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Statistics serves as a great measure in determining the average performance of every business organization. With the help of statistical models applied, number of goods/services produced is measured to assess their profitability ratio, productivity and the growth of a business. Statistical models are used both at the micro (small scale business) and macro (public enterprises, private limited liability companies, etc) business enterprise level. The statistical models are primarily application of readily formulated statistical formula designed for solving problem systems and relating correlative patterns for solution and decision theory derivation. Statistical models help to forecast and predict events in the business economy environment. Service Delivery is measured based on the following; Tangibility physical facilities, equipment, and appearance of employees. Reliability – ability to perform the required service dependably and accurately.
Responsiveness – willingness to help customers and provide prompt service. Assurance – knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to inspire trust and confidence. Empathy – caring and individual attention provided by the staff. On the other hand, the concept of satisfaction is more inclusive than the concept of quality service. Customer satisfaction is influenced by five variables, namely: service quality, product quality, price, situation and personality. Statistics refer to the collection, arrangement and representation of numerical (mathematical) data. This data can be the result of data analysis from various fields. Almost each and every area of business and industry uses statistical reporting to understanding business data for decision making purposes. The organization of data into a common format provides a benchmark for historical performance and future benchmarking. The standardization of data also serves as a common point of
reference so that interested parties can deduce meaningful relationships from the data. Statistics provide the necessary data in a meaningful way to support strategic decision making. Without the use of statistics, businesses could not calculate returns on investment and business decision making would become a hit and miss affair. Industry and business in general each have different data and information requirements. Business statistics can literally be formulated and shaped according to individual requirements. Ultimately, the data must be designed to provide meaningful and useful results. This assists companies and individuals to make more informed decision that affect business outcomes and provide a way for ongoing performance measurement. For business decision making, it is very important to understand the composition and breakdown of business activity. For this, industry statistics provide data in a meaningful format. Industry statistics define each and every aspect of a particular industry and assist business operators to extract and manipulate data to assist strategic decision making.
Generally, industry or business organization statistics include hard data such as production volumes, sales revenues, employment statistics, accounting records, and anything to do with industry demographics and industry trends for service delivery performance. If you are starting a business or already own one, it is very importance to have a way to benchmark progress and assess critical data. The use of industry statistics provides a consistent framework of reference that allows business owners to draw meaningful conclusions from data that has a consistent reporting format. (Agranoff, Robert and Michael McGuire, 2003). Small Business Statistics Irrespective of whether a company is small or large, business statistics provide key performance indicators to support primary decision making. Every company wants to reduce costs, increase market share, maximize return on investment, penetrate new markets and improve the return on investment for labour and capital. Standardized business statistics are used to measure a company’s progress on key business activities. Month to month analysis and quarterly review periods provide the ideal opportunity for key business managers
to reflect and analyze data to determine whether performance is in line with original forecasts. Questions over sales growth, advertising initiatives and campaign results provide insight into how successful a company has been in aligning its business objectives with overall company goals and objectives. Adjustment or new strategy formulation ultimately results to drive the business in the intended business direction. Modern Business Statistics are used extensively in the internet marketing space. Traffic analysis, advertising campaign analysis, organic search traffic and pay per click campaign provide important insight into consumer behavior which is used to formulate future strategy for an organization. Without the use of online bench marketing tools to gather critical business statistics intelligence, companies would face high degrees of difficulty for determining advertising direction, marketing spend and overall online business direction. A statistical model according to Kaw (2008), is a set of mathematical equations which describe the behavior of an object of study in terms of random variables and their associated probability distributions. If the model has only
one equation it is called a single-equation model, whereas if it has more than one equation, it is known as a multiple-equation model. In mathematical terms, a statistical model is frequently thought of as a pair (Y, P) where Y is the set of possible observations and P the set of possibility distributions on Y. It is assumed that there is a distinct element of P which generates the observed data. Statistical inference enables us to make statements about which element(s) of this set are likely to be the true one. Through statistical models the business organization performance is being sustained and measured in its outcome and as well faults or break/interruption in production can be easily dictated and weighed. According to the endogenous variables and the number of equations, models can be classified as complete models and incomplete models. Some other statistical models are the general linear model, the generalized linear model, the multilevel model, and the structural equation model. (Tofallis, C. 2008). 1.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH
