You are on page 1of 33

# Temperature, Heat, Expansion

TEMPERATURE

## Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011

Temperature
The quantity that indicates how warm or cold an object is with respect to some standard (Hewitt) Celsius (centigrade), Kelvin, Fahrenheit, Rankine
Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 4

Thermometers
The colored alcohol contracts and expands depending on the temperature. Thermal Equilibrium
5

## Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011

Mercury Thermometers
Its phased out because of the danger of mercury poisoning.
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/a1EdNIFVYEI/TWU090eyXXI/AAAAAAAAAZ4/NHIeBKBKZ1c/s1600/ThermometerMercury.jpg Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011
6

Kelvin Scale
Calibrated using gas & Joseph Gay-Lussacs Law (not freezing
and boiling points of water).

## 0 kelvin (-273.15C) = absolute zero, substance has no KE to give up. (oscillations =

slowest; NOT zero)
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a0/Lord_Kelvin_photograph.jpg Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 7 /250px-Lord_Kelvin_photograph.jpg

Kelvin Scale

## William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin

Baron Kelvin of Largs House of Lords (UK Parliament) River Kelvin close to his laboratory (Scotland)
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a0/Lord_Kelvin_photograph.jpg Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 9 /250px-Lord_Kelvin_photograph.jpg

## Kinetic energy & Temperature

Atoms and molecules move randomly; they have Kinetic Energy average translational KE is directly proportional to temperature.
Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 10

## Quick Check-up: True or False?

Temperature is the measure of the total kinetic energy in a substance.

FALSE!
1-L of boiling water vs 2-L. 2-L has twice the total KE but the average KE is the same.
Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 11

HEAT

## Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011

13

What is HEAT?
The ENERGY transferred between two objects because of the temperature difference between them. (Hewitt) Always from higher T to lower T (if spontaneous)
Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 14

## What is the UNIT of heat?

1 cal = 4.186 J 1 kcal = 1000 cal = 1 Cal = 4186 J
1 Btu = 778 ft.lb = 252 cal = 1055 J

## Joule is the basic unit of energy in all forms, including heat.

Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 15

## Can an object contain HEAT?

No. Matter contains internal (thermal) energy. Grand total of all energies inside a substance. Energy resulting from heat flow
Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 16

## Heat depends on:

Mass (more internal energy) Temperature difference Specific Heat Capacity
Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 17

Quick Check-up
An iron thumbtack and a big iron bolt are removed from a hot oven. Both have the same T. When dropped into identical containers of water of equal T, which one raises the water temperature more?
Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 18

The big iron bolt will because it has more mass and therefore more molecules, more internal energy to impart to the water. Same ave. KE, same T, different masses.
Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 19

## Which cools faster?

Toasted bread or soup? Hotdogs or Potatoes? Wood or Metal?

## It also takes less heat to warm these objects up.

Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 20

## Specific Heat Capacity

The amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius. Thermal Inertia
Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 21

## Some specific heat capacities (cal/gK)

Gold = 0.0301 Mercury = 0.033 Silver = 0.0558 Copper = 0.0923 Al = 0.215 Ethyl Alcohol = 0.58 Water = 1.00 Ice (-10 C) = 0.49 Granite = 0.19 Glass = 0.20 Wood: 0.4-0.5 Human = 0.84

## Caution: Filling is hot!

The crust cools much faster than the apple filling.
http://farm1.static.flickr.com/188/366538002_f616295ba7.jpg
Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 23

Caution:
Dont confuse specific heat with thermal conductivity! Graphite: c is 1.4x Diamond: k can be up to 19x
http://focus.aps.org/files/focus/v22/st5/coal_diamond.jpg
Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 24

Example

## Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 25

http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/inteng.html#c4

## Example from Young

During a bout with the flu, Rommel (80kg) ran a fever of 39.0 C instead of the normal body temperature of 37.0 C. How much heat is required to raise his temperature by this amount? (express your answer in Cal)
Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 26

Q = mcT = (80kg)(0.84 Cal/kg.K)(2.0K) = 134 Cal If it were not for the bodys temperature regulating systems, taking in energy in the form of food would produce measurable changes in the body temperature. -Young
Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 27

## EXPANSION & CONTRACTION

Thermal Expansion
@Higher T, molecules jiggle faster and move farther apart. Linear Expansion: L = L o T
Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011

## Figure courtesy of University Physics with Modern Physics by Young

29

Thermal Expansion Examples: Telephone wires, loosening metal lid, dental filling, reinforcing steel, thermostats, etc. *A 50.000m long steel rod only lengthens by 0.009m when the T is increased from 20C to 35C.
Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 30

Expansion Joints

Courtesy of Young
31