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abase to humiliate; to lower in esteem or dignity; to humble

[직분, 평가 따위]를 떨어뜨리다, 격하하다

abet to support or encourage someone, especially someone who as done

something wrong
...을 부추기다, 선동하다

abeyance suspension; temporary cessation

[잠정적]중지(상태), 정지, 휴지; obey-따르다

abjure to repudiate; to take back; to refrain from

[맹세, 신의, 주장, 권리 따위]를 공개적으로 버리다,

abomination something despised or abhorred; extreme loathing

증오, 혐오, 혐오감을 주는 행위(일)

aboriginal native; dating back to the very beginning

원시의, 원래의, 토착의

abound to be very numerous

많이 있다, ...이 풍부하다

abrogate to abolish or repeal formally; to set aside; to nullify

[법률, 습관 따위]를 폐기하다, 철폐/취소하다

accede to give in; to yeild; to agree

..동의하다, 응하다, 승복하다

accentuate to emphasize; to accent; to highlight

...을 강조하다, 역설하다, 두드러지게 하다

access the right or ability to approach, enter, or use

접근하는 수단(방법), 출입

acclaim to praise publicly and enthusiastically

갈채를 보내다, 환호하다

accord to agree; to be in harmony; to grant or bestow

동의/조화하다; 허용하다, 수용하다

accouterments personal clothing, accessories, or equipment; trappings

[군복과 무기 이외의] 장비, 장구, 마구, 복장

accrue to accumulate over time

[자연히]증가하다(생기다), [이자 따위가] 붙다, 늘다
acquisitive seeking or tending to acquire;
욕심이 많은, [지식, 부귀, 세력 등을] 원하는

acquit to find not guilty; to bahave or conduct oneself

무죄로 하다, 사면하다, 석방하다; 스스로 행동하다, 처신하다

acronym a word made up of the initials of other words

머릿글자로 된 말(단어) ex)U.F.O.

adage a traditional saying; a proverb


adduce to bring forward as an example or as proof; to cite

...을 인용하다; [증거, 이유]를 제시하다, cite

adjourn to suspend until another time

...을 연기하다, 미루다, 휴회하다

adjunct something added to or connected with something else; an assistant

부가물, 부수품

ad-lib to improvise; speak or act spontanesously

즉흥적으로 ...하다

advent arrival; coming; beginning

[중요한 사건, 인물 따위의]출현, 도래, 등장

adventitious accidnetal; connected to but nonetheless unrelated; irrelevant

우연히 얻은, 우연의, 우발의, 후천적인

advocate a person who argues in favor of a position


affidavit a sworn written statement made before an official

공술서, 맹세/서약하는 글

affiliate to become closely associated with

...을 합병하다, 가입시키다, 일원으로 하다,제휴/협력하다

affliction misery; illness;great suffering; a source of misery, or great suffering

고통, 고뇌, 고난; 고통의 원인, 불행, 재앙, 박해

afford to give; to supply; to confer upon

...을 수여하다, 주다, 공급하다
affront insult; a deliberate act of disrespect
모욕/치욕을 주다

aftermath consequence; events following some occurrence or calamity

결과, 여파, 영향

aggrandize to exaggerate; to cause to appear greater; to increase(something)

in power, reputation, wealth, etc
[범위를] 크게 하다, 확대하다, [부, 권력, 지위]...을 강화 확대하다

aggrieve to mistreat; to do grievous injury to; to distress

...에게 고통을 주다, 괴롭히다, 학대하다; grievous-슬퍼하는

aghast terrified, shocked

깜짝 놀라다, 넋이 나가다

alchemy a seemingly magical process of transformation


alienate to estrange; to cause to feel unwelcome or unloved; to make hostile

...소외하다, ...을 멀리하다, ...을 달가와하지 않다

allegiance loyalty
충성, 충의, 충실, [일에 대한] 전념, loyalty

allegory a story in which the characters are symbols with moral or

spiritual meanings 우화, 비유담, 풍유, 비유, 상징

allot to apportion, allocate, or assign

할당/배당하다, 배분하다, allocate

altercation a heated fight, argument, or quarrel

언쟁, 말다툼, 격론,

amass to pile up; to accumulate; to collect for one's own use

[재산]을 모으다, 축적하다, 쌓다

amid in the middle of

...의 한복판에[서], ...에 둘러싸여, ...사이에, 한창에

anathema something or someone loathe or detested

혐오 받는 사람(것); 저주, 심한 매도

ancillary subordinate; providing assistance

보조적인, 부속적인, 부수적인

angst anxiety; fear; dread


annex to add or attach

부가하다, 첨가하다

annuity an annual allowance or income; the annual interest payment on an

investment; any regular allowance or income
연금(연봉), 연간이자 수입

antedate to be older than; to have come before

[시간적으로]...보다 앞선, ...이전의(예전의)

anterior situated in front

선행한, 보다 이전의(상태, 사건), 앞면의, 앞쪽의

anthology a collection, especially of literary works

명시 전집, 작품집, [한 작가의]전작, 작품집, collection

antipodal situated on opposite sides of the earth; exactly opposite

지구의 정반대의 지역 상태, 정반대의

antiquity ancientness; ancient times

태고, 고대; 고물, 고대의 풍습

aperture an opening
째진 틈, 구멍, 구경, chasm

apex highest point

정점, 꼭대기, 최고조, 극점

apogee the most distant point in the orbit of the moon or of an artificial satellite
최고점, 원지점

apoplexy stroke (that is, numbness and paralysis resulting from

the sudden loss of blood flow to the brain)
(뇌)졸증, 출혈, 일혈

apostasy abandonment or rejection of faith or loyalty

배신, 변절, 탈당, treacher

appalling causing horror or consternation

소름끼치는, 무서운; appellate-항소하다, compell-강제하다
apparition a ghost or ghostly object
환영, 허깨비, 유령

appellation a name
명칭, 호칭

appendage something added on to something else; a supplement

부속물, 첨가물

apportion to distribute properionally; to divide into portions

할당하다, 배분하다, allocation, allot

apposite distinctly suitable; pertinent

적합한, 적절한, 딱 들어맞는, apropos, apt

appraise to estimate the value or quality of; to judge

...을 평가하다, 값을 매기다, 감정하다

apprise to give notice to; to inform

...에게 알리다, 통보하다

appurtenance something extra; an appendage; an accessory

부속물, 부수물, appendage

apropos appropriate; coming at the right time

때마침, 시기 적절하게, 적절히, apposite, apt

apt appropriate; having a tendency to; likely, apposite, apropos

적절한, 적당한, ...하는 경향이 있는; 재주 있는, 총기 있는,

archipelago a large group of islands

군도(섬들의 집합)

archives a place where historical documents or materials are stored;

the documents or materials themselves
기록(공문서) 보관소, 공문서

arid very dry; lacking life, interest, or imagination

마른, 습기 없는, 무미건조한, 보잘 것 없는

armament implement of war; the process of arming for war

군대, 군비, 군사력

armistice truce

arraign to bring to court to answer an indictment; to accuse

[법]공소 사실을 심리하다; 힐책하다, 규탄하다, 심문, 규탄, 비난

arrant utter; unmitigated; very bad

철저한, 형편없는

arrears the state of being in debt; unpaid debts

지불 잔금, 연체금, 지체, 밀린

arsenal a collection of armaments; a facility for storing or

producing armament; a supply of anything useful
병기고, 병기 창고

articulate to pronounce clearly; to express clearly

똑똑히 발음하다

artisan a person skilled in a craft

직공, 기능공

ascertain to determine with certainty; to find out definitely

확인하다, (사실 여부를) 알아내다

ascribe to credit to or assign; to attribute

(결과 따위를)...의 탓으로 치다

askance with suspicion or disapproval

비스듬히; 곁눈으로

aspersion a slanderous or damning remark

중상, 비방

assail to attack vigorously


assert to claim strongly; to affirm

단언하다, 주장(옹호)하다

assess to evaluate; to estimate; to appraise

(세금, 요금을) 사정하다

astringent harsh; severe; withering

엄한, 호된;
stringent-엄한, 설득력있는, contingent-불시의,우연의
asylum a mental hospital or similar institution; refuge; a place of safety
(정신)보호 수용소; 보호소

atone to make amends

배상하다, 보상하다, amend

atrophy to wither away; to decline from disuse

위축시키다, 쇠약해지다; 위축, 퇴화, 쇠퇴

attest to give proof of; to declare to be true or correct; to give testimony

증명하다, 입증하다

attribute to credit to or assign; to ascribe

(성질을)...에 있다고 핟, (결과를)...에 돌리다

augur to serve as an omen or be a sign; to predict or foretell

점치다, ...의 조짐을 보이다

august inspiring admiration or awe

위엄있는, 존엄한, 당당한

auspices protection; support; sponsorship

찬조, 후원, 주최, 경사스러운, 보호, 원조

auxiliary secondary; additional; giving assistance of aid

보조의, 예비의

avail to help; to be of use; to serve

쓸모있다, ...에 도움이 되다

aversion a strong feeling of dislike

싫어함, 혐오

avert to turn away; to prevent

(눈, 생각을) 돌리다, (타격, 위험을)피하다, 막다

avid eager; enthusiastic

탐욕스러운, 욕심 많은, avarice; arid-건조한

bacchanal a party animal; a drunken reveler; a drunken revelry or orgy

취해 떠드는 사람, 야단법석

baleful menacing; threatening

balk to abruptly refuse (to do something); ti stop short
갑자기 서다; 주춤하다

ballyhoo sensational advertising or promotion; uproar

야단스럽고 저속한 선전, 광고; 떠들썩한

balm something that heals or soothes

향유, 방향, (신경)안정제. 진통제

bandy to toss back and forth; to exchange

(공 따위를) 치고 받고하다, (타격, 말 따위를) 주고 받고하다

banter an exchange of good-humored or mildly teasing remarks

희롱, 놀림

baroque extravagantly ornate; flamboyant in style

기이한, 기괴한

barrage a concentrated outpouring of artillery fire, or of anything else

탄막; (질문 따위의) 연발, 연속

bauble a gaudy trinket; a small, inexpensive on ornament

값싸고 야한 것, 자질구레한 장신구

bedlam noisy uproar and chaos;