The study is carried out to achieve the following objectives: Test to see the rate of sales and employment rate. Test to see the significance of the sold products Correlation study of the sales and the employment rate Trend on the sales of the products 1.2 SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM The study considered Unilever Nigeria Plc. Unilever Nigeria Plc, was incorporated as Lever Brothers (West Africa) Ltd on 11th April, 1923 by Lord Leverhulme, but the company’s antecedents have to be traced back to his existing trading interests in Nigeria and West Africa generally, and to the fact that he had since the 19th century been greatly involved with the soap business in Britain. Located at No 1 Billings Way Oregun, Ikeja, Nigeria, Unilever Nigeria Plc started as a soap manufacturing company, and is today one of the oldest surviving manufacturing organizations in Nigeria. After series of mergers/acquisitions, the company diversified into manufacturing and marketing of foods,
non-soapy detergents and personal care products. These mergers/acquisitions brought in Lipton Nigeria Ltd in 1985, Cheesebrough Ponds Industries Ltd in 1988. The company changed its name to Unilever Nigeria Plc in 2001. Unilever Nigeria Plc was considered the case study of this research work because their brands are household favorites and the company is so deeply committed to meet the everyday needs of people everywhere in Nigeria. Also, they have been a socially responsible and responsive organization that takes strategic actions for the improvement of the communities and environments in which it operates. The company has made provision for assistance in fields of health, education/children welfare and potable water/hygiene as part of its social responsibility programme in the Nigerian communities. The food and nutrition department of the company was chosen because of the fast rising growth of the need of their brands ranging from blue band to lipton tea, royco cube to knorr seasoning cube, the need grows exceedingly. 1.3 LITERATURE REVIEW
Materson (1981) concluded that customer service delivery and customer loyalty goes hand in hand-when a service is delivered exceptionally it then follows that the customer will be satisfied and will be loyal to the services rendered. According to him, customer service deliverance taps into business, marketing, and psychological research and practices to provide a satisfied customer. Customer service delivery also provides a framework for customer service as a process and an outcome. Customer expectations, loyalty satisfaction, product versus service delivery, measurement, brand equity, regional and cultural differences, and organizational impact are the factors revolving in the carrying out of a good business and hence will gain the loyalty of customers. According to Kelvin (1982), service quality is generally viewed as the output of the service delivery system, especially in the case of pure service systems. Moreover, service quality is linked to consumer satisfaction. Although there is no consensus in the research community about the direction of causality relating quality and satisfaction, the common assumption is that service quality leads to satisfied customers. He cited an example of customers leaving a restaurant or hotel and asked if they were satisfied with the service they
received. If they answer "no," then we tend to assume service was poor. Direct service providers, such as waitresses, also note that at times the best service efforts are criticized because the customer's perceptions of the service are clouded by being in a bad mood or having a disagreement with someone just before arriving at the restaurant. These service providers recognize that in practice the influence of service quality on customer satisfaction is affected by other factors, one of which is the customers themselves. Russell and Kabanuk (1983) summarize two studies conducted to improve the emergency service delivery in St. Albert, a small city near Edmonton, Alberta. The first study dealt with selecting the location of a new fire station. The goals of the study included an assessment of the performance of the current system, an identification of the areas) with poor coverage, a selection of a site among a set of given candidate locations, and an assessment of the improvement in the system performance upon the addition of the new fire station. A geographical information system was used for storing and displaying the spatial data, computing service areas for given travel times, and for communicating the results of the study. The second study considered an evaluation of
the resources available for emergency service. A probabilistic model was used to evaluate labor costs for different platoon sizes and a simulation model was used to evaluate the adequacy of the current staff and fleet sizes. They both concluded that there may be deterioration in the quality of the service in the near future for the following reasons: 1. The city's population is growing and (perhaps more importantly) aging. This increases the call rate. 2. Recent changes to the health care system resulted in patients being discharged earlier from hospitals and persons with a higher level of acuity being taken care of at home or in non-hospital care environments. This results in increased call rates for ambulances. 3. The city is planning an expansion. Three new developments have been approved. This increases the total area that has to be covered (as well as the population). 4. The current Firefighter/EMS staff is aging which decreases the amount of time they are available (vacation entitlement and sick leave usage increase with length of service and age respectively), and age
may increase risk of injury. In addition, as the current staff retires, there will be significant loss of experience. Nowell (1987) in his publication on improved service delivery stated that proper service delivery helps companies deal more effectively with an open, collaborative and complex service creation environment by facilitating the development and deployment of new services from both internal and third-party sources. He also said that proper service delivery provides the infrastructure and common business functions that can drive high performance by helping providers create, deliver and manage a wide range of products and services for consumers and enterprises more quickly, and at lower cost and risk. Vaux and Vismann (2005) concluded that delivery of services such as health and education can play an important role in the context of conflict. The distribution of resources and their accessibility to different groups can address existing social inequalities. On the other hand, it can heighten them. Equity and inclusiveness are critical to ensuring that service delivery promotes sustainable peace. They are also indicators of sustainable peace.
