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Understanding Frequency Domain Viscoelasticity in Abaqus®

By Saurabh Bahuguna, Randy Marlow*, and Tod Dalrymple Dassault Systèmes Simulia Corp., Great Lakes Region

Presented at the Fall 172nd Technical Meeting of the Rubber Division of the American Chemical Society, Inc. Cleveland, OH October 16-18, 2007 ISSN: 1547-1977

* Speaker

the frequency domain viscoelastic model in Abaqus is explored. we will call them R and I. however. Further. the frequency domain viscoelastic model defined with the Abaqus command *VISCOELASTIC. 2. Long-term relaxation data was used to calibrate a hyperelastic material model. . this dependence is achieved by combining the viscoelastic model with a hyperelastic model. 1. This data contains loss and storage modulus information. This material model assumes that the values of R and I are the same for all prestrain levels. We will look at the above mentioned assumption in the context of unfilled silicone rubber. is needed. The input requirement of the model from uniaxial dynamic tests at several frequencies is detailed. The results of the analysis will be compared with experimentally measured data to determine validity of the material model. This paper will detail the procedure for specifying R and I using uniaxial material data. Another common assumption. We emphasize. that the dynamic response of unfilled polymers is independent of the level of dynamic strain amplitude. Another assumption. is that the response is independent of the strain amplitude in dynamic loading.Abstract In this paper. FREQUENCY=TABULAR is studied. In this model. The component used for this study is an automotive grommet. Introduction In this document. In Abaqus. The material model is used to predict component level response in simulations performed at different preload levels for several frequencies. Experimental Data The following experimental data is available: Material Data: 1. at each prestrain level the harmonic excitation data is available for several dynamic strain amplitudes. Relaxation data at different pre-strain levels is available for the following loading modes: uniaxial tension. Experimental data for the grommet at different preload levels at several dynamic load amplitudes is compared to the simulation results. This assumption is challenged based on uniaxial tests performed at different dynamic strain amplitudes. is also looked at in this study. A component level analysis on an automotive grommet will be discussed. equibiaxial extension and planar tension. one commonly made for unfilled polymers. one set of input comprising two frequency-dependent parameters. that this assumption does not preclude a dependence of loss and storage moduli of the material on the level of pre-strain. 2. The model assumes that the input requirement to Abaqus is independent of the pre-strain in the data. Harmonic excitation data at different pre-strain and frequency levels is available. This assumption is examined for unfilled silicone rubber by looking at uniaxial dynamic test results at several pre-strain levels.

25 Pre-strain 0.3 0.02) are shown in Figure 5 and Figure 6.7 0.15 Pre-strain 0. The maximum variation is around 13%. Loss Modulus at 0. 0. Harmonic excitation data consisting of loss stiffness and storage stiffness at different pre-load levels is available. Static curves for different load levels are available.01 Pre-strain 0. Figure 3 and Figure 4 show that the loss and storage moduli are moderately dependent on the dynamic strain amplitude. 3.35 Pre-strain 0.45 Pre-strain 0.8 Pre-strain 0.05 0. Figure 1 and Figure 2 show that the loss and storage moduli depend on the pre-strain.4 0.001 and 0. Relaxation curves at different preload levels are available.9 0. The following figures represent the material harmonic excitation data graphically. the harmonic data at each pre-load level is available for several dynamic displacement amplitudes.3 Pre-strain 0.Component Data: 1.2 Pre-strain 0. The variations of data from mean for the outside curves (strain amplitude 0.5 0.5 Pre-strain 0.1 Pre-strain 0.6 0.02 Dynamic Strain Amplitude as Function of Pre-Strain .1 0 0.4 Pre-strain 0.7 Loss Modulus (MPa) 0.1 1 Frequency (Hz) 10 100 Figure 1. Again. 2.2 0.