수라장, 소란한 장소

begrudge to envy another's possession or enj0yment of something;

to be reluctant to give, or to give grudgingly
시새우다; 선뜻 내놓지 않다, 주기 싫어하다, wistful
behest command; order

bemoan to mourn about; to lament

슬퍼하다, 한탄하다

benediction a blessing; an utterance of good wishes


benighted ignorant; unenlightened

미개의, 문화가 뒤진,무지몽매한

bestow to present as a gift; to confer

주다, 수여하다; (간수해)두다; 숙박시키다
bilious ill-tempered; cranky
꽤 까다로운, 성마른, irasible, choleric

bivouac a temporary encampment, especially of soldiers


blanch to turn pale; to cause to turn pale

희게 핟, 표백하다; 새파래지다, bleach

bland mild; tasteless; dull; unlively

온화한, (맛이) 부드러운; 시시한, 매력없는, 무관심한

blandishment flattery
아첨, 추종

bliss perfect contentment; extreme joy

더 없는 기쁨, 대단한 행복

bluster to roar; to be loud; to be tumultous

(바람, 물결이) 휘몰아 치다, 소리지르다

bombast pompous or pretentious speech of writing

과장된 말; 과장된

bon vivant a person who enjoys good food, good drink, and luxirious living

bona fide sincere, done or made in good faith; authentic; genuine

진실한, 성의 있는

boon a blessing; a benefit

은혜, 혜택

boor a rude or churlish person


booty goods taken from an enemy in war; plunder; stolen or confiscated

goods 전리품, 노획물

botch to bungle; to ruin through poor of clumsy effort

서투르게 기운 곳; 서투르게 수선하다, 망쳐놓다

bracing invigorating
...에게 기운나게 하다, 상쾌하게 하다, galvanize
brandish to wave or display threateningly
(칼 따위를) 휘두르다, (창을)내젓다

bravado a false show or ostentatious show of bravery or defiance


brawn big muscles; great strength

근육, 완력

brazen impudent; bold


breach a violation; a gap or break

위반; (성벽의)터진 곳, 돌파구; bleach-표백하다

brink edge

bristle to stiffen with anger; to appear in some way similar to hair standing
on end 강모, (머리가) 곤두서다, 성내다

bromide a dull, obvious, overfamilar saying; a cliche

고리타분한 생각, 평범한 사람, 틀에 박힌 문구

brouhaha uproar; hubbub

소란, 소동, 시끄러운, 떠들썩한

brusque abrupt in manner; blunt

퉁명스러운, 무뚝뚝한

buffoon a joker, especially one who is coarse of acts like an ass

익살 광대

bulwark a wall used as a defensive fortification; anything used as the main

defense against anything else
성채, 보루, 방호문, 방파제

cabal a group of conspirators; the acts of such a group; a clique

음모, 권모술수

cache a hiding place; the things hidden in a secret place

감춰두는 곳, 저장소

calamity a disaster
불행, 재해

callous insensitive; emotionally hardened

(피부가) 딱딱해진, 못이 생긴, 무감각한, 무정한, 냉담한

calumny slander; a maliciously false statement

비방, 중상

canon a rule of law, especially a religious one; a body of rules of laws;

교리, 계율, 규범

cant insincere of hypocritical speech

점잔 뺀 위선적인 말투; recant-철회하다,부인핟

canvass to seek votes or opinions; to conduct a survey

자세히 조사하다, 철저하게 논하다

capacious spacious; roomy; commodious

많이 들어가는, 포용력이 큰, 광대한, 관대한

capital 수도, 자본(금), 원금, 자원, 밑천

captivate to fascinate; to enchant; to enrapture

...을 매혹하다, 사로잡다, 넋을 빼앗다

carcinogenic causing cancer


cardinal most import; chief

가장 중요한, 주요한, 기본적인

careen to swerve; to move rapidly without control; to lean to one side

갑자기 방향을 바꾸다;[차가 급커브에서] 기울다;

cartography the art of making maps and charts

지도 제작[법], 제도[법]

cascade a waterfall; anything resembling a waterfall

작은 폭포, 폭포처럼 생긴 것

cataclysm a violent upheaval; an earthquake; a horrible flood

격동, 대변동, 지각의 격변, 대홍수

cavalier arrogant; haughty; carefree; casual

거만한,건방진; 태평한; 말탄 무사(knight)
cavil to quibble; to raise trivial objections
트집잡다, 쓸데없이 흠잡다

chaff worthless stuff

쓸모 없는 것, 잡동사니

chameleon a highly changeable person

변덕스러운, 바람기가 있는 사람

champion to defend; to support

[앞장서서]...을 옹호하다

channel to direct; to cause to follow a certain path

경로, 통로; 수로, 해협

chaste pure and unadorned; abstaining from sex

[육체적으로]순진한, 더럽혀지지 않은; 우아한,순수한

cherub a supercute chubby-cheeked child; a kind of angel

예쁘고 순진한 어린이; 천사의 한 종류
chortle to chuckle with glee
혼자서 킬킬거리다, 신이 나서 웃다, 기뻐하다

churl a rude person; a boor

농부, 시골뜨기; 성미 까다로운 사람, 구두쇠, boor

chutzpah brazenness; audacity

뻔뻔스러운, blatant

cipher zero; a nobody; a code; the solution to a code

0(영), 가치 없는 것; 암호, 부호

circumnavigate to sail or travel all the way around

...을 두루 항해하다, [특히]세계를 배로 일주하다

citadel a fortress defending a city; a stronghold; a bulwark

성채, 요새, 견고한 장소

clandestine concealed or secret, usually for an evil or subversive purpose

비밀의, 내밀의, 남 몰래하는, arcane
classic top-notch; highest quality; serving as a standard or model
일류의, 초 고급의, 우수한; 표준의, 모범적인

cleave to cling; to split , rent

..을 쪼개다, 찢다;...을 밀어 해치고 나가다; 달라붙다, 집착하다,

climatic having to do with the climate

기후[상]의, 풍토의

cloister a covered walk, with columns on one side, that runs along the
perimeter of a courtyard, especially in a convent or monastery;
a convent or monastery; a tranquil, secluded place
보행 복도, 안뜰, 수도원, 수도 새활, 조용한 외딴곳

clone an exact duplicate; an organism genetically identical to another

똑같이 복제; 무성생식 증가; 복제(복사)

clout a blow; influence

손바닥으로 때리기, 영향력, [표적에]적중, 명중

cloy to cause to feel too full, especially when indulging in something

overly sweet; to become wearisome through excess
싫증나다, 물리다

coddle to baby
...을 상냥하게 다루다, 응석받이로 기르다; 응석받이,

cogitate to ponder; to meditate; to think carefully; ruminate, deliberate

심사 숙고하다, ...을 고안하다;...을 궁리/계획하다,

cohort a group
한 패, 동료, 동아리; 군대, 그룹, 대

commemorate to honor the memory of; to serve as a memorial to

[물건이]...의 기념이 되다, ...을 기념/축하하다

commiserate to express sorrow or sympathy for; to sympathize with; to pity

...을 가엾게(딱하게) 여기다, 애처로워하다, ...에게 동정하다

commodious spacious; roomy; capacious

넓은, 널찍한, 넓고 편리한

compatible harmonious; capable of functioning, working, or living together in

harmony; consistent
조화되는, 조화하는, 적합한, 모순없는

competent capable; qualified

유능한, 상당한, 충분한 자격이 있는
compile to gather together; to gather together into a book
하나로 종합하다, 집계하다

comply to act or be in accordance (with)

따르다, 동의하다, 승낙하다

composed calm; tranquil

침착한, 평온한, 편안한

compromise a settlement of differences in which each side gives up something

타협, 양보, 화해, 절충(안)

compunction remorse, a feeling of uneasiness at doing something wrong

양심의 가책, 마음의 거리낌; 뉘우침; [가벼운] 후회

concave curved inward, like the inside of a circle or a shpere

오목한, 요면의; 움푹 들어간 곳

concede to acknowledge as true or right; to grant or yield

...을 인정하다, ...을 [권리, 특권으로서] 용인하다, 허용하다, avow,

concentric having the same center

[원, 구가]동일한 중심을 가진

concert combined action; agreement

제휴, 협력, 협약, 협조, 조화, 일치; 콘서트

concoct to create by mixing ingredients; to devise

...을 뒤섞어서 만들다,조합하다, 조제하다, 꾸며내다; 꾀하다

concomitant following from; accompanying; going along with

수반하다, 복수하는, 상반하는; 부수하는 성질(사정), 부수물

confederate an ally; an accomplice

동맹자(국), 연합자(국), 공모자; 연합한, 동맹한; 동맹/연합하다

confer to exchange ideas; to consult with; to bestow

수여하다, 주다, 의논(상의)하다, 회담하다

confidant a person with whom secrets or private thoughts are shared

[비밀 등을 털어놓을 수 있는] 믿을 만한(극친한) 친구

configuration arrangement
[요소, 부분의] 사관 위치, 배열, 배치, 외형
conflagration a large fire
큰 화재

confluence a flowing together

[하천 다우의]합류, 합류점; [사람, 사물의]모임, 집합, 군중

confound to bewilder; to amaze; to throw into

당황케하다, 놀라다, 혼동하다, ...을 뒤섞다, confused

congeal to solidify; to jell

...을 얼리다, 응고시키다

conjugal having to do with marriage

부부[간]의, 혼인[상]의

connive to conspire; to aid or encourage a wrong

보고도 못 본체하다, 묵인(묵허)하다; 공모하다, 묵계하다

conservatory a greenhouse, usually one attached to another structure;

a music or drama school
온실, 식물실; 미술학교, 음악학교; 보존성의, 보존력이 잇는

consign to hand over; to assign; to entrust; to banish

...을 넘겨주다, 인도하다; 위탁/위임하다; 할당하다; ...을 제쳐놓다

consolidate to combine or bring together; to solidify; to strengthen

합병/통합하다; 강화하다, 굳건히 하다

conspicuous easily seen; impossible to miss

잘 보이다, 이채로운, 돋보이는

consternation sudden confusion

대단한 놀람, 경악

constituency the group of voters represented by a politician;