However, because peace-building has rarely been an explicit objective of interventions, it is difficult to gauge the effectiveness and impact of service delivery in this regard. There are a number of issues that can help maximize the capacity of service delivery to promote sustainable peace. These include the need for strategic analysis and an integrated approach, supporting equitable distribution of, and access to, resources. Also important are: legitimacy, representing the poor, empowering women and harnessing non-state actors within a regulatory framework. According to them, service delivery does the following: 1. touch on issues of legitimacy. 2. strengthens the representation of poor people through user groups, parents associations and civil society organizations. 3. engagement of the poor in decision-making takes time, particularly when people are most concerned with meeting their immediate needs. 4. have This is particularly true for women, who usually responsibility for child-
care and the strongest interest in delivery of
services, but who may be under-represented in user groups. 5. Choices between state and non-state actors need to reflect the interests of poor people. 6. Systems of public accountability are required and, where service delivery is privatized, the state will need to ensure socially responsible regulation. Then with regards to conflict, service delivery can 1. Promote sustainable peace–building, interventions need to be developed through ongoing strategic analysis of the causes of conflict and the role of different actors in conflict and development. 2. Enable the identification of indicators to gauge more accurately the positive and negative impact of the support provided. 3. Prompt early government prioritization of policy reform and allocation of resources for service delivery are critical to development actors. 4. Reform of services as countries emerge from conflict provides important opportunities for ensuring the representation of poor people in the formation of service delivery policy.
5. Through reform provide opportunities for strengthening local ownership of these services through ongoing monitoring. Parmita and Zhao (2005) in their publication on service delivery noted that one of the key challenges of the Internet as a service delivery channel is how they manage service quality, which holds a significant importance to customer satisfaction. The purpose of this research was to gain a better understanding of the service quality dimensions that affect customer satisfaction in the Internet banking sector from a consumer perspective. Based on a detailed literature review, a frame of reference was developed. Five service quality dimensions were selected to be tested in the Internet banking sector in order to explore the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction. A qualitative research approach was used to get a better understanding of this issue. However, a small quantitative survey was also conducted to support the results obtained from the qualitative study. The empirical data were gathered through in-depth interviews with four people by using a semi-structured questionnaire and a survey were conducted with 25 people. Data presentation and analysis were done in accordance with the research
questions and the frame of reference. Finally, in the last chapter findings and conclusions were drawn by answering the research questions. Nine service quality dimensions in Internet banking were identified in this study (i.e., efficiency, reliability, responsiveness, fulfillment, privacy, communication, personalization, technology update, and logistic/technical support). The quality performance of all the nine dimensions was shown to have a strong impact on customer satisfaction. Efficiency, reliability, responsiveness, fulfillment, privacy was found to be the core service quality dimensions in Internet banking. Finally, technology update and logistical or technical support was two new dimensions found in this study. Karen (2007) reported that the results of a review of the Chinese- and English–language literatures on service delivery in China, asking how well China's health-care providers perform and what determines their performance. Although data and methodological limitations suggest caution in drawing conclusions, a critical reading of the available evidence suggests that current health service delivery in China leaves room for improvement, in terms of quality, responsiveness to patients, efficiency, cost escalation, and equity. The
literature suggests that these problems will not be solved by simply shifting ownership to the private sector or by simply encouraging providers–public and private–to compete with one another for individual patients. By contrast, substantial improvements could be (and in some places have already been) made by changing the way providers are paid–shifting away from fee–for–service and the distorted price schedule. Other elements of active purchasing by insurers could further improve outcomes. Rigorous evaluations, based on richer microlevel data, could considerably strengthen the evidence base for service delivery policy in China Onil (2008) using the method of environmental scan of peer-reviewed and grey literature was use to select exemplars of innovation. A case series of organizations was purposively sampled to maximize variation. He examined these cases using content analysis and constant comparison to characterize their strategies, focusing on business processes. In his conclusion, he stated that private sector organizations demonstrate a range of innovations in health service delivery that have the potential to better serve the Poor’s health needs and be replicated.
