Hindustan Zinc Ltd (HZL) is India’s leading zinc producer. A vertically integrated Mining & Smelting company, HZL, is currently gearing up to becoming a global lowest-cost producer. As a part of Vedanta Resources, a London listed metals and mining major with Aluminium. Copper and Zinc operations in UK. India and Australia. HZL takes advantage of its mineral resources and related core competencies and believes it has growth opportunities for increasing products and improving returns.

The Key features of the company are as:
• • • • The only integrated Zinc producer in India Refined Zinc production capacity 411,000 tpa Refined Lead production capacity 85,000 tpa Ore treatment capacity 5.85 Mtpa

Hindustan Zinc Limited was incorporated as a Government of India Enterprise under the ministry of Steel & Mines, Department of Mines, on January 10, 1966, after take-over of erstwhile Metal Corporation of India Limited, interalia, to own, manage& develop mining & smelting capacities for the important strategic zinc & Lead metals in the country with an operative lead smelter at Tundoo, Dhanbad & Mines at Zawar, Udaipur. Phasewise development of mines, commissioning of Smelters at Debari & Vishakhapatnam, capacity of HZL to produce lead & zinc reached to 79,000 MT of zinc & 30,000 MT of lead by 1990


Be a world-class zinc company, creating value, leveraging mineral resources and related core competencies.

• • • • • • • Be a lowest cost Zinc Producer on a global scale, maintaining market leadership Produce half Million Tonnes/Year of Zinc by 2005 Be innovative, customer oriented and eco-friendly, maximizing stake-holder value The only integrated Zinc producer in India Refined Zinc production capacity 230,000 tpa Refined Lead production capacity 35,000 tpa Ore treatment capacity 4.6 Mtpa

Continuous operational improvements, meticulous planning, constant innovation, extensive R&D, technological upgradation and so much more - HZL has come a long way and grown into a multi-unit and multi-product company.


Hindustan Zinc Ltd, was created from the erstwhile metal Corporation of India (MCI) on 10th January 1966 as a Public Sector Undertaking. In April 2002, the Government of India. disinvested its majority stake in HZL, and it became a part of the fast growing Sterlite group, Since then HZL as been growing from strength to strength HZL produces Zinc, Lead and other by-products including Sulphuric Acid, Silver and Cadmium. HZL achieved an all-time high with a record output of 2,61,226 tonnes Zinc and 6,14,938 tonnes of record production of Zinc concentrate during 2003-04. Today HZL is India’s leading base metal producer. HZL is a vertically intergrated Mining & Smelting company, gearing up to: • • • Harnessing mining resources to help India achieve self-sufficiency in Zinc. Become a global leader in Zinc. Create value for all entities whether it is Customers, Investors or Employees.

Constant innovation, meticulous attention to detail, extensive investments in R&D and technology are the hallmarks of HZL making it a multi-unit and multi-product company.


HZL Milestones at a glance:
2002-03 Sterlite acquires 26% and management control in HZL from the Government of India in privatization. A further 20% is bought from market through open offer and 18.92% from Government of India under call option. 1991 Chanderiya Pyrometallurgical lead-zinc smelter and Rampura Agucha mine begin production. 1983 1977 1971 1968 Rajpura Dariba Mine starts production. Vizag zinc smelter and second set of Zawar mine facilities commissioned. First expansion of Zawar mine commissioned. Debari smelter commissioned.



Atomic number Atomic mass Electronegativity according to Pauling Density Melting point Boiling point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Isotopes Electronic shell Energy of first ionisation Energy of second ionisation Standard potential Discovered

30 65.37 g.mol -1 1.6 7.11 g.cm-3 at 20°C 420 °C 907 °C 0.138 nm 0.074 nm (+2) 10 [ Ar ] 3d10 4s2 904.5 kJ.mol -1 1723 kJ.mol -1 - 0.763 V Andreas Marggraf in 1746

Zinc is a lustrous bluish-white metal. It is found in group IIb of the periodic table. It is brittle and crystalline at ordinary temperatures, but it becomes ductile and malleable when heated between 110°C and 150°C. It is a fairly reactive metal that will combine with oxygen and other nonmetals, and will react with dilute acids to release hydrogen.



Atomic number Atomic mass Electronegativity according to Pauling Density Melting point Boiling point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Isotopes Electronic shell Energy of first ionisation Energy of second ionisation Energy of third ionisation Energy of fourth ionisation Energy of fifth ionisation Discovered by

82 207.2 g.mol -1 1.8 11.34 g.cm-3 at 20°C 327 °C 1755 °C 0.154 nm 0.132 nm (+2) ; 0.084 nm (+4) 13 [ Xe ] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2 715.4 kJ.mol -1 1450.0 kJ.mol -1
3080.7 kJ.mol -1 4082.3 kJ.mol -1 6608 kJ.mol -1 The ancients

Lead is a bluish-white lustrous metal. It is very soft, highly malleable, ductile, and a relatively poor conductor of electricity. It is very resistant to corrosion but tarnishes upon exposure to air. Lead isotopes are the end products of each of the three series of naturally occurring radioactive elements.


Zinc is the fourth most common metal in use, trailing only iron, aluminium, and copper in annual production
• • •

Zinc is used to galvanize steel to prevent corrosion Zinc is used to Parkerize steel to prevent rust and corrosion Zinc is used in alloys such as brass, nickelled silver, typewriter metal, various soldering formulas and German silver

• • •

Zinc is the primary metal used in making American cents since 1982 Zinc is used in die casting notably in the automobile industry Zinc is used as part of the containers of batteries. The most widespread such use is as the anode in alkaline batteries

Zinc is used as the anode or fuel of the zinc-air battery/fuel cell providing the basis of the theorised zinc economy

Zinc is used as a sacrificial anode on boats and ships that use cathodic protection to prevent corrosion of metals that are exposed to sea water

Zinc is used in contemporary pipe organ building as a substitute for the classic lead/tin alloy in pipes sounding the lowest (pedal) tones, as it is tonally almost indistinguishable from lead/tin at those pitches, and has the added advantages of being much more economical and lighter in weight. Even the best organ builders use zinc in this capacity.

Zinc oxide is used as a white pigment in watercolours or paints, and as an activator in the rubber industry. As an over-the-counter ointment, it is applied as a thin coating on the exposed skin of the face or nose to prevent dehydration of the area of skin. It can protect against sunburn in the summer and windburn in the winter. Applied thinly to a baby's 7

diaper area (perineum) with each diaper change, it can protect against rash. As determined in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study, it is part of an effective treatment for age-related macular degeneration in some cases
• •

Zinc chloride is used as a deodorant and can also be used as a wood preservative Zinc sulfide is used in luminescent pigments such as on the hands of clocks and other items that glow in the dark.

• • •

Zinc methyl (Zn(CH3)2) is used in a number of organic syntheses. Zinc stearate is a lubricative plastic additive. Lotions made of calamine, a mix of Zn-(hydroxy-)carbonates and silicates, are used to treat skin rash.

Zinc metal is included in most single tablet over-the-counter daily vitamin and mineral supplements. It is believed to possess anti-oxidant properties, which protect against premature aging of the skin and muscles of the body. In larger amounts, taken as zinc alone in other proprietaries, it is believed by some to speed up the healing process after an injury. Preparations include zinc acetate and zinc gluconate.

Zinc gluconate glycine and zinc acetate are also used in throat lozenges or tablets to reduce the duration and the severity of cold symptoms.


The following uses for lead are gathered from a number of sources as well as from anecdotal comments. I'd be delighted to receive corrections as well as additional referenced uses (please use the feedback mechanism to add uses).
• • •

the metal and the dioxide are used in storage batteries cable covering, plumbing, ammunition manufacture of PbEt4 - an antiknock compound in petrol. Environmental concern with lead poisoning, (and cheaper unleaded petrol prices) is slowly resulting in less use of lead in petrol

• • •

the metal is very effective as a sound absorber a radiation shield around X-ray equipment and nuclear reactors used extensively in paints, although recently the use of lead in paints has been drastically curtailed to eliminate or reduce health hazards the oxide is used in producing fine "crystal glass" and "flint glass" with a high refractive index for achromatic lenses solder used by the Romans for plumbing (the decline of the Roman empire is attributed to lead in the water supply!) used to contain corrosive liquids alloying cable covering ammunition shield against X-rays oxide used to produce crystal glass insecticides

• •

• • • • • • •


4.1 Mines in Operation:


4.1.1. Zawar Group of Mines:
Zawar group of mines (Mochia, Balaria, Zawar Mala & Baroi) is situated in the Girwa Tehsil of Udaipur District of Rajasthan at a distance of about 35 kms from Udaipur, amidst a valley of Arawali hills.

