This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
), pp. 511-529
¯ ¯ THE RIDDLE OF THE JAINAS AND AJ IVIKAS IN EARLY BUDDHIST LITERATURE
¯¯ ıvikas. Early Buddhist literature1 is acquainted with both Jainas and Aj 2 ¯ ¯ tha, and the latter ajıvika or It calls the former nirgrantha, Pa. nigan .. ¯¯ aj ıvaka.3 The former are sometimes presented as followers of Nigan .t .ha ataputta or N¯ athaputta, who has been identiﬁed as Vardham¯ ana, N¯ ˙ av¯ ıra, the last t¯ ırthankara of the Jainas; the name better known as Mah¯ ataputta corresponds to Ardham¯ agadh¯ ı N¯ ayaputta, known from the N¯ earliest surviving canonical texts of Jainism.4 The latter are presented ´ ¯ ambara) Jaina canonical literature as the followers of Gos¯ ala in (Svet ˙ identiﬁed by modern scholars with the Makkhali Gos¯ ala Mankhaliputta, whose views are reported in Buddhist literature. By combining data found in the Jaina and in the Buddhist canon, scholars have tried to ¯¯ ıvikas. reconstitute the ideas which belonged to the early Jainas and Aj Scholars rarely seem to have addressed the question what picture arises if one bases oneself exclusively on Buddhist literature.5 What ¯¯ ıvikas, or image did the early Buddhists have of the Jainas and Aj perhaps: what information about these movements did they preserve in their oldest texts? This question is legitimate, for there is no guarantee that the ideas current among the Buddhists were necessarily accurate; alternatively, they may preserve memories that are older than anything found in the Jaina canon. Either way they may deviate from the pictures preserved in the early Jaina texts. ¯¯ ıvikas. The P¯ ali canon repeatedly mentions one Consider ﬁrst the Aj or several of them. Least informative are the passages that do not tell us anything about the life-style of the person or persons concerned. Among these we may count those that recount the encounter of the Buddha soon ¯¯ ıvika called Upaka.6 They occur in after his enlightenment with an Aj aya (MN I.170–171; II.93–94, almost identical form in the Majjhima Nik¯ avagga (Vin fully printed NDPS vol. 2 pp. 336–337) and in the Mah¯ I.8), and tell us nothing beyond the fact that Upaka was, precisely, an ¯¯ ¯¯ Aj ıvika. The same is true of the Aj ıvika Pan .d . uputta (MN I.31–32), and ¯ ¯ ﬂower who informs Mah¯ ıvika carrying a mandara a-Kassapa of the Aj¯ 7 of the death of the Buddha (DN II.162; Vin II.284). The Suttanip¯ ata ¯¯ ıvikas and Nigan mentions Aj .t .has and qualiﬁes them as “argumentative
Journal of Indian Philosophy 28: 511–529, 2000. c 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.
211 f. questions the Jaina Elders (K¯ and subsequently “accepted the religion based on Five Vows. in place of [the] religion based on Four Vows. A feature of the Aj avagga (Vin I. Is it possible that the early Buddhists of Mah¯ ¯¯ ıvikas.151). and the followers of Jainas: the followers of P¯ av¯ ıra.130. We know that at the av¯ ıra there were two kinds time of the historical Buddha and of Mah¯ ar´ sva.512 JOHANNES BRONKHORST ¯ vadas ¯ ¯ ¯. a follower of P¯ ar´ sva.). Passages like these do indeed create the impression that the expression is used to refer to naked ascetics in general. 165. who wore clothes. the term “Aj naggasaman . which describes a few encounters between followers of ar´ sva and those of Mah¯ av¯ ıra.217. but the outcome is the same: they are mistaken ¯¯ ¯¯ for Aj ıvikas. rather than to any particular movement. but leaves sectarians” (Sn 381: titthiya ıla it at that. ¯¯ ıvikas that is repeatedly stressed is their nakedness. where K¯ ahapannatti (Vy¯ akhy¯ aprajn al¯ asa Vesiyaputta in Viy¯ al¯ asya Vai´ sikaputra). to refresh themselves. Ps I.10 One of those encounters is described P¯ ˜ apti) I. had taken off their clothes to let the rain cool their naked bodies. This appears to be the case in the Suttavibhanga IV.) monks ﬁnd themselves naked as a the Suttavibhanga result of a robbery. who were naked.9.74). III. In Buddhists but seeing only naked men. sent to invite ¯¯ ıvikas. Mp III. A servant girl. ¯¯ Other passages make clear that Aj ıvikas could have followers. It is not (acelaka): the introductory story speaks of Aj surprising that the commentator Buddhaghosa more than once explains ¯¯ ıvika” as “naked ascetics” (naggapabbajita. 