However, more rigorous evaluations are needed to investigate the impact and quality of health services provided and determine the effectiveness of particular strategies. Robert (2009) saw delivery as "D" is for Dedicated. The moment a customer needs help, the dedicated customer service representative swings into action. "E" is for Empowered. The empowered customer service representative is given what he needs to be able to provide outstanding customer service. "L" is for Linked. The members of a customer care team must work together and share information. "I" is for Informed. In the past the customer service department was often neglected by management. Representatives, seen as workers at the bottom of the totem pole, went untrained and uninformed. Workers of a company should be informed in all aspects of the company and its products and services. "V" is for Valued. Before customer service representatives can value their work and your customers, you must show them that you value them. "E" is for Experienced. An experienced customer service representative learns to be knowledgeable but not overly technical with customers. "R" is for Representative. The customer service representative should always act in the
best interests of the company. "Y" is for "Your Responsibility." The customer service representative accepts responsibility for his role as a front-line representative for the company. He knows that to a customer, he is the company. According to Jones and Paul (2009) Statistics are used by all industries and businesses as a standardized unity of measurement for presenting data in a useful and meaningful format. Statistics can be used to measure historical performance and to forecast future targets. For business managers and leaders, statistics provide insight into how business units are performing relative to an organizations goals and objectives. Statistics also forecast future trends and are in all areas of human thought an endeavor for planning purposes. Statistics are used in all areas of trade and commerce. Governments frequently undertake studies for the purposes of formulating policy and business use data to identify what is currently working and what is not. Business initiatives are altered to improve organizational performance based on feedback from statistical studies. Advertising companies use statistics to assess target markets and
formulate campaigns. Marketers use statistics to identify opportunities for business development.
CHAPTER TWO 2.0 COLLECTION OF DATA
2.1 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION The method of data collection used for this research work is the method of Registration. It is an unpublished data because it took a lot of time, effort, money and the required level of confidentiality is very high.
2.2 DATA PRESENTATION The data collected is the most sensitive data of the Department of Sales considering its statistical usage is considered. It comprises of the sum total of the sale of each brand (Blue band, Lipton, Knorr and Royco) for the last ten (10) consecutive years and the number of employed staff in the factory department as well.
