did you take the car or leave it]
(a) I took the new car. [ rise on new]
(b) I took the new car. [rise on took]*
(c) I took the new car. [ no intonation]

15D.
Here answer: Focus on did you take the old or new car.
(a) I took the new car. [ rise on took]
(b) I took the new car. [rise on new]*
(c) I took the new car. [ no intonation]

16.
Here, the person is not sincere or enthusiastic.
(a) Great. [ rising intonation]
(b) Great [falling intonation]*
(c) Great [no intonation]

17.
Here, the person is sincere and excited.
(a) Great [rising intonation]*
(b) Great [falling intonation]
(c) Great [no intonation]
18.
Here, an adult is talking to a child.
(a) You don't really want candy. (high note, low note, normal note)*
(b) You don't really want candy. ( high note at end)
(c) You don't really want candy. (no intonation)

19.
Here, the person is showing Irony
(a) Am I a teacher? [normal note, then high note, then normal note]*
(b) Am I a teacher? [ rising intonation at end]
(c) Am I a teacher? [ not intonation]

20.
Here, the speaker is Shocked.
(a) That's horrible! [ rise on That's]
(b) That's horrible! [ rise on horrible]*
(c) That's horrible! [ no intonation]

21.
Here, the speaker is Surprised.
(a) Oh my God! [rise on my]
(b) Oh my God! [rise on God]*
(c) Oh my God! [ no intonation]

22.
Here, the person speaks with approval or appreciation.
(a) She drives extremely well. [rise on extremely]*
(b) She drives extremely well. [rise on well]
(c) She drives extremely well. [no intonation]

23.
(a) He lives in Miami, Florida. [ rise on Miami, and Florida]*
(b) He lives in Miami, Florida. [ rise on Miami]
(c) He lives in Miami, Florida. [ no intonation]

24.
Here, the speaker emphasizes the new information.
(a) I'm looking for a book. [ rise on book]*
(b) I'm looking for a book [fall on book]
(c) I'm looking for a book [no intonation]

25A.
This is the house that the president lives in.
(a) She lives in the Whitehouse. [rise on white]*
(b) She lives in the Whitehouse. [rise on house]
(c) She lives in the Whitehouse. [no intonation]
25B.
This is a bird that happens to be black.
(a) I saw a black bird . [rise on black]
(b) I saw a black bird. [rise on bird]*
(c) I saw a black bird. [ no intonation]

26A.
(a) She said I could hear you. [rise and fall on hear]*
(b) She said I could hear you. [ rise and slide on you]
(c) She said I could hear you. [ no intonation]

26B.
(a) The coffee is hot. [ slide on hot]*
(b) The coffee is hot. [ slide on coffee]
(c) The coffee is hot. [no intonation]

27.
Here, the person is very serious and determined.
(a) Don't you ever talk to me like that again. [all rising slides]
(b) Don't you ever talk to me like that again. [ all falling slides]*
(c) Don't you ever talk to me like that again. [no intonation]

28.
(a) On the shelf [ pronounced thee, stressed]
(b) On the shelf [ pronounced thuh, unstressed]*
(c) On the shelf [ pronounced thu uh , as two syllables]

29.
(a) fifty [stressed on second syllable fifTY]
(b) fifty [stressed on first syllable FIFty]*
(c) fifty [stressed on both syllables FIF TY]

30.
(a) incredible [inCREDible-stress on second syllable]*
(b) incredible [INCredible-stress on second syllable]
(c) incredible [in cred IBLE] -stress on last syllable]

31.
(a) hotdog [hotDOG-stress on second syllable]
(b) hotdog [HOTdog-stress on first syllable]*
(c) hotdog [HOTDOG-stress on both syllable]

32.
(a) I can outrun you. [outRUN-stress on second]*
(b) I can outrun you [OUTrun-stress on first]
(c) I can outrun you [OUTRUN-stress on both]

33.
(a) myself [MYself-stress on first]
(b) myself [mySELF-stress on second]*
(c) myself [MYSELF-stress on both]

34.
(a) thirteen [THIRteen-stress on first]
(b) thirteen [thirTEEN-stress on second]*
(c) thirteen [THIR TEEN-stress on first]

35A.
(a) Did you listen to the record? [RECord-stress on first syllable]*
(b) Did you listen to the record? [reCORD-stress on second syllable]
(c) Did you listen to the record? [RECORD-stress on both syllables]

35B.
(a) Please record that song. [RECord-stress on first syllable]*
(b) Please record that song. [recORD-stress on second syllable]
(c) Please record that song. [RECORD-stress on both syllables]

36.
(a) He's a college graduate. [GRADuate-stress on first syllable]*
(b) He's a college graduate. [graduATE-stress on second syllable]
(c) He's a college graduate. [GRADUATE-stress on both]

37A.
(a) Let's talk about it. [ stress about]
(b) Let's talk about it. [ stress talk]*
(c) Let's talk about it. [stress both]

37B.
(a) Figure out the bill. [stress figure]
(b) Figure out the bill. [stress out]
(c) Figure out the bill. [stress both]*

37C.
(a) Don't talk down to her. [ stress talk and to]
(b) Don't talk down to her. [ stress talk and down]*
(c) Don't talk down to her. [stress down]

38.
(a) happiness [stress -ness]
(b) happiness [stress -hapi]*
(c) happiness [stress ha--]
39.
(a) publicity [stress -pub]
(b) publicity [stress -ity]
(c) publicity [stress -lic]*