a group of supporters for anything
선거민, 투표자, 선거구; 지지자층, 고객층; constitute-구성하다

contempt disdain; disgrace

경멸, 멸시, 모욕, 치욕

continuum a continuous whole without clear division into parts

연속, 연속체
contraband smuggled goods
밀수품; 밀수, 밀무역; 부정거래품, 금제품

contretemps an embracing occurrence; a mishap

뜻하지 않게(공교롭게) 일어난 사건, contingent

contumely rudeness; insolence; arrogance

[말, 태도의]오만함, 모욕(적인 취급)

conundrum a puzzle or problem without a solution

[익살스러운 말장난으로 대답하는]수수께끼; 난문, 수수께끼 인물

convene to gather together; to assemble; to meet

집합하다, 회홥하다; ...을 모으다, 소집하다, gather

conversant familiar; experienced

친밀한, 친교가 있는; 정통한, 잘 알고 있는

converse the opposite

거꾸로 된, 역, 반대의; 격이 없이 주고받는 말, 대화

convey to transport; to conduct; to communicate

운송하다, 수송하다, 전달하다, 알리다, [법률]양도하다

conviction strong belief; a determination of guilt

신념, 확신, 유죄의 판결(평가)

convolution a twist or trun; the act of twisting or turning

나선, 회선의 것

copious abundant; plentiful

많은, 다량의, 풍부한

cordial gracious; warm; sincere, loyalty

따뜻한, 우정어린, 인정잇는; 기운을 돋구는, 충심의, 성심성의,

corollary a proposition that follows easily

[당연한] 결과, 추론

corporeal material; tangible; having substance, like the body

육체의, 물질적인, 유형의, 실체가 있는, substentive

correlation a mutual relation between two or more things

corrosive eating away; destructive
부식[침식]성의, 부식하는; [정신적으로] 좀 먹는

corrugated shaped with folds or waves

물결 모양의, 주름이 있는, 골진

coterie a group of close associates; a circle(of freinds or associates)

동료, 친구, 동인, 서클; 그룹, 일파

cower to shrink away or huddle up in fear

[공포, 부그러움 때문에] 위축하다

crass extremely unrefined; gross; stupid

우둔한, 어리석은, 터무니없는, dull

craven cowardly
겁많은, 소심한; 비열한, 비겁한

crescendo a gradual increase in the volume of a sound; a gradual increase in

the intensity of anything
힘, 음량이 점점 강해짐, [음악]점점 세게

crestfallen dejected; dispirited

풀이 죽은, 의기소침한

crevice a narrow split, crack, or fissure

[좁고 깊은] 갈라진 틈

cringe to shrink back with fear; to cower; to be servile or suck up in a

horrible way
[공포로 인하여] 움츠리다, 위축되다, 굽실굽실하다, 아첨하다

critique a critical review

비평[문], 평론[문], 비평법, 비평술

crux the central point; the essence

가장 중요한 점, 난점

cuisine a style of cooking

요리법, 요리, culinary

cull to pick out from among many; to select; to collect

고르다, 선택/선발하다

curb to restrain or control

...을 구속하다, 억제하다; 구속, 억제; [말의]고삐, 재갈

curmudgeon a difficult, bad-tempered person

심술궂은 구두쇠

cursory quick and unthorough; hasty; superficial

서두르는, 대강의, 되는 대로의

debase to lower in quality or value; to degrade

[품질, 가치를]떨어뜨리다; 천하게 하다

debunk to expose the nonsense of

정체를 폭로하다

decree an official order, usually having the force of law

법령, 포고, (재판소의)명령

decry to put down; to denounce

비난하다, (denounce)헐뜯다

deem to judge; to consider

(...이라고) 생각하다

deficit a shortage, especially of money

결손, 부족, 적자(↔surplus)

defile to make filthy or foul; to desecrate (desecrate)consecrate

더럽히다, 불결하게 하다, ...의 신성을 더럽히다

deft skillful
솜씨 좋은, 능숙한

defunct no longer in effect; no longer in existence

1. 죽은, 고인이된(deceased); 2. 현존하지 않은, demise

degrade to lower in dignity or status; to corrupt; to deteriorate

1. 지위를 낮추다, 파면하다, 2. 붕괴시키다, 3. 품위를 떨어뜨리다

deign to condescend; to think it in accordance with one's dignity

황송하게 ~을 해주시다, condescend

deity a god or goddness

신위, 신격, 신성

dejected depressed; disheartened

낙담하다, 풀죽다

delectable delightful; delicious

즐거운, 유쾌한; deleterous-해로운,유독한

delinquent neglecting a duty or law; late in payment

태만한, 비행의, 체납되어 있는, lazy, guilty

delve to search or study intensively

탐구하다, 파고들다

demeanor behavior; manner

행동, 행실, 품행, behavior

demise death
서거, 별세, defunct

demography the statistical study of characteristics of populations

인구 통계학

demur to object; to take exception

이의를 말하다, 반대하다

demure shy; reserved; sedate

새침한, 진지한, 침착한

denomination a classfication; a category name

계급, 종류, 명명, 명칭

denote to signify; to indicate; to mark


denounce to condemn
비난하다, 고발하다

depict to portray, especially in a picture; to describe

그리다, 묘사하다 ,서술하다

deplete to decrease the supply of; to exhaust; to use up

비우다, 고갈시키다

deplore to regret; to condemn; to lament

비탄하다(lamnet), 개탄하다, mourn

deploy to station soldiers or armaments strategically; to arrange


depose to remove from office or position of power

(고관직에서)퇴위하다, (왕을) 폐하다, abdicate

depredate to prey upon; to plunder

약탈하다, plunder

derelict neglectful; delinquent; deserted; abandoned

1. 유기된, 버려진, 2. 무책임한

desist to stop doing(something)

그만두다, 단념하다, renounce

devout deeply religious; fervent

독실한, 헌신적인, devote

diatribe a bitter, abusive denunciation

통렬한 비난을 담은 연설; 욕, 비방(invective)

dichotomy division into two parts, especially contradictory ones

이분법, 양분법

diffuse to cause to spread out; to cause to disperse; 발산하다

dilapidated broken-down; fallen into ruin

헐어 빠지게 하다, 황폐케 하다, devastate

dilate to make larger; to become larger; to speak or write at length

넓히다, 팽창시키다

dilemma a situation in which one must choose between two equally attractive
choices; any problem or predicament

diminution the act or process of diminishing; reduction

감소, 축소, diminish

dire disastrous; desperate

무시무시한, 무서운; 비참한; 급박한, 긴급한; 지독한

dirge a funeral song

disaffect to cause to lose affection; to estrange; to alienate
...에게 불만을 품게 하다,; 배반하다, disgruntle

disarray disorder; confusion

혼란, 난잡, 단정치 못한 복장

disclaim to deny any claim to; to renounce

포기하다, 기권하다, 거절하다

discomfit to frustrate; to confuse

...의 계획을 좌절시키다(frustrate); 당황케하다, confuged

disconcert to upset; to ruffle; to perturb

당황케하다, 쩔쩔매게 하다, confuged

discourse spoken or written expression in words; conversation

강연, 강론, 논설

discrepancy difference; inconsistency

모순, 불일치

discursive rambling from one topic to another, usually aimlessly

광범위한, 산만한, 종잡을 수 없는(digressive)

disgruntle to make sulky and dissatisfied; to discontent

...을 언짢게 하다, ...에 불평을 품게하다, 불만스러운, disaffect

dismal dreary; causing gloom; causing dread

음산한, 오싹해지는(dreary)

dismay to fill with dread; to discourage greatly to perturb

당황하게 하다, 걱정시키다

dispassionate unaffected by passion; impartial; calm

냉정한, 공정한, indifferent

disperse to scatter; to spread widely; to disseminate

흩어지게 하다, 산란시키다

dispirit to discourage; to dishearten; to lose spirit

낙심시키다, ...의 기력을 빼앗다, depressed

disposition characteristic attitude; state of mind; inclination; arrangement

기질, 성질, 성벽
disproportionate out of proportion; too much or too little
어울리지 않는, 조화되지 않는, 불균형한

disquiet to make uneasy

...의 안정을 어지럽히다, ...을 불안하게 하다

dissemble to conceal the real nature of; to act or speak falsely in order to
[성격, 행위 등을] 숨기다, 가장하다, 위선적으로 행동하다

dissent to disagree; to withhold approval

의견을 달리하다

disservice a harmful action; an ill turn

불친절한 행위, 냉대, 구박

dissident a person who disagrees or dissents

반대하는, 의견을 달리하는

dissuade to persuade not to

[충고나 설득으로](남)에게 그만두게 하다

distinct separate; different; clear and unmistakable

별개의, 독특한, 확실한, 뚜렷한

diurnal occurring overy day; occurring during the daytime

매일의, 날마다의, 낮동안의

divine to intuit; to prophesy

신의, 신성의; 점치다, 예언하다

divulge to reveal, especially to reveal something that has been a screat


document to support with evidence, especially written evidence

...을 증거로 입증하다

doldrums low spirits; a state of inactivity

침체기, 정체기

doleful sorrowful; filled with frief

슬픔에 잠긴, 음울한

dolt a stupid person; a dunce

얼간이, 바보
dotage senility; foolish affection
망령, 노망(senility)

dour forbidding; severe; gloomy

기분 나쁜(forbidding), 가혹한

downcast directed downward; dejected; depressed

의기소침한, 우스꽝스러운

downplay to minimize; to represent as being insignificant; to play down

...을 중시하지 않다, 얕보다

draconian harsh; sever; cruel

(법률이)엄격한, 가혹한

droll humorous; amusing in an odd, often understated, way

우스운, 우스꽝스러운

dross worthless stuff, especially worthless stuff arising

[녹은 금속의]불순물, 가치 없는 것, 쓰레기, chaff

duress coercion; compulsion by force or threat

구속, 감금; 협박

ebb to diminish; to recede

썰물, 감퇴; 쇠해지다, emaciate

ecclesiastical having to do with the church

교회의, 성직의

eclipse to block the light of; to overshadow; to reduce the significance of;
to surpass
[천체가]...을 가리다, ...을 숨기다, [빛]을 가로막다

