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Passage – 10
The t set se fly, belonging t o any of approxim at ely t went y species com posing t he genus Glossina, is indigenous t o Africa and is found prim arily in forest s and savannahs sout h of t he Tropic of Cancer. Dependent on v ert ebrat e blood for nourishm ent , t he t set se fly is equipped wit h a long proboscis which is sharp enough t o penet rat e m ost anim al skins and powerful enough t o enable t he t set se t o drink quant it ies of blood up t o t hree t im es it s own body w eight . At t he sam e t im e t hat t he t set se drains blood, it can also t ransm it a variet y of dangerous diseases. A bit e from a t set se fly can induce African sleeping sickness in hum an beings and nagana, a sim ilar ailm ent , in dom est ic livest ock. The agent of t hese diseases is t he trypanosome, a unicellular, flagellat ed parasit e which feeds prim arily on t he blood of vert ebrat es and is generally t ransm it t ed by an int erm ediary leech or insect host , such as t he t set se fly. I n hum ans t he trypanosome causes dam age t o t he brain and spinal cord, leading t o ext r em e let hargy and, ult im at ely, deat h; in livest ock, trypanosomes dest r oy red blood cells, causing fat al anaem ia. The im m une syst em is ill- equipped t o count er trypanosomes. As t he im m une syst em at t em pt s t o count er disease, ant ibodies are produced t o at t ack m icrobes whose ant igens, surface prot eins, are foreign t o t he body. However, t he trypanosome is capable of disguising it self by alt ering it s genet ic code, t hereby changin g it s ant igen coat ing in resist ance t o each new antibody that evolves. This ―quick change‖ has confounded pat hologist s and m ade t he developm ent of effect ive vaccines elusive. A cont rov ersy has been spark ed bet w een proponent s of t he elim inat ion of t he t set se fly and African environm ent alist s. Those in favour of eradicat ion feel t hat in addit ion t o reducing disease, t he rem oval of t he t set se fly will open im m ense t ract s of land t o cat t le breeding. This, however, is precisely what t he opposit ion fears. Environm ent alist s and conservat ionist s dread t he day when cat t le and livest ock, perm it t ed t o roam and graze freely, will uncont rollably devour plush African grasslands, conv ert ing t hem int o barr en desert . They argue t hat t he t set se fly m ust rem ain for t he sak e of t he land. Wit h effort s t o eradicat e t he t set se fly largely unsuccessful, cont rol m ay offer t he only available opt ion for t he int erest s of bot h healt h and environm ent . Since t he prot ozoan cannot be conquered t hrough ant ibodies or vaccines, scient ist s have begun effort s t o prevent t he t ransm ission of t he trypanosome parasit e by elim inat ing t he t set se. At t em pt s t o eradicat e t he t set se fly, however, have m et wit h lit t le success. Rhodesia used t o com bat t set se by ext ensive brush cleaning, gam e shoot ing, and chem ical at t ack, yet t he fly persist ed. Aerial pest icide t reat m ent s hav e pr oduced inconclusive result s. The reproduct ive cycle of t he t set se fly is such t hat a larva pupat es underground for sev eral weeks before it em erges as an adult fly. This m akes repet it ive chem ical sweeping at int erm it t ent periods an inconvenient necessit y. All of t hese m et hods, however, share t he

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B. bot h t he t set se fly and t he trypanosome ut ilize vert ebrat e blood for nourishm ent . Tse t se fly has no im pact on grasslands. I n t he passage. vert ebrat es m ay die aft er trypanosome cont am inat ion via a t set se proboscis. t he African grasslands will not be able t o provide sufficient food supply for African cat t le and livest ock. C. D. D. t he African grasslands will t urn int o barren wast eland. B. t o st at e t hat effort s t o eradicat e t he t se t se flies hav e generally prov ed t o be ineffect ive E. E. which t hreat en bot h t he healt h of t he hum ans who handle t hem and t he environm ent in which t heir t oxic residues am ass. t o argue t hat t he proliferat ion of t se t se flies can lead t o large scale deforest at ion of African grasslands C. t o discuss a beneficial im pact of t se t se flies D. E. 1. t he aut hor does NOT ident ify which of t he following as a charact erist ic of t he t set se fly? A. B. which of t he following accurat ely describes t he effect t he t set se fly has on t he African grasslands? A. such as DDT. Dest ruct ion of t he t set se fly populat ion will cause ov ergrow t h of t he African grasslands. E. According t o African environm ent alist s. t he trypanosome. the ―bite‖ of a tsetse fly can kill vertebrates since it often injects a deadly chem ical.27 weakness of dependence on harm ful chem icals. it only im pact s vert ebrat es 4. v ert ebrat e blood provides t he nourishm ent for t he t ransport of trypanosomes. and vert ebrat es EXCEPT: A. Dest ruct ion of t he t set se fly populat ion will lead t o t he conversion of grasslands int o desert .com . I f t he t set se fly populat ion cont inues t o exist .aristotleprep. C. t o decsribe t he harm ful effect s of t he t se t se fly B. All of t he following st at em ent s correct ly describe t he relat ionship bet ween t he t set se fly. What is t he prim ary purpose of t he fourt h paragraph in t he passage A. t he t se t se fly t ransfers t he trypanosome into the vertebrates‘ bodies 2. I f t he t set se fly populat ion cont inues t o exist . D. dependence upon vert ebrat e blood abilit y t o t ransm it a fat al parasit e t o livest ock and hum ans abilit y t o alt er it s genet ic code abilit y t o influence t he African cat t le populat ion it s larva pupat es for several weeks beneat h t he gr ound 3. t o discuss t he reproduct ive cycle of a t se t se fly www. C.

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