4.1.2. Rajpura-Dariba Mines:
The multi=-metal Rajpura-Dariba Mines, which is located about 85km away from Udaipur (Raj.) has demonstrated ore reserve of about 16.4 million tones having metal content of about 6.9% zinc & 2.2% lead.

4.1.3. Maton Rock Phosphate Mine (Udaipur):
Maton mine has been developed to meet rock-phosphate requirements for the super-phosphate & phosphoric acid plant at Debari.

4.4.4. Rampura Agucha Mining Complex:
The prestigious Rampura Agucha Open Cast Mining Complex is Asia’s richest & largest lead – zinc deposit.. It is situated in Tehsil Hurda, District Bhilwara in Raj. The discovery of a world class diposie of 60.6 million tones at Rampura Agucha, containing 15.4% metal has dramatically altered the prospect of not only reducing the cost of production of zinc and lead, but also the expansion of HZL’s production capacity resilting in increasing the demand satisfaction upto 82% for zinc and 61% for lead.

4.1.5. Sargipali Mine (Orissa) 4.1.6. Agnigundala Lead Mine (Guntur, A.P.)

4.2 Smelters in Operation :

1. Debari Zinc Smelter, Distt. Udaipur (Raj.) 2. Vizag Zinc-Lead Smelter (A.P) 3. Tundoo Lead Smelter (Dhanbad), Bihar 4. Chanderiya Lead-Zinc Smelter


Date of commencent Date of completion

17.11.88 16.05.91

Situated in Chittorgarh District of Rajasthan, the Chanderiya Lead-Zinc smelter is around 8 kms north of Chittorgarh town on the state highway. This gigantic super smelter is integrated with Ramura Agucha Mines at a cost of Rs. 617 crore. The Chanderiya Smelter treating Lead-zinc concentrates is based on the Imperial Smelting Process route adopting blast furnace technology for simultaneous production of lead and zinc metal. The Indian installation is the 14th furnace being in U.K., Australia, Zambia, Japan, Germany, France, Italy, Yugoslavia, Romania, Poland and China.


New facilities have been built at Chanderiya which will take total zinc output to some 400,000 tpa. This is being accompanied by a new 50,000 tpa lead smelter, giving lead capacity of 85,000 tpa, which is due for commissioning by March 2006. The output at Rampura Agucha lead-zinc mine has been expanded to 3.3 mtpa, and eventually 3.75 mtpa, to feed the new smelting capacity. A 154 mw coal fired power plan has been competed which will provide power for both the new and existing facilities. The expansion projects were commissioned ahead of schedule in May 2005 and the total cost was 15% below the estimated budget of $425m



CAPACITY ( TPA) 70000 35000 176000 74 2100 375



a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

To produce goods To have continuous production To produce goods at low cost To produce goods of higher quality Have long life of equipment Social heritage Economic growth


HZL’s CLZS zinc and lead production begins with zinc and lead concentrates wherein zinc and lead are present as sulphides is imported from its own captive mines in India. Concentrates is received in trucks and stored inn a Raw Material House. From the Raw Material House, it is transported to Bins in Sinter Plant by a well controlled belt conveyor system, where along with certain other necessary ingredients like fluxes, secondary materials and water it is mixed in a prefixed proportion and fed to sintering machine. Sintering serves the dual purpose of converting the sulphides into oxides and agglomerates the product into porous, high strength lumps called sinter. In the sintering process the sulphides of lead and zinc react with oxygen of air to form SO2 gas: 2 ZnS + 3 O2 → 2ZnO + 2 SO2 2 PbS + 3 O2 → 2 PbO + 2 SO2 The sinter plant has following main sections: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Raw Material Handling Plant (RMH) Charge Proportioning and Conditioning System Sinter Machine Sinter and Return Fines Handling (Crusher Plant) Gas Cleaning (Acid Plant) Slurry Handling


Concentrate and fluxes are delivered by truck and unloaded into the unloading hoppers. The raw material is transported to a tripper belt conveyer which distributes the raw material to individual boxes of the raw material stockyard. Storage capacity of the stockyard is as follows:  Zinc concentrate-Rampura agucha mines-6250 tonnes.

 Zinc concentrate-Ambamata mines-1600 tonnes.  Zinc concentrate-Rajpura dariba mines-1600 tonnes.  Bulk concentrate-Ambamata-3500 tonnes.  Lead concentrate-Rampura agucha mines-2500 tonnes.  Lead concentrate-Rajpura dariba mines-2500tonnes.  Lead concentrate-Zewar mines-2500 tonnes.  Lime stones flux-450tonnes.  Iron flux-700 tonnes.
On an average the composition of the raw material from mines from mines is as follows; The composition of Zinc concentrate is Zn 50-55%, S 30-32%, Pb 2-5% The composition of Lead concentrate is Pb 40-55%, S 16-18%, Zn 1.-2%.


The material is then carried to the charge proportionate and conditioning system by a series of conveyer system (tray conveyer). The raw materials, when it is oversized, is passed through a disintegrator. There are 15 storage bins of capacity 50 cu. Metre as: 6 for Zn cone.; 3 for Pb cone.; 1 for bulk cone.; 1 for iron flux; 2 for lime stones and 2 for return fines which are of 25 cu. Metre capacity. All bins are equipped with vibrators and shock cannons to prevent blockage. Moisture addition is done in a controlled way at mixing and conditioning drums, so as to get a moisture content of 6% in the feed to the sinter machine. All the various sources of inputs are controlled through weigh feeders located at the bottom of the proportioning bins.

The updraft sinter machine has an area of 120 sq. mts. And 109 pallets each measuring 3m x 1m in size. There are 444 grate bars in a pallet. The ore concentrate is reduces to size of 6mm by the hammer mill. After reducing the size, the ore concentrate is sent to the bins. In the bins the ore concentrate and the return fines are added in the ratio 3:1. Above the sinter machine, the main and the ignition layer bins are located. The ignition layer thickness is generally adjusted to give 30 mm height and the total layer max. height is 400 mm. The ignition layer is fired by 2 burners operating on light diesel oil (LDO), to get about 1000.C hood temp. After proper burning of the ignition layer the main layer is made and air is blown from down through the pump and then the main layer is burnt. 1. 2. Ignition Layer (10% to 15%) Main Layer (85% to 90%)

Here the main reaction are ZnS + O2 => ZnO + SO2 PbS + O2 => PbO + SO2 The SO2 is sent to the gas cleaning plant. 17

The big lump of PbO and ZnO is not suitable for the ISF plant. So it is necessary to reduce the size of the lump. For this purpose sinter breaker is located after the sinter machine, this breaker reduce the size of the lump upto 200mm. But this size too is not suitable so they are then sent to the spike roll crusher. These crusher reduce the size of lump to 65 to 130mm. These are then sent to the classifier which separate the lump size from 65-130mm from the rest. Then the suitable part is sent to the ISF Plant if it is in working condition otherwise it is sent to the storage yard by tray conveyer system. The lump of size below 65mm at temp 600-800.C is sent to the corrugated roll crusher, This crusher reduce the size to 35mm, then it is sent to the smooth roll crusher to reduce its size to 6-8 mm which is used as fines in sinter plant. These fines have high temp. so they are sent to the cooling drum. After passing through 7 The drum the temp of the fines is reduced to 90.C and then they are sent to the return fines bin. Anywhere where dust is formed, dust sucker are located. These dust sucker suck the dust and sent it to the bag filter. Bag filter collect the dust. The ignition gases are drawn by the ignition waste gas fan through wind box and conveyed to recirculating gas plant. Dust and spillage are removed in a solid separator from the sinter hood. The rich SO2 gas is drawn and sent to the wet gas cleaning plant through HGP (hot gas precipitator) with the help of booster blower. Beside the ignition fan, 4 fresh air fans and 1 recirculating fan is also there to supply fresh air and to recirculate air to 17 wind boxes of the sinter machine. There are 5 cyclones for dust removal of the ventilation air and recirculating gases in order to avoid any dust build up in the ducts and also to avoid wear of fans. The composition of the sinter product is: Zn 40-44% Pb 18-20% FeO 10-10.5% S less than 1% CaO 4.5-5% SiO2 3.5-4% Ratio of CaO:SiO2 1.2


The composition of sinter fines is: Zn 42.50% Pb19.50% FeO 10.3% S 2.14% CaO 4.6% SiO2 3.7%

The specifications of the plant are as follows:
Effective updrafts are of the sinter machine Width of the pallet Capacity (Dry basis) Sinter material Specific Sulphur burning rate Sinter Production Sulphur content of mixture SO2 content of the gases Moisture Content Bulk density of the crude charge : : : : : : : : : 120M2 3.0m 4600 tons per day 1.6tons per square meter per day 1080 tons per day <1% >5% <7% 2.5 tons per cubic meter (Average)



Basic purpose of the plant is to clearfy the gas Sulphur Dioxide to use it further in the Acid plant to manufacture the Sulphuric acid. The gas coming out of the sinter plant is mainly Sulphur Dioxide. This gas is allowed to pass through the ESP (Electrostatic Precipitator). High electric field is applied to charge the solid powdered substance coming with the gas. Due to that all the powdered impurities get settle down at the bottom of the precipitator. Continuous cleaning of the ESP is required to stop blockage. Gas coming out of the Hot gas Precipitator is has a sufficiently high temperature (300 C) is now passed through the washing tower. While passing through the washing tower the gas get cooled down as well as it settles down all the solid impurities present in the gas having a sufficiently large size. Still the temperature of the gas is about 60 to 65 C which need to be get dow. This task of bringing the temperature of the gases to the normal atmospheric temperature is done by coolers. There are six coolers installed in the plant who used to cool the gases with the continuous flow of the water. Now the gas is allowed to pass through the fluorine separator to wash out any traces of fluorine coming with the gases. A wet gas precipitator is used in the plant to settle down any last traces of impurities in the gases. Here lead electrodes are used to charge the impurities in the gases. The gases coming out of the plant are now at 330C and is ready to fed it to Acid plant.