edict an official decree

칙령, 포고, 명령(decree)

edifice a big, imposing building


effectual effective; adequate

효과적인, 충분한(adequate)

efficacy effectiveness
효력, 효능

effigy a likeness of someone, especially one used in expressing hatred for

the person of whom it is a likeness
초상, 상

elation a feeling of great joy

의기양양, 매우 기뻐함, elate

electorate the body of people entitled to vote in an election; the voters


elegy a mournful poem or other piece of writing; a mournful piece of music

애가, 만가

elite the best or most select group

선발된 사람들

elocution the art of public speaking

연설 태도, 웅변술, rhiteric; elaborate-정교한,복잡한

emaciate to make extremely thin through starvation or illness

...을 여위게 함, 쇠약하게 하다

emanate to come forth; to issue

[빛, 소리, 사상 따위를] 발산하다, 유포하다, disperse

emancipate to liberate; to free from bondage or restraint

...을 해방하다, 자유롭게 하다

embargo a government order suspending foreign trade; a government order

suspending the movement of freight-carrying ships in and
out of the country's ports
통상 정지, 출항금지, 수출금지

embellish to adorn; to beautify by adding ornaments; to add fanciful or fictitious

details to
...을 아름답게 하다, 장식하다(adorn)

embody to personify; to give physical form to

[정신]에 형체(육체)를 주다, [사상 따위를] 구체적으로 나타내다,

embroil to involve in conflict; to throw into disorder

[분쟁, 전쟁 따위에]...을 끌어들이다,; 혼란시키다, 복잡하게 하다
embryonic undeveloped; rudimentary
미발달의, 미숙의; 태아의, 태생의; 발아기의

emissary a messenger of representative sent to represent another

사절, 특사; 밀사

empathy identification with the feelings or thoughts of another


empower to give power or authority to; to enable

...에게 권한을 부여하다, 권력을 위임하다

endear to make dear; to make beloved

...을 사랑받게 하다, 따르게 하다, 사모하게 하다

engaging charming; pleasing; attractive

매력적인, 애교있는, 상냥한, 기분좋은

enmity deep hatred; animosity; ill will

적의, 앙심, 증오, 적대, enmity

ennui boredom; listless lack of interest

지루함, 권태(boredom)

ensue to follow immediately afterward; to result

계속되다, 잇따라 일어나다; [결과로서] 생기다, 일어나다

entail to have as a necessary consequence; to involve

[필연적인 결과로서]...을 일으키다, 수반하다;...을 필요로 하다

entity something that exists; a distinct thing

실재, 존재; 본질, 실질; 실재물

entreat to ask earnestly; to beg; to plead

[남]에게 간청하다, 탄원하다, 부탁하다, 빌다

entrepreneur an independent business person;

청부업자, [일반적으로]기업가; 흥행주

enumerate to name one by one; to list

...을 열거하다, 늘어놓다; ...의 수를 확인하다, ...을 세다

envision to imagine; to foresee

[장래의 일 따위]를 마음속에 그리다, ...을 상상하다
epicure a person with refined taste in wine and food
식도락가, 미식가; 쾌락주의자, culinary

epilogue an afterword; a short concluding chapter of a book; a short speech

at the end of a play
끝맺음[말] → 에필로그

epoch an era; a distinctive period of time

[획일적인]시대, 획기적인 사건; 신기운(시간상에서 구분되는 시기)

equestrian having to do with horseback riding

말에 올라탄, 마상의; 기수의, 마(馬)술의

estimable worthy of admiration; capable of being estimated

존중(존경)할 만한, 존중(존경)받을 만한; 평가할 수 있는

estrange to make unfriendly or hostile; to cause to feel removed from

[남]의 기분, 애정을 멀어지게 하다,...을 멀리하다

ethics moral standards governing behavior

윤리, 도덕; 윤리학, 도덕론, 윤리

eulogy spoken or written tribute to a person, especially a person who

has just died
찬사, 찬양(칭찬)하는 말; 고인을 기리는 연설

evince to demonstrate convincingly; to prove

[감정 따위를] 분명히 나타내다, 명시하다; ...을 증명하다;

evoke to summon farth; to draw forth; to awaken; to produce of suggest

[기억 따위]를 되살려 내다, 환기하다, [웃음을] 자아내다, 이끌어내다,

excise to remove by cutting, or as if by cutting

[구, 문장 따위]를 삭제하다, ...을 전개하다, 잘라내다; 물푸메, 소비세,

exempt excused; not subject ot

...을 면제하다, 면제된, 면제(세)자, immune

exhume to unbury; to dig out of the ground

...을 발굴하다, [특히](시체, 무덤)을 발굴하다

exodus a mass departure or journey away

[많은 사람이]나가기, 출발; [이민단 따위의] 출국, 이주

exorbitant excessively costly; excessive

엄청난, 터무니없는, 값이 엄청난, egregious

expiate to make amends for; to atone for

...을 보상하다; [죄 따위]의 갚음을 하다, amend, atone

explicate to make a detailed explanation of the meaning of

[논지, 원리, 주의 따위]를 전개하여 명백히 하다, ...을 설명하다,

exposition explanation; a large public exhibition

설명, 해설; 전람회, 박람회

expostulate to reason with someone in order to warn or dissuade

타이르다, 충고하다, exhort; postulate-가정하다

expunge to erase; to eliminate any trace of efface, excise

...을 지우다, 말살(말소)하다, ...을 없애다; 멸종시키다,

exquisite extraordinarily fine or beautiful; intense

매우 아름다운, 절묘한, 훌륭한, 강렬한(intense)

extant still in existence

현존(잔존)하고 있는,

extort to obtain through force, threat, or illicit means

강탈하다, 착취하다; 억지로 꾸며내다; [자백을]억지로 얻어내다

extremity the outermost point or edge; the greatest degree; grave danger;
끝, 선단, 맨끝; 절정, 곤경, 난국; 사지(손발), extreme

exuberant highly joyous or enthusiastic; overflowing; lavish

무성한, 풍부한; 다작의; 생기 가득한; [문제, 언어가] 화려한

facade the front of a building; the false front of a building; the false front or
misleading appearance of anything
[건물의] 정면, [사물의]외관, 겉보기

facet any of the flat, polished surfaces of a cut gem; aspect

[보석 등의] 자른 면, 면; [사람, 사물의] 일면, 국면;

fallacy a false notion or belief; a misconception

그릇된 생각(믿음), 잘못
fathom to understand; to penetrate the meaning of
[수심]을 재다(sound), [남의 마음을] 헤아리다, 추측하다

faux false
옳지 않은, 그릇된

fawn to exhibit affection; to seek favor through flattery;

[야비한 짓을 해가면] 알랑거리다, 아첨하다; n. 어린사슴

feign to make a false representation of; to pretend

...을 가장하다, ...인 체하다, [구실 따위]를 꾸며내다, 속이다; 가장하

fester to generate pus; to decay

[상처 따위가] 곪다, 쑤시다, 아프다, erode, corrosive

fetish an object of obsessive reverence, attention, or interest

[나무, 돌과 같은]신, 미신의 대상; 페티즘의 대상물

fiasco a complete failure or disaster; an incredible

대실패, 완패

fiat an arbitrary decree or order

법령, 명령, 엄명, 인가

fickle likely to change for no good reason

변하기 쉬운, 불안정한; 변덕스러운; finicky-까다로운

figment something made up or invented; a fabrication

꾸며낸(지어낸) 일; 허구, 꾸면낸 이야기

fiscal pertaining to financial matters; monetary

재정(상)의, 회계의; 국고의

fledgling inexperienced or immature

풋내기, 신출내기, 애송이; 깃털이 갓난 새; fledge-담보

flippant frivolously disrespectful; saucy; pert; flip

경솔한, 경박한; 건방진, 뻔뻔스러운

florid ruddy; flushed; red-faced

혈색이 좋은, 얼굴이 붉은

fodder coarse food for livestock; raw material

[가축의] 먹이, 사료; 원재료, 원료(raw material)
folly foolishness; insanity; imprudence
어리석은(짓); 경솔한(imprudence)

foray a quick raid or attack; an initial venture

침입, 침략; an initial venture

forebode to be an omen of; to predict; to foretell

[보통 나쁜 일]을 미리 나타내다, 조짐을 보이다; 예언/예감하다

foreclose to deprive a mortgagor of his or her right to redeem a property;

to shut out or exclude
[저당물]을 처분하다; 내쫓다, 배척(배제)하다

forensic related to or used in courts of law

법정의(에 관한), 논쟁의

forestall to thwart, prevent, or hinder something from happening; to head off

...의 기선을 제하다, ...을 미리 막다

forswear to retract, renounce, or recant; to take back (recant)

...을 맹세로 끊다, ...을 맹세로 부정하다, 지기 진술을 철회하다

forte a person's strong point, special talent, or specialty

장점, 특기

forthright frank; outspoken; going straight to the point

1. 솔직하게, 숨기지 않고 2. 똑바로

foster to encourage; to promote the development of

(성장, 발달)을 촉진하다, 증진하다

fragmentary incomplete; disconnected; made up of fragments

미완의, 단편적인

fruitful productive; producing good or abundant results; successful

결실이 많은, (풍작)을 가져오는, 기름진, 비옥한, 수익이 많은

fuel to stimulate; to ignite; to kindle, as if providing with fuel

1. (감정을) 부추기다 2. ...을 태우다(kindle)

fulminate to denounce vigorously; to protest vehemently against something

맹렬히 비난하다, 호통치다

gaffe a social blunder; an embarrassing mistake; a faux pas

실패, 실수(blunder), fiasco; plunder-약탈하다,

galvanize to startle into sudden activity; to revitalize

...을 갑자기 활기띠게 하다, 생기를 회복시키다(revitalize), bracing

gambit a scheme to gain an advantage; a ploy

(행동이나 거래 따위의) 시작, 선수

gamut the full range (of something)

