SPEECH ACTS THEORY 1. Language and action: Austin’s Theory of Speech Acts: a.

The distinction between the meaning of sentence (true or false) and understanding what the sentence really means. b. She tells about performative (action-completing) use of certain formulas: i. PASS (in mastermind) – it is not a true or false statement about the world 1. It has narrow circumstances to say it c. Locutionary act – uttering a sentence with a non-ambiguous meaning (determinate sense) i. It’s me again (the speaker was here before) – truth value d. Illocutionary act – performing an act by uttering a sentence i. It’s me again (intention of the speaker to apologize – no truth value) e. Perlocution – the effect the utterance might have i. It’s me again (the effect of it is difficult to foresee – might mollify the addressee, or make him angry) INDIRECT SPEECH ACTS 2. Indirect speech acts: a. It’s me again – an indirect utterance b. When form of a sentence and function of the utterance don’t match, then it is an INDIRECT SPEECH ACT: i. I wonder when the train leaves (declarative form + question function) ii. Have a good journey (imperative form + assertion = I hope you will have a good journey)

iii. Tell me why you say that (imperative form + question function) c. Who likes fish? i. Used as an indirect act asserts that no one likes fish 3. Direct speech act: a. Can anyone do any better? i. Interrogative form is used to ask a question – każdy zrozumie to dosłownie I zareaguje odpowiednio ii. However, it can also be understood indirectly – as indirect request/invitaion/order b. When form of a sentence (declarative/imperative/interrogative) and function of the utterance (assertion.order/request/question) matches, then it is a DIRECT SPEECH ACT: i. Naturally, I hate music (declarative + assertion) ii. Please turn the music down (imperative + order)

HISTORY OF WRITING 4. Early drawings made by the ancient were the basics for writing a. Cave drawings (literal portrayals of aspects of life) 5. Pictograms evolved – a direct image of an object it represents a. Non-arbitrary relationship between the picture and the object it represents b. They didn’t represent the sound of spoken language c. It was found around African tribes, American Indians, Alaskan Eskimos, Incas of Peru, people of Oceania. d. They can be understood by anyone

e. They could represent the attributes of the object they represent i. Sun – meaning warmth, light, daytime etc. 6. e. represents Ideograms – representing ideas rather than objects Later, the ideograms and pictograms were stylized, because the drawings were poor and people could misunderstand them. They started to become arbitrary signs (without knowing the system, you couldn’t understand the sign), thus linguistic symbols 7. A symbol could stand for the a word in any language – Andre Eckardt and Karel Johnson invented PICTO a. Very simple sentences through words like “I have house in town/Ich haben Haus in Stadt” (in every language) 8. SUMMERIAN WRITING SYSTEM a. They lived 5000 years ago and they had the oldest writing system (pictography) i. Later they developed a cuneiform writing (pismo klinowe) – it didn’t represent the object to which it referred Later on Summerians were conquered by many nations, who borrowed their writing system to their own languages and they used it to represents sounds of the syllables in their languages: a. Each syllable is represented by each symbol Persians by the reign of Darius, were using writing system representing syllables, not whole words. 9. REBUS PRINCIPLE a. It is a representation of words or syllable by pictures of objects whose names sound like the intended syllable. Thus the picture of an eye may mean “eye” or “I” 10.HIEROGLYPHS

a. Originally these were pictographs, but later it began to represent syllables b. It was borrowed by many civilizations, i.e. by Semitic people – they invented West Semitic Syllabary (by 1500 B.C.) – a single symbol = Consonant + following Vowel 11.PHOENICIANS a. They first let one symbol stand for one consonant, then the Greeks borrowed it for their language (however, Phoenicians had too much consonants than Greek, and what was left started to represent vowel sounds). First alphabetical system was invented i. In alphabetical system each symbol represents each phoneme b. Etruscans took the Greek alphabet, passed it to Romans, then Christians passed it to many nations c. The alphabet wasn’t invented – it was discovered MODERN TYPES OF WRITING SYSTEMS 12.Word writing system a. One written symbol represents one word or a morpheme. b. Chinese writing has a system of characters – each represents the meaning of the word, not the sound. c. It can be understood in every part of China, or Arabic numerals in every part of Europe, America etc. 13.Syllable writing a. Japanese system i. All words can be represented by 100 different syllables (CVtype, consonant – vowel type) ii. They have two syllabaries 1. 45 syllable letters + several diacritics for each

a. Katakana – loan words b. Hiragana – native words alone + Chinese words iii. They borrowed the system from Chinese. iv. Japanese is highly inflected 14.Alphabetic writing a. They were invented on the basis of phonemic principle (one letter represents a phoneme with allophones) b. 12th century “The First Grammarian”, an Icelandic scholar, developed an orthography taken from Latin i. It was based on phonemic principles 1. he used minimal pairs to show distinctive contrast 2. for him, voiced units were allophones of voiceless ones (/g/ for /k/ etc.) c. Hankul (Korean alphabet) had 11 vowels and 17 consonants (a phonetic alphabet) – each symbol represented some place of articulation i. /l/ and /r/ had one symbol – they were allophones of a one phoneme d. Alphabetic sounds ( reading ) ; alphabetic characters ( writing ) e. Most European languages make use of Latin differences exist) i. Spanish added a ~ over the ‘n’, Germany added umlaut – these are called diacritics ii. Digraphs – sh / ch / ng – two characters representing one sound iii. Turkish, Indonesian and Swahili adopted Latin alphabet f. Cyrillic is straightly derived from Greek, with no Latin. characters (slight

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