1. Fresh inputs to sinter machine 18.2 T/H 7.2 T/H 6.5 T/H 4.1 T/H 0.2 T/H

Zinc concentrates Lead concentrates Bulk concentrates Limestone+ Lime Iron Flux 2.

Output from Sinter Machine 1500 m3/min 2.81 T/H 45.61 T/H

SO2 gas 6% Cadmium dust from HGP Sinter to ISF

3. 4. 5. Return fines from ISF Moisture in feed to sinter machine Sulphide sulphur in feed to Sinter Machine 6. 7. 8. 9. L.S.H.S. consumption per hour for two burners Ignition hood temperature Ignition layer thickness Main layer thickness 1000 deg. Centigrade 30-50 mm 360-400mm 200 kg/hr 11.3 T/H 5-6% 5-6%


10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

Sinter machine speed Sinter machine hearth area Concentrate size Flux size Sinter sent to ISF, size Sinter sent to ISF, quantity Sinter return from ISF Zinc concentrate required per Ton of sinter consumed in ISF Lead concentrate required per Ton of sinter consumed in ISF Limestone required per ton of sinter consumed in ISF Iron Flux required per ton of sinter consumed in ISF Rattler Index of product sinter 60-80 Maximum size of return fines L.S.H.S. required per Ton of sinter consumed in ISF LDO required per ton of sinter consumed in ISF 0.1 T

0.19-2.00 m/min 120 m2 100% less than 1mm 7% 100% < 5mm, 80% <2mm +65mm-130mm 45T/H 11 T/H 0.6-0.7T 0.25-0.3 T

Crude charge return fines ratio 1:3 to 1:5 Maximum moisture in concentrate

0.3 T

< 6 mm 5.5-6 kg 3-3.5 kg



The acid plant used for manufacturing the Sulphuric acid is a traditional plant based on contact process for manufacturing the sulphuric acid. In the plant we have used following instruments in some fixed numbers as:


1. In the gas coming from the gas cleaning plant contains a significant amount of water which is to be removed before it is allowed to enter to the catalyst chamber because water may destroy the catalyst. For that we must dehydrate it using a dehydrating agent. And the dehydrating agent frequently available in the plant is the Sulphuric acid itself. We pass the concentrated acid through the tower to absorb the water vapors in the gas. After passing through the tower the acid become dilute which is mixed with the concentrated acid coming from the other two absorption towers to maintain the concentration. 2. The second absorption column is used to convert the SO3 into Sulphuric acid. A spray of the some dilute sulphuric acid made from the top of the column and we are getting the concentrated acid from the bottom of the plant. 3. The third absorption column is used to convert the remaining SO 3 into the Sulpuric acidusing the same method. The acid coming out of the last tower is approximately 98% pure. This acid is mixed with the acid coming from the other two towers to maintain the concentration. The amount of acid of each concentration getting mixed with one another is controlled from the control room

8.2 REACTORS (1):
The reactor used in the sulphuric acid plant is contain a known weight of the catalyst Venedium PentaOxide. The Sulphur Dioxide entering into the reactor get converted into the Sulphur Trioxide. The temperature at which the reaction is fastest is 450-6200C. So temperature from the control room is maintained between these limits. As the reaction is exothermic the temperature is maintained automatically inside the reaction vessel around the desired value. This is accomplished by taking out some amount of gas out of the column after each catalyst bed. When the gas is brought out first two times it is just cooled using the heat exchangers. But when gas is


brought out after next two catalyst beds it is first through the heat exchangers and then through the absorption columns.

In plant we have total 5 heat exchangers which are being used to cool the gases coming from the reactor (On tube side). These heat exchangers are arranged in such a way that proper usage of the heat generated in the plant can be done.



Parameters Total Acidity (as H2SO4) Residue on ignition Iron Content (as Fe) Lead Content (as Pb) Arsenic content (as As) Bulk density 0.050% max 0.005% max 0.002% max 0.003% max 1.840 Content 98.00% min

Sulphuric Acid is the bulk commodity chemical used by almost all the industries. It is the basic building molecule for chemical industry; used for different applications. The major consuming end use segments are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Fertilizer (Phosphatic Fertilzers: DAP & SSP) Detergent Dyes & Dyes Intermediates Organic & Inorganic Chemicals Textiles Petrochemicals Refineries Pharmaceuticals Explosives Pulp & Paper Rayon Alum Manufacturing Sugar Refining Metal Pickling



The imperial smelting blast furnace is designed to simultaneously produce molten zinc and lead by smelting prepared raw materials with preheated coke and preheated blast air. The prepared, agglomerated raw material (sinter) is fed to the top of a vertical shaft furnace together with the heated coke. Air is blown into the bottom of the shaft and the chemical reaction between this air and the coke produces carbon monoxide and generate heat to smelt the metallic oxide in the charge into the elemental metal. Molten lead falls into the bottom of the furnace from where it is tapped together with slag of a molten gangue material. At the temperature of operation, metallic zinc is formed as a vapor and rises up the furnace shaft with the furnace gases. These zinc containing gases pass through a furnace off take into the condenser containing molten lead. Here zinc is condensed to a liquid by shock cooling, the gases with a spray of finely divided droplets of lead generated by rotors immersed in the lead. After absorbing condensed zinc, this lead is pumped out of the condenser into a adjacent cooling launder where it is cooled by tube banks immersed in the launder from above. At the end of the launder the zincy lead is treated with flux and flows into a separation bath where, at the cool temperature of 440 deg. Cent., zinc separates as a molten layer on the top of lead. Zinc continuously overflows via a V – notch into a adjacent liquation bath whilst the main lead stream passes from the separation bath under the underflow weir and then into a return launder leading back into the condenser. The liquation bath is small bath in which any final separation of lead and iron from the zinc can occur before the zinc overflows to the final holding bath. Here it is allowed to accumulate before being tapped for casting or further treatment in zinc refinery. The waste gases leaves the condenser after zinc is condensed from them are passed into a gas cleaning system where they are cooled and cleaned of particulate matter. These gases contain carbon monoxide and have a low calorific value. After cleaning calorific value is utilized in


preheating the furnace blast air and in preheating the cokes any remaining excess is used in the site power plant boilers.



The ISF consists of three sections-the upper section (or furnace shaft) which contains furnace gases off take and intermediate section with a shower cooled casing and the lowest section-the furnace hearth. All three section are joined together to give a gas tight construction in which the charged is smelted. The sinter and coke are fed into the shaft though two sets of charging gears situated in the furnace roof and blast air enters through tuyeres set in the lower portion of shower cooled easing. Lead and slag are tapped from the furnace hearth and furnace gas and zinc vapor leaves the shaft through furnace off take which is set in one side above the top level of charge.

Zinc condenser is assentially a refractory lined steel tank containing molten lead with a gas above through which furnace off gases are passed. Furnace gas enters the gas space from the furnace off take and flow through the lead spray in three condensation stages before leaving the condenser through the vertical off take stack at the rear. The condenser has a shallow inverted arch refractory floor and a demountable shallow arch roof formed from cast iron and mild steel tiles. It is divided into three sections by vertical steel baffles to from three distinct condensation stages. In each stage steel baffles are three to from three distinct condensation stages. In each stage vertical rotor units are suspended from above with the rotors immersed below the normal lead level. The rotors are designed to throw the spray of lead droplets into gas space in order to condense zinc vapor contained in the furnace off takes. The condenser gas off take is a regular refractory lined stack fitted with internal liner plates. The gas pass up the stack before leaving through a doubly inclined cross over duct leaving to the gas washing tower. The off take stack is provided with doors in prder to provide facility for cleaning.


