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COMPARATIVE INVESTIGATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Meah G. Pacheco, Paola Louise R.

Palma, Fleur Jiezl Perez, Maria Godesa Refuerzo and Michelle Nhat Ly Reyes Group 6 2F-Pharmacy Organic Chemistry Laboratory ABSTRACT
Functional derivatives of organic compounds have different characteristics. These characteristics determine the identity of a compound. This experiment compares the said characteristics using different tests. The compounds used were Cyclohexane, Dichloromethane, Ethanol, Phenol, Benzoic acid, Ethyl acetate and Ethylamine. All of these come from a different functional group. The tests conducted to differentiate the compounds include observing the physical properties of the compound such as the physical state, color and odor. The chemical properties were also tested in the means of solubility or miscibility with the different solutions such as H2O, 5% NaOH and 5% HCl. Four drops of each solution was then introduced into each test tube. Another chemical property tested was the acidity and alkalinity of the compounds using the Red and Blue litmus paper. And lastly, ignition test was performed to determine whether the sample compounds are flammable or not.

INTRODUCTION
An organic compound is any of a large class of chemical compounds in which one or more atoms of carbon are covalently linked to atoms of other elements. [1] Because carbon atoms bond to one another easily, the basis of most organic compounds is comprised of carbon chains that vary in length and shape. Hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms are the most common atoms that are generally attached to the carbon atoms. Each carbon atom has 4 as its valence number which increases the complexity of the compounds that are formed. Since carbon atoms are able to create double and triple bonds with other atoms, it further also raises the likelihood for variation in the molecular make-up of organic compounds. [2] The detection of various elements present in an organic compound is called qualitative analysis. The analysis and identification these unknown constitutes a very important aspect of experimental organic chemistry. [3] The following are the structures of the compounds tested:

Figure 4. Phenol

Figure 5. Benzoic Acid

Figure 6. Ethyl acetate

Figure 1. Cyclohexane CH2Cl2 Figure 2. Dichloromethane

Figure 7. Ethylamine

EXPERIMENTAL
A. Compounds tested (or Samples used) Cyclohexane Dichloromethane Ethanol Phenol Benzoic Acid Ethyl Acetate Ethylamine B. Procedure

Figure 3. Ethanol

Each of the compounds was introduced in a dry and clean test tube where in one test tube corresponds to one sample compound. For liquid compounds, 4 ml of the solution was dropped into its corresponding test tube; while for solid compounds, 0.1 g was put into the test tube. Criteria for the comparative investigation were the following: 1. Physical Properties- the compounds were identified based on their physical properties such as: physical state- solid, liquid or gas; color; odor. 2. Solubility- the solubility of the compounds was tested using the following reagents: H2O, 5% NaOH and 5% HCl. 3 ml of each reagent was dropped into each test tube. 3. Reaction with litmus paper- this test was used to identify whether the sample is an acid or a base. 4. Ignition test- also known as flammability test. The colors of the flame were taken down note. It will then conclude whether there is a complete or incomplete combustion. 5. Infrared Analysis- The principal bond present in the tested compounds was identified using the IR spectra and its wave range in the Appendix A.

Ethyl acetate is a liquid, colorless compound with a fruity odor. It is miscible with water, 5% NaOH and 5% HCl solution. It is neutral and is flammable. Ethylamine is a liquid, colorless compound with a fishy, ammoniacal odor. It is miscible with water; immiscible with 5% NaOH; and very miscible with 5% HCl solution. It is also basic and is flammable.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Cyclohexane is a liquid, colorless and odorless compound. It is immiscible with water, 5% NaOH and 5% HCl solution. It is not applicable with the litmus paper test, and it is flammable. Dichloromethane, just like cyclohexane, is a liquid, colorless and odorless compound. It is also immiscible with water, 5% NaOH and 5% HCl solution. It is not applicable with the litmus paper test, and it is flammable. Ethanol is a liquid, colorless and has a wine-like odor. It is very miscible with water, 5% NaOH and 5% HCl solution. It is neutral and flammable. Phenol is a liquid, has a reddish pink color, and has a rubber-like odor. It is miscible with water, 5% NaOH, and 5% HCl solution. It is a basic compound and it is flammable. Benzoic acid is the only solid among the compounds tested. It has white crystals and has an unpleasant odor. It is slightly soluble in water, insoluble in 5% HCl and 5% NaOH solution. It is the only acid in the compounds tested. It is not flammable.

Test Compounds Physical state at RT Color Odor Solubility in H2O Solubility in 5% NaOH solution Solubility in 5% HCl solution Reaction with litmus paper Ignition test Observed principal IR (cm-1)

Benzoic Acid Solid White crystals Unpleasant odor Slightly soluble Insoluble Insoluble Acidic

Ethyl Acetate Liquid Colorless Fruity odor Miscible Miscible Miscible Neutral

Ethylamine Liquid Colorless Fishy, ammoniacal Miscible Immiscible Immiscible Basic

Non-flammable

Flammable

Flammable

Test Compound Physical State at RT Color Odor Solubility in H2O Solubility in 5% NaOH solution Solubility in 5% HCl solution Reaction with litmus paper Ignition test Observed principal IR (cm-1)

Cyclohexane Liquid Colorless Odourless Immiscible Immiscible Immiscible Not applicable

DCM Liquid Colorless Odourless Immiscible Immiscible Immiscible Not applicable

Ethanol Liquid Colorless Wine-like Very miscible Very miscible Very miscible Neutral

Phenol Liquid Reddish-pink Rubber-like Slightly miscible Miscible Immiscible Basic

Flammable

Flammable

Flammable

Flammable