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UST is a private and sectarian educational institution run by the Order of Preachers.

The Dominicans were the fourth group of religious orders after the Augustinians, Franciscans and Jesuits that arrived in the Philippines, doing so in 1587. One of them was Fr. Miguel de Benavides who was appointed as the third Archbishop of Manila in 1603. Fr. Benavides most important legacy was his founding of UST, an institution of higher learning, initially intended to be a seminary-college to prepare young men for the priesthood. In his last will, Fr. Benavides donated his personal library and 1, 500 pesos which was a huge amount of money at that time, to finance the establishment of the college. On the fateful day of April 28, 1611, the Colegio de Nuestra Seora del Santisimo Rosario was established in Intramuros with Fr. Domingo Gonzalez, O.P. appointed as rector. It was unfortunate that Benavides died on July 26, 1605 without even seeing the fruit of his work. In 1619, Pope Paul V granted the offering of degrees in Philosophy and Theology to all Dominican colleges in the world. Colegio de Nuestra Seora del Rosario was renamed Colegio de Santo Tomas, in memory of the foremost Dominican Theologian and its patron-saint, St. Thomas Aquinas, in 1625. Pope Innocent X elevated the college to a university in 1645, making it the oldest existing University in Asia. In 1680 King Charles II placed the University under the royal patronage of the Spanish monarchy. The Faculty of Canon Law was formed as the Escuela de Derecho Canonigo in 1733, making it the oldest School of Canon law in the Philippines. King Charles III conferred the title royal university in 1785 because of USTs loyalty to the crown when it volunteered its students for the military defense of Manila against the British who occupied Manila from 1762 to 1764. In 1865, Queen Isabella II issued a royal order authorizing the University to direct and supervise all the schools in the Philippines with the Rector of the University as director of the Bureau of Education. No diploma was issued by other schools without the approval of the Rector of the University. The Revolution of 1868 led by Gen. Juan Prim resulted to the deposition of Queen Isabella II. A liberal government was established and an Italian prince, Amadeo of Savoy, was proclaimed as King of Spain in 1870. One of the acts of the newly-installed government was to secularize the University. However, this did not materialize because of the fall of the Liberal government and restoration of the Spanish monarchy. Another significant move was implemented by the university in 1871 when it expanded its academic program to offer the degrees of Medicine and Pharmacy. The university opened its doors to women with the creation of the Escuela de Matronas (School of Midwives) in 1879. In 1898, UST was closed when the Philippine Revolution broke out. Classes were resumed a year later. On September 17, 1902, Pope Leo XIII made the University of Santo Tomas a Pontifical University, and by 1947, Pope Pius XII bestowed upon it the title of The Catholic University of the Philippines. The University of Santo Tomas is the second university in the world after the Gregorian University in Vatican to be granted the formal title of Pontifical University. A male dominated university, UST began accepting more female students in 1924 because of the desire of many families to have their daughters educated in a Catholic institution. In 1927, the UST Main building designed by Fr. Roque Ruao, O.P., was inaugurated. That same year, the UST administration transferred the university campus from Intramuros to its present site in Sampaloc district because of the dramatic increase in its enrolment. In the following year, the Varsitarian, the official student newspaper of the university was founded. The Intramuros campus continued to operate until its destruction during the Second World War. The Japanese Forces during the Second World War turned UST campus into an internment camp for 2,500 allied civilians. This sad episode of its history finally ended when the internees were liberated by U.S. forces in 1945. In 1947, Pope Pius XII bestowed the appellate name Catholic University of the Philippines to UST. Two Popes have visited the University. The first time was in November 1970, when Pope Paul VI visited the University. The blessed Pope John Paul II came to the University in 1981. He came for the second time in 1995 and celebrated the World Youth Day with a mass at the UST parade grounds. The charismatic Mother Teresa of Calcutta also paid UST a visit in 1977. Through the years has produced many Filipino patriots who have shaped the nations destiny among them the heroes Jose Rizal, Emilio Jacinto, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Apolinario Mabini; and Philippine Presidents such as Manuel Luis Quezon, Sergio Osmea, Jose P. Laurel and Diosdado Macapagal. A large number of delegates of the Malolos Congress who drafted the Malolos Constitution in 1899 and delegates of the 1934 Convention who drafted the 1935 Constitution were alumni of the University.

History THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS IS THE OLDEST EXISTING UNIVERSITY in Asia. In terms of student population, it is the largest Catholic university in the world in a single campus. The institution was established through the initiative of Bishop Miguel de Benavides, O.P., the third Archbishop of Manila. On July 24, 1605, he bequeathed the amount of P1,500 and his personal library for the establishment of a seminary -college to prepare young men for the priesthood. Those funds, and his personal library, became the nucleus for the start of UST and its library. The founding of the University of Santo Tomas followed on April 28, 1611. The original campus was located in Intramuros, the Walled City of Manila. UST was first called Colegio de Nuestra Seora del Santisimo Rosario, and later renamed Colegio de Santo Tomas, in memory of the foremost Dominican Theologian, St. Thomas Aquinas. On July 29, 1619 the Colegio was authorized to confer academic degrees in theology and philosophy. By November 20, 1645, Pope Innocent X elevated the college to a university. In 1680, it was subsequently placed under the royal patronage of the Spanish monarchy. In 1681, Pope Innocent XI declared it a Public University of General Studies allowing it to confer other degrees. In 1734 Pope Clement XII authorized the University to confer degrees in all existing faculties as well as all others that might be introduced in the future. The Pope also approved the curriculum in the entire field of jurisprudence. During the British invasion of Manila in 1762, the University raised four companies of students and professors numbering 400 men each. These saw action in battles against the British until 1764. The expulsion of the Society of Jesus from the Philippines in 1768 left the University of Santo Tomas as the only institution of higher learning in the islands. In 1785 in recognition of the role of the students and faculty in resisting the British, King Charles III conferred the title of loyal to the university and formally granted it the status of a royal university. On May 20, 1865, a royal order from Queen Isabella II gave the University the power to direct and supervise all the schools in the Philippines and the Rector of the University became the ex-officio head of the secondary and higher education in the Philippines. All diplomas issued by other schools were approved by the Rector of the University and examinations leading to the issuance of such diplomas were supervised by the Dominican professors of UST. On September 17, 1902, Pope Leo XIII made the University of Santo Tomas a Pontifical University, and by 1947, Pope Pius XII bestowed upon it the title of The Catholic University of the Philippines. The University of Santo Tomas is the second university in the world after the Gregorian University in Vatican to be granted the formal title of Pontifical University. The Gregorian University was allowed to assume this title in 1873. The continuing increase in enrolment prompted the administration, in 1927 to transfer the university campus from Intramuros to its present site in Sampaloc district, which covers a total of 21.5 hectares. The Intramuros campus continued to operate until its destruction during the Second World War. Since its establishment in 1611, the university academic life was disrupted only twice: once, from 1898 to 1899, during the second phase of the Philippine Revolution and the Filipino-American War, and for the second time, from 1942 to 1945, when the Japanese Occupation Forces during the Second World War converted the UST campus into an internment camp where around 2,500 allied civilians were detained. Buildings such as the Main Building, the Gymnasium and an annex building behind the Main Building called the Domestic Arts building were used as living quarters. The internees were liberated by U.S. forces on February 3, 1945. Throughout its almost 400 years of existence, The University has become the alma mater of four Filipino heroes who shaped the nations destiny like Jose Rizal, Emilio Jacinto, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Apolinario Mabini; Philippine Presidents such as Manuel Luis Quezon, Sergio Osmea, Jose P. Laurel and Diosdado Macapagal; various Chief Justices of the Supreme Court, senators, congressmen, scientist, architects, engineers and writers, all outstanding in their chosen professions. It was visited by two popes, Pope Paul VI and Pope John Paul II, and various heads of states and foreign dignitaries. As it prepares for its 400th year by 2011, UST plans to establish campuses outside Espaa Boulevard, Manila. A campus will rise in Sta. Rosa, Laguna, and another is forthcoming in General Santos City. Through these campuses, UST commits to continue to provide Filipinos with the characteristically high quality of Catholic education.