Hot lead delivered from the condenser lead pumps is cooled so that dissolved zinc separates as a second liquid phase and floats of the lead from where it can be removed by physical separation. Cooled lead reduced in zinc contents is returned to the condenser so that it can condense more zinc from the furnace gases. The metal separation system consists of two connected baths between the cooling launder and the return launder to the condenser, and two baths which form a side stream route for the zinc output metal. A lead enters the flux bath about 20 kg per hour of ammonium chloride pellets are added from the hooper and feeder system. This flux is added to minimize turbulence and the oxidation of zinc. The lead enters into a section from which it flows out over a submerged baffle, this arrangement being adopted to ensure that the ammonium chloride is thoroughly mixed into the lead and that dross is brought to the surface. The flux bath is roofed and the point of flux addition is hooded for ventilation purpose. Lead flows out of the bath via an underflow weir to prevent dross carry over to the separation bath. From the liquation bath zinc overflows to the zinc holding bath which is a surge bath allowing zinc metal output to accumulate before being tapped into ladles or moulds from transfer to zinc refinery. This bath also provides a facility for reheating molten zinc to between 480 to 520 deg cent. Which is temperature required for further handling. At the separation bath, zinc overflows the V-notch and falls into the liquation bath. The purpose of this small bath is to provide facility for removal of impurity from zinc to maintain the grade of zinc passing to the zinc refinery. Iron is removed in the hard metal which gradually forms a layer under the zinc as is cools. Lead carry over and settle in this bath and may be tapped and removed from time to time for return to cooling launder as lead ingot. All the baths of the metal separation system are of a refractory lined metal casing construction, have removable refractory lined roof tiles and are fitted with a burner and cleaning road. In the sides of the bath, refractory tapping blocks allow metal to be drained out when required. All baths are provided with ventilation ducts which passes through the roof tiles and ventilation hoods are provided over the dross discharge areas.


The purpose of these systems is to cool the condenser off gas, to remove particulate matter and to produce and deliver a clean, low calorific value gas suitable for burning in coke preheaters, cowper stoves and power generation plant. The particulate matter, containing zinc and lead oxides and other fine particles carries over from the furnace (blue powder) is washed out of the gas and collects as a slurry for subsequent thickening and return to sinter plant. Gas cleaning is accompanished by a preliminary cleaning and conditioning operation in a unpacked co current spray tower, followed by scrubbing in a special high peed irrigated fan known as disintegrator. Water droplets are then remove from the gas in A cyclonic separation and the gas pressure is booted for distribution to the gas consumers. The dirty liquor drains to a dredge tank from which it is collected for pumping to a thickener. This tank is 15m long and run under the three units, gas washing tower, disintegrator and moisture separator. It serves both as water seal and as a slurry collection tank for each unit.

The function of this system is to distribute the cleaned LCV gas from the outlet of the moisture separator to the three major consumers, or to release from the system via the flare stack at periods of low consumption. The gas booster fan is used to control the pressure in zinc condenser and the gas washing system and to deliver gas at the required pressure into the LCV gas header main for supply to cowper stoves, the coke preheaters and the boilers of the power generation plant.


The dredge tank forms a reception tank for the drain from the component of the gas washing system, and also acts as a water seal for all the down comers. Scrubbing water drain into the tank carrying with all solids scrubs from the condenser gas. The heavier solid particles settles to the bottom of the tank while the major part of the liquor carries away the smaller suspended particles and flows over a weir on the side of the tank into a line leading to a blue powder pump tank. At the blue powder slurry pump tank two slurry pumps, one operation and one stand by, pumps the blue powder suspension onto a high level open launder leading to blue powder thickener. Pumps also discharge liquor from the blue powder sump and the blue powder slurry tank to the launder. Lump material from the lump bunker is moved to the sinter plant.


This Plant is also known as 1) 2) Zinc and Cadmium Refinery Zinc Refluxing Plant

The I.S.F zinc is not suitable for zinc’s prime user i.e. galvanizers due to 1) 2) High cadmium percentage Occasional high arsenic

Hence zinc produced from I.S.F. needs a suitable refining to become of economic industrial use. The process followed in CLZS is by distillation in “new jersey type distillation columns”

Zinc refinery is situated east of I.S.F. the basic engineering is given by mechim-engineering of Belgium and process by novellas-godault of France. Main construction is done by TATA DAVY LTD.

1. Since the main refining is done in columns consisting of superimposed silicon-carbide trays, the trays can’t take thermal shock, so the process can’t be stopped more than 2-3 minutes. Only after the life (2 to 3 yr) of the columns finishes can be stopped. So the equipments which are responsible for feeding and heating must run 24hr/day.


2. Due to above reason, there are some conditions before start up. Otherwise huge expenditure & time will be taken to rebuilt the trays consisting columns.


Melting point Boiling Point Specific Gravity Atomic no. Atomic weight

Zn 419.5c 907c 7.14 30 65.37

Pb 327 1740 11.40 82 207.19

Cd 320.9 767 8.65 48 112.4

As 616 815 5.73 33 74.92



The I.S.F. Zinc is feed to the storage f/c through tilting device or by the loading door in form of 1.1T ingots. This Zn by gravity goes to the feeding furnace. In emergency 1 zinc pump is used or ladles are tilted in the feeding f/c directly. The feeding furnace through the needle valve and float valve feeds the I.S.F. Zinc to the lead columns in requite amount and temp. The lead columns which have 59 trays each are having two parts up to the 30th tray. It is having a combustion chamber around it and is known as the boiling part. The top portion above the 34th tray (feed tray) is insulated, it is the refluxing part. Only during the start up this top part of lead columns are electrically heated. If we consider the column erected by superimposition the trays, has got 8 types of trays. The top tray is different at it is connected to the condensers by a mall-rack (electro-fused silica) cross over the bottom tray, the tray above feed tray. The 30th tray is having double opening and extra electric coils around it. 33 rd tray is having different outer shape. All the rest trays are of 2 types:


1. 2.

flat type: located in the reflux part w-type: located in the bottom part (boiling part)

If we consider the composition of I.S.F. Zn and see the action of combustion chamber which is having 8 burners in each column drawing 10% of total combustion air from the burner and the rest 90% preheated air from recuperator, we find that full cadmium, half Zn vaporizes and full lead and half Zn comes down, The top product is condensed in condensers of each lead column and then again in hot condition they are fed to cadmium columns. Feed system is same as lead columns, Here the number of trays are 56 only and 2 columns are there (rest everything is same for cadmium columns) this feed is known as Zn-Cd alloy. The bottom products of lead columns are collected through sump which has an air lock type overflow system. This is Pb-Zn alloy having extra lead. This Pb is separated in liquation f/c. some hard Zn also comes and rest Zn having only the minimum lead comes out as G.O.B. Zinc i.e. good ordinary brand or prime western (PW) zinc. The top Zn-Cd alloy is separated in cadmium columns. The bottom product of this is very high grade Zinc known as special high grade zinc (SHG). The top product after condensation becomes Cd-Zn enriched alloy and is casted in moulds to be sent to Cd refinery. The SHG & GOB are casted in separate casting m/c.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) The feed tray is 34th for lead columns & 36th for cadmium columns. After the 36th tray cadmium columns are having baffles inside the trays. There are no electrical heating systems for cadmium column top portion, it unlike lead columns behave as condenser also. Total no. of trays for LC is 59 & CC is 56 each. Condenser size is small for cadmium columns.

Both types of columns have attached recuperator system for energy conservation. The I.S.F. Zn is stored to ensure a constant feed but in case this 1.1 T ingot stock fails, wer have recirculation facility of GOB zinc through 4T shaft way using one demag monorial hoist. 0.5T shaft way is also there for bringing ingots to the top floor. Weighing m/c is used to weigh the ingots before


charging. Some Zinc from cadmium refinery comes in from 0.5T ingots to be melted in storage f/c. the lead from liaq. f/c is sent to lead refinery and hard zinc to I.S.F. All other dross is also sent back to I.S.F.

A) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. STORAGE FURNACE bath erea: 18square meter free metal: 70 T Fixed metal 40 T total metal: 110T metal content: I.S.F. Zinc metal flow: 286T/Day (same as feed) 208T/Day (when ingots are used) metal feeding temp.: 480 – 5200C Bath temp.: 550 burners each of : 400000 kcal/h (Triple fired i.e. I.D.O/LSHS/LPG) B) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. FEEDING FURNACE bath area 6.6 square meter metal flow: 286T/day metal content: I.S.F. Zn metal feeding temp.: 550 bath temp.: 55-670 feeding quantity: 282T/day burners one of : 600000kcal/h


C) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

LEAD COLUMNS (LC1,LC2,LC3,LC6) combustion chamber: 14 square meter metal flow: 95T/day top flow (vapors): 38T/day bottom flow : 57T/day top outlet temp.: 850/950 incoming temp.: 550/670 bottom outlet temp.: 750/850 condenser capacity: 1square meter/ton of Zn condensed (Natural induced air type)

9. 10.

expected life: 2.5 yrs burners 8 each: 250000kcal/h (triple fired)

D) 1. 2.

