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Temperature, Heat, Expansion

By: Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica

TEMPERATURE

Is temperature the same as heat?

Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011

Temperature
The quantity that indicates how warm or cold an object is with respect to some standard (Hewitt) Celsius (centigrade), Kelvin, Fahrenheit, Rankine
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Thermometers
The colored alcohol contracts and expands depending on the temperature. Thermal Equilibrium
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http://cutebabygear.net/wpcontent/uploads/2011/07/1310868853-84.jpg

Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011

Mercury Thermometers
Its phased out because of the danger of mercury poisoning.
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/a1EdNIFVYEI/TWU090eyXXI/AAAAAAAAAZ4/NHIeBKBKZ1c/s1600/ThermometerMercury.jpg Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011
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Kelvin Scale
Calibrated using gas & Joseph Gay-Lussacs Law (not freezing
and boiling points of water).

0 kelvin (-273.15C) = absolute zero, substance has no KE to give up. (oscillations =


slowest; NOT zero)
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a0/Lord_Kelvin_photograph.jpg Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 7 /250px-Lord_Kelvin_photograph.jpg

Figure courtesy of University Physics with Modern Physics by Young

Kelvin Scale

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a0/Lord_Kelvin_photograph.jpg Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 8 /250px-Lord_Kelvin_photograph.jpg

William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin


Baron Kelvin of Largs House of Lords (UK Parliament) River Kelvin close to his laboratory (Scotland)
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a0/Lord_Kelvin_photograph.jpg Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 9 /250px-Lord_Kelvin_photograph.jpg

Kinetic energy & Temperature


Atoms and molecules move randomly; they have Kinetic Energy average translational KE is directly proportional to temperature.
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Quick Check-up: True or False?


Temperature is the measure of the total kinetic energy in a substance.

FALSE!
1-L of boiling water vs 2-L. 2-L has twice the total KE but the average KE is the same.
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HEAT

Heat is energy in transit


http://bestuff.com/images/images_of_stuff/210x6 00/dwyane-wade-37486.jpg?1173320112

Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011

http://whatisthetrend.net/wpcontent/uploads/2011/05/Miami-Heat.jpg

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What is HEAT?
The ENERGY transferred between two objects because of the temperature difference between them. (Hewitt) Always from higher T to lower T (if spontaneous)
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What is the UNIT of heat?


1 cal = 4.186 J 1 kcal = 1000 cal = 1 Cal = 4186 J
1 Btu = 778 ft.lb = 252 cal = 1055 J

Joule is the basic unit of energy in all forms, including heat.


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Can an object contain HEAT?


No. Matter contains internal (thermal) energy. Grand total of all energies inside a substance. Energy resulting from heat flow
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Heat depends on:


Mass (more internal energy) Temperature difference Specific Heat Capacity
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Quick Check-up
An iron thumbtack and a big iron bolt are removed from a hot oven. Both have the same T. When dropped into identical containers of water of equal T, which one raises the water temperature more?
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Answer:
The big iron bolt will because it has more mass and therefore more molecules, more internal energy to impart to the water. Same ave. KE, same T, different masses.
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Which cools faster?


Toasted bread or soup? Hotdogs or Potatoes? Wood or Metal?

It also takes less heat to warm these objects up.


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Specific Heat Capacity


The amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius. Thermal Inertia
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Some specific heat capacities (cal/gK)


Gold = 0.0301 Mercury = 0.033 Silver = 0.0558 Copper = 0.0923 Al = 0.215 Ethyl Alcohol = 0.58 Water = 1.00 Ice (-10 C) = 0.49 Granite = 0.19 Glass = 0.20 Wood: 0.4-0.5 Human = 0.84

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/tables/sphtt.html#c1 Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011 22

Caution: Filling is hot!


The crust cools much faster than the apple filling.
http://farm1.static.flickr.com/188/366538002_f616295ba7.jpg
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Caution:
Dont confuse specific heat with thermal conductivity! Graphite: c is 1.4x Diamond: k can be up to 19x
http://focus.aps.org/files/focus/v22/st5/coal_diamond.jpg
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Example

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http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/inteng.html#c4

Example from Young


During a bout with the flu, Rommel (80kg) ran a fever of 39.0 C instead of the normal body temperature of 37.0 C. How much heat is required to raise his temperature by this amount? (express your answer in Cal)
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Answer:
Q = mcT = (80kg)(0.84 Cal/kg.K)(2.0K) = 134 Cal If it were not for the bodys temperature regulating systems, taking in energy in the form of food would produce measurable changes in the body temperature. -Young
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EXPANSION & CONTRACTION

Thermal Expansion
@Higher T, molecules jiggle faster and move farther apart. Linear Expansion: L = L o T
Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011

Figure courtesy of University Physics with Modern Physics by Young


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Thermal Expansion Examples: Telephone wires, loosening metal lid, dental filling, reinforcing steel, thermostats, etc. *A 50.000m long steel rod only lengthens by 0.009m when the T is increased from 20C to 35C.
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Expansion Joints

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/t humb/9/95/Saw_Cut_Control_Joint_in_Concrete.jp g/220px-Saw_Cut_Control_Joint_in_Concrete.jpg

Courtesy of Young
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Quantum Yuri B. Lubrica 2011

What if Thermal Expansion isnt considered?

Railroad tracks would buckle, roads would crack.

= FAIL

Courtesy of Paul Hewitt


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REFERENCES
Conceptual Physics by Paul Hewitt University Physics with Modern Physics 12 edition by Young
Powerpoint template from Templatewise.com
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