전 범위, 전반

garner to gather; to acquire; to earn

1. ...을 모으다 2. (득점을) 얻다

gastronomy the art of eating well

미식법, 요리법, culinary

generic general; common; not protected by trademark


genesis origin; creation; beginning

기원, 발생

genocide the extermination of a notional, racial, or religious group

한 국민 또는 민족의 말살

germane applicable; pertinent; relevant

일정한 관계가 있는, 적절한(pertinent)

ghastly shockingly horrible; frightful; ghostlike

무시무시한, 송장(유령) 같은

gratis free of charge

무료로, 공짜로; 무료의, gratuitous

grievous tragic; agonizing; severe, mourn, bemoan;

비통한, 슬프게 하는, 슬퍼할, aggrieve-괴롭히다, 학대하다

grimace to make an ugly, disapproving facial expression

찡그린 얼굴, 우거지상, 점잔 뺀 얼굴, 꾸민 얼굴

guise appearance; semblance

외관, 외양, 겉보기, 의복

habituate to train; to accustom to a situation

...을 길들이다, 익숙하게 하다

halcyon peaceful; carefree;

교묘한, 잔잔한; 부유한, 번영하는, 즐거운, 무사태평한

harass to attack repeatedly; to torment or pester

[적]을 끊임없는 공격으로 괴롭히다, ...을 시달리게 하다

harbinger a precursor; an indication; an omen

선구자, 예고, 전조

harp to repeat tediously; to go on and on about something

[같은 말을] 자꾸만 되풀이하다

harry to harass; to annoy

[남]을 고민하게 하다, 괴롭히다; 약탈하다, 침략하다

heinous shockingly evil; abominable; atrocious

극악한, 흉악한, 밉살 맞은, 가증스러운

herald a royal proclaimer; a harbinger

[국왕의 즉위, 선전을 알리는]포교관, 선구자(harbinger)

hoary gray or white with age; ancient; stale

[늙어서] 백발의, 오래된, 낡은; hoard-저장하다

homage reverence; respect

존경, 경의

hubris arrogance; excessive pride

[자신 과잉 따위에 의한] 오만, 자만, insolent

hypocrisy insincerity; two-facedness

위선, 위선적 행위; ...인 척하는

imbue to inspire; to permeate or tinge

1.(사상, 감정 등을)...에게 불어넣다, 고취하다, 2....에 스며들다

impasse a deadlock; a situation from which there is no escape

궁지, 난국, 막힘

impeach to accuse or indict; to challenge; call into question

1. 비난하다, 질책하다 2. 탄핵하다

impecunious without money; penniless

무일푼인, 가난한

impede to obstruct or interfere with; to delay

...을 방해하다, 훼방놓다

impending approaching; imminent; looming

박두한, 임박한(imminent)

impenetrable incapable of being penetrated; impervious; incomprehensible

1. 꿰뚫을 수 없는 2. 이해할 수 없는

imperative completely necessary; vitally important

부득이한, 꼭 필요한

impetuous rash; overimpulsive; headlong

열렬한, 성급한, 충동적인

implication something implied or suggested; ramification

포함, 함축

importune to urge with annoying persistence; to trouble

...에게 끈덕지게 조르다

impoverish to reduce to poverty; to make destitute

1....을 가난하게 하다 2. (질, 산출력을)빈약하게 하다, 저하시키다

impregnable unconquerable; able to withstand attack

난공불락의, 견고한

impresario a person who manages public entertainments

(especially operas, but other events as well)
(가극단, 악단 등의) 단장

impromptu done without preparation, on the spur of the moment

즉흥의, 준비없는

improvise to perform without preparation; to make do with whatever materials

are available
1. 즉석에서 짓다 2. 임시변통으로 만들다

impunity freedom from punishment or harm

형벌을 받지 않음

inadvertent unintentional; heedless; not planned

부주의한, 소홀한, insouciant
inalienable sacred; incapable of being transferred, lost, or taken away
양도할 수 없는, 이양할 수 없는

incarnation embodiment
1. 육체를 가진 존재가 되기 2. 구체화, 구상, 실현(embodiment)

incendiary used for setting property on fire; tending to arouse passion or anger;
1. 불을 내는, 태우는 2. 선동적인

inclination tendency; preference; liking

경향, 성향

inculcate to instill or implant by repeated suggestions or admonitions

...을 되풀이하여 가르치다, 알아듣도록 가르치다

incumbent currently holding an office; obligatory

1. 현직의, 재직 중의 2. 의무가 있는

incursion a hostile invasion; a raid

침입, 습격, incursive

indict to charge with a crime; to accuse of wrongdoing

...을 기소하다, 고발하다, impeach

induce to persuade; to influence; to cause

권유하다, 유도하여 ...하게 하다, persuade

ineluctable inescapable; incapable of being resisted or avoided

불가피한, 피할 수 없는; elude-피하다,벗어나다

ineradicable incapable of being removed or destroyed or eradicated

근접할 수 없는, 없애기 어려운, +eradicable, eradicate

inflammatory fiery; tending to arouse passion or anger; incendiary

격하게 하는, 선동적인

influx inflow; arrival of large numbers of people or things; inundation


infraction violation; infringement; the breaking of a law

위반, 배반, 침범, break, infringe, breach

infrastructure the basic framework of a system; foundation

하부조직, 하부구조, (경제)기반

infringe to violate; to encroach or trespass

...을 위반하다, (권리)를 침해하다, break, infringe, breach

infuse to introduce into; to instill

1.(액체)를 주입하다 2.(사상)을 불어 넣다(instill)

ingratiate to work to make yourself liked

...에게 알랑거리다, ...의 비위를 맞추다; gratification-만족, gratify-기
쁘게하다, 만족시키다

inimical unfavorable; harmful; detrimental; hostile

1. 해로운, 불리한 2. 적대하는

inimitable impossible to imitate; incomparable; matchless; the best

모방할 수 없는, 비길 데 없는

innuendo an insinuation; a sly hint

풍자, 암시

inquisition ruthless questioning; an official investigation characterized by cruelty

1.(철저한) 조사, 탐구 2.(공적기관의) 심문, 최조

insouciant nonchalant; lighthearted; carefree

무관심, 부주의, inadvertent

insufferable unbearable; intolerable

견딜 수 없는

insuperable unable to be overcome; insurmountable; overwhelming

이겨내기 어려운, 극복하기 어려운(invincible)

insurrection an act of open rebellion against

폭동, 반란; resurrection-부활

integral essential; indispensable

필수의, 완전한

interim meantime; an intervening time; a temporary arrangement

1.사이, 잠시(meantime) 2. 잠정 협정

interloper intruder; trespasser; unwanted person

남의 일에 참견하는 사람, 주제넘은 사람(intruder); 무허가 영업자
interlude an intervening episode; an intermission; a pause
중가네 생긴 일(episode), 사이 틈

interminable seemingly unending; tediously long

영구히 계속되는, 끝없는

intermittent occasional; repeatedly starting and stopping; recurrent

때때로 끊기는, 단속하는, [열, 흐름 따위가]간헐성의

intersperse to place at intervals; to scatter among

...을 흩뿌리다, 산재시키다; [산재시킨 것으로]...에 변화를 주다

intervene to come between opposing groups; to mediate; to take place;

to occur between times
..의 사이에 있다. (들어가다, 일어나다), 지장을 주다; 중재하다

intimate to hint or imply

...을 넌지시 비추다, 암시하다; 친밀한, 친한

intricate complicated; sophisticated; having many parts or facest

뒤얽힌, 얽히고 설킨; 복잡한, 난해한

intrigue a secret scheme; a crafty plot

음모, 계략; 흥미를 돋구다, 당혹케하다; 간통, 불의

invidious causing envy or resentment; offensively harmful

비위에 거슬리는, 불쾌한;; 몹시 차별적인, 괘씸한, malaise

inviolate free from injury; pure

침범되지 않는, 신성한; [약속, 법률 등이]잘 지켜지고 있는,

invoke to entreat or pray for; to call on as in prayer; to declare to be in effect

[신의 가호]를 빌다; [자비 등]을 간청하다, [법 등]에 호소하다

iridescent displaying glowing, changing colors

각도에 따라 색깔이 달라 보이는, 무지개색의, 진주색의

jaunt a short pleasure trip

소풍, 들놀이

jingoism belligerent, chauvinistic patriotism; warmongering

강경 외교 정책(론), 주전론, 맹목적 애국주의

jocular humorous; jolly; fond of joking

우스꽝스러운, 익살맞은, 웃기는
jubilation exultant joy
환희, 환호

junction convergence; linkup; the act or state of being joined together

결합, 접합; 합체, 합동; 접합점, 합류점 watershed

junta a small grouup ruling a country after a coup d'etat

[쿠데타 직후 정권을 장악하는]군사정부

larceny theft; robbery

절도죄, 절도[행위]

lascivious lustful; obscene; lewd

색을 좋아하는, 음탕한; 색정을 돋구는, 음란한, licentious, prurient

lavish to spend freely or bestow generously; to squander

...을 아낌없이 주다(사용하다); ...을 낭비하다

lax negligent; lazy; irresponsible

해이된, 조심성 없는, 단정치 못한; 명확하지 않은; 느슨한, 이완된

layman a nonprofessional; a person who is not a member of the clergy

비전문가, 문외한, 아마추어; [성직자에 대한]신도, 속인

liaison connection; association; alliance; secret love affair

연락(connecion; association); 간통, 밀통

licentious lascivious; lewd; promiscuous; amoral

부도덕한, [특히]방탕한, 성적으로 음탕한(lewd); 무법의, 파격의

limpid transparent; clear; lucid

[물, 공기, 마음 따위가]맑은, 투명한; [문체가]명쾌한, 명석한

listless sluggish; without energy or enthusiasm

마음 내키지 않는; 노곤한, 귀찮은, 무관심한

litany recital or list; tedious recounting

[교리]연도, 소원 늘어놓기; 지루한 설명(이야기)

livid discolored; black and blue; enraged

[타박상으로 피부 따위가]검푸른; 흙빛의; 격노한(enraged)

loath extremely unwilling; reluctant

싫어하는, 꺼림칙한(reluctant)
lobby to urge legislative action; to exert influence
[의안]의 통과 운동을 하다; ...의 이면 공작을 하다