Aggregate of Quantity of product sold in carton/month
Years 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Blue Band 140016 139709 141083 142205 144018 140099 143259 143910 143400 144458 Lipton 141040 140004 142381 143605 145679 144873 143382 144691 145022 146343 Knorr 144042 150011 145273 146202 147213 147346 147458 146444 146523 148019 Royco 145093 147372 146365 144828 146369 147868 149453 146313 146001 147072
Years Number of Staff
200 0 30
200 200 200 200 1 32 2 32 3 34 4 38
200 5 43
200 6 51
200 7 43
200 200 8 40 9 47
2.3 THE PRODUCTS 2.3.1 Blue Band
BlueBand GoodStart margarine is one of the brands under the group name - Family Brand in Unilever. Unilever was the first company to commercially produce margarine in 1878, through its founding Dutch company, Margarine Unie, as an affordable alternative to butter. Unilever is the world’s leading margarine manufacturer. Our products contain high-quality vegetable oils that are a good source of essential fats and vitamins (A, D, E) which we all need to develop and maintain a healthy body and enjoy a lifestyle full of vitality. Consuming fat does not necessarily make you fat. If you cut out all the fat in your diet, your body will derive energy from carbohydrates or proteins instead. So, without eating fat, you could still be obese and moreover, you would be depriving your body of essential fatty acid which your body cannot produce on its own and the protein it needs t build body cells. As long as the energy you consume is equal to the energy you
expend, you will not become fat! 15 – 30 minutes of physical activity a day is recommended to keep fit and health and to prevent obesity heart disease and diabetes. 2.3.2 Knorr Cube
Knorr believes that every meal is an opportunity for family bonding and everyday meals can be just as magical as special occasions. Food is not just fuel, it really is the glue of life. This conviction lies at the heart of Knorr's success–it is Unilever's no. 1 brand. A passion for good food goes right back to Knorr's earliest days. The business was formed in 1838, when founder Carl Heinrich Knorr pioneered experiments in drying seasonings and vegetables to preserve their flavour and nutritional value. Since then Knorr has become an international brand offering a wide range of bouillons, soups, seasonings, sauces, soupy snacks, dressings and frozen and ready– made meals. Knorr products owe their tastes and flavours to the culinary skills of its chefs. Knorr embodies a truly global cuisine, which began when the globe-trotting sons of its founder started importing new ideas from overseas. The tradition stands today and Knorr's drive for innovation still centres around its original factory in
Heilbronn where international teams of chefs contribute to product innovation. 2.3.3 Lipton Tea
Lipton is one of the world's great refreshment brands, making a big splash in the global beverages market with tea that is a healthy and refreshing alternative to soft drinks. Lipton is painting the world yellow with a marketing campaign that represents all that Lipton stands for - brightness, vitality and fun with natural goodness. Born in 1850, Thomas Johnstone Lipton was a pioneering entrepreneur who, by 1880s, had opened grocery shops all over the UK. He had a vision of making tea accessible to all at acceptable prices, with guaranteed quality. In the 1890s, his Lipton teas enjoyed great success in the UK and the US. Lipton first came to Nigeria in 1959 under the Van Den Bergh Foods company. In 1972 however, Unilever acquired the world wide Lipton Tea Business. Lipton became Unilever Nigeria’s brand in 1985. The tea blend is imported from Kenya and packed into teabags in the factory at Agbara in Ogun State in the Western part of Nigeria. 2.3.4 Royco
Royco believes that everyone should be able to prepare and enjoy good food, every single day of the week. Good food has the magic of touching all our senses, with exciting aroma, good taste and actually putting smiles on our faces. A touch of Royco to your meals will definitely transform every meal moment and make it very special. You will not know, until you have experienced the New Royco Goat Meat Flavour. In our quest to provide our cherished consumers with the best bouillon product, the new Royco Goat Meat Flavor that is perfect with vegetable soup was developed. This new product is: 1.) Tastier than ever. 2.) Crumbles smoothly. 3.) Full of flavor and less salty. The aroma of Royco easily whittles away the miles and years, so that no matter where you are – in the office, at school, on a business trip, on vacation in a faraway land – you become instantly reunited with the people and memories you cherish the most. Food is a key ingredient in the make-up of the home. While it unites the members of a home, it can also differentiate one home from another. In other words, food also gives each home its
identity! Only Royco gives that familiar taste of home cooking.
CHAPTER THREE 3.0 DATA ANALYSIS
The rate of service delivery can be measured with the rate of sales of the product and the number of staff or the numerical staff strength of the Department of Food and Nutrition Unilever Nigeria Plc. A steady growth in the rate of sales and employment depicts good or quality service delivery, hence, the otherwise. 3.1 Test for Normality
X fi U i = Xi – A C fiui fiui 2 fiui 3 fiui 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
142547. 75 144274 143775. 5 144210 145819. 75 145046. 5 145888 145339. 5 145236. 5 146473
-4.5 -3.5 -2.5 -1.5 -0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5
641464.88 -504959 359438.75 -216315 -72909.88 72523.25 218832 363348.75 508327.75 659128.5
2886591.9 4 1767356.5 898596.88 324472.5 36454.94 36261.63 328248 908371.88 1779147.1 3 2966078.2 5
12989663.72 -6185747.75 -2246492.19 -486708.75 -2278.43 18130.81 492372 2270929.69 6227014.94 13347352.13
58453486.7 3 21650117.1 3 5616230.47 730063.13 569.61 9065.41 738558 5677324.22 21794552.2 8 60063084.5 6
C ∑ fiui
= 1 (27072.74) 1448610.5 = M
= C ∑ fiui 2
1 (11931579.65) 1448610.5
C ∑ fi ui 3
i =1 n
1 (444908.73) 1448610.5 0.3071
C ∑ fiui 4
= 1 (174733051.5) 1448610.5 = 120.6211
M2 = M21 – (M11)2 = 8.2366 – (0.0187)2 = 8.2363 M4 = M41 – 4M11 M31 + 6(M11)2 (M21 ) – 3(M11)4
= 120.6211 – 4(0.0187)( 0.3071) + 6(0.0187)2(8.2366) – 3(0.0187)4 = 120.6211 – 0.023 + 0.0173 – 0 = 120.6154
M4 (M2)2 120.6154 (8.2363)2
The lower and upper class limits in the table for departure from normality are 2.83 and 3.18. Hence, normally distributed. Since our data does not follow the normal distribution, we resort to the non-parametric test to achieve our aims.