40.
Pick the longest (if any)
(a) dogs eat bones/ dogs eat thebones-first
(b) dogs eat bones/dogs eat the bones-second
(c) dogs eat bones/dogs eat the bones-same*

41.
(a) the cat [stress the]
(b) the cat [stress both]
(c) the cat [stress cat]*

42.
(a) the blue one [stress one]*
(b) the blue one [stress the]
(c) the blue one [stress blue]

43.
Choose the correct pause
(a) When the wind/ blows the cradle will rock
(b) When the wind blows/ the cradle will rock.*
(c) When the wind blows the cradle/ will rock

44.
(a) That's Tim's books. [ pronounced TEEMs]
(b) That's Tim's books. [ pronounced Tim]*
(c) That's Tim's books. [ pronounced toom]

45.
(a) Who did that? [pronounced DEED]
(b) Who did that? [pronounced DID]*
(c) Who did that? [pronounced DEYD]

46.
(a) Was that a police raid? [pronounced reyd]*
(b) Was that a police raid? [pronounced red]
(c) Was that a police raid? [pronounced RAAD]

47.
(a) That's what I said. [pronounced seed]
(b) That's what I said. [pronounced sod]
(c) That's what I said. [pronounced sEd]*

48.
(a) I heard a rap on the door [pronounced reap]
(b) I heard a rap on the door [pronounced rape]
(c) I heard a rap on the door [pronounced rap]*

49.
(a) The sun is hot. [pronounced hat]
(b) The sun is hot. [pronounced hot]*
(c) The sun is hot [pronounced hoot]

50.
(a) That man was rude [pronounced rude]*
(b) That man was rude [pronounced rud]
(c) That man was rude [pronounced red]

51.
(a) Please read that book. [pronounced beak]
(b) Please read that book [pronounced buwk]
(c) Please read that book [pronounced book]*

52.
(a) Water will flow down a hill. [pronounced flew]
(b) Water will flow down a hill. [pronounced flow]*
(c) Water will flow down a hill [pronounced flee]

53.
(a) She said she would call. [pronounced coal]
(b) She said she would call. [pronounced cool]
(c) She said she would call [pronounced call]*

54.
(a) Go buy some potatoes. [pronounced bay]
(b) Go buy some potatoes. [pronounced bee]
(c) Go buy some potatoes. [pronounced buy]*

55.
(a) At night I can hear an owl. [ pronounced awl]
(b) At night I can hear an owl. [pronounced oowl]
(c) At night I can hear an owl. [pronounced owl]*

56.
(a) Give the children a toy. [pronounced toy]*
(b) Give the children a toy. [pronounced tea]
(c) Give the children a toy. [pronounced tay]
57.
(a) Put the money in a box [pronounced bucks]
(b) Put the money in a box [pronounced boks]*
(c) Put the money in a box [pronounced books]

58.
(a) Look at the bright star [pronounced steer]
(b) Look at the bright star [ pronounced stir]
(c) Look at the bright star [ pronounced star]*

59.
(a) Students just want to have fun [pronounced fun]*
(b) Students just want to have fun [pronounced fan]
(c) Students just want to have fun [pronounced fin]

60.
(a) Is that a pea? [pronounced as bee]
(b) Is that a pea? [pronounced as fee]
(c) Is that a pea? [pronounced as pea]*

61.
(a) Watch the bit. [pronounced as pit]
(b) Watch the bit. [pronounced as bit]*
(c) Watch the bit. [pronounced as fit]

62.
(a) Go see the teen. [pronounced teen]*
(b) Go see the teen [pronounced dean]
(c) Go see the teen [pronounced peen]

63.
(a) Did you say "Sid"? [pronounced sit]
(b) Did you say "Sid"? [pronounced Sid]*
(c) Did you say "Sid"? [pronounced sick]

64.
(a) Take care of your back. [pronounced bag]
(b) Take care of your back. [pronounced bat]
(c) Take care of your back [pronounced back]*

65.
(a) I like that girl [pronounced curl]
(b) I like that girl [pronounced girl]*
(c) I like that girl [pronounced whirl]
66.
(a) Did she say "thigh" [pronounced thigh]*
(b) Did she say "thigh" [pronounced thy ]
(c) Did she say "thigh" [pronounced sigh]

67.
(a) Did the dentist say "teethe" [pronounced teeth]
(b) Did the dentist say "teethe" [pronounced tease]
(c) Did the dentist say "teethe" [pronounced teethe]*

68.
(a) Make sure to make those bets [pronounced beds]
(b) Make sure to make those bets [pronounced betch]
(c) Make sure to make those bets [pronounced bets]*

69.
(a) Did he say "zoo" [pronounced zoo]*
(b) Did he say "zoo" [pronounced Sue]
(c) Did he say "zoo" [pronounced two]

70.
(a) Is that a new she? [pronounced genre]
(b) Is that a new she? [pronounced tea]
(c) Is that a new she? [pronounced she]*

71.
(a) I have good vision [pronounced vishun]
(b) I have good vision [pronounced vision]*
(c) I have good vision [pronounced venison]

72.
(a) He's got a lot of heart. [pronounced art]
(b) He's got a lot of heart. [pronounced sart]
(c) He's got a lot of heart. [pronounced heart]*

73.
(a) I'm not ready yet. [pronounced jet]
(b) I'm not ready yet [pronounced yet]*
(c) I'm not ready yet. [pronounced get]

74.
(a) How do you pronounce "We'll"? [ pronounce wheel]
(b) How do you pronounce "We'll"? [pronounce we'll]*
(c) How do you pronounce "We'll"? [pronounce veal]