1984: 64). . with 11 pratikraman . Vin II.8 This raises the following important question.290 f. He led for long years the life of a monk in the order.) tells the charming story of disciples of The Mah¯ the Buddha who.91–92) where the Buddha forbids giving food to naked ascetics ¯¯ ıvikas instead.9 so that included the naked Jainas in their general category of Aj the Jainas mentioned in the Buddhist canon are primarily followers of ar´ sva? P¯ Before trying to answer this question. This evidence comes from the groups of Jainas at the time of Mah¯ Jaina canon. Norman. tr. a. and practised it.135 f. The ¯ ¯¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ıvikas / of the Aj ıvikas” is used a term ajıvakasavaka “lay disciple of Aj¯ few times (AN I. mistakes them for Aj ˙ (Vin III.334. a added. it will be useful to consider the evidence which allows us to conclude that there were indeed two av¯ ıra. The terms aj ıvaka and acelaka seem occasionally used ˙ (Vin as synonyms. The fact that a blood˜ati ¯ salohito ¯ ) of king Bimbis¯ ara is stated to have gone forth relation (n ¯¯ ¯¯ ¯¯ ıvikas (aj ıvakesu pabbajito) conﬁrms that the Aj ıvikas among (the) Aj constituted one or more groups of religious wanderers (Vin IV.
e. a Kassapa has made known six classes (abhijati blue one.” And the so-called17 Kalpa-Su av¯ ıra for a year and a month wore clothes.19 As a rule nothing is said about their outward appearance.” The Jainas in the Buddhist canon are never presented as being naked. a Pu . i. . We learn from this that there were two. e bhagavam . engage in the following shared reﬂection:14 Vardham¯ Is our Law the right one. which recognises but four vows. fowlers. The supremely white ˙ class: Nanda Vaccha. differences between the teachings of P¯ ¯ ¯ Mahavıra: the followers of the former recognised four restraints and wore clothes. Since that time the Venerable One. or that which [allows] an under and upper garment? . The black class: butchers of sheep. . and a supremely white one. The presumably Mah¯ lines concerned read:16 “ ‘I shall not cover myself with that robe in ¯ ] for the rest of his life. a pupil of ana. Makkhali Gos¯ ala. It occurs in at least one passage contrasts them with naked Aj 20 ˙ Nik¯ aya and reads: the Anguttara ¯ran ¯ ) of mankind: a black one. sara [refusing of dress] is in accordance with his doctrine. or the other? (11) The Law as taught by the great sage P¯ ar´ sva. prison-keepers. ﬁshermen. while the followers of the latter recognised ﬁve restraints av¯ ıra and his followers ﬁnds and wore no clothes. butchers of pigs. . For a year and a month he did not leave off his robe. Kisa Sankicca. av¯ ıra. The nakedness of Mah¯ ¯ ¯ ˙ ar¯ anga further conﬁrmation in some other passages of their canon. He had crossed [the sam .¯¯ JAINAS AND AJ IVIKAS 513 and as a monk. a green one. The blue class: Buddhist monks who live as thieves. was a naked. after that time he walked Mah¯ about naked. giving up his robe. . . hunters. but ¯¯ ıvikas. ar´ sva and and perhaps only two. and others who follow a cruel occupation.21 The red class: Jainas (nigan tha) who wear a single garment. (13) The ensuing discussion conﬁrms that P¯ ar´ sva recognises four vows.. a red one. but that of the great sage P¯ ar´ sva allows an Vardham¯ 15 under and upper garment”. thieves. executioners. The Ac ¯ Sutra describes how the Venerable Ascetic (saman . . The green class: house-holders who wear white cloths and are lay disciples of naked ¯¯ [ascetics] (acelaka). or is the other Law the right one? are our conduct and doctrines right. This that winter’. . a white one. In of P¯ this chapter Ke´ sin.13 a follower of P¯ ar´ sva. The white class: Aj ıvikas of both sexes.12 That ﬁve vows and nudity are the marks that distinguished the followers of Mah¯ av¯ ıra from those ar´ sva is clear from the 23rd chapter of the Uttar¯ adhyayana. . houseless ¯tra states:18 “The Venerable Ascetic [sage]. and believers in karma and [the efﬁciency of] works. . and accepted the alms in the hollow of his hand.23). or the Law taught by Vardham¯ ana. deerstalkers. ”. he remained nude . and Gautama. and speciﬁes that “the Law taught by Vardham¯ ana forbids clothes. which enjoins ﬁve vows? (12) The Law which forbids clothes [for a monk]. ). world-relinquishing. ana ﬁve (Utt 23. decided not to wear “that piece of cloth”.