CADMIUM COLUMNS (CC4 & CC5) metal flow: 57.5T/day metal content: top: An-Cd alloy enriched Bottom: SHG Zn Feed: Cd-Zn alloy

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

top outlet flow : 2.5-3T/DAY bottom outlet flow: 54.5-55T/day top outlet temp.: 850/950 bottom outlet temp.: 750/850T/day incoming feed temp: 550/670T/day combustion chamber: 14 cubic meter burners (triple fired): 8 no. each 200000kcal/h


E) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. F) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. G) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

LIQUATION FURNACE bath area: 1.25 square meter free metal capacity: 103T minimum metal capacity: 25T metal flow: 164T/day metal content: Pb-Zn alloy metal feeding temp.: 430/450 bath temp. (reheating part): 480/540 burners each having: 200000kcal/h GOB HOLDING F/C bath area: 26 square meter free metal capacity: 103T minimum metal capacity: 25T metal capacity (total): 128T metal flow: 161T/day metal content: GOB Zn metal feeding temp.: 475 bath temp.: 475/540 burners (2 no.): 400000kcal/h SHG HOLDING FURNACE bath area: 17.8 square meter free metal capacity: 71T fixed metal capacity: 17T total metal capacity: 88T metal flow input : 120T/day metal content: SHG Zn metal feeding temp.: 475 bath temp.: 475/540 metal flow (outlet): 120T/day 24h/day burners (2 no.) : 400000kcal/hr 43

Lead refinery can be subdivided into two sub sections for case of understanding 1. 2. Copper drossing area MTM Refined lead production area

In this area the copper is removed from ISF bullion in two stages. The area consists of five kettles. Each of 100 MT capacities. Out of which two are enmarked for first stage of copper drossing, or hot drossing and others are used for second stage of copper remove, or cold drossing. In fifth kettle, lead bullion from the Ausmelt Plant is charged.

ISF lead is received in lead refinery by means of 15/8 MT E.O.T crane. The ladle is placed on a hydraulically operated ladle tipper which raises the ladle to pour molten lead into hot drossing kettle. The kettles are provided with hoods with opening for stirrer and dedrosser. The hot drossing kettle is filled up to capacity and temperature of the bath is brought down to 450 deg. Cent with the stirrer running. As the temperature goes down, solubility of copper in lead decreases resulting in separation copper from the bath. The copper so separated forms a dross on the surface of the bath owing to its high melting point and low specific gravity then the bath. A little quantity of saw dust is added into the bath to make the dross dry. The dross is then removed from the kettle by means of mechanical dedrosser and is taken into skips. The copper dross is then transferred to copper recovery plant for recovery of copper.


The bath is then transferred to either of the two cold drossing kettles. Here temperature is brought down to 330 deg cent and a calculated amount of sulphur is added depending upon copper content of the bath. Sulphur reacts with copper to form copper sulphide which floats on the surface of the bath. This dross is removed manually into skips and is recharged into hot drossing kettle. Copper after cold drossing is around 200 gpt. The Decopperised lead is then transferred to MTM refined lead production area for further treatment.


Decopperised bullion is received in 150 MT capacity dearsenating kettles via a transfer pipe. The temperature of the bath is raised to 459 deg cent and 100 kg of caustic soda is added and which react to form sodium arsenate and which in the form of dross floats over the surface of the bath. Once dross is formed, it is removed by mechanical deedrosser into skips. The dross is then sent for treatment into rotary furnace. Dearsenate bath is pumped into desilverization kettle.

Desilverization is carried out in two stages, each kettle of 180 MT capacities. Dearsenated lead is received into first stae desilverization kettle at 450 deg cent. The kettle has a lead of Pb-Zn-Ag ally from the previous charge. Poor silver zinc crust from previous batch of second stage of desilverization and low grade metal from liquation kettle in silver recovery area are added into this bath. The bath is thoroughly homogenized with the help of a mixer. Zinc and silver present in the bath forms intermetallic compound which floats on the surface of the bath in the form of crust. The crust, called rich crust is skimmed off by means of perforated crane skimmer and cast into moulds for treatment in silver refinery. Once crust have been removed a calculated amount of zinc is added to the bath depending upon its silver content, zinc is melted, bath is homogenized and the bath is pumped into second stage desilverization little. When the bath is received into second stage de-Ag kettle the little already contains a crust bridge across the kettle with the central opening in it. Upon receiving the metal, thorough mixing is done and the crust bridge is homogenized with the bath. At 450 deg cent again a crust formation is there which is lean is silver. The crust is skimmed off into the moulds for charging into De-Ag first stage kettle in succeeding charge. After removal of crust bath is allowed to cool with central mixer running at very slow speed. As the bath cools down, solubility of bath zinc and silver comes down and these elements separate from the bath and come to the top in the form of crust. As the crust melting


point is higher then the bath, the crust solidify over the bath. The kettle is cooled to 325 deg cent at this temperature mixture is removed and the pump is placed in the central opening of the solidify crust and the bath is transferred to next kettle for dezincing.

This kettle is of 150 MT capacities and has a water cooled rim over it. In this kettle temperature is raised to 590 deg cent and a vacuum dome is placed over the kettle. On the underneath of the dome there is a solid rubber ring which sits over water cooled rim to make the system vacuum proof. For dezincing vacuum pump is started. At this vacuum zinc in the bath get vaporized and get deposited over the bottom of the water cooled dame. The operation is carried over in two stages of four hours each. At the end of the operation the dome is lifted away and zinc deposited is scrapped off. The dezineed bath is then transferred to first stage.

The dezinced bath is received in 150 Mt capacities for the removal of antimony. The removal of antimony is cooled softening. Here in addition to antimony residual zinc. Arsenic etc are also removed. In this kettle caustic soda and sodium nitrate are added at a temperature of 440 deg cent. All the impurities get oxidized and floats in the form of dross. This dross is removed by mechanical dedrosser and sent for the treatment in rotary furnace. Then this lead is transferred for casting. In casting condenser kettles are therein which lead condenses. Condenser lead is consumed by ISF plant.



a) b) c) d)

Break down Power failure Industrial relations problem Fire and explosions

.1 The amount of silver in rich crust is very low. It should be theoretically about 6 - 7% but presently it is fluctuation between 3 – 4.5%. .2 The amount of copper coming in the lead bullion after copper drossing is very should be less than 50 ppm but is much more than that. .3 The amount of arsenic in the lead bullion is also high. It should be less than 50 but is higher than that. .4 There is a problem in the removal of the rich crust efficiently as the homogeneity of the bath is not there. The bath contains molten lead bullion at he bottom which problem in the proper removal of the rich crust. creates ppm high. It

1. The rich crust is removed manually by skimmers with the help of cranes. As the molten lead is present just below the crust, it also comes along with the rich crust making the percentage of the silver in the crust low. 2. The skimmers are provided with the holes, so that the lead which is coming along with the crust may fall down but these holes are choked thereby stopping any passage for the removal of the lead.


3. The skimmers and the crane are operated manually and the lead metal coming along with the crust can be released again into the bath through holes provided in the skimmers if the crane and the skimmers are stand still for about a minute or so, but the skimmers are not stopped over the bath and as soon as the crust comes in the skimmers, they are poured into the moulds along with the lead. 4. The temperature for the removal of the rich crust should be ideally about 460 470 deg cent as at this temperature the rich crust is having the maximum percentage of silver but the temperature at the time of removal is mainly 500 deg cent or more, thereby causing the loss of the silver. 5. The number of moulds present is six. If the amount of rich crust forming is more than that, then the rest of the crust is not drawn which results in lowering of the percentage of the silver in the coming crust. 6. The rich crust in the form of moulds (ingots) is kept there for a long period of time. As it contains zinc also, the oxidation of zinc takes place forming zinc oxide, thereby causing problems. 7. Proper weighing and analysis of the rich crust is not done regularly. So if the amount of metals in the crust varies there is no proper measure taken. 8. Zinc added sometimes is much more than the required amount and it disturbs the analysis. 9. The arsenic present in the coming lead bullion is more than 50 ppm, this arsenic causes problems in the formation of the rich crust. 10. The homogeneity of the bath is not there, as it contains molten metal at the bottom. So at the time of the removal of the crust, metal also comes out. 11. The process is going on very fast and sufficient time is not given for proper separation of the crust and the drossing process to take place which results in the loss of the metal.