lout boor; oaf; clod

버릇없는 사람, 시골 뜨기; 얼간이, boor; rout-완패, tout-조르다

ludicrous ridiculous; absurd

우스운, 익살맞은, 바보 같은(ridiculous)

lyrical melodious; songlike; poetic

서정 시조(풍)의, 서정미가 있는, 감상적인

malapropism humorous misuse of a word that sounds similar to the word intended
but has a ludicrously different meaning
말의 우스꽝스런 오용; 오용된 말

mania crazed, excessive excitement; insanity; delusion

열광, 열주, ...광, ...열

marginal related to or located at the margin or border;

at the lower limit of quality; insignificant
가장자리의; 한계의, [특히]최저한의, [경제]가까스로 수지가 맞는

materialistic preoccupied with material things; greedy for possessions

유물론[자]의, 물질주의[자]의

mawkish overly sentimental; maudlin

메스꺼운, 구역질나는; 유난히 감상적인, 심약한

meander to travel along a winding or indirect route; to ramble or stray

from the topic
꾸불꾸불 나아가다, 정처없이 걷다, ...을 구부러지게 하다

medium the means by which something is conveyed or accomplished;

a substance through which something is transferred or conveyed;
the materials used by an artist
매개물, 매체; 수단, 방법

melancholy gloomy; depressed and weary

우울한, 침울한, 울적하게 만드는, 생각에 잠긴

melee a brawl; a confused fight or struggle; a violent free for-all; tumultuous

난투, 혼전, 혼란
menagerie a collection of animals
구경시키는 동물; [이동하는]동물원

meticulous precise and careful about details; fussy

매우 신중한, 세심한, 꼼꼼한

millennium a period of 1,000 years; a thousandth anniversary

천년의 기간, 천기기; 황금시대

more marshy, mucky ground

진흙, 수렁

mode method of doing; type; manner; fashion

양식, 방식, 양상

modulate to reduce or regulate; to lessen the intensity of

조정하다, 바꾸다; 변조하다, 바구다, 조절하다

momentum force of movement; speed; impetus

운동량, 타성; 기세, 추진력, 여세

moratorium s suspension of activity; a period of delay

일시 중지, 지불 유예기간; 지불유예

mores customary moral standards

관습, 습속, 풍속

motif a recurring theme or idea

주제, 동기, 주지, 특색

motley extremely varied or diverse; heterogeneous; multicolored

잡색의, 얼룩덜룩한; 혼성의, 잡색

municipal pertaining to a city (or town) and its government

자치도시의(시의); 내정의

muse to ponder; to meditate

명상하다, 숙고하다

muster to assemble for battle or inspection; to summon up

소집하다, 모으다

mystic otherworldly; mysterious; enigmatic

비법의, 비전의; 신비적인, 유현한; 신비주의의
nebulous vague or indistinct; unclear; hazy
흐린, 불투명한; 애매한, 막연한

nemesis unconquerable opponent or rival;

one who seeks just compensation or revenge to right a wrong
벌을 주는 사람, 천벌

neophyte beginner; novice

신참자 → beginner; novice

nirvana a blissful, painless, worry-free state

열반, 해탈

noisome offensive or disgusting; stinking; noxious

악취가 나는, 비위에 거슬리는; 불쾌한, 싫은; 유해한,유독한

nomadic wandering from place to place; without a permanent home

유목의, 방랑의

nomenclature a set or system of names; a designation; a terminology

명명법; 전문어, 학명

nonchalant indifferent; coolly unconcerned; blasé

무관심한, 냉담한, 태연한, disinterest

nullify to repeal; to cancel; to void

무효로 하다, 취소하다, 폐기하다

obeisance a bow or curtsy; deep reverence

경례, 인사, 경의, 존경, obedient, obedience, obeisant, obey

objective unbiased; unprejudiced

객관적인, 목적의, +subjective

obtrusive interfering; meddlesome; having a tendency to butt in

강요하는, 주제넘게 나서는, 눈에 거슬리는,
obtrude, compelling, coerce

obviate to make unnecessary; to avert

없애다, 제거하다, 미연에 방지하다

occult supernatural; magic; mystical

신비로운, 오묘한, 불가사의한
odious hateful; evil; vile
싫은, 밉살스러운, 추악한

odyssey a long, difficult journey, usually marked by many changes of fortune

장기간의 방랑(모험) 여행; 운명의 많은 변화를 상징

olfactory pertaining to the sense of smell

후각의, 냄새의; 후각기관, 코

oligarchy government by only a very few people

과두정치, 소수 독재정치

ominous threatening; menacing; portending doom

불길한, 나쁜 징후의; 전조의; 날씨가 험악한

omniscient all-knowing; having infinite wisdom

무엇이든지 다 아는, 진지한, 박식한

opprobrious damning; extremely critical; disgraceful

상스러운, 무례한, 부끄러운, 치욕, 불명예, 비난

ordinance law; regulation; decree

법령, 의식, decree, mandate

oscillate to pulsate; to waver or vacillate between beliefs or ideas

진동하다, 떨리다, 흔들리다, 동요하다, 갈피를 못 잡다

osmosis gradual or subtle absorption

삼투, 삼투성

ostracize to shun; to shut out

추방하다, 배척하다, relegate

oust to eject; to expel; to banish

내쫓다, 불법적으로 빼앗다, expel

override to overrule; to prevail over

유린하다, 짓밟다, 무시하다, 거절하다

overture opening move; preliminary offer

서곡, 전주곡; 신청, 제안,교섭 개시

oxymoron a figure of speech in which two contradictory words or

phrases are used together
palatable pleasant to the taste; agreeable to the feelings
맛있는, 입에 맞는; 취미가 맞는, 마음에 맞는, 유쾌한, palate

pallor paleness; whiteness

[얼굴 등이]창백 → paleness, whiteness

pandemic prevalent throughout a large area

전국적(넓은 지역)으로 유행하는

panegyric elaborate praise; eulogy

찬사, 과장된 칭찬

parable religious allegory; fable; morality tale

우화; palpable=touchable, culpable=guilty

paragon a model or pattern of excellence

모범, 전형, 귀감, paradigm

parallel similar comparable

평행의, 같은 방향의, 유사한; 서로 같은

paranoia a mental illness in which the sufferer believes people are out to get
him; unreasonable anxiety
편집증, 과대망상증

paranormal having to do with an event or events that can't be

explained scientifically; supernatural
과학적으로 알 수가 없는, 초자연적인

paroxysm a sudden, violent outburst; a severe attack

발작, 격발

partition division; dividing wall

분할, 구획선

pastoral rural; rustic; peaceful and calm, like the country

전원적인, idyllic

pathos that which makes people feel pity or sorrow

비애, 비감, 페이소스

patina surface discoloration caused by age

손때에 진 윤기, 녹청, 고색, archaic
patrimony an inheritance, especially from a father; a legacy
세습 재산, legacy; lethargy-무감각,무기력

peculiar unusual; bizarre; individual; belonging to a particular region

1. 기묘한, 괴상한 2. 특유의, 독특한

peregrination wandering; traveling

여행, 여정

perpetrator the one who committed the act

가해자, 용의자

perpetuate to make something perpetual; to keep from perishing

...을 영속시키다. ...을 불휴(불멸)하게 하다

perverse contrary; stubborn

외고집의, 심술궂은, obdurate, stern, stif

phantasm apparition; ghost; phantom

유령, 환영

phlegmatic calm or indifferent; not easily roused to excitement

1. 무기력한,무관심한;2.냉정한,침착한,
= disinterest,nonchalant, indifferent

pilgrimage religious o spiritual journey; excursion; peregrination


placebo a fake medication; a fake medicatin used as a control in tests of the

effectiveness of drugs

platonic nonsexual; purely spiritual

1. 관념적인 2.(순)정신적인

plausible believable; convincing

1. 그럴싸한 2. 그럴듯하게 말하는

pliable flexible; easy to bend; easy to convince, persuade, or mold

1. 휘기 쉬운, 유연한 2. 유순한

plight a dangerous, distressing, or unpleasant situation

(나쁜)상태, 양상, 처지

plunder to loot; o ransack

약탈하다, 강탈하다; flounder-버둥거리다

pluralism a condition of society in which distinct groups exist and function

together get retain their own identities
1.(철학)다원론 2. 복수성

pontificate to speak pompously or dogmatically

거만하게 말(행동)하다

porous filled with many tiny holes; permeable; absorbent

1. 구멍이 많은 2. 침투성의

posterity future generations; descendants; heirs

후세, 자손

posthumous occurring after one's death; published after the death of the author
사후의, 사후에 생긴

posture to act or speak artificially or affectedly

(어떤) 자세를 취하다, 포즈를 취하다

prattle to chatter on and on; to babble childishly

떠듬떠듬 말하다

precarious dangerously insecure or unsteady

1. 불안정한 2. 위태로운

precocious unusually mature; uncommonly gifted


predecessor someone or something that precedes in time

전임자, 선배, 선조

predicament a dangerous or unpleasant situation; a dilemma

곤경, 궁지

predispose to make susceptible; to put in a frame of mind for; to incline toward

(남)을 ...에 기울게 한, ...에 (미리) 경향을 주다

predominant most important; dominant; having power over others

뛰어난, 우월한, 현저한, dominant

pregnant highly significant; overflowing

1. 의미심장한 2. 풍부한
prelude introduction; something that precedes something else
전주곡, overture

premeditated planned beforehand; prearranged; plotted

미리 생각한, 계획적인

preponderance superiority in weight, number, size, extent, influence, ext., majority;