rejecting conventions. from where food is advertised to be distributed. once every seven days. to one morsel. They keep to one house.t . they dwell pursuing the practice of taking food at stated intervals. . They take food once a day. from a pregnant woman. are presented as naked in the asaccaka Sutta of the Majjhima Nik¯ aya.. from a woman lying with a man. The fact that the lay disciples of the naked ascetics are the Aj ¯ ¯) does not conﬂict with a described as wearing white clothes (odatavasan this hypothesis: exactly the same term is elsewhere used to describe ataputta (e. . on two saucerfuls a day .e. they drink no liquor. there are. and so on up to once every fortnight. Kisa Sankicca. acelaka is to be understood as a ¯¯ ıvaka. . across a stick. too. Lay disciples of naked ¯¯ ıvikas. in the following passage Mah¯ 23 which is put in the mouth of Saccaka the Nigan . . once every two days . wine or fermented brew. i.g. as it is to the lay followers of Nigan . Makkhali Gos¯ ala. . The development that can be discerned from class two to class ﬁve is one of increasing nakedness.514 JOHANNES BRONKHORST This passage is interesting for various reasons. from where ﬂies are buzzing. they accept no ﬁsh or meat. For our present purposes it is particularly interesting to see that the ˙ Nik¯ aya Jainas are described in the above passage from the Anguttara as “wearing a single garment” and therefore as not being naked.22 ¯¯ these by Aj ıvikas who wear no clothes at all. from where a dog is waiting. but on two counts from the followers of Mah¯ they wore clothes and followed four rather than ﬁve vows or restraints. licking their hands.244). to two morsels .24 This supports our conjecture that the Jainas mentioned in the early ar´ sva. the same three individuals characterised here as constituting the supremely white class. they keep to two houses. they receive nothing from a pot.ha’s son: ˙ Well. from two eating together. from a woman giving suck. or respect for nakedness. What was the position of the Jainas depicted in the Buddhist canon? . across a threshold. The followers of Buddhist texts are primarily the followers of P¯ av¯ ıra. They live on one saucerful a day. might then be included among Mah¯ ¯¯ ıvikas. for example. They go naked. on seven saucerfuls a day. not stopping when asked. if this conjecture is correct. . It conﬁrms our earlier ¯¯ observation concerning the strong link between Aj ıvikas and nakedness.37).ha N¯ describe the lay followers of the Buddha (e.g. higher than Jainas. across a pestle. to seven morsels. Buddhist monks are in this respect exceeded by Jainas who wear just one garment. If we wish to check our hypothesis to the extent possible we have ar´ sva distinguished themselves to keep in mind that the followers of P¯ av¯ ıra: not just on one.t . DN III. they keep to seven houses. It monks rank between Jainas and Aj seems likely that in this passage. synonym of aj Interestingly. MN II. Nanda Vaccha. from a bowl. they do not accept food brought or food specially made or an invitation to a meal. not coming when asked.