1. K3 and K4 should be properly drossed to remove copper and temperature should be less than 450 deg cent otherwise the copper will dissolve again. 2. Temperature at time of removal of the rich crust should not be more than 460 -470 deg cent otherwise the silver will dissolve again. 3. In CLZS it’s the batch process, so the analysis should be done on the basis of batch coming for the production and not on the basis of the shift. 4. Temperature measurement should be done accurately. The thermo couple should be placed in the correct place. Ensure that it is not in the stagnant area of the kettle that is fused in the solid lead. 5. The skimmers are provided with the holes; make sure that the holes are open so as to pour the lead down again into the bath. 6. As the crust is skimmed manually, the skimmers should be stand still for about a minute so that all the lead again goes down. Also the crane should be operated carefully with slow speed so that sufficient time is given for pouring back the lead into the bath. 7. The calculated quantity of zinc should be added into the lead bath depending upon the silver content. The zinc should be added according to the following table Silver Input (g/l) 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 Zinc (kg) 1220 1240 1260 1280 1300 1320 1340 1350 1370 1390 1410 Silver input (g/l) 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 Zinc (kg) 1550 1570 1590 1600 1620 1640 1530 1550 1570 1590 1720


1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900

1430 1440 1460 1480 1500 1520 1530

2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800

1730 1750 1760 1780 1800 1810 1830

8. Analysis and weighing of the rich crust should be done regularly so that the nitrate, caustic soda can be added in the upcoming process.


of the metal present can be known and accordingly zinc and other materials like sodium 9. The amount of arsenic present in the lead bullion coming in the desilverization stage should be less than 50 ppm. For this sufficient amount of caustic soda should be added in the dearsenating stage and temperature should be raised accurately to 450 deg cent and also dedrossing should be done carefully otherwise the arsenic percentage in the lead bullion going for further treatment will be more then 50 ppm. 10. As the skimming operation are performed with the help of the cranes, so the micro operated cranes can be used as the control on these cranes is much better than the cranes conventionally used.




This plant consist three different operations 1. 2. 3. Liquation Vacuum Retort Dezincing Bottom Blown Oxygen Cupel (BBOC)

This kettle is of 19 Mt capacities and has been provided with two tapping holes. The top of the kettle is maintained at 700 – 750 deg cent. and bottom is maintained at 550 deg cent. By use of this temperature difference two distinct phases form inside the kettle. The top level is rich in zinc and silver while the bottom part is mainly lead. The top silver rich phase is called high grade metal and bottom silver lean phase is called low grade metal. Rich crust from De-Ag first stage operation is feed material for this furnace. When rich crust is charged into liquation kettle, it displaces an amount of low grade metal which overflows via siphon into a mould. About one hour is given to liquate the freshly charged crust. During which time, owing to temperature difference, lead separates out and goes to the bottom while silver and zinc remains on the top. Normally two rich blocks, each weighting approx 660 kg are sufficient level of high grade metal tapping. When level has been attained, the high grader metal is tapped into high grade moulds. A layer of molten calcium chloride and sodium chloride is maintained over the both to prevent oxidation of zinc and form slag with any oxide present in the crust.


This furnace is an induction heated furnace with the graphite crucible of 1 Mt fitted into it. A movable condenser is also provided to collect zinc coming from the crucible. High grade metal is melted into the graphite crucible. When approx one MT metal is melted, the condenser is connected to the furnace and system is made vacuum tight. A vacuum of 50 m bar is maintained in the system. Zinc present in the bath gets evaporated and passes on to the condenser where it gets cooled and comes a liquid phase. Normally a operation of eight hours required to remove the zinc. At the end of the process zinc is tapped out from the condenser. Condenser is then removed from the furnace; furnace bullion is tapped into moulds for further treatment.


This is refractory lined shall type furnace with direct oil heating arrangement. There is also provision of blowing oxygen and nitrogen gas from the bottom of the furnace into the bath, capacity of this furnace is 1 MT. VRF bullion ingots are melted into this furnace and oxygen is blown through the lance into the bath. From a concentric tube of lance nitrogen gas is also blown to reduce the burn back of lance. Oxygen reacts with lead to form lead oxide, litharge, which is tapped out periodically in molten form. When all the lead has been removed, only silver remains in the furnace which is cast into 30 kg ingots for sale.

In the 1 stage of desilverizing, on adding zinc the silver and zinc forms a inter metallic compound and due to their lower specific gravity and density, they comes on the surface of the molten metal in the form of curst. This crust is known as rich crust as it has high silver content of 5-60C. This rich crust is then skimmed with the skimmers and is poured into moulds, there ingots are formed and then they are send to the silver recovery plant for the recovery of silver.

ANALYSIS OF SOME SAMPLES OF RICH CRUST Sample Sample1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 2.4 3.2 2.9 2.5 Ag% 11.5 10.2 10.9 11.2 Zn% 76 72 69 71 Pb% 6.7 6.2 6.9 6.5 Cu%


ANALYSIS OF SOME SAMPLES OF ISF BULLION Sample Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 29 20 18 10 Zn(ppm) .41 .185 .22 .13 Cu% .1036 .167 .1870 .28 Ag% .164 .2050 .19 .22 Sb%

ANALYSIS OF SOME OF THE SAMPLES OF LEAD BULLION COMING FROM AUSMELT PAINT Sample Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 28 45 15 90 Zn(ppm) .06 .196 .12 .28 Cu% .20 .185 .2956 .18 Ag% .22 .429 .39 .19 Sb%



For increasing the production of silver, the lead bullion coming from the ISF Plant should be properly dedrossed at the decopperising and dearsenaing stages followed by the properly done skimming operations at the sesilverizing stage so that the lead coming along with the rich crust is as low as possible. For syustemizing the removal of the rich crust, the crane and the skimmers should be moved carefully and the micro operated crane could also be a better option as in it there will be more control. The silver content in the rich crust will be high if the temperature at the time of the removal of the crust is between 460 – 470 deg cent and not more than that and also the concentration of the arsenic, copper and other metals is as low as possible.



The Imperial Smelting Furnace used in the production of lead and zinc produces by-product drosses from the ISF bullion floor which are rich in copper and lead, These drosses are treated in copper recovery plant by a process developed by Imperial Smelting Processes Limited. Drosses receiver from the copper drossing kettles are ground and screened and over sized material which are predominantly lead, returned to kettles. The drosses are treated in a stirred batch leach reactor by an aerated of ammonia liquor and carbon dioxide. Copper is dissolved and removed as cupra ammonium carbonate. After leaching, the slurry is filtered in a filter press and the leachant passed to leachant tank. Lead is present as a mixture of lead oxide and lead carbonate in the filter cake, the lead content being approximately 70% on a dry weight bases. The filter cake is slurried and returned as approx 50% w/s slurry to the sinter plant. Leachant is further filtered before treatment by solvent extraction to recover the copper. Copper is extracted with 1.1X 54, a copper specific diketone liquid ion exchange reagent in hydrocarbon diluents, in two stages of mixture settler. The depleted aqueous phase or raffinate, containing approx 1.5 g/l copper recycled to leaching circuit for reuse in leach reactor. The loaded organic is washed with dilute sulphuric acid to remove impurities before being stripes with depleted electrolyte to remove copper. The copper enriched strong electrolyte passes to electro winning section in which cathode copper is produced by electrolysis of the acid copper sulphate solution.

17.1 SOME PARAMETERS OF MILLING: Temperature of feed Temperature of product Size of feed Product size 70 deg cent (max) 60 deg cent (max) 80% - 5mm 80% - 75 micron 59

Ball mill capacity Mill running time

2 tonnes per hour 15 hrs/day

17.2 DROSS MILLING: The function of dross milling circuit is to grind back hoe dross to 80 % finer than 75 micron. Simultaneously as much metallic lead as possible is rejected to return to drossing kettle. Dross is received as back hoe dross for milling and also as fine dross the drossing section bag house. 17.3 GRINDING CIRCUIT: The mill is a hardinge conical ball mill, air swept in close circuit with double cone separator and vibrating screen. The mill has an overflow discharge into an air stream,. Coarse metallic fails to be transported by the air stream and will drop out into a drag link conveyer. The ground material carried up by the air stream is classified in the double cone separator. The coarse fraction is screened on a double deck vibrating screen. Coarse dross is recycled to the mill through a air lock. The cyclone overflow returns with the main air stream to the mill. The cyclone underflow forms part of the ground dross product. A bleed form the exhauster fan delivery is fed to the mill bag filter. Dust recovered from this unit is also fed to the ground dross product. The mill feed is controlled automatically to maintain the correct mill load by an audio signal from the mill. 17.4 FINE DROSS HANDLING: All the dross, consisting of ground dross, bag house dross and dross from the hygiene bag filter, is also fed to the ground dross storage bin. Ground dross and hygiene bag filter dross are fed directly into the ground dross bin. Dross is discharged from the ground dross bin by a rotator feeder into a bell hopper resting on a rail mounter trolley. A forced seal is made to prevent egress dust during loading. The rotatory wall is operated by a timer to enable a reasonable consistent volume of dross to be loaded into the bell hopper. The bell hopper is pulled clear of the storage


bin by a winch. The copper leach crane, fitted with a crane weigher, is used to transport the bell hopper in between the dross milling section and leach reactor. Nine transfers of fine dross to the leaching section are done per day. The copper recovery plant is divided into following plant area Area K2 Area K3 Area K5 Area K6 Dross Milling Leaching Solvent Extraction Electro winning