75.
(a) How do you pronounce "while"? [pronounce vile]
(b) How do you pronounce "while"? [pronounce wile]
(c) How do you pronounce "while"? [pronounce while]*

76.
(a) Did you say "few"? [pronounce pew]
(b) Did you say "few" ? [pronounce few ]*
(c) Did you say "few"? [pronounce view]

77.
(a) She looked up the word "strive". [pronounce strife]
(b) She looked up the word "strive" [pronounce tribe]
(c) She looked up the word "strive" [pronounce strive]*

78.
(a) I heard a moo. [pronounce boo]
(b) I heard a moo. [pronounce moo]*
(c) I heard a moo. [pronounce new]

79.
(a) I thought she said "seen" [pronounce seem]
(b) I thought she said "seen" [pronounce sing]
(c) I thought she said "seen" [pronounce seen]*

80.
(a) Remember to play. [pronounce pway]
(b) Remember to play [pronounce pray]
(c) Remember to play. [pronounce play]*

81.
(a) Did they say "ping" [pronounced pin]
(b) Did they say "ping" [pronounced ping]*
(c) Did they say "ping" [pronounced pink]

82.
(a) I heard the teacher say "rich" [pronounce ridge]
(b) I heard the teacher say "rich" [pronounce Rick]
(c) I hear the teacher say "rich" [pronounce rich]*

83.
(a) Did I hear them say "age" [pronounce age]*
(b) Did I hear them say "age" [pronounce aitch]
(c) Did I hear them say "age" [pronounce ache]

84.
(a) I really like rhyme. [pronounce lime]
(b) I really like rhyme [pronounce yime]
(c) I really like rhyme [pronounce rhyme]*

85.
(a) Don't say the word "ill" [pronounce ill-forward]
(b) Don't say the word "ill" [pronounce dark l]*
(c) Don't say the word "ill" [pronounce irrr]

86. The following is in rapid speech


(a) Feed the kitten. [pronounce ki TT en]
(b) Feed the kitten. [pronounce ki uh en]*
(c) Feed the kitten. [pronounce kidden]

87.
(a) Don't get your hands dirty. [pronounce dirdy]*
(b) Don't get your hands dirty. [pronounce dirty]
(c) Don't get your hands dirty. [pronounce di uh y]

88A.
(a) Please give her a little [pronounce little]
(b) Please give her a little [pronounce litl]*
(c) Please give her a little [pronounc li ? l]

88B.
(a) It was very sudden [pronounce sudn]*
(b) It was very sudden [pronounce sudEn]
(c) It was very sudden [ pronounce su?en]

89A.
(a) He said thanks [pronounce thanks]
(b) He said thanks [pronounce tanks]*
(c) He said thanks [pronounce danks]

89B.
(a) Read the news [ pronounce duh on teeth]*
(b) Read the news [ pronounce tuh on teeth]
(c) Read the news [pronounce the]

90A.
(a) say it again [pronounce sey-yit]*
(b) say it again [pronounce say it ]
(c) say it again [pronounce say uh it]

90B.
(a) my own cat [pronounce my/own/cat/]
(b) my own cat [pronounce may-yown cat]*
(c) my own cat [pronounce may/own-yat]

91A.
(a) go alone [pronounce go/a/lone/]
(b) go alone [pronounce gow-wa-lone]*
(c) go alone [pronounce gow/lone]

91B.
(a) tour [pronounce tuw-war]*
(b) tour [pronounce too-ar]
(c) tour [pronounce tur]

92.
(a) spa owners [pronounce spa/ owners]
(b) spa owners [pronounce sp-uh-owners]*
(c) spa owners [pronounce spar-owners]

93.
(a) lawyer [pronounce loy-yer]*
(b) lawyer [pronounce lar-yer]
(c) lawyer [pronounce law + your]

94.
(a) took us [pronounced took/us]
(b) took us [pronounced took-kus]*
(c) took us [pronounced took-us]

95.
(a) find out [pronounced find/out]
(b) find out [pronounced fin/dout]*
(c) find out [pronounced fay/nuh/dout]

96.
(a) bad dog [pronounced bad/dog]
(b) bad dog [pronounced baddog]*
(c) bad dog [pronounced bah-dog]

97A.
(a) pet cat [pronounced peth khat]
(b) pet cat [pronounced petuhkhat]
(c) pet cat [pronounced pet-khat]*

97B.
(a) big church [pronounced big-church]*
(b) big church [pronounced biguhchurch]
(c) big church [pronounced biychurch]
98A.
(a) feels like winter [pronounced win-ter]
(b) feels like winter [pronounced win-ner]*
(c) feels like winter [pronounced wi-nuh-tur]

98B.
(a) put it on the mantle [pronounced man-tell]
(b) put it on the mantle [pronounced man-el]*
(c) put it on the mantle [pronounced mah-nuh-tul]

98C.
(a) she feels restless [pronounced rest-less]
(b) she feels restless [pronounced res-tuh-less]
(c) she feels restless [pronounced ress-less]*

98D.
(a) is that a windmill? [pronounced win-mill]*
(b) is that a windmill? [pronounced wind-mill]
(c) is that a windmill? [pronounced win-duh-mill]

99A.
(a) east side [pronounce east/side]
(b) east side [pronounce eesayd]*
(c) east side [pronounce east-uh-side]

99B.
(a) wild boar [pronounce wild-uh-boar]
(b) wild boar [pronounce wild/boar]
(c) wild boar [pronounce wile/boar]*

99C.
(a) east hill [eas/hill]
(b) east hill [east/hill]*
(c) east hill [eey/ill]