. as Abhayadeva adds. 1) concluded from this that these restraints were not intended to represent the four vows kept by the followers of P¯ ar´ sva. . What four? He is curbed by all curbs ¯¯ (var ı).t .t . And as far as a Nigan .ha is bound by a fourfold restraint. ao  savvao . and claimed by all curbs.tti] 202 a is ¯ ana ¯ and commented as ‘accepting (ad ¯ ana ¯ ) from taken as bahirdhad outside’.ha N¯ ¯ amasusam ¯ as well bound by a fourfold restraint (catuy . Hermann Jacobi noticed. ga (which qualiﬁes them as taught by “the twenty-two arhats in the middle except for the ﬁrst and the last one” enumerates them as follows:26 ¯ ay ¯ pan ¯. ). “Abstaining from all taking what has not been given” ¯ veraman ¯ bahiddhad ¯ an ¯. too. A Sutta of the Sam aya. P¯ av¯ ıra’s both fourth and ﬁfth commandment would correspond with Mah¯ (sexual abstention and non-possession . Schubring (1962: 30) resumes the situation as follows: “The ¯ ana ¯ ] by [Abhayadeva’s Sth¯ ˙ .t . a (sic). enclosed by all curbs.t . i. . cleared by all curbs. . It is true that the speciﬁcation of to Mah¯ ˜n ˜aphala Sutta does not agree with what aman these restraints in the S¯ we learn from the Jaina canonical texts. vuta. . Rhys Davids (1899: 75 n. a Nigan . word [bahiddhad a n¯ angavr .ha is called self-perfected. yutta Nik¯ . ¯ an ¯. . It seems however safer to agree with Maurice Walshe where he states (1987: ˜n ˜ aphala Sutta] do not aman 545 n.e. the accepting of things not belonging to the monk’s standard outﬁt. .” ar´ sva enumerated in the Jaina texts? How are the four restraints of P¯ an The T . thus the Nigan . ativ ¯ ao ¯ veraman  savvao . already in 1880 (p. am .ha is bound by this fourfold restraint. h¯ . characterises Nigan ataputta . “Abstaining from all lying” ¯ adin ¯ ¯ ¯ n ad an ao veraman  savvao . ‘a decent term for Leumann sees expressed in bahiddha-d 28 copulation (the delivery of sperm)’. W. self-established. Thus it is P¯ asa’s third vow that av¯ ıra’s including corresponds with both the third and ﬁfth of Mah¯ . SN I. . . a there is some difference of Regarding the meaning of bahiddhad opinion. This prohibition is said to include the ‘possession’ of a asa’s (= P¯ ar´ sva’s) fourth female individual.. self-controlled. .66). am . “Abstaining from all killing” ¯ musav ¯ ay ¯ ao ¯ veraman am  savvao . am . T. Thus.27 The former of these two ¯ an ¯.¯¯ JAINAS AND AJ IVIKAS 515 ˜n ˜ aphala Sutta of the D¯ aman ıgha Nik¯ aya attributes the following The S¯ 25 ¯ t ha N a taputta: views to Nigan . 160 (799)). am . that the fourfold av¯ ıra and his followers really belonged restraint here attributed to Mah¯ av¯ ıra’s predecessor P¯ ar´ sva. 115): “[The four restraints of the S¯ represent the genuine Jain teaching but seem to parody it in punning form. ..
The Udumbarika-S¯ ¯ amasam ¯ ıgha Nik¯ aya uses the expression catuy varasam of the D¯ . – all such go to the Woeful Lot. adiy . or cause it to be taken. vuto “restrained by the four restraints” in connection with a hypothetical ideal ascetic. samanun ¯ ¯ bhan ¯ bhan ¯ bhan na musa (iii) na musa .t . to Purgatory. ato ˜n ˜ato hoti. sati. na musa .29 it will be useful to draw some lematic expression bahiddhad other passages from the Buddhist canon into the picture. The Buddhist ˙ Sutta of the Sam aya attributes the following doctrine Sankha .ha Nataputta: [a] Whosoever slayeth a living creature. yutta Nik¯ 30 ¯ (dhamma) to Nigan . ¯ na adinnam na adinnam (ii) na adinnam . does not approve of such harming. ¯ ¯. The Sankha Sutta enumerates the above four points for the beneﬁt of a lay follower of the Nigan . It might be maintained that av¯ ıra. apeti. which is not strong in itself.has. . The four restraints are speciﬁed thus:32 ¯. am atipatayati. does not cause a living being to be harmed. [b] Whosoever taketh what is not given.516 JOHANNES BRONKHORST prohibition of any appropriation other than by gift as well as by acquisition. [c] whosoever acts wrongly in respect of sensual passion. samanun ¯ ¯ ¯ apeti. adiyato ˜n ˜o hoti. (ii) he does not take what is not given. ar´ sva. viz.31 This objection. am atipatayato ¯ (i) na pan na pan na pan ˜n ˜o hoti. a – be interpreted in a sexual sense. sato asim asim na bhavitam asim (iv) na bhavitam ˜ ˜ samanunno hoti. with the exception of the one they are really the ﬁve vows of Mah¯ that can only be kept by a monk: apariggaha “possessionlessness”. ati. 1987: 390): (i) he does not harm a living being. looses most of its force in ıhan¯ ada Sutta the light of another Buddhist passage. sapeti. Asibandhakaputta. samanun ¯ ¯ . a. ¯ ¯. or approve of such taking. . with the proviso however This agrees with the four restraints of P¯ ¯ ´ that one of Parsva’s restraints – the one that uses the expression ¯ an ¯. [d] whoseover tells lies. . . na bhavitam ¯ ¯ . adiyati. ¯ ¯ ¯ . to Purgatory.” Rather than concentrating on the possible explanations of the prob¯ an ¯. am atipapeti. who follows the path of the Buddha.t . bahiddhad ˙ Against this the following objection might be raised. This has been translated (Walshe. – all such go to the Woeful Lot.