17.5 AREA K3 LEACHING: The leach reactor extracts copper from the dross produce in decopperising kettle. IN leaching fine dross is leached with CO2, H2O and ammonia to form cupra ammonia carbonate which contain copper approx 10 gpl The designed criteria: Dross treated Copper production Copper content in dross Leach efficiency Batch leach time Batch dross quantity Leaches per day 9369 t/a 2100 t/a 32.2 % 90 % 4 hrs approx. 3.25 9

17.6 A TYPICAL FEED STOCK DRY ANALYSIS: Copper Lead Zinc 32.3% 50% 3.5%


Arsenic Antimony Tin Silver Bismuth Gold Sulphur

1.3% 2.4% 0.3% 0.1% 0.025% 7.25 g/t 1.3 %

Copper is extracted by reaction with raffinate (ammonia carbonate solution) returned from solvent extraction plant. A typical raffinate analysis is: Copper Ammonia Carbon dioxide 1.5 g/l 30 g/l approx 20-30 g/l

17.7 AMMONIA RECOVERY: It is essential for environmental, health and economic factors to minimize the loss of ammonia and maximize the recovery for reuse in the process. The ammonia recovery plant: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Provide ventilation for all areas in which ammonia bearing solution are handled Recovers ammonia from the ventilation gases by scrubbing. Recovers ammonia from the wash section for recycling Produce an effluent suitable for disposal to the site effluent facility Maintain in plant conditions below the TLV.

All ammonia bearing gas stream are scrubbed with water to produce a acceptable stack discharge. The mildly ammoniacal water is then used for the final washing of the filter cake before passing to the wash storage tank.


Ammonia bearing gases are streamed are scrubbed with water to produce a stack discharge not greater than 25 ppm ammonia. Absorber water is used for the final washing of the filter cake in order to maximize the water utilization. All the ammonia bearing liquid streams, including bleed stream from the LIX wash and electrolyte circuit are collected in the wash storage tank. The composite wash is treated by the solvent extraction to remove any copper present prior to neutralization with caustic soda in the caustic soda treatment tower where the pH is raised to 11 to liberate ammonia. 17.8 SOLVENT EXTRACTION: The solvent extraction plant process 12.5 m3/hr of leachate (cupra ammonium carbonate solution) containing approximately 30 gm/1 Cu+2. Copper is transferred from the leachate to the barren electrolyte by proprietary copper specific ion exchange reagent LIX 54 diluted with Escaid 100 ion exchange diluents. A typical leachate analysis is: Copper Ammonia Carbon dioxide 30 g/l 30 g/l 23-30 g/l



Considering various processes options available such as sinter blast furnace, imperial smelting furnace, and direct smelting process etc, HZL proposed for Top Submerged Lance (TSL) technology based on direct smelting process at CLZS. TSL technology enjoys distinct advantages over other technologies. The superiority of TSL technology lies in its compact cylindrical vessel designs which leads to better pollution control, high energy utilization. 18.1.1 FEEDING SYSTEM: The fuction of the feeding system is to feed the charge or concentrates from the RMH section to the furnace, In this various belts. Bins and other equipments are used for transferring the charge. Bin 01 is situated at the ground floor. All the concentrates are first fed into this bin coming from the RMH section. From this bin the concentrates are passed on to conveyer belt CV 01 through a magnetic separator at which all the iron particles are removed. CV 01 ia a high angle conveyer belt. From CV 01, the concentrate goes to CV 02 and then to CV 03. CV 03 is a kind of belt that can move in both the directions hence called reversible belt and below it there is a shuttle having holes at the bottom through which the concentrates are fed into the bins. For bin 01 to bin 04 the conveyer move in one direction and for the rest of the bins, it moves in the opposite direction. There are 10 bins. The concentrates present in the bins are: Bin Bin 03 Bin 04 Bin 05 Bin 06 Bin 07 Bin 08 Bin 09 Bin 10 Material Lead Concentrate Silica Flux Limestone Lead Concentrate Arsenic Dross Lead Sludge Reductant Coal Revert Recycle Dust Capacity 70 m3 25m3 25m3 32 m3 25m3 25m3 25m3 25m3 65

Below these bins weigh feeders are present through which a required amount of concentrate is passed. From bins, the concentrates is passed into the Pug Mill via CV 04 which is also reversible for throwing the extra charge down again. In pug mill moisture is added. From pug mill, the concentrate is passed into the furnace via CV 05, CV 06 and CV 07 (reversible).

Selected process for proposed lead smelter is based on Top Submerged Lance Technology. In this process, a concentrate is smelted directly in a cylindrical furnace. The furnace is designed especially for this process. At the roof of the furnace there are 4 ports, one for feeding, second for lance, third is for sample dipper and the last one is for stand by burner which is used to heat the refractory bricks and also used when lance is not working. Lance has 4 concentric tubes through which air, enriched oxygen and oil is passed. This oil is atomized and its combustion tales place. The bath height in the furnace should not exceed 1.4 m. The lance can move up and down which is controlled from the control room. Lead concentrate along with recycle dust of the furnace and flux are fed into the furnace after agglomerating the feed in the pug mill. Air enriched with oxygen is introduced into the furnace along with fuel via lance. Lance rod is used to burn and agitate the lead concentrate in the slag already present in the furnace. Total process is completed in three stages: 1. 2. 3. Smelting Slag Reduction Slag Cleaning

All these three stages happen in the same furnace. In the smelting stage concentrate, recycle dust, fluxes are fed into furnace and oxygen enriched air and fuel is fed through a vertical lance which is kept submerged into the slag of previous batch. Sulphide concentrate is oxidized to lead oxide and produced lead is tapped intermittently from the furnace. Reaction that takes place at the smelting stage: PbS + O2 - PbO + SO2 (12 %)


PbO + PbS + O2 = Pb = SO2 Slag produced in smelting stage will have 40 % lead content which will be further reduced in the next stage- slag reduction stage. In this stage all the other feed is stopped and coal is charged through the feed port. Oxygen enrichment through the lance is also stopped. Coal acts as reducing agent and it reduces the lead oxide to lead bullion, which is tapped from the furnace. Reaction taking place at the reduction stage PbO = C = Pb = CO2 Resulting slag after this stage inside the furnace contains 5 % lead and zinc which is recovered in the third stage- slag cleaning stage. In this stage no bullion is produced, lead and zinc in the slag is recovered in the form of oxide after fuming the slag. This zinc and lead oxide collected from the Waste Heat Recovery Boiler and hot ESP, is recycled int eh existing sinter plant to recover lead and zinc from it. Dust collected in other stages is recycled in the furnace itself. Off gases at a temperature 1150 – 1400 deg cent from the furnace is cooled to 350 deg cent by waste heat recovery boiler. Steam generated in the boiler is sent to the leaching section of the hydrometallurgical zinc smelter. The cooled off gases are cleaned in the hot ESP. Dust content in the off gas after hot ESP will be below 100 mg / Nm3. Off gas will be further cooled and cleaned in the Quench Tower, where water is sprayed from the top and gas are passed from the bottom in the counter current direction of water. Here the temperature of the gases drops to 60 – 70 deg cent. The gas is then transferred to Packed Gas Cooling Tower (PGCT) from where the gas is passed to the Wet Est. Here the remaining dust is cleaned by spraying water and then the gas is fed to the sulphur dioxide gas recovery section or Absorption Tower where amine is added called lean amine from the lean amine tank which absorbs SO2 and becomes rich amine which is then transferred to the regenerator. Since this amine is very costly so we circylate the same amine by extraction the absorbed SO2 in the regenerator by using steam. This SO2 is cooled and transferred to the Acid Plant to produce Sulphuric Acid.




The Effluent Treatment Plant can be divided into 5 sections: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cadmium Removal Cyanide Destruction Fluoride Precipitation Heavy Metals Removal Lime Slurry Make-up


The Cadmium plant produces the effluent containing 40% cadmium. Therefore this Cadmium is precipitated before entering the main effluent treatment plant. The effluents are first mixed with 10% w/w slurry & pH is maintained at 11.5. The solids are taken to a sludge tank, which also collects sludge from the main plant. The over flow from the thickener flows into the primary reaction tank for the precipitation of the remaining heavy metals.