99D.
(a)blind youth [bline youth]
(b) blind youth [blind youth]*
(c) blind youth [bline-duh-youth]

99E.
(a) wild ride [wile ride]
(b) wild ride [wile-duh-ride]
(c) wild ride [wild ride]*
99F.
(a) west world [wes world]
(b) west world [west uh world]
(c) west world [west world]*

99G.
(a) shortstop [shore stop]
(b) shortstop [short uh stop]
(c) shortstop [shortstop]*

100A.
(a) I love chocolate [chawklet]*
(b) I love chocolate [chawk-a-let]
(c) I love chocolate [chawk-a-let-ah]

100B.
(a) I love history [hi-to-riy]
(b) I love history [his-triy]*
(c) I love history [his-to-riy-a]

101.
(a) I love you because you're cute [ because]
(b) I love you because you're cute ['cause]*
(c) I love you because you're cute [ uz]

102.
(a) What's the temperature? [temp-per-a-chure]
(b) What's the temperature? [tem-chure]
(c) What's the temperature? [tem-puh-chure]*

103.
(a) lots of luck [lots uhv luck]
(b) lots of luck [lots uh luck]*
(c) lots of luck [lots oh luck]

104A.
(a) if he goes [ if eey goes]*
(b) if he goes [if hee goes]
(c) if he goes [if ____goes]

104B.
(a) I should have gone [I should have gone]
(b) I should have gone [I should av gone]*
(c) I should have gone [ I should ___ gone]

105.
(a) tell them "yes" [ tell them]
(b) tell them "yes" [ tellem ]*
(c) tell them "yes" [tell ____yes]

106A.
(a) I guessed [gess-ed]
(b) I guessed [gest]*
(c) I guessed [gezd]

106B.
(a) some bags [ bags]
(b) some bags [bag-us]
(c) some bags [bagz]*

106C.
(a) he fished [ fish-ed]
(b) he fished [fish-t]*
(c) he fished [fizh-ed]

106D.
(a) he had to go [hada]*
(b) he had to go [had to]
(c) he had to go [hat ah]

107A.
(a) they have to see [have too]
(b) they have to see [hav tuh]
(c) they have to see [haf tuh]*

107B.
(a) She has to go [has tuh]*
(b) She has to go [haz duh]
(c) She has to go [has too]

107C.
(a) throw the horseshoe [horshuw]*
(b) throw the horseshoe [horse shuw]
(c) throw the horseshoe [ horse uh shuw]

107D.
(a) his shirt [hishirt]*
(b) his shirt [hiz shirt]
(c) his shirt [hi shirt]

107E.
(a) good boy [good boy]
(b) good boy [goo boy]*
(c) good boy [good oy]

107F.
(a) my pet kitten [pet kitten]
(b) my pet kitten [pet uh kitten]
(c) my pet kitten [pehkitten]*

107G.
(a) he's in pain [hes in pain]
(b) he's in pain [hes im pain]*
(c) he's in pain [hes in uh pain]

107H
(a) give me a break [give me a break]
(b) give me a break [give uh me uh a break uh]
(c) give me a break [ gimmee a break]*

108A.
(a) he lets you talk [he let shyu talk]*
(b) he lets you talk [he lets you talk]
(c) he lets you talk [he lets jew talk]

108B.
(a) procedure [pro cede your]
(b) procedure [pro cede dgyure]*
(c) procedure [prow ced tchure]

109A.
(a) places [place us]
(b) places [place uz]*
(c) places [place]

109B.
(a) tense [ten suh]
(b) tense [tends]
(c) tense [tents]*

109C.
(a) comfort [com fort]
(b) comfort [com ort]
(c) comfort [kumpfort]*

110A.
(a) fifths [fifs]*
(b) fifths [fif-th-us]
(c) fifths [fits]

110B.
(a) fifth street [fifthstreet]
(b) fifth street [fif uh street]
(c) fifth street [fishtreet]*

111.
(a) he's handsome [handsome]
(b) he's handsome [hansum]*
(c) he's handsome [hanum]

112.
(a) find out [fayn dowt]*
(b) find out [find out]
(c) find out [fayn out]

113A.
(a) these three [these uh three]
(b) these three [these three]*
(c) these three [these uh three uh]

113B.
(a) seal [siy uhl]*
(b) seal [siyl]
(c) seal [siyluh]

113C.
(a) fear [fiyr]
(b) fear [fi uhr]*
(c) fear [fiyr uh]

114A.
(a) sleep [leep]
(b) sleep [teep]
(c) sleep [sleep]*

114B.
(a) thwart [tort]
(b) thwart [thort]
(c) thwart [thwart]*

114C.
(a) drink [dink]
(b) drink [drink]*
(c) drink [dlink]
115A.
(a) square [skare]
(b) square [square]*
(c) square [eskare]

116A.
(a) filled [filled]*
(b) filled [filluh]
(c) filled [fid]

116B.
(a) stopped [stopped]*
(b) stopped [stopp-ed]
(c) stopped [stopp-et]

116C.
(a) cleans [clean]
(b) cleans [clean-es]
(c) cleans [cleanz]*

116D.
(a) bathes [bathez]*
(b) bathes [bathes]
(c) bathes [bay tes]

117A.
(a) links [links]*
(b) links [link es]
(c) links [lings]

117B.
(a) forced [force]
(b) forced [forc-et]
(c) forced [forct]*

117C.
(a) triumphed [try umpt]
(b) triumphed [try umpft]*
(c) triumphed [try um ed]