whose views had not yet reached their ﬁnal form.38 Whatever the truth in this matter. After all. In spite of this. for several ataputta’s death and the Buddha’s comments Buddhist Suttas mention N¯ 37 upon it. if he didn’t. and only came to be looked upon as such in relatively later parts of the Jaina canon. and who may have followed one or more speciﬁc teachers and shared among themselves a speciﬁc school doctrine.t . one might consider the possibility – suggested by Mette ataputta and Mah¯ av¯ ıra were not one and the same (1991: 134) – that N¯ person.40 The passage studied above mentions the names of three individuals who together constituted .¯¯ JAINAS AND AJ IVIKAS 517 (iii) he does not tell a lie.ha N¯ his disciples. though contemporary with the Buddha. it is the last item on the list that causes difﬁculties of interpretation. including the Jainas av¯ ıra. of the four restraints of the followers of P¯ We can conclude from what precedes that the early Buddhists knew ar´ sva’s four restraints but attributed them to Nigan ataputta and P¯ . does not exclude that there may have been “real” who followed Mah¯ ¯¯ Aj ıvikas. this point of view has been maintained by some modern scholars.] Our hypothesis to the extent that the early Buddhists used the term ¯¯ Aj ıvika to refer to all naked religious wanderers.36 At ﬁrst sight this conjecture – that Mah¯ Buddha for some time – has little to recommend itself. or approve of such lying. This may be a mistake on the part of the Buddhists. but that the early Buddhists were aware of the exact meaning ar´ sva. (iv) he does not crave for sense-pleasures. or approve of such craving. too. or cause a lie to be told. it allows of the interpretation given in the ¯ an ¯. ar´ sva. We may therefore conclude. or had not yet gained currency. during the latter’s av¯ ıra survived the life time.35 [The question whether Mah¯ av¯ ıra died before the Buddha may be considered relevant in this context. we do not ar´ sva in association need this hypothesis to explain the teachings of P¯ with the Nirgranthas. if it can be accepted – as has been argued so far av¯ ıra were included under the more general – that the followers of Mah¯ 39 ¯ denomination of Aj¯ ıvikas. a in translation. is obviously a variant of the four restraints of P¯ Once again.33 However. This. we may then be led to believe that he was. a younger contemporary. cause others to do so.34 Alternatively. not only that bahiddhad the Jaina texts is (also?) to be understood in the sense “sexual intercourse”. wanderers who used this expression to refer to themselves.
In combination with the fact that Sandaka. squatting. on the dissolution of Vaccha asks whether there is any Aj the body. It is yet among these that we ﬁnd a ataputta. is in the Buddhist ¯¯ ıvikas.ha N¯ ¯ That is to say. ¯¯ ıvika who. associated with the Aj never with the Jainas. to exert himself in the squatting posture. to be bald. it seems justiﬁed to think that the . This sermon (as do some other sermons) presents a wandering ¯ )43 belonging to the Vaccha clan (vacchagotta) ascetic (paribbajaka whose personal name is not given but who is addressed as Vaccha. ¯ At Sandaka’s request Ananda enumerates four “ways that negate the ¯ ) and four “kinds of holy living of the holy life” (abrahmacariyavasa ¯ ¯ ¯ ). Makkhali Gos¯ ala. Kisa Sankicca. the answer is. negative (MN I. pulling out hair and beard – are found among the latter as well. This seems conﬁrmed by the concluding remarks of the “real” Aj aya (no. It is at least conceivable that these were the recognized saints of ¯¯ ıvikas. merits further attention. and to pull out his hair and beard. four are attributed to naked ascetics.483). certain that the Sutta has to be understood in this manner. or even exclusively. and texts primarily. It is tempting to identify this ¯ Vaccha who is so obviously concerned with the fate of the paribbajaka ¯¯ Aj ıvikas with Nanda Vaccha. namely. This particular Sutta would then have to be understood as an attempt by the Buddhists to claim for themselves (Vaccha is converted in the very next Sutta) one of the leaders of the ¯¯ Aj ıvikas. those mothers’ dead sons. mentions the ¯¯ Aj ıvikas at the end of this Sutta. the remaining four are not. 76). 