Blow down from the ISF gas washing system is received into an agaitated tank, where the pH is adjusted with a lime slurry. The pH is maintained at about 8. The effluent is pumped to a cascade tower prior to which the effluent is chlorinated with a vacuum ejector chlorine dosing system, at a rate of 0.825 kg/hr. The cyanide decomposes during aeration in the cascade tower,; the effluent is then pumped to the reaction tanks to precipitate heavy metals. The clarified treated effluent overflowing from the thickener gravitates to a treated effluent tank. The treated effluent is then pumped to the ISF gas washing system at a rate of 10 gm cu. M/hr. The excess treated effluent is channeled to the evaporation lagoons.


Effluent from the gas cleaning plant is the main source of fluoride ion. In order to reduce the level of fluoride to an acceptable level in final effluent this stream is treated with milk of lime slurry to precipitate fluoride to 8 mg/l. The fluoride bearing stream is fed to agitated reaction tank where it is mixed with milk of lime from the ring main & the pH controlled at approximately neutral (pH 6-8). The resulting gypsum & calcium fluoride are filtered out on a plate & frame filter pres. A standby press is provided. The coke is manually discharged & dumped. The filtrate is pumped to the main effluent stream.



Effluent arising from the following sources are routed to either the primary or secondary reaction tank: Sinter plant (Blue Powder Filtrate) Gas Cleaning Copper Recovery, Water Treatment, Boiler Blow Down (Launder & Power Generation), & Soft Water Circuit. In addition, intermittent wash-downs from the Acid Plant. Sinter Plant & Raw Material Handling & Intermittent arising from the Precious Metal Plant. The reaction vessel also receives the cadmium plant effluent & ISF gas washing effluent mentioned previously. The majority of heavy metals are precipitated in two reaction tanks by treatment with lime slurry & continuous agitation at a pH of 8.0 & 10.5 respectively in first & second tank. The effluent & precipitated solids are taken to a 30metre diameter thickener. The overflow from the thickener gravitates to the third reaction vessel where the pH is adjusted to 9 by the addition of sulfuric acid (98%w/w). The underflow from the thickener is pumped to a sludge tank, which also receives cadmium sludge. This vessel is agitated to maintain the solids in suspension The liquor in the third reaction vessel precipitates gypsum as the pH is lowered. This liquor is pumped for final clarification to a thickener where any solids removed are pumped to the sludge vessel mentioned above. The sludge collected in the sludge tank is pumped as a slurry, to the Blue Powder Thickener where it is further thickened & returned to the sinter plant.


19.5 LIME SLURRY MAKE-UP: Lime of 80%CaO crude, received in 40 kg bags is transported by hand from the storage area to the lime mixing tank at a rate about 1.1 tonnes/hr. The bags are split open on a grid over the tank & mixed with treated recycled effluent water. The lime slurry is pumped via a transfer pump to a head tank, which supplies two sets of pumps feeding lime slurry (10% w/w) to the cadmium plant & effluent treatment plant ring mains.


a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Safety Belt Safety Shoes Ear muff Face shield Safety helmet Acid proof glasses Air stream helmet Dust and gas mask Apron Hand gloves


The Safety is one of the fundamental needs of all living beings. Accident is an unwanted event and held due to carelessness. So these shouls be minimized or prevented. A Worker cum preserve himself following the safety feles and precautions to get the best out of and “Individual” his physical safety essential. These are to main reasons which induce the accidents.

In the accidents incurred by the unwanted acts, the worker is directly responsible. These type of accidents are held by improper acts, carelessness, short cuts for completing work early and overconfidence of the worker. These unwanted acts can be minimized by deepi8ng awareness, patience in doing work. One should not touch any machine or equipment or should not do any work with out having compete know I edge and procedure about it. The main reason which motivate the accidents in the from of unwanted acts are as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • Use of machine or equipment without improperly. Filling of loading the material improperly. Keeping high speed of machine. Maintaining Oiling of greasing the M/C in running condition. Poor house keeping and loose uniform Standing in unsafe condition. During working attract the attention of other worker. Use of unsafe tool and safety equipment. Have incomplete knowledge of work. Lifting or keeping the material unsafe. Disobey theinstructions and rules. 74

There are some unsafe conditions which motivate the accidents as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Work an gradeless machine. There is oil or grease on the floor of work station. Bad housekeeping. Unsafe dresses. Unsafe tool and design. Breading or absence of railing on the platform. Thus we can prevent accidents by considering the main causes unwanted acts and unsafe conditions. If the person is assured that the tool and equipment the handles are wheel designed and well build have necessary guards against misuse, he can apply himself confidently to work with out being insecure and hesitant. There are many rules for safety but main golden rules are as follows: • • • • • • • • Comply with all safety rules and refutations. Correct of report Unsafe Conditions immediately to Supervisor. Wear rotative safety equipments only when authority. Use right tool for the right job and use it safety. \keep the work place clean and tidy. Don’t horseplay. Report accident. Thus safety is the basic foundation for build tall structure and define of productivity.



Zinc and Lead plays an important role in the service of mankind. These metals are used in almost every important sector such as energy, transport, agriculture, communication, power transmission, water supply, defence, household appliances etc. Due to use of lead in ammunition, it has a strategic role to play in national defence; just as zinc plays a similar role in the nation’s economic growth.


1. Stringent of the India/U.K. Statutory Standard adopted for • • • • 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Emission of polliutants from source. Work Zone concentration on pollutants. Ambient air quality Effluents/Emmision.

Effluent after treatment plant being recyeled for Zero effluent discharge system Gaskets Pollutant being cleaned through dedusting and gas cleaning system. Regular monitoring of stock emission work Zone and ambient air quality. for sound and planned industrial development of the environs comrehesive environmental impact out after 12 months blessing data collection. Green belt arount plants. Saplings Pianted Expenditure incurred Equipment and System Environmental study. 72,000

• • • Zinc concentrate Lead Concentrate Coke 1,46,090 74,930 1,31,200 T.P.A. T.P.A. T.P.A.

The total land of this plant is 310 Hact. The Power consumption is 19.5 MWC Connected Roads and 14 MW (Captive gen. capacity) water consumption is 12,800 cum day. Above products are utilized in following ways: • • ZINC – Galvanizing, Zinc base alloys, die casting, rolled zinc products, batteries, paints and pigments. CADMIUM – Elector plating, pigments, nickel – cadmium batteries, fugicides. 77

• • • • •

LEAD - Batteries, cable sheeting, pipes, sheets, dlead base allogs and acid profiling. SILVER – Ornaments, Silver alloys, coins, electrical appliances, photo film industries. SULFURIC ACID – Fertilizer, Chemical industries, alums and other sulfates, batteries, lab chemical and explosives. ZINC SULPHATE – Rayon and textile industries, agriculture, wood preservation, flotation reagent COPPER SULPHATE – Algicide, feticide, floatation reagent azo dyes, leather training, mordant in textiles. The technology for various plant are as follow –

• • • • •

Sinter Plant Acid Plant I.S.F. Plant Lead Ref. Zinc Ref.


M/s. Lurgi, Germany. Davy, Zimmer, Germany. S.P.L., U.K. M.T.M., U.K. Mechim, Belgium

The raw material for C.L.Z.S. Comes various mines readily cruched there in form of fine grains. Mainly raw material comes form.  Rampura Agucha mines.  Rajpura Dariba Mines.  Ambamata Mines  Zawar mines. The raw material comes from the mines by roal transport and coke by both train and road. The annual production capacity of C.L.Z.S. is as follows – • • Zinc Lead By products 70,000 Tonnes/annum 35,000 Tonnes/annum


The whole process of recovering zinc and lead from the feed driven from mines is known as Pyrometallurgy in which temperature plays a very vital role. Initially Pb and Zn concentrates are being put up into the bins from which sinter is prepared by agglomeration process done in the sintering machine at a temperature aroung 1000 deg. Cent. Also generation of SO2 is there which is further used in the production of sulfuric acid. Sinter is next transferred to Imperial Smelting Furnace (I.S.F.) where sinter at 400 deg. Cent is charged along with coke at 800 deg. Cent as well as addition briquettes and a hot blast of air is passed into the furnace where PbO and ZnO are reduced by coke to the corresponding metals producing CO gas. Since boiling point of Pb is very high therefore it remains in molten from and taken along with slag in a Forehearth, Due to the difference in densities. Pb is being separated and taken as an underflow. Zn vapours and finally temperature is lowered to 440 deg. Cent in order to separate PB and Zn is recovered in a zinc holding bath whose purity is aroung 98%. These Pb & Zn obtained from ISF then goes to the refineries where impurities are further removed to obtain the metals at 99.9% purity. There are also copper and silver refineries to produce pure copper and silver derived from lead refinery process. Another technique used in the Pb extraction is derived from Australia known as Asmelt in which Smelting and reduction is done in the single furnace known as Ausmelt furnace and does not need sinter formation. Off stake gases are cooled and cleaned in a gas cleaning plant and SO2 is absorbed and taken to the acid formation plant.



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