not lie within the limit, we conclude that the data are not
Test on the rate of sales
Years (Xi) Yj - Yi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 j–(i=1) j–(i=2) j– (i=3) j– (i=4) j– (i=5) j– (i=6) j– (i=7) j– (i=8) j– (i=9) j– (i=10)
Avg. Sales Yi 142547.75 14427.4 143775.5 144210 145819.75 145046.5 145888 145339.5 145236.5 146473
9 6 7 6 2 4 1 1 1 37
0 2 0 0 3 0 2 1 0 8
Hypothesis: Ho: β=β0 (There’s no sales increase over the years) H1: β < β0 (There‘s sales increase the years). Test Statistic τ = 2K n(n–1) K = ∑∑ +ve – ∑∑ −ve
i< j i< j
K = 37 – 8 K =29 τ = 2(29) 10(9) τ = 0.6444 Kendall from table at n = 10 and at 5% level of significance is 0.467 Conclusion: Reject Ho and conclude that there’s an increase in the staff employment rate. 3.2.2 Test on the Staff Employment Rate
Years Xi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Number of Staff (Yi) 30 32 32 34 38 43 51 43 40 42
Yj - Yi j-(i=1) j-(i=2) j-(i=3) j-(i=4) j-(i=5) j-(i=6) j-(i=7) j-(i=8) j-(i=9) j-(i=10)
9 7 7 6 5 2 0 1 1 38
0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 4
Hypothesis: Ho: β = β0 (There’s no increase in staff employment rate) H1: β < β0 (There’s increase in the staff employment rate) Test Statistic τ = 2K n(n–1) K = ∑∑ +ve – ∑∑ −ve
i< j i< j
K = 38 – 4 K = 32 τ = 2 × 32 10 × 9 τ = 0.7111 Kendall from table at n = 10 and at 5% level of significance is 0.467
Conclusion: Reject Ho and conclude that there’s an increase in the staff employment rate. 3.3 Significance of the sold products
Years/Blocks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rj A 140016 139709 141083 142205 144018 140099 143259 143910 143400 144458 10 B 141040 140004 142381 143605 145679 144873 143382 144691 145022 146343 20 C 144042 150011 145273 146202 147213 147346 147458 146444 146523 148019 36 D 145093 147373 146365 144828 146369 147868 149453 146313 146001 147072 34
(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)
(2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2)
(3) (4) (3) (4) (4) (3) (3) (4) (4) (4)
(4) (3) (4) (3) (3) (4) (4) (3) (3) (3)
A = Blue Brand, B = Lipton Tea ,C = Knorr tube and D = Royco Note: The rank of each sale is in the bracket Hypothesis: Ho: tA = tB = tC = tD = 0 (Brands are of equal productive level) Hi : tA ≠ tB ≠ tC ≠ tD ≠ 0 for at least one (Brands are not of equal productive level) Test statistic Fr = 12 bk(k+1) Fr = 12 (102 + 202 + 362 + 342) – 3(10) (5) 10(4)(5) Fr = 12(2952)
∑ R – 3b(k+1)
j =1 2 j
10(4)(5) Fr = 177.12 –150 Fr = 27.12 χ2(.01)3 = 11.341 χ2(.001)3 = 16.268 Conclusion: Reject H0 and conclude the brands are of different productive level. 3.4 Correlation study of the sales and the employment rate Expressing average sale staff employment rate in percent, we have
X Y 9.84 7.35 9.96 7.94 9.93 7.94 9.96 8.53 10.0 1 9.71 10.0 4 11.1 8 10.0 9 13.5 3 10.0 3 11.1 8 10.0 3 10.2 9 10.1 1 12.3 5
Average sales in percentage Employment rate in percentage
Hypothesis: Ho: X and Y are not correlated ρ = 0 H1: X and Y are correlated ρ > 0 Decision Rule: Reject Ho of r > C or ∑ di2 < C2
i =1 n
di2 = Rx – Ry
∑ d = 8.5
i =1 2 i
Test Statistic r = 1 – 6 ∑ di2