117D.
(a) widths [wits]
(b) widths [widez]
(c) widths [widths]*
118A.
(a) instincts [instiks]
(b) instincts [instincts]*
(c) instincts [intiks]

118B.
(a) twelfths [twels]
(b) twelfths [twefs]
(c) twelfths [twelfths]*

119A.
(a) go to Mars [ too]
(b) go to Mars [tuh]*
(c) go to Mars [toom]

119B.
(a) less than a mile [ less n]*
(b) less than a mile [than]
(c) less than a mile [thanah]

119C.
(a) good as gold [ az]
(b) good as gold [uz]*
(c) good as gold [uh]

120A.
(a) How do you do? [duw yuw duw]
(b) How do you do? [duh yuh]*
(c) How do you do? [duh yuh duh]

120B.
(a) hit them [hit them]
(b) hit them [hit em]*
(c) hit them [hi em]

120C.
(a) stop his car [iz car]*
(b) stop his car [hiz car]
(c) stop his car [ihh car]

121A.
(a) people would go [people would go]
(b) people would go [ud gow]*
(c) people would go [would uh gow]

121B.
(a) what will it be [ wha till it be]*
(b) what will it be [what will it be]
(c) what will it be [what till it be]

122A.
(a) the ocean [dhee owshen]*
(b) the ocean [dhuh owshen]
(c) the ocean [duh owshen]

122B.
(a) the book [dhee book]
(b) the book [duh book]
(c) the book [dhuh book]*

123.
(a) pat [bat]
(b) pat [phat]*
(c) pat [pat]

124.
(a) apartment [abartment]
(b) apartment [apartment]
(c) apartment [aphartment]*

125.
(a) safe [safe]
(b) safe [safh]*
(c) safe [save]

126.
(a) bath [bath ha]*
(b) bath [bat]
(c) bath [baht]

127A.
(a) bathe [bathe uh]
(b) bathe [bathe]*
(c) bathe [bayuhth]

127B.
(a) stop [stopuh]
(b) stop [estopuh]
(c) stop [stop]*

127C.
(a) judge [judge uh]
(b) judge [judge]*
(c) judge [ju uh dg]

128.
(a) cab [kab]
(b) cab [ka:b]*
(c) cab [ka:p]

129.
(a) bat [mmmmbat]*
(b) bat [bat]
(c) bat [pat]

130.
(a) madness [mad ness]
(b) madness [madness-through nose]*
(c) madness [mad uh ness]

131.
(a) softly [soft lee]
(b) softly [softly-with lateral plosion]*
(c) softly [sof lee]