St. Thomas Aquinas AKA Thomas Aquinas Born: 1225 Birthplace: Roccasecca, Naples, Italy Died: 7-Mar-1274 Location of death: Monastery of Fossanova, Sonnino, Italy Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, Sant'Eustorgio, Milan, Italy Gender: Male Religion: Roman Catholic Race or Ethnicity: White Occupation: Religion, Philosopher Nationality: Italy Executive summary: Catholicism's leading theologian St. Thomas Aquinas, or Thomas of Aquin or Aquino, scholastic philosopher, known as Doctor Angelicus, Doctor Universalis, was of noble descent, and nearly allied to several of the royal houses of Europe. He was born in 1225 or 1227, at Roccasecca, the castle of his father Landulf, count of Aquino, in the territories of Naples. Having received his elementary education at the monastery of Monte Cassino, he studied for six years at the University of Naples, leaving it in his sixteenth year. While there he probably came under the influence of the Dominicans, who were doing their utmost to enlist within their ranks the ablest young scholars of the age, for in spite of the opposition of his family, which was overcome only by the intervention of Pope Innocent IV, he assumed the habit of St Dominic in his seventeenth year. His superiors, seeing his great aptitude for theological study, sent him to the Dominican school in Cologne, where Albertus Magnus was lecturing on philosophy and theology. In 1245 Albertus was called to Paris, and there Aquinas followed him, and remained with him for three years, at the end of which he graduated as bachelor of theology. In 1248 he returned to Cologne with Albertus, and was appointed second lecturer and magister studentium. This year may be taken as the beginning of his literary activity and public life. Before he left Paris he had thrown himself with ardor into the controversy raging between the university and the Friar-Preachers respecting the liberty of teaching, resisting both by speeches and pamphlets the authorities of the university; and when the dispute was referred to the pope, the youthful Aquinas was chosen to defend his order, which he did with such success as to overcome the arguments of Guillaume de St. Amour, the champion of the university, and one of the most celebrated men of the day. In 1257, along with his friend Bonaventura, he was created doctor of theology, and began to give courses of lectures upon this subject in Paris, and also in Rome and other towns in Italy. From this time onwards his life was one of incessant toil; he was continually engaged in the active service of his order, was frequently travelling upon long and tedious journeys, and was constantly consulted on affairs of state by the reigning pontiff. In 1263 we find him at the chapter of the Dominican order held in London. In 1268 he was lecturing now in Rome and now in Bologna, all the while engaged in the public business of the church. In 1271 he was again in Paris, lecturing to the students, managing the affairs of the church and consulted by the king, Louis VIII, his kinsman, on affairs of state. In 1272 the commands of the chief of his order and the request of King Charles brought him back to the professor's chair at Naples. All this time he was preaching every day, writing homilies, disputations, lectures, and finding time to work hard at his great work the Summa Theologiae. Such rewards as the church could bestow had been offered to him. He refused the archbishopric of Naples and the abbacy of Monte Cassino. In January 1274 he was summoned by Pope Gregory X to attend the council convened at Lyons, to investigate and if possible settle the differences between the Greek and Latin churches. Though suffering from illness, he at once set out on the journey; finding his strength failing on the way, he was carried to the Cistercian monastery of Fossa Nuova, in the diocese of Terracina, where, after a lingering illness of seven weeks, he died on the 7th of March 1274. Dante (Purgatorio, XX 69) asserts that he was poisoned by order of Charles of Anjou. Villani quotes the belief, and the Anonimo Fiorentino describes the crime and its motive. But Muratori, reproducing the account given by one of Thomas's friends, gives no hint of foul play.