(무게, 힘, 수량 따위가) 남보다 뛰어남, 우월

presage to portend; to foreshadow; to forecast or predict

...을 예감하다, 예언하다

presentiment the feeling that something (especially bad ) is about to happen

(특히 나쁜) 예감, 육감

presumably probably; the assumption is that; doubtless

아마, 추측컨데, 뻔뻔하다, presume

presuppose to assume beforehand; to take for granted in advance; to require as

prior condition
...을 전제로 하다

primal first; original; of the greatest importance

1. 최초의, 근원의 2. 주요한

pristine perfectly clean and untouched; uncontaminated

1. 소박한, 순박한 2. 원시시대의

privation lack of comforts or necessities; poverty

결핍, 궁핍

proclaim to announce; declare; make known

...을 공언하다, 선언하다(declare)

procure to obtain or acquire by special means

(힘을 다하여)...을 얻다, 손에 넣다

progeny offspring; descendants

자손, 계승자

propagate to reproduce; to multiply; to spread or disseminate

1.(동, 식물을) 번식시키다, 증식시키다 2. 퍼뜨리다, 유포하다
propound to set forth or propose; to offer for consideration
(문제, 계획 따위를) 제출하다, 제의하다, propose

protocol diplomatic etiquette and customs

외교의례, 의정서

provocation the act of provoking; incitement; cause

화나게 하기, 분노, 자극(incitement)

prowess exceptional skill or strength; uncommon bravery

1. 훌륭한 솜씨, 위엄 2. 용기, 무용

prurient having lustful thoughts or desires; causing lust

1. 호색의, 음란한 2. 외설의, licentious, lascivious

pseudonym a false name; an alias

익명, 가명

psyche the human soul; the mind; the spirit

영혼, 정신

pummel to pound or punch with the fists

(주먹으로)...을 연타하다; plumb=plummet

punctilious meticulously attentive to detail; scrupulously

(and sometimes annoyingly) exact
격식에 치우친, 꼼꼼한

pundit an expert; an authority; a learned person

박식한 사람, erudite

pungent sharp-tasting or sharp-smelling; acrid; causing or incisive

강하게 자극하는, 자극성의, 신랄한; repugnant-싫어하는

punitive inflicting a punishment

형벌의, 징벌의

purblind dim-sighted; practically blind; lacking understanding or imagination

반소경의, 눈이 침침한, 우둔한, 둔감한

puritanical very severe and strict about morals

청교도적인, 매우 엄격한

quaint pleasantly old-fashioned; picturesque

1. 예스럽고 아취있는 2. 정교한, archaic
quandary state of perplexity; predicament
당혹, 곤혹, 궁지

quasi almost; near; resembling

유사한, 외견상의

quay a landing on the edge of the water; wharf; pier

부두, 선창, harbor, haven

quell to put an end to; to squelch; to suppress

(폭동, 혼란)을 가라앉히다, (감정)을 억누르다

query a question; an inquiry

질문, 의문

queue a line or file

1. (차례를 기다리는) 줄 2. (컴퓨터) 대기 행렬

quiescent motionless; at rest; still

고요한, 쉬고 있는

quintessential being the most perfect example of

전형적인, 본질, 정수

quizzical teasing; mocking; questioning; inquisitive

기묘한, 우스꽝스러운

quotidian daily; everyday; ordinary

매일의, 나날의, ordinary

rampant widespread; uncontrollable; prevalent; raging

1. 유행하는, 만연하는 2. 맹렬한, 격노한 3. 분방한

rapture ecstasy; bliss; unequaled joy

큰 기쁨, 황홀, 환희, bliss

rarefied esoteric; interesting to a select group only; exalted


ratify to confirm; to approve something formally

(조약 따위를) 비준하다, 확인하다, 확증하다

ratiocination logical reasoning

추론, 추리
rationale underlying reason; basis; reasoning
이론적 해석, 근본적 이유

raucous stridently loud; harsh; rowdy

귀에 거슬리는

reactionary ultraconservative; right-wing; backward-thinking

1. 반작용의 2. 반동적인, 복고조의

rebuff to snub; to reject

1. 거절하다 2. ...을 좌절시키다

recidivism the act of repeating an offense

상습적 범행

redeem to buy back; to fulfill; to make up for; to rescue from sin

buy back(상환하다), [의무]를 이행하다(fulfill);결점을 메우다;[남, 죄인]
을 구하다; deem-생각하다

redress to remedy; to make amends for

[고통, 결핍 따위를] 제거하다, 교정하다, 고치다, 구제하다, revise

referendum a public vote on a measure proposed or passed by a legislature

국민[일반]투표, 국민 투표 제도

refractory disobedient and hard to manage; resisting treatment

고집센, 다루기 힘든; [병 따위가]나치의, 고질의; 내화성

regime a governing power; a system of government;

정부, 정권; 권리체제

regimen a regulated course

양생법, 식이요법(규정된 과정, 절차 → a regulated course

remission the temporary or permanent disappearance of a disease; pardon

[노력, 긴장 따위의]감퇴; [병 따위의]소강; 용서(pardon), 사면

remuneration payment; recompense

보답, 보상; 보수, 급료

rend to tear; to rip

...을 째다, 찢다, 부수다; 분열시키다; rant-호언장담하다, rent-틈

render to make; to cause to be; to provide; to depict

...로 되게 하다; 제공하다; 표현하다

repartee a quick, witty reply; witty, spirited conversation full of quick,

witty replies
현답; 명답, 재치있는 응답(대화); 재치있는 웅변술

replicate to reproduce exactly; to duplicate; to repeat

...을 반복하다; ...을 접어젖히다; 복제하다

repose rest; tranqillity; relaxation

휴식; 한적함, 고요함; 차분한

repress to hold back; to conceal from oneself; to suppress

...을 억제하다, 참다; ...을 진압하다

reprimand stern reproof; official rebuke

[특히 공식적인] 견책, 징계; 질책, 비난

reprisal retaliation; revenge; counterattack

보복, 앙갚음; 무력행사, 실력행사, vengeful

reprobate a depraved, wicked person; a degenerate

타락자, 무뢰한; 신에게 버림받은 사람

repugnant repulsive; offensive; disgusting

싫은, 불쾌한; 모순된, 양립할 수 없는

resignation passive submission; acquiescence

순종, 체념; [소극적인] 승인, 묵인(acquiescence); 사직, 사표

resplendent brilliantly shining; radiant; dazzling

눈부시게 빛나는, 찬란한

resurrection return to life; revival

부활, 소생; insurrection-폭동,반란

retort to make a sharp reply

앙갚음하다, ...에 보복하다, 되받아 치다; extort-강요하다, tortuous-

retrospect looking backward; a review

회상, 회고

revamp to revise; to renovate

(연극 or 서적을) 개작하다, 개정하다, transcribe
revel to enjoy thoroughly; to take delight in; to carouse
향락하다, 흥청대다; rebel-반역자

revile to scold abusively; to berate; to denounce

...의 욕을 하다, ...을 비방하다, belie-거짓을 밝히다

revulsion loathing; repugnance; disgust

1. [감정의]급변 2. 강한 혐오

rhapsodize to speak extremely enthusiastically; to gush

열광적으로 쓰다(말하다)

ribald indecent or vulgar; off-color

입버릇이 나쁜, 야비한, 상스러운(indecent)

rife occurring frequently; widespread; common; swarming

유행하고 있는, 왕성한, 자주 일어나는; rift-틈,균열,갈라짐

rivet to engross; to hold firmly

1. [눈, 주의]를 집중하다(engross) 2. 단단히 고정하다

rout to put to flight; to scatter; to cause a huge defeat

[적군 따위]를 패주시키다, 완패시키다 tout-조르다, lout-촌뜨기

rue to mourn; to regret

1. 슬퍼하다(mourn), 원통해하다 2. 후회하다, woe

sally a sudden rushing attack; an excursion; an expedition; a repartee;

a clever rejoinder
1. 돌격, 출격(excursion) 2. 재담(repartee)

salutation greeting; welcome; opening words of greeting

인사, 인사말 cf)salute

sanction official permission or approval; endorsement; punitive measure

1. 인가 2. 도덕적 구속력 3. 상벌, 처벌

sarcasm irony; jokingly or bitingly saying the opposite of what is meant

비꼼, 풍자, 비웃음(sneer)

savant a scholar; a very knowledgeable and learned person

(특히 저명한)학자, 대과학자, pundit, erudite

scant limited; meager; barely sufficient

1. 불충분한, 부족한 2. 겨우 되는, scarce; cant-위선적인, recant-부

schism division; separation; discord or disharmony

1. 분리, 분열 2. 이교, 분파, chasm

scorn to disdain; to find someone or something contemptible

경멸, 모욕, 냉소(contempt)

seamless without a seam; without anything to indicate where two things

were joined together; smooth
이음새가 없는
cf)seam →1. 솔기, 이음자리 2. 갈라진 틈, 흠 3. 봉합선

secede to withdraw from an alliance

[특히 정당, 종교 단체에서] 탈퇴하다, 분리하다; concede-양보하다,
인정하다, accede-동의하다

seclusion aloneness; withdrawal from other people

격리, 차단

sect a small religious subgroup or religion; any group with a uniting

of purpose
분파, 종파, 학파. 파벌

sedentary largely confined to sitting down; not physically active

1. 앉아서 일하는, 앉아 있는 2. 정착성의

self-made having succeeded in life without help from others

1. 자력으로 입신출세한 2. 자기가 만든

sententious preachy; pompous; excessively moralizing; self-righteous

1. 금언이 많은 2. 금언 같은, 독선적인

serene calm; peaceful; tranquil; untroubled

잔잔한, 조용한

serpentine snakelike in either shape or movement; winding, as a snake travels

1. 뱀의, 뱀과 같은 2. 꼬불꼬불한(sinuous) cf)serpent → 뱀

shackle a manacle; a restraint

수갑(manacle), 속박

shibboleth a distinctive word, pronunciation, or behavior that typifies a particular

group; a slogan or catchword
[어떤 계급, 단체 등의 특유한] 발음, 관습, 표어

shrewd wily; cunning; sly

영리한, 약삭빠른, 교활한(shy)

singular exceptional; unique; unusual

보통이 아닌, 두드러진, 뛰어난, 훌륭한

skirmish a fight between small numbers of troops; a brief conflict

소충돌, 소규모 접전

skittish nervous; easily startled; jumpy

잘 놀라는, 겁많은

slake to quench; to satisfy; to assuage

1. [불을] 끄다(quench) 2. [욕망을] 채우다 3. 약화시키다

solace consolation; comfort

위로, 위안(consolation)