62. Stops vs Affricates SIWI tear - chair tease - cheese tin - chin top - chop talk - chalk ticks
- chicks tiled - child tip - chip tips - chips tore - chore two – chew
63. Fricatives vs Affricates SIWI sore - chore sum - chum sip - chip sick - chick sat - chat
Sue - chew silly - chilly soak - choke suck - chuck sill - chill search – church
64. Stops vs Fricatives and Affricates SFWF rat - rash out - ouch write - rice cat - catch
late - lace hut - hush mat - match road - rose head - hedge hit - hiss coat – coach
65. Voiced vs Voiceless Alveolar Stops SIWI /d/vs /t/ deer tear die tie din tin doll toll door
tore doze toes dent tent dead Ted dim Tim
66. Voiced vs Voiceless Affricates SIWI jeer cheer joke choke jeep cheap Jane chain jaw
chore jump chump jest chest gin chin Jess chess
67. Voiceless Velars vs Alveolars SIWI: /k/ vs /t/ car tar core tore cape tape cub tub cool
tool cap tap key tea call tall corn torn
68. Final Consonant Inclusion tea team tie tide hoe hope play plane car calf pea peep shoe
shoot low load
69. Final Consonant Inclusion high hide see seat shoe shoot she sheep cow couch sore
sort sea seed say save
70. Final Consonant Inclusion buy bike sew soap ow! out bee beach pie pile row road moo
move car card
71. Initial Glottal Inclusion: /h/ "A" hay "E" he "I" high "O" hoe ("U" who - yoo-hoo) eye high
air hair old hold eel heel art heart edge hedge
72. Initial Fricative Inclusion: /f/ arm farm eel feel in fin air fair oar four ace face eat feet ill
fill oh foe ox fox ale fail
73. Initial Velar Inclusion: /k/ "R" car art cart ache cake oar core ape cape air care old cold
aim came ill kill arm calm off cough
74. Init Consonant Inclusion 'sh' shower hour share air shy eye shake ache shape ape
shawl all shell "L shout out
75. Init Consonant Inclusion /s/ seal eel sell "L" seat eat sad add soak oak sold old saw oar
soil oil sour hour
76. Fricative Contrasts sort fort short sore four shore sign fine shine sell fell shell seat feet
sheet
77. Initial Alveolar Inclusion /t/ in tin eye tie ache take aim tame air tear ape tape old told
art tart
78. Initial Consonant Inclusion us bus ape tape out shout eye pie eel peel air chair ache
take old fold
79. Glottal Fric vs Alveolar Stop SIWI /h/ vs /t/ hop top hall tall horn torn high tie hose toes
hair tear hen ten hot tot
80. Glottal vs Labio-dental Fricative SIWI: /h/ vs /f/ hat fat hit fit hold fold hive five hall fall
horse force hall fall heel feel hole foal hairy fairy - - - -
81. Glottal vs Palato-alveolar Fricative SIWI hall shawl head shed horn Sean horn Shawn
harp sharp hop shop hook shook high shy hut shut heap sheep hoe show hair share heat
sheet hip ship
82. Glottal vs alveolar Fricative SIWI: /h/ vs /s/ sauce horse soup hoop sold hold side hide
sit hit sand hand suit hoot sole hole soap hope seat heat sip hip seal heel - -
83. Liquid vs Fricative SIWI /l/ vs /s/ line sign low sew lock sock long song lick sick lip sip
lend send lift sift lead seed look sook
84. Liquids vs Glides SIWI /r/ vs /w/ one run wig rig wing ring wok rock whale rail wake
rake weed read witch rich wave rave west rest
85. Fricatives vs Glides SIWI /f/ vs /w/ feel wheel fig wig fight white fork walk fall wall fish
wish feel wheel full wool fail whale fade wade
86. Fricatives vs Glides SIWI /v/ vs /w/ vest west veil whale vine wine vet wet volley Wally
veal wheel Vic wick –
87. Palato-alveolar Fricative vs Affricates SFWF mash match dish ditch wish witch wash
watch cash catch hush hutch crush crutch marsh march
88. Palato-alveolar Fricative vs Affricates SIWI shops chops shoes choose ships chips
share chair Shane chain shin chin sheep cheep shock chock
89. Liquids vs Alveolars SIWI: /l/ vs /d/ lots dots log dog lazy daisy leap deep love dove - -
---
90. Nasals vs Liquids SIWI /n/ vs /l/ knead lead nip lip night light name lame knock lock
neigh lay no low nine line knot lot nap lap
91. Labio-dental Fricatives vs Stops SIWI: /f/ vs /d/ file dial fish dish fan Dan four door five
dive foam dome fig dig - - -
92. Alveolar vs Palato-alveolar Fricatives SIWI suit shoot sock shock sore shore sip ship
sack shack sour shower seat sheet Sue shoe –
93. Alveolar vs Labio-dental Fricatives SIWI: /s/ vs /f/ sold fold sauce force sort fort six fix
sit fit sole foal cell fell sole foal sore four –
94. Alveolar vs Labio-dental Fricatives SIWI: /s/ vs /f/ sun fun seed feed sound found seat
feet seal feel socks fox saw four sunny funny sat fat sign fine
95. /n/ vs 'sh' SIWI gnaw shore knee she nip ship nine shine neat sheet nut shut no show
knock shock
96. /w/ vs /l/ SIWI wok lock wine line weed lead white light week leek weigh lay wet let wick
lick
97. /w/ vs /l/ SIWI why lie wake lake wait late weep leap wink link Wally lolly
98. Alveolar vs Palato-alveolar Fricatives SIWI sign shine sew show sip ship saw shore
sock shock
99. /n/ vs /s/ SIWI gnaw saw nine sign nails sails kneel seal neat seat nip sip knock sock no
sew
100./n/ vs 'ng' SFWF Ron wrong pin Ping win wing thin thin
101.'th' vs /f/ SIWI thin fin thaw four thought fort thread Fred thorn fawn three free thirst first
102./v/ vs /b/ SIWI vase bars vest best vat bat V B (Vee-Bee) vote boat van ban vow bow
very berry
103. /l/ vs /j/ SIWI lawn yawn Lou you lap yap less yes lucky yucky luck yuck
104./p/ vs /sp/ pie spy peach speech pot spot pit spit pin spin pill spill
105. /s/ vs /sl/ leap sleep lip slip low slow - -
106./s/ vs /sk/ sails scales sip skip see ski sore score
107./s/ vs /st/ sick stick sack stack seal steal soup stoop –
108./t/ vs /st/ SIWI take stake talk stork tar star tack stack top stop tool stool tick stick
109./t/ vs /st/ SFWF beat Beast Bert burst wet west coat coast goat ghost wait waist net nest
pet pest feet feast vet vest
110./w/ vs /sw/ wing swing weep sweep well swell wheat sweet witch switch
111./k/ vs /sk/ key ski cat scat car scar core score cool school
112./n/ vs /sn/ nail snail knees sneeze no snow nought Snort nap snap
113./m/ vs /sm/ Mog smog mash smash mall small mile smile Mac smack
114./l/ Clusters low glow lip flip lap clap loud cloud lock block leap sleep lean clean lime
climb low blow love glove
115./r/ vs /tr/ rash trash ray tray rim trim rain train rack track Rick trick
116./r/ Clusters root fruit rat brat red bread rip drip rain train row throw
117./sk/ vs /st/ scoop stoop school stool scout stout score store sky sty skate state skill still
scamp stamp
118./k/ vs /g/ SIWI cap gap gate Kate game came gum come coat goat coast ghost cot got
119./d/ vs /t/ SFWF cord caught Bert bird wade wait wed wet bad bat bead beat write ride
sat. sad sort sword hid hit pot pod feet feed wrote road wheat weed
120./k/ vs /g/ SFWF peck peg buck bug pick pig lock log back bag stack stag tack tag –
121./p/ vs /b/ SFWF cup cub nip nib cap cab lap lab rope robe - - - -
122.Voicing SFWF peach beach town down fan van pole bowl peas bees buy pie bear pear
sip zip pig big tore door

For Learners

Demosthenes overcame and rendered more distinct his inarticulate and stammering
pronunciation by speaking with pebbles in his mouth. Plutarch

" Always do what you are afraid to do" - Ralph Waldo


"Anyone who stops learning is old, whether at twenty or eighty. Anyone who keeps
learning stays young." - Henry Ford