71).44 The four life without consolation” (anassasikani brahmacariyani “ways that negate the living of the holy life” are each followed by these comments:45 “But it is superﬂuous for this good teacher to go about naked. and Makkhali Gosala A further conﬁrmation may – but this is much less certain – be found in the Tevijja-Vacchagotta-Sutta of the Majjhima Nik¯ aya (no. The Sandaka Sutta. the remaining characteristics – baldness. laud themselves and disparage others. has made an end to suffering or has gone to heaven. It ¯ contains a sermon addressed by Ananda to the wanderer Sandaka. position that is elsewhere in the canon attributed to Nigan . mentioned above. from among the eight positions described by Ananda.” Nakedness. and ˙ they recognise only three emancipated ones. Nanda Vaccha. as we have seen. of course. however. The then following four “kinds of holy life without consolation” are not commented upon in this manner. Kisa Sankicca. Here the wanderer the Sandaka-Sutta of the Majjhima Nik¯ ¯ )41 Sandaka is reported as stating:42 (paribbajaka ¯¯ These Aj ıvikas. ¯ .t . as we have seen. It is not.518 JOHANNES BRONKHORST ˙ the “supremely white class”: Nanda Vaccha.
that is why I asked. ala46 and Pakudha Kacc¯ ayana respectively. that is why I did not get any. Among the then following four “kinds of holy life without consola¯ ani ¯ brahmacariyani ¯ ) we ﬁnd a position that is elsewhere tion” (anassasik explicitly associated with the Jaina leader Nigan ataputta. a wild bull. he meets with a wild elephant.¯¯ JAINAS AND AJ IVIKAS 519 ¯ ) four “ways that negate the living of the holy life” (abrahmacariyavasa ¯¯ are here presented as positions belonging to Aj ıvikas.t . knowledge and vision are continuously and uninterruptedly present to me. the teacher concerned is allowed to reply to this criticism. he asks the name of a village or a town. a wild bull. that is why I met with them. This cannot but be meant as a criticism of the claimed omniscience.’ It does not require much reﬂection to see that for someone who claims omniscience there can hardly be another way but this to explain his . that is why I asked. I had to get no almsfood.ha N¯ ¯ladukkhakkhandha Sutta of the Majjhima by his disciples in the Cu Nik¯ aya. Pu Sutta of the D¯ . that is why I was bitten. Ananda ﬁrst criticises the claim to omniscience of the anonymous teacher by saying:52 He enters an empty house.ha N¯ conﬁrms our earlier conclusion that the Jainas are not counted among ¯ begins the second part of his exposition the naked ascetics. which should be able to avoid all these futile or disagreeable events. The Sandaka Makkhali Gos¯ Sutta does not attribute them to anyone in particular. a Kassapa.t . I had to be bitten by a dog. of course.’ This passage literally repeats the words attributed to Nigan ataputta . I had to meet with a wild elephant. Interestingly. a wild horse. he asks the name and clan of a woman or a man.50 Omniscience is. that is why I entered it. Sandaka. and the way to go there. These necessarily mean that they all belonged to the “real” Aj ˜n ˜ aphala aman positions are identical with the positions attributed in the S¯ ¯ ran ıgha Nik¯ aya to Ajita Kesakambalin. the ﬁrst “kind of holy life without consola¯ tion” is followed by a sequel that is particularly interesting.51 However. a wild horse. to have complete knowledge and vision thus: ‘Whether I am walking or standing or sleeping or awake. an important theme in the Jaina canonical texts. it introduces each of them with the words:47 “Here some teacher holds such a doctrine and view as this”. some teacher claims to be omniscient and all-seeing. I had to ask the name of a villager or a town and the way to go there. a dog bites him. in the following passage:53 When he is questioned: ‘How is this?’ he replies: ‘I had to enter an empty house.48 This . I had to ask the name and clan of a woman or a man. Ananda 49 with the words: Here. he gets no almsfood. this does not ¯¯ ıvikas.