Aquinas was canonized in 1323 by Pope John XXII, and in 1567 Pope Pius V ranked the festival of St. Thomas with those of the four great Latin fathers, Ambrose, Augustine, Jerome and Gregory. No theologian save Augustine has had an equal influence on the theological thought and language of the Western Church, a fact which was strongly emphasized by Pope Leo XIII in his Encyclical of August 4, 1879, which directed the clergy to take the teachings of Aquinas as the basis of their theological position. In 1880 he was declared patron of all Roman Catholic educational establishments. In a monastery at Naples, near the cathedral of St. Januarius, is still shown a cell in which he is said to have lived. The writings of Thomas are of great importance for philosophy as well as for theology, for by nature and education he is the spirit of scholasticism incarnate. The principles on which his system rested were these. He held that there were two sources of knowledge -- the mysteries of Christian faith and the truths of human reason. The distinction between these two was made emphatic by Aquinas, who is at pains, especially in his treatise Contra Gentiles, to make it plain that each is a distinct fountain of knowledge, but that revelation is the more important of the two. Revelation is a source of knowledge, rather than the manifestation in the world of a divine life, and its chief characteristic is that it presents men with mysteries, which are to be believed even when they cannot be understood. Revelation is not Scripture alone, for Scripture taken by itself does not correspond exactly with his description; nor is it church tradition alone, for church tradition must so far rest on Scripture. Revelation is a divine source of knowledge, of which Scripture and church tradition are the channels; and he who would rightly understand theology must familiarize himself with Scripture, the teachings of the fathers, and the decisions of councils, in such a way as to be able to make part of himself, as it were, those channels along which this divine knowledge flowed. Aquinas's conception of reason is in some way parallel with his conception of revelation. Reason is in his idea not the individual reason, but the fountain of natural truth, whose chief channels are the various systems of heathen philosophy, and more especially the thoughts of Plato and the methods of Aristotle. Reason and revelation are separate sources of knowledge; and man can put himself in possession of each, because he can bring himself into relation to the church on the one hand, and the system of philosophy, or more strictly Aristotle, on the other. The conception will be made clearer when it is remembered that Aquinas, taught by the mysterious author of the writings of the pseudo-Dionysius, who so marvelously influenced medieval writers, sometimes spoke of a natural revelation, or of reason as a source of truths in themselves mysterious, and was always accustomed to say that reason as well as revelation contained two kinds of knowledge. The first kind lay quite beyond the power of man to receive it, the second was within man's reach. In reason, as in revelation, man can only attain to the lower kind of knowledge; there is a higher kind which we may not hope to reach. But while reason and revelation are two distinct sources of truths, the truths are not contradictory; for in the last resort they rest on one absolute truth -- they come from the one source of knowledge, God, the Absolute One. Hence arises the compatibility of philosophy and theology which was the fundamental axiom of scholasticism, and the possibility of a Summa Theologiae, which is a Summa Philosophiae as well. All the many writings of Thomas are preparatory to his great work the Summa Theologiae, and show us the progress of his mind training for this his life work. In the Summa Catholicae Fidei contra Gentiles he shows how a Christian theology is the sum and crown of all science. This work is in its design apologetic, and is meant to bring within the range of Christian thought all that is of value in Mahommedan science. He carefully establishes the necessity of revelation as a source of knowledge, not merely because it aids us in comprehending in a somewhat better way the truths already furnished by reason, as some of the Arabian philosophers and Maimonides had acknowledged, but because it is the absolute source of our knowledge of the mysteries of the Christian faith; and then he lays down the relations to be observed between reason and revelation, between philosophy and theology. This work, Contra Gentiles, may be taken as an elaborate exposition of the method of Aquinas. That method, however, implied a careful study and comprehension of the results which accrued to man from reason and revelation, and a thorough grasp of all that had been done by man in relation to those two sources of human knowledge; and so, in his preliminary writings, Thomas proceeds to master the two provinces. The results of revelation he found in the Holy Scriptures and in the writings of the fathers and the great theologians of the church; and his method was to proceed backwards. He began with Peter Lombard (who had reduced to theological order, in his famous book on the Sentences, the various authoritative statements of the church upon doctrine) in his In Quatuor Sententiarum P. Lombardi libros. Then came his deliverances upon undecided points in theology, in his XII Quodlibeta Disputata, and his Quaestiones Disputatae. His Cutena Aurea next appeared, which, under the form of a commentary on the Gospels, was really an exhaustive summary of the theological teaching of the greatest of the church fathers. This side of his preparation was finished by a close study of Scripture, the results of which are contained in his commentaries, In omnes Epistolas Divi Apostoli Expositio, his