"A turtle makes progress when it sticks its neck out" - Anon

" Believe in yourself, be strong, never give up no matter what the circumstances are. You
are a champion and will overcome the dreaded obstacles. Champions take failure as a
learning opportunity, so take in all you can, and run with it. Be your best and don't ever
ever give up." - Brad Gerrard

"Cherish your visions and your dreams, as they are the children of your soul, the
blueprints of your ultimate achievements" - Napoleon Hill

"Did you know that the Chinese symbol for 'crisis' includes a symbol which means
'opportunity'? - Jane Revell & Susan Norman

"Don’t learn to do, but learn in doing. Let your falls not be on a prepared ground, but let
them be bona fide falls in the rough and tumble of the world" - Samuel Butler (1835–
1902)

"Every artist was at first an amateur." - Ralph W. Emerson

"I hear, and I forget. I see, and I remember. I do, and I understand." - Chinese Proverb

"If you always do what you've always done, you'll always get what you've always got" -
NLP adage

"If you find yourself saying 'But I can't speak English...', try adding the word '...yet` -
Jane Revell & Susan Norman

"If what you're doing isn't working, try something else!" - NLP adage

"If you think education is expensive, try ignorance." - Derek Bok

"If you know what you want, you are more likely to get it" - NLP adage

"It had long since come to my attention that people of accomplishment rarely sat back
and let things happen to them. They went out and made things happen." - Elinor Smith

"It's not just about looking and copying, it's about feeling too" - Paul Cezanne

"It's ok to try things out, to ask questions, to feel unsure, to let your mind wander, to
daydream, to ask for help, to experiment, to take time out, not to know, to practise, to ask
for help again - and again, to make mistakes, to check your understanding" - Jane Revell
& Susan Norman
"Learning is never done without errors and defeat." - Vladimir Lenin

"Nothing we ever imagined is beyond our powers, only beyond our present self-
knowledge" - Theodore Roszak

"One of the greatest discoveries a man makes, one of his great surprises, is to find he can
do what he was afraid he could not do." - Henry Ford

"One must have strategies to execute dreams." - Azim Premji, CEO Wipro Ind

"One must learn by doing the thing; for though you think you know it, you have no
certainty, until you try." - Sophocles

"People learn more quickly by doing something or seeing something done." - Gilbert
Highet

"Success comes in cans, failure in can'ts." - Unknown

"The important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle." - Pierre de Coubertin

"Teachers open the door, but you must enter by yourself." - Chinese Proverb

"Too much credit is given to the end result. The true lesson is in the struggle that takes
place between the dream and reality. That struggle is a thing called life!" - Garth Brooks

"The more I want to get something done, the less I call it work." - Aristotle

" The only dreams impossible to reach are the ones you never pursue." - Michael
Deckman

" There two types of people; the can do and the can't. Which are you?" - George R.
Cabrera

"Whenever you feel like saying 'Yes, but....`, try saying instead 'Yes, and....'" - Jane
Revell & Susan Norman

"Whether you think you can, or think you can't...you're right!" - Henry Ford

"Worry is misuse of the imagination" - Mary Crowley

"You haven't failed, until you stop trying" - Unknown

"You've got to ac-cent-tchu-ate the positive, eliminate the negative, latch onto the
affirmative, don't mess with Mr In-between" - Popular song
"I believe in hard work and luck, and that the first often leads to the second" ~
J.K.Rowling

"You can cage the singer but not the song." ~ Harry Belafonte

"Every burned book or house enlightens the world; every suppressed or expunged word
reverberates through the earth from side to side." ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson

"Of the Seven Deadly Sins, anger is probably the most fun. To lick your wounds, smack
your lips, over grievances long past, roll over your tongue the prospect of bitter
confrontations still to come, savor the last toothsome morsel both the pain you are given
and the pain you are giving back - is a feast fit for a king. The chief drawback is that what
you are wolfing down is yourself. The skeleton at the feast is you." ~ Frederick Buechner

"Don't let life discourage you. Everyone who got where he is, had to begin where he
was." ~ Richard L. Evans

"I am not a vegetarian because I love animals; I am a vegetarian because I hate plants." ~
A. Whitney Brown

"There is no elevator to success. You have to take the stairs." ~ Author Unknown

"Behold the turtle. He makes progress only when he sticks his neck out." ~ James Bryant
Conant

"What I want is all the power and none of the responsibility" ~ Ashleigh Brilliant

"I hope I'm not waiting here for someone who's waiting for me somewhere else" ~
Ashleigh Brilliant

"Ben Franklin may have discovered electricity - but it was the man who invented the
meter who made the money." ~ Earl Warren

"Life is not easy for any of us. But what of that? We must have perseverance and above
all, confidence in ourselves." ~ Marie Curie

"Our patience will achieve more than our force." ~ Edmund Burke

"Continuous effort- not strength or intelligence- is the key to unlocking our potential." ~
Winston Churchill

"The power of accurate observation is called cynicism by those who have not got it." ~ G.
B. Shaw
"The trouble with the rat race is that even if you win, you're still a rat." ~ Lilly Tomlin

"Control your destiny or somebody else will." ~ Jack Welsh

"A man can fail many times, but he isn't a failure until he begins to blame somebody
else." ~ John Burroughs

"The object of war is not to die for your country but to make the other bastard die for
his." ~ George Patton, US

"Love is like quicksilver in the hand. Leave the fingers open and it stays. Clutch it, and it
darts away." ~ Dorothy Parker

"Life has taught us that love does not consist in gazing at each other but in looking
outward together in the same direction. " ~ Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

"The first thing to learn in intercourse with others is non-interference with their own
peculiar ways of being happy, provided those do not assume to interfere by violence with
ours." ~ William James

"If merely 'feeling good' could decide, drunkenness would be the supremely valid human
experience." ~ William James

Tell me how much a nation knows about it own


language, and I will tell you how much that
nation knows about its own identity.

