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# UNIT-1

## FIXED AND CONTINUOUS BEAMS

1.1) Introduction:
Beams which are fixed at both ends are specially termed as FIXED BEAMS. They are
also called as BUILT IN or ENCASTER BEAMS. In some cases when deflection or slope in
beams needs to be less as compared to simply supported beams then these fixed beams come into
application.

1.2) Technical Introduction:
In simply supported beams deflection at ends is zero but slope is not equal to zero. But in
fixed beams both deflection and slope equals to zero. Slopes in fixed beams are prevented by
applying FIXED END MOMENTS. These moments are automatically generated when ends of
beams are fixed or built-in when they are loaded externally. If the end moments are not able to
nullify the moment produced by the external loading then some slope will be produced in the
beams. But when the beam is in absolute fixity then no slope will be incurred in the beams.
These beams are also called as STATICALLY INDETERMINATE BEAMS. Why they
are termed as STATICALLY INDETERMINATE BEAMS is discussed in next few lines.
Basically all types of problems which will be discussed in later section, the main objective is to
determine four main forces namely,
Reaction forces near both ends.
Fixed moments at both ends.
Such type of beams with more than two unknown forces cannot be static equilibrium equations.
Hence they are called as statically indeterminate beams. They require some extra equations with
which they can be solved. Now number of extra unknown reactions available are termed as
D.O.R (Degree Of Redundancy).

1.3) Methods of Solving:
There are mostly generally two methods used for solving the problems related to fixed
beams.
- Moment Area method
- Macaulays method or 1
st
principle method.

1.3.1) Moment Area method:
When we start discussing theory about this theorem, we have to know that due to fixing
at ends supports we have three reactions.

- Vertical
- Horizontal
- Moments
In most general cases we apply only vertical loads, hence horizontal forces can be
neglected. So as combined, only four forces need to be determined as discussed in previous
section. They are vertical reaction forces and end moments near both ends. But for us to solve,
we have only two equations with us namely EV = 0 and EM = 0. Remaining information can be
obtained by condition of zero slope and zero deflection.
Certain procedure should be followed to solve the problem with this method. Let us make
it into different stages.
Stage 1: We assume beam to be of simply supported type loaded externally with reactions at
end as V
a
and V
b
. At any section bending moment is sagging moment.
Stage 2: We consider fixed beams as simply supported with only the end couples. Based on
external loading the Bending Moment Diagram changes the shape. If loading is central beam,
then fixed moment beam is rectangle in shape. And even in this case there is no opposite reaction
to the fixed moment whose value can be given as

V=
b a
M M
L

L = Complete length of span

V = Opposite reaction force
M
a
, M
b
= Fixed moment at A, B.
During these cases at one end support the reaction force (V) acts in one direction and on
the other support in other direction. Hence when you are finding the reaction on the complete
fixed beam in addition to the forces caused due to external loading, we also used to consider
reaction force (V) which we got due to end moments.
Stage 3: Final bending moment of fixed beam is obtained by combining the stage 1 and stage
2. When both bending moment diagrams are super imposed on each other, we get the resultant
Bending moment diagram of the fixed beam. The net bending moment which causes the
deformation in the fixed beam can be calculated which will be shown in an example.
From the third stage we can derive some of the following conclusions.
a = a ; ' x x =
a = Area of free Bending moment Diagram
a = Area of fixed Bending moment diagram.
x = Distance of centroid from free Bending Moment Diagram from end A.
x = Distance of centroid from fixed Bending Moment Diagram from end A.

We know that
EI
2
2
d y
dx
= M

But since we have bending moment from free and fixed stages,
EI
2
2
d y
dx
= M
x
M
x
1
Integrating equation 1 for whole length of beam
EI
0
l
dy
dx
(
(

=
0 0
'
l l
x x
M dx M dx
} }

but at ends where x=0 then slope
dy
dx
=
hence the EI
0
l
dy
dx
(
(

= 0

0 0
'
l l
x x
M dx M dx =
} }

a = a
0
l
x
M dx
}
= area of the body from engineering mechanics

Now again considering equation 1,
EI
2
2
d y
dx
= M
x
M
x

multiplying x on both sides ,
EI.x.
2
2
d y
dx
= M
x
.x M
x
.x
Integrating on both sides and taking ( )
d
fg f g f g
dx
=
} } } }
formulae , we get
2
2
0 0 0
. . . '. .
l l l
x x
d y
EI x M x dx M x dx
dx
(
=
(

} } }

at x=l , y=0 ,
dy
dx
=0 [ Since slope and deflection at ends of fixed beams is zero]

0 0
. . '. .
l l
x x
M x dx M x dx =
} }

' x x =
Hence from the above conclusions we find out the unknown forces and solve the problems

Note Point (1) :
Disadvantage with this method is , sometimes the bending moment diagram is not perfect or
regular shape, Then it may be difficult to find out exact area of shape of bending moment
diagram. This can give inaccurate result to our problems. Hence in this case we may go for other
method of finding the bending moments MACAULAYS METHOD

1.3.2 Macaulays Method:
As we discussed earlier when bending moment diagram shapes are very difficult to find out we
use this method of solving.
This method is much simpler as compared to the Moment-Area method. In this method we
consider an X-X section along any part of beam. Then we form the moment equation by
considering all forces which come under the X-X section. Then we substitute the conditions at its
ends and find out the variables or unknown forces. We can also substitute the conditions of
maximum deflection depending on loads and find out the unknown forces.

1.4 Cases of loading on beams
- Point load at center of span
- Point load eccentric to beam span
- Uniform distributed loading over complete span
- Uniform distributed loading for part of beam span
- Uniform varying loading for complete span
- Uniform varying loading for part of beam span
- Sinking Supports
- Fixed beam with couple moment

1.5 Advantages and Applications
- We use fixed beams when less bending moment is expected for same amount of load
applied as compared to simply supported beams
- Even less deflection and slope are obtained in fixed beams
- Fixed beams are very stable and strong when compared to simply supported beams

1.6 Disadvantages
- During the time of fixing care needs to be taken for aligning the supports. High amount
of accuracy needs to be maintained for fixing supports
- Small deviation of support can induce large amount of stress in beams
- Initial cost of set-up is high
- Even change in working temperature conditions also induces stress
- End fixing are sensitive to vibrations and fluctuations