25 Pre-strain 0.01 Strain Amp 0.5 Pre-strain 0.3 Pre-strain as a Function of Dynamic Strain Amplitude .7 0.005 Strain Amp 0.6 Loss Modulus (MPa) 0.1 0 0.7 8 6 4 2 0 0.3 Pre-strain 0.3 Strain Amp 0.12 10 Storage Modulus (MPa) Pre-strain 0.4 0.001 0.15 Pre-strain 0. Loss Modulus at 0.5 0.01 Strain Amp 0.2 Pre-strain 0.45 Pre-strain 0.35 Pre-strain 0.1 1 Frequency (Hz) 10 100 Figure 2.01 0.02 Dynamic Strain Amplitude as Function of Pre-Strain 0.2 0.05 Pre-strain 0.1 1 Frequency (Hz) 10 100 Figure 3.1 Pre-strain 0.4 Pre-strain 0.02 0. Storage Modulus at 0.

14 12 Storage Modulus (MPa) 10 8 6 4 2 0 0.005 Strain Amp 0.001 0.001 Strain Amp 0.02 . Variation from Mean of Loss Modulus at Dynamic Strain Amplitudes 0.3 Pre-strain as Function of Dynamic Strain Amplitude 14 12 Strain Amp 0.01 Strain Amp 0.01 Strain Amp 0.02 Variation from Mean (%) 10 8 6 4 2 0 0. Storage Modulus at 0.1 1 Frequency (Hz) 10 100 Figure 5.01 Strain Amp 0.02 0.001 and 0.1 1 Frequency (Hz) 10 100 Figure 4.

. the applicability of the assumption can be studied. These are not entered as functions of pre-strain. and T is the nominal dλ uniaxial stress at the stretch λ . are required. the assumption is that these parameters will be independent of pre-strain levels.02 3. Variation from Mean of Storage Modulus at Strain Amplitudes 0.14 12 Variation From Mean (%) 10 8 6 4 2 0 0. hence.001 and 0.1 1 Frequency (Hz) 10 100 Figure 6. In this study we have experimental data for the uniaxial loss and storage moduli. Abaqus requires the input of the following entities to describe viscoelastic behavior: G G R = L and I = 1 − S . GS is the shear storage G∞ G∞ modulus and G∞ is the long term shear modulus. M = . λ is the uniaxial stretch d (λT ) upon which the harmonic load is superimposed. we call them R and I.001 0. where GL is the shear loss modulus.02 Strain Amp 0. Since the grommet considered is made of unfilled silicone rubber. Abaqus Material Model and Component Analysis In the Abaqus preload-independent viscoelastic model.01 Strain Amp 0. a set of parameters. The following formulae provide the input to Abaqus for a uniaxial test: M − T − ES λ E λ R = L and I = where: M M E L and E S are the apparent uniaxial loss and storage moduli.

Figure 7. The following figures show the experimental response versus a curve fit of the Yeoh model. Biaxial Response . Uniaxial Response Figure 8.The long-term relaxation data is used to calibrate a hyperelastic model.

In Figure 10 and Figure 11. T and M. for the grommet material the input quantities R = . this pre-strain effect does not correspond to the pre-strain effect on the storage and loss modulus in the data as shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2. which poses a problem in using the viscoelastic model in Abaqus. Planar Tension Response M − T − ES λ EL λ and I = . However. R and I as computed from test data are shown to be functions of pre-strain level.Figure 9. Next. since the model assumes they are not. The equations for R and I include a pre-strain effect through the quantities λ . are M M calculated.

12 0.18 0.45 Pre-strain 0.1 Pre-strain 0.01 Pre-strain 0.7 0.15 Pre-strain 0.4 Pre-strain 0. Two approximations for R and I are done for a component level analysis.04 0. For a structural analysis.4 Pre-strain 0.14 0.01 -0.5 0 0.35 Pre-strain 0.5 -1 -1. R and I are averaged across all pre-strain levels and an averaged value is entered in .1 R 0.1 1 Frequency (Hz) 10 100 Figure 10.5 -4 Frequency (Hz) 0.1 Pre-strain 0.25 Pre-strain 0.25 Pre-strain 0.45 Pre-strain 0.05 0.1 1 10 100 Pre-strain 0.02 0 0.0.7 Figure 11.06 0.15 Pre-strain 0. some approximation to R and I has to be performed.5 Pre-strain 0.3 Pre-strain 0.02 0.5 Pre-strain 0. we can say clearly that one set of R and I for all pre-strain levels does not exist.3 Pre-strain 0.2 Pre-strain 0.02 Based on these results.5 -3 -3.2 Pre-strain 0. Variation of R with Pre-strain for Dynamic Strain Amplitude 0. Variation of I with Pre-strain for Dynamic Strain Amplitude 0.5 I -2 -2.16 Pre-strain 0.05 Pre-strain 0. In the first case.08 0.35 Pre-strain 0.