Super Isaiam et Jeremiam, and his In Psalmos. Turning now to the other side, we have evidence, not only from tradition but from his writings, that he was acquainted with Plato and the mystical Platonists; but he had the sagacity to perceive that Aristotle was the great representative of philosophy, and that his writings contained the best results and method which the natural reason had as yet attained to. Accordingly Aquinas prepared himself on this side by commentaries on Aristotle's De Interpretatione, on his Posterior Analytics, on the Metaphysics, the Physics, the De Anima, and on Aristotle's other psychological and physical writings, each commentary having for its aim to lay hold of the material and grasp the method contained and employed in each treatise. Fortified by this exhaustive preparation, Aquinas began his Summa Theologiae, which he intended to be the sum of all known learning, arranged according to the best method, and subordinate to the dictates of the church. Practically it came to be the theological dicta of the church, explained according to the philosophy of Aristotle and his Arabian commentators. The Summa is divided into three great parts, which shortly may be said to treat of God, Man and the God-Man. The first and the second parts are wholly the work of Aquinas, but of the third part only the first ninety quaestiones are his; the rest of it was finished in accordance with his designs. The first book, after a short introduction upon the nature of theology as understood by Aquinas, proceeds in 119 questions to discuss the nature, attributes and relations of God; and this is not done as in a modern work on theology, but the questions raised in the physics of Aristotle find a place alongside of the statements of Scripture, while all subjects in any way related to the central theme are brought into the discourse. The second part is divided into two, which are quoted as Prima Secundae and Secunda Secundae. This second part has often been described as ethic, but this is scarcely true. The subject is man, treated as Aristotle does, and so Aquinas discusses all the ethical, psychological and theological questions which arise; but any theological discussion upon man must be mainly ethical, and so a great proportion of the first part, and almost the whole of the second, has to do with ethical questions. In his ethical discussions Aquinas distinguishes theological from natural virtues and vices; the theological virtues are faith, hope and charity; the natural, justice, prudence and the like. The theological virtues are founded on faith, in opposition to the natural, which are founded on reason; and as faith with Aquinas is always belief in a proposition, not trust in a personal Saviour, conformably with his idea that revelation is a new knowledge rather than a new life, the relation of unbelief to virtue is very strictly and narrowly laid down and enforced. The third part of the Summa is also divided into two parts, but by accident rather than by design. Aquinas died before he had finished his great work, and what has been added to complete the scheme is appended as a Supplementum Tertiae Partis. In this third part Aquinas discusses the person, office and work of Jesus Christ, and had begun to discuss the sacraments, when death put an end to his labors. Father: Count Landulf Mother: Countess Theadora of Theate

St. Dominic
AKA Dominic de Guzmn Born: 1170 Birthplace: Caleruega, Castile, Spain Died: 6-Aug-1221 Location of death: Bologna, Italy Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, Basilica di San Domenico, Bologna, Italy Gender: Male Religion: Roman Catholic Race or Ethnicity: White Occupation: Religion

Nationality: Spain Executive summary: Founder of the Dominican Order


Founder of the Dominican Order of Preaching Friars, born in 1170 at Calaroga in Old Castile (now Caleruega, Spain). He spent ten or twelve years in study, chiefly theological, at Palencia, and then about 1195 he was ordained and became a canon in the cathedral chapter of Osma, his native diocese. The bishop induced his canons to follow the Rule of St. Augustine and thus make themselves Augustinian Canons; and so Dominic became a canon regular and soon the prior or provost of the cathedral community. The years from 1195 to 1203 have bee n filled up with fabulous stories of missions to the Moors; but Dominic stayed at Osma, preaching much in the cathedral, until 1203 when he accompanied the bishop on an embassy in behalf of the king of Castile to "The Marches." This has commonly been taken as Denmark, but more probably it was the French or Italian Marches. When the embassy was over, the bishop and Dominic repaired to Rome, and Pope Innocent III charged them to preach among the Albigensian heretics in Languedoc. For ten years (1205-15) this mission in Languedoc was the work of Dominic's life. The Albigenses have received much sympathy, as being a kind of pre-Reformation Protestants; but it is now recognized that their tenets were an extreme form of Manichaeism. They believed in the existence of two gods, a good (whose son was Christ) and an evil (whose son was Satan); matter is the creation of the evil principle, and therefore essentially evil, and the greatest of all sins is sexual