— John Ciardi

"Men are like steel. When they lose their temper, they lose their worth." ~ Chuck Norris

"Anger blows out the lamp of the mind." ~ Robert G. Ingersoll

ENGLISH IS TOUGH STUFF

Dearest creature in creation,


Study English pronunciation.
I will teach you in my verse
Sounds like corpse, corps, horse, and worse.
I will keep you, Suzy, busy,
Make your head with heat grow dizzy.
Tear in eye, your dress will tear.
So shall I! Oh hear my prayer.
Just compare heart, beard, and heard,
Dies and diet, lord and word,
Sword and sward, retain and Britain.
(Mind the latter, how it's written.)
Now I surely will not plague you
With such words as plaque and ague.
But be careful how you speak:
Say break and steak, but bleak and streak;
Cloven, oven, how and low,
Script, receipt, show, poem, and toe.

Hear me say, devoid of trickery,


Daughter, laughter, and Terpsichore,
Typhoid, measles, topsails, aisles,
Exiles, similes, and reviles;
Scholar, vicar, and cigar,
Solar, mica, war and far;
One, anemone, Balmoral,
Kitchen, lichen, laundry, laurel;
Gertrude, German, wind and mind,
Scene, Melpomene, mankind.

Billet does not rhyme with ballet,


Bouquet, wallet, mallet, chalet.
Blood and flood are not like food,
Nor is mould like should and would.
Viscous, viscount, load and broad,
Toward, to forward, to reward.
And your pronunciation's OK
When you correctly say croquet,
Rounded, wounded, grieve and sieve,
Friend and fiend, alive and live.

Ivy, privy, famous; clamour


And enamour rhyme with hammer.
River, rival, tomb, bomb, comb,
Doll and roll and some and home.
Stranger does not rhyme with anger,
Neither does devour with clangour.
Souls but foul, haunt but aunt,
Font, front, wont, want, grand, and grant,
Shoes, goes, does. Now first say finger,
And then singer, ginger, linger,
Real, zeal, mauve, gauze, gouge and gauge,
Marriage, foliage, mirage, and age.

Query does not rhyme with very,


Nor does fury sound like bury.
Dost, lost, post and doth, cloth, loth.
Job, nob, bosom, transom, oath.
Though the differences seem little,
We say actual but victual.
Refer does not rhyme with deafer.
Foeffer does, and zephyr, heifer.
Mint, pint, senate and sedate;
Dull, bull, and George ate late.
Scenic, Arabic, Pacific,
Science, conscience, scientific.

Liberty, library, heave and heaven,


Rachel, ache, moustache, eleven.
We say hallowed, but allowed,
People, leopard, towed, but vowed.
Mark the differences, moreover,
Between mover, cover, clover;
Leeches, breeches, wise, precise,
Chalice, but police and lice;
Camel, constable, unstable,
Principle, disciple, label.

Petal, panel, and canal,


Wait, surprise, plait, promise, pal.
Worm and storm, chaise, chaos, chair,
Senator, spectator, mayor.
Tour, but our and succour, four.
Gas, alas, and Arkansas.
Sea, idea, Korea, area,
Psalm, Maria, but malaria.
Youth, south, southern, cleanse and clean.
Doctrine, turpentine, marine.

Compare alien with Italian,


Dandelion and battalion.
Sally with ally, yea, ye,
Eye, I, ay, aye, whey, and key.
Say aver, but ever, fever,
Neither, leisure, skein, deceiver.
Heron, granary, canary.
Crevice and device and aerie.

Face, but preface, not efface.


Phlegm, phlegmatic, ass, glass, bass.
Large, but target, gin, give, verging,
Ought, out, joust and scour, scourging.
Ear, but earn and wear and tear
Do not rhyme with here but ere.
Seven is right, but so is even,
Hyphen, roughen, nephew Stephen,
Monkey, donkey, Turk and jerk,
Ask, grasp, wasp, and cork and work.

Pronunciation -- think of Psyche!


Is a paling stout and spikey?
Won't it make you lose your wits,
Writing groats and saying grits?
It's a dark abyss or tunnel:
Strewn with stones, stowed, solace, gunwale,
Islington and Isle of Wight,
Housewife, verdict and indict.

Finally, which rhymes with enough --


Though, through, plough, or dough, or cough?
Hiccough has the sound of cup.
My advice is to give up!!!

-- B. Shaw

bass was painted on the head of the bass drum.


They were too close to the door to close it.
The soldier decided to desert his dessert in the desert.
The buck does funny things when the does are present.
When shot at, the dove dove into the bushes.
The insurance was invalid for the invalid.
How can I intimate this to my most intimate friend?
He could lead if he would get the lead out.
It took a minute to eat a minute meal.
After a number of injections my jaw got number.
I did not object to the object.
We must polish the Polish furniture.
No time like the present to present the present.
The farm was used to produce produce.
Today I will read what I read yesterday.
The dump was so full that it had to refuse more refuse.
There was a row among the oarsmen about how to row.
A seamstress and a sewer fell down into the sewer.
To help with planting, the farmer taught his sow to sow.
I had to subject the subject to a series of tests.
I shed a tear when I saw the tear in the painting.
The wind was too strong to wind the sail.
The bandage was wound around the wound.

He practised the bass drum back at base


I wonder whether the wether will be out in this weather?

[end]