n(n -1) r=1– 6(8.5) 10(100-1) r = 1 – 57 990 r = 0.9485 Conclusion: The sales rate and staff employment rate are highly correlated. 3.4.1 Determination of Significance of Correlation value (r) The significance can be tested using
1- r 2
H0: r = 0.9485 isn’t significant H1: r = 0.9485 is significant tcal
= 0.9485 10 - 2 1 - .9485 = 8.4845 = 2.31
Conclusion: Reject H0 and conclude that r = 0.9485 is significant at 5% level of significance.
Yrs 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 X 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Trend study on the sales of product
Y 142547. 75 144274 143775. 5 144210 145819. 75 145046. 5 145888 145339. 5 145236. 5 146473 X -4.5 -3.5 -2.5 -1.5 -0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 Y -2323.5 -587.05 -1085.55 -651.05 958.7 185.45 1026.95 478.45 375.45 1611.95 X2 20.25 12.25 6.25 2.25 0.25 0.25 2.25 6.25 12.25 20.25 XY 10409. 85 2054.6 8 2713.8 6 976.58 -479.35 92.73 1540.4 3 1196.1 3 1314.0 8 7253.7 8 Trend (T) 143384. 37 143712. 52 144040. 67 144368. 82 14496.9 7 145025. 12 145353. 27 145681. 42 146009. 57 146337. 72 Error (e) -836.62 561.48 -265.17 -158.82 1122.7 8 21.38 534.73 -341.92 -773.07 135.28
= ∑ Yi
= 1448610.5 10 = = ∑ Xi
i =1 n
= 45 = 4.5 10
and x = x –
Y = (ΣXY) X (ΣX2) YY
= (ΣXY) (X – (ΣX2)
Y – 144861.05 = 27072.77 (x-4.5) 82.5 Y – 144861.05 = 328.15 (x – 4.5) Y – 144861.05 = 328.15 x – 1476.68 Y = 328.15 x + 143384.37 Error (e) = Y – T
∑ e = 0.05
i =1 i
Adjusted trend equation is given as Y = 328.15 + 143384.37 – 0.05 Y = 328.15 x + 143384.32 The trend line graph for the sales of the product is given below.
The above trend line graph is a positive trend line since Y increases as X increases.
CHAPTER FOUR SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The analysis in chapter three as shown that the use of statistical models in assessing service delivery in a business organization is imperative. The Kendall’s k–test severed a good purpose in analyzing the sales and staff employment rate which both serves as the bases for analyzing service delivery. Friedman Fr-test, Spearman Rank correlation and the simple linear regression, compared the sales of the product, showed the relationship between the sales of the product and employment rate and the trend of the sales of the products respectively.
In conclusion, the food and nutrition department of Unilever Nigeria Plc Lagos has a good and stable standard of the delivery of services. Their rate of service delivery depended on the quality and quality of their production, numerical staff strength and some other administrative factors. The level of relationship between the sales and the employment rate led to the positive trend line graph which is bound to be positively–continuous except some drastic change that will have a negative effect on the administration of the department. But even with the commendation, the department still has some work to do as shown in the comparative study of the sales of the product. The knorr and Royce brands are failing compared to the Blue band and Lipton tea brands with their rather small sum of rank. The administrative section should come up innovative ideas such market study and preference, advert placement e.t.c to stir–up the sales of these brands.
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