Thus. R and I corresponding to a prestrain of 0. R and I corresponding to a pre-strain of 0. Grommet assembly Figure 13 and Figure 14 show the component experimental response versus the response predicted by Abaqus for two pre-load levels. For all cases. the component is compressed between rigid surfaces. Thus.02 is taken.1 is taken. the material data for dynamic strain amplitude 0. The component data was available for two pre-load levels.Abaqus. compressions of 1mm and 2mm. For 1mm. in this case. This typical value is determined based on prior static loading of the component to the desired pre-load level. For 2mm. In the calculation. Based on these figures. Figure 12. the viscoelastic model does not appear to model the component response for storage stiffness very well. Figure 12 shows the component assembly. In the second case. as mentioned before. in the component is taken.3 is taken. The finite-element simulation of the component test is axisymmetric. The component response is for a dynamic load amplitude of 0. The response when R and I are based on a typical pre-strain level is better than that for averaged R and I. if we use different R and I for different pre-load levels. However. in this case one material property is used for all pre-load levels. 1mm and 2mm. . which is not desirable. values of R and I corresponding to some typical level of the first strain invariant I1. different material properties are used for different pre-load levels.01 mm. we are using different material models.

01 Expt_Preload_2mm ABQ_Preload_1mm_R_I_Averaged ABQ_Preload_2mm_R_I_Averaged 0.700 600 Storage Stiffness (N/mm) 500 400 300 200 Expt_Preload_1mm Expt_Preload_2mm ABQ_Preload_1mm_R_I_Averaged ABQ_Preload_2mm_R_I_Averaged 100 0 0.01mm (R and I Averaged Across all Pre-Strain Levels) 45 40 35 Loss Stiffness (N/mm) 30 25 20 15 Expt_Preload_1mm 10 5 0 0. Loss Stiffness of Component for Dynamic Load Amplitude 0.1 1 Frequency (Hz) 10 100 Figure 14. Storage Stiffness of Component for Dynamic Load Amplitude 0.1 1 Frequency(Hz) 10 100 Figure 13.01 0.01 mm (R and I Averaged Across all Pre-Strain Levels) .

01mm (R and I Based on Typical I1 Values) .1 1 Frequency(Hz) 10 100 Figure 15. Loss Stiffness of Component for Dynamic Load Amplitude 0.1 1 Frequency (Hz) 10 100 Figure 16.800 700 Storage Stiffness (N/mm) 600 500 Expt_Preload_1mm 400 300 200 100 0 0.01 Expt_Preload_1mm Expt_Preload_2mm ABQ_Preload_1mm_R_I_Stretch1p1 ABQ_PReload_2mm_R_I_Stretch1p3 0.01mm (R and I Based on Typical I1 Values) 45 40 35 Loss Stiffness (N/mm) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0. Storage Stiffness of Component for Dynamic Load Amplitude 0.01 Expt_Preload_2mm ABQ_Preload_1mm_R_I_Stretch1p1 ABQ_Preload_2mm_R_I_Stretch1p3 0.

3. 2. The input requirement of a constant value for R and I across all pre-strain levels is not consistent with experimental data. Conclusions Based on the above results the following conclusions are made: 1. . Some approximations for these quantities have to be made for a system-level analysis. Better results are obtained if the Abaqus input is based on level of deformation seen in the component.4. The storage and loss moduli have a dependence on the strain amplitude. The downside of this is that an additional analysis to determine the level of deformation of the component is needed.

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Understanding Frequency Domain Viscoelasticity in Abaqus

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