intercourse, even in marriage; sinful also is the possession of material goods, and the eating of flesh meat, and many other things. So great was the abhorrence of matter that some even thought it an act of religion to commit suicide by voluntary starvation, or to starve children to death. Such tenets were destructive not only of Catholicism but of Christianity of any kind and of civil society itself; and for this reason so unecclesiastical a person as the emperor Frederick II tried to suppress the kindred sects in Italy. In 1208, after the murder of a papal legate, Innocent III called on the Christian princes to suppress the Albigensian heresy by force of arms, and for seven years the south of France was devastated by one of the most bloodthirsty wars in history, the Albigenses being slaughtered by thousands and their property confiscated wholesale. During this time, it is the judgment of Grtzmacher, a Protestant writer on St. Dominic that, though keeping on good terms with Simon de Montfort, the leader, and praying for the success of the crusaders' arms during the battle of Muret, "yet, so far as can be seen from the sources, Dominic took no part in the crusade, but endeavored to carry his spiritual activity on the same lines as before. The oldest trustworthy sources know nothing of his having exercised the office of Inquisitor during the Albigensian war." This verdict of a fair-minded and highly competent Protestant church historian on the most controverted point of Dominic's career is of great value. His method was to travel over the country on foot and barefooted, in extreme poverty, simplicity and austerity, preaching and instructing in highways and villages and towns, and in the castles of the nobility, controverting and discussing with the heretics. He used often to organize formal disputations with Albigensian leaders, lasting a number of days. Many times plots were laid against his life. Though in his ten years of preaching a large number of converts were made, it has to be said that the results were not such as had been hoped for, and after it all, and after the crusade, the population still remained at heart Albigensian. A sense of failure appears in Dominic's last sermon in Languedoc: "For many years I have exhorted you in vain, with gentleness, preaching, praying and weeping. But according to the proverb of my country, 'where blessing can accomplish nothing, blows may avail.' We shall rouse against you princes and prelates, who, alas, will arm nations and kingdoms against this land... and thus blows will avail where blessings and gentleness have been powerless." The threat that seems to be conveyed in these words, of trying to promote a new crusade, was never carried out; the remaining years of Dominic's life were wholly given up to the founding of his order.

The Order of Dominicans grew out of the little band of volunteers that had joined Dominic in his mission among the Albigenses. He had become possessed with the idea of addressing wider circles and of forming an order whose vocation should be to preach and missionize throughout the whole world. By 1214 the nucleus of such an institute was formed around Dominic and was known as the "Holy Preaching." In 1215 the bishop of Toulouse, Dominic's great friend, established them in a church and house of the city, and Dominic went to Rome to obtain the permission of Innocent III to found his order of preachers. After three years, in 1218, the full permission he desired was given by Honorius III. These last years of his life were spent in journeying backwards and forwards between Toulouse and Rome, where his abode was at the basilica of Santa Sabina on the Aventine, given to him by the pope; and then in extended journeys all over Italy, and to Paris, and into Spain, establishing friaries and organizing the order wherever he went. It propagated and spread with extraordinary rapidity, so that by Dominic's death in 1221, only five or six years after the first practical steps towards the execution of the idea, there were over 500 friars and 60 friaries, divided into 8 provinces embracing the whole of western Europe. Thus Dominic was at his death able to contemplate his great creation solidly established, and well launched on its career to preach to the whole world. It appears that at the end of his life Dominic had the idea of going himself to preach to the heathen Kuman Tatars on the Dnieper and the Volga. But this was not to be; he was worn out by the incessant toils and fatigues and austerities of his laborious life, and he died at his monastery at Bologna, on the 6th of August 1221. He was canonized in 1234 by Pope Gregory IX, who, as Cardinal Ugolino, had been the great friend and supporter both of Dominic and of Francis of Assisi. As St. Dominic's character and work do not receive the same general recognition as do St. Francis of Assisi's, it will be worthwhile to quote from the appreciation by Prof. Grtzmacher of Heidelberg: "It is certain that Dominic was a noble personality of genuine and true piety... Only by the preaching of pure doctrine would he overcome heretics... He was by nature soft-hearted, so that he often shed tears through warm sympathy... In the purity of his intention and the earnestness with which he strove to carry out his ideal, he was not inferior to Francis." The chief sources for St. Dominic's life are the account by Jordan of Saxony, his successor as mastergeneral of the order, and the evidence of the witnesses at the Process of Canonization, all in the Builandists' Ada sanctorum, August 4th.