solidarity sense of unity; a sense of sharing a common goal or attitude

일치 단결, 결속

sophomoric juvenile; childishly goofy

2학년생의, 미숙한, 아는 체하는

sordid morally vile; filthy; squalid

더러운, 불결한(squalid); morbid-병적,불건정상태, forbid-방해하다

sovereign supreme ruler; monarch

주권자, 통치자, 군주

spate a sudden outpouring

[감정 따위의] 격발, ignite

specious something that seems correct or appropriate but that lacks real
worth; deceptive; misleading; not genuine
허울 좋은, 그럴듯한, superfluous

specter ghost; phantom


spectrum a broad sequence or range of different but related thing s or ideas

spurn to reject disdainfully; to scorn
1. 내쫓아내다, 추방하다 2. 경멸하다, 모욕하다

stalwart sturdily built; robust; valiant; unwavering

1. 건장한 2. 강하고 용기있는

stark utter; unmitigated; harsh; desolate

1. 완전한(utter) 2. 황량한(desolate) 3. 엄격한(harsh)

stint to restrict or hold back on; to be frugal

...을 제한하다, 절약하다(frugal), stingy

stipend income; allowance; salary

봉급, 급여금, 수당, remuneration

stolid not easily roused to emotion; impassive; apathetic; phlegmatic

둔감한, 무신경의

stout plump; stocky; substantial

1. 뚱뚱한(plump) 2. 튼튼한(stocky, sturdy)

stratagem a maneuver designed to outwit an enemy; a scheme; a ruse

전략, 계략

stupendous remarkable; extraordinary; remarkably large or extraordinarily

1. 놀랄만한 2. 엄청나게 큰, 거대한

stupor a stunned condition; near-unconsciousness; apathy; inertia

1. 마비, 무감각 2. 아연실색

subside to sink or settle; to diminish; to lessen

1. (땅이) 내려앉다 2. 가라앉다, 진정되다, 침전하다

subsidiary supplemental; additional; secondary or subordinate

보조의, 보충적인(supplemental), 부수적인(subordinate)

subsidize to provide financial aid; to make a financial contribution

...에게 보조금을 지급하다

substantiate to prove; to verify; to confirm

1. ...을 증명하다 2. ...을 구체화하다

subterfuge artifice; a trick or stratagem; a ruse

구실, 핑계, 발뺌, 속이기

suffice to be sufficient; to be enough

충분하다, ...을 만족시키다

suffrage the right to vote

투표권, 선거권

suffuse to cover; to overspread; to saturate

...을 채우다, 가득하게 하다, 뒤덮다

sumptuous luxurious; splendid; lavish

1. 고가의, 사치스러운 2. 훌륭한(splendid)

supersede to take the place of; to supplant; to make (something) obsolete

1. ...에 대신하다 2. [사람]을 바구다, 면직시키다

supine lying on one's back

1. 반듯이 누운 2. 나태한, 게으른(lethargic)

supplication humble prayer; earnest entreaty

탄원, 간청

suppress to overpower; to subdue; to quash

억압하다, 진압하다(subdue, quash)

surmise to conjecture; to guess

추측, 짐작하다; remise-부주의한,lazy, demise-서거,소멸,양도

surreal having an unreal, fantastic quality; hallucinatory; dreamlike

초현실적인; corporeal-현실의

susceptible capable of being influenced by something; capable of being

emotionally affected; vulnerable or receptive to
1. 영향받기쉬운 2.감수성이 강한, 민감한, susceptive, susceptibility

sweeping far-reaching; extensive; wide-ranging

1. 전반적인, 대략적인 2. 완전한, 철저한

systemic affecting the entire system, especially the entire body

1. 조직(체계, 계통)의 2. [생리, 병리] 온몸의

tactical having to do with tactics, especially naval or military tactics; marked

tactics or deft maneuvering
전술상의, tactless, 순진한, 멍청한

taint contaminant; a trace of something spoiled, contaminated, off-flavor,

or otherwise offensive
더러움, 얼룩, 오점; 부패 타락; 감염(력)

tedium dullness; monotony; boredom

지루함, 싫증남, 권태

teem to swarm; to be inundated; to overrun

충만하다, 풍부히 있다

temporal pertaining to time; pertaining to life; earthly existence; noneternal;

1. 때의, 시간의 2. 이승의, 세속의 3. 일시적인

temporize to stall; to cause delay through indecision

임시변통하다; extemporize-사전준비없이

tepid lukewarm; halfhearted

미지근한, 미온한(lukewarm), insipid

thorny full of difficulties; tough; painful

1. 가시처럼 날카로운 2. 고통스러운

threshold the sill of a doorway; a house's or building's entrance; any point of

beginning or entering
1. 문지방, 입구 2. 시작, 발단

throttle to choke; to strangle; to work a fuel lever or feed the flow of fuel to
an engine
조리개, 조절판

thwart to prevent from being accomplished; to frustrate; to hinder

...을 방해하다, 훼방놓다(hinder)

timorous fearful; easily frightened

겁많은, 겁쟁이의(timid)

titillate to excite; to stimulate; to tease

...의 흥을 돋우다

titular in title or name only; nominal

표제의, 제목의, 직함의
toil hard work; labor; drudgery; exhausting effort
애(쓰는 일), 노고

tortuous winding; twisting; serpentine; full of curves

구불구불한, 비틀린, meander

toxic poisonous
유독한, 독성의

transfix to cause to stand motionless with awe, amazement, emotion; to rivet

1. 오금을 못쓰게 하다 2. ...을 고정시키다, 못박다(rivet)

trauma severe shock or distress; a violent wound; a wrenching experience

1. [병리]외상 2. 정신적 외상, 마음의 상처, 쇼크

travesty a grotesque or shameful imitation; a mockery; a perversion

익살스럽게 고쳐놓은 것, 서투른 모방, 가짜

trenchant concise; effective; caustic; sarcastic

1. 신랄한, 예민한 2. 명확한;
cf. nonchalant=indifferent, penchant-취미,기호

triumvirate a ruling coalition of three officials; any group of three working jointly
1. 3두정치, 3인 집권 2. 3인조

tryst a secret meeting of lovers

만날 약속, 데이트의 약속

tumult violent, noisy commotion; uproar; outbreak

1. 큰 소동, 소란 2. 폭동, turmoil

turbid murky; opaque; unclear

불투명한, 흐린, 탁한, opaque;
cf. morbid-병적인,불건전한, forbid-방해하다

turmoil state of great confusion or commotion

1. 혼란, 동요 2. 소란, 소동, tumult

uncanny extraordinary; unimaginable; seeming supernatural

1. 초자연적인 2. 기괴한

underlying basic; fundamental; only noticeable under scrutiny

1. 밑에 놓인 2. 기초적인, 근본적인

undermine to impair; to subvert; to weaken by excavating underneath

...의 밑을 파다; 해치다, 손상시키다

underpinning a system of supports beneath; a foundation or basis

받침, 토대, 지주

underscore to underline; to emphasize

밑줄을 긋다, 강조하다; 예고하다

underwrite to sponsor; to subsidize; to insure

후원하다, 보증하다, 보험에 가입하다; 서명하다, subsidize

unilateral involving one side only; done on behalf of one side only;
한쪽 편만의, 단독적인, 일방적인

usury lending money at an extremely high rate of interest

고리대금업, 대단히 비싼 이자, 폭리; usurp-불법적인 획득

vacuous empty of content; lacking in ideas or intelligence

공허한, 빈, 얼빠진, 머리가 텅빈, 아무것도 하지 않는

vagary whim; unpredictable action; wild notion

엉뚱한 짓, 기발한 행동

vanquish to conquer; to overpower

정복하다, 이기다

veneer facade; coating; outward appearance

합판; 겉치장, 허식

verdant covered with green plants; leafy; inexperience

신록의, 푸릇푸릇한; 미숙한, 순진한

verge border; brink; edge

모서리, 가장자리; 경계, 끝, brink

verity the quality of being true; something true

진실, 사실, 진리, veracity

vie to complete; to contest; to struggle

경쟁하다, 겨루다, 우열을 다투다

vigilant constantly alert; watchful; wary

자지 않고 지키는, 방심하지 않는

vignette a small, decorative design or drawing; a short literary sketch;

a brief but expressive scene in a play or movie
삽화, 당초 장시, 당초무늬

viscous thick; gluey; sticky

끈끈한, 끈적거리는, 점착성의(sticky); 점성의

vivacious lively; animated; full of pep

활발한, 쾌활한, 명랑한

vogue fashion; style

[어떤 시기의] 유행[품], 성행(fashion); 인기, 호평; vague-모호한

voluminous large; extensive; having great volume

저서가 많은, 다작의; 부수가 많은, 수많은; 큰, 더치큰

voluptuous pleasant to the senses; luxurious; pleasure-seeking;

extra full and shapely
관능의 만족에 젖은; 방탕한; 관능적인, 요염한

voracious having a huge appetite; ravenously

게걸스레 먹는, 대식하는; [사람이]싫증내지 않는, 탐욕스러운

waft to float; to drift; to blow

[특히 공중을] 떠돌다, 흐르다, 부동하다

waive to relinquish (a right); to forgo; to put aside for the time being
[권리, 주장 등]을 버리다, ...을 고의로 포기하다; 무시하다, renounce;
waver-흔들리다, weave-짜다

wake an all-night vigil kept over a dead body before it is buried;

장례식 전야의 철야, 교회 헌당 기념 축제; 그 전야의 철야제;

wane to decrease in strength or intensity; ti fade away; to decline in power

작아지다, [권력 따위가]약화되다, 시들다; 감소되다, [달이]이울다

warrant to justify; to provide grounds for; to guarantee

...을 정당화하다,옳다고 하다(justify);...에 권한을 주다;...을 보증하다

wary cautions; watchful; carefull

주의 깊은, 신중한, 조심성 있는(watchful)

wizened shriveled; withered; shrunken

시든, 이운

woe suffering; affliction; distress

비애, 비통, 고뇌; 재난, 화(calamity), 고생

wrath deep anger; fury

분노, 격노

zeitgeist the mood or spirit of the times

시대정신, 시대사조

zenith highest point; peak; pinnacle

정점, 절정, 전성