The similarity between be the only feature it shared with Aj ´ya ¯) of the Jainas and the six abhijatis ¯ the six “colours of the soul” (les 54 ¯ ¯ of the Ajıvikas has often been commented upon. What is more. probably one of the saints feature of the teachings of Makkhali Gos¯ ¯ ¯ of “real” Ajıvikism. A self-proclaimed omniscient person who enters an empty house for alms should have known beforehand that the house is empty. but the present passage from the Sandaka Sutta shows that it may very well have been part of the early teachings of this religion. Determinism may have been one of them. and with them the need for determinism as a means to explain them. so why does he enter it? The only justiﬁcation possible would be to maintain that this particular excursion had not been inspired by the incorrect belief that there were people in the house. whether in the form of absence of almsfood and biting dogs.520 JOHANNES BRONKHORST misadventures to a sceptical critic. ¯ Ananda does not react to the reply of the omniscient teacher. It does not really ¯¯ ıvikism matter here whether Jainism borrowed these notions from Aj (as has often been maintained). or vice-versa. The omniscient person entered the empty house because he had to enter it. and again it is not necessary (nor indeed possible. as we have seen. However. it is no more ridiculous than the idea of omniscience. if it did indeed characterise early Jainism. is subject to deterministic rules. elements of behaviour that might be taken to be in conﬂict with their omniscience disappeared. One might conjecture that determinism had an important role to play av¯ ıra was still alive and in the then following in the days when Mah¯ period during which the human behaviour. It is a ala. including errors. Determinism. would not ¯¯ ıvikism. It is not commonly associated with the Jainas. It might even be maintained that it is practically impossible for a human teacher to seriously claim omniscience without at the same time maintaining that human behaviour. it would seem) to resolve the . This shared feature can be taken as an indication that there may have been others. or elephants and other wild animals that cross his way? Strict determinism is not normally associated with Jainism. of the omniscient leaders of Jainism were still part of collective memory. but was rather determined by a pre-existing set of rules. leaving the impression that he ﬁnds this reply totally unconvincing and ridiculous. Strict determinism makes even an omniscient person behave like an ordinary one. or both from a common source. including his own. determinism may have started to be felt as a limitation to the power of a Jina. How else would he account for his mishaps. With the subsequent idealisation of the omniscient sages of Jainism.
but this may have been the only feature they all had in common. an obscure expression which seems to refer to Mah¯ av¯ ıra’s clan. . is the customary (correct?) etym. in spite of PTC s. 5 An exception is Jacobi.v. t¯ oldest texts never use the term ’fordmaker’ and very seldom jina. ¯¯ ıvikas mentioned in It seems likely that the Jainas (nirgrantha) and Aj the Buddhist canon are not simply two distinct and clearly delineated religious movements that existed at the time of the historical Buddha. NOTES 1 This article conﬁnes itself to the Buddhist canon in P¯ ali. 1992: 22 (diacritics and emphases added): ”There is no knowledge of Mah¯ av¯ ıra’s given name Vardham¯ ana in the earliest stratum of the biography and the use of the epithet Mah¯ av¯ ıra as a personal name. .has. niggan tha”. or underwent a great change up to the time of the composition of the Siddh¯ anta. all the more so since it occurs in the title of Basham’s important book on the topic (1951). In order to come nearer the solution of this question.¯¯ JAINAS AND AJ IVIKAS 521 question who borrowed from whom. Dundas. .v.t .hi . it may be desirable to collect from the published Buddhist works.t . all available information about the Nigan . Adelheid Mette has made the suggestion that these different names and epithets did not necessarily refer to one and the same person in earliest Jainism. The link between omniscience and determinism.”? 3 ¯¯ The P¯ ali canon (at least the PTS edition) more often uses the term aj ıvaka. which is the term that has become current.. 2 The PTS edition never seems to have niggan tha. . ” Cp. .. Furthermore. as the oldest witnesses we can summon. the . Instead we ﬁnd terms such as Nayaputta . The term Aj may have been used for more than just one religious movement. is unknown in the ﬁrst book of the Ac ar¯ anga. . Where ¯¯ I am not directly quoting the texts. while occurring in the ﬁrst book ¯ ¯ ¯trakr ˙ ˙ of the Su anga.. the word which ¯ gives Jainism its name. it is still open to doubt whether the religion of the early Nirgranthas was essentially the same as that taught in the canonical and other books of the present Jainas. may have made the latter doctrine particularly attractive for all self-proclaimed Jinas. called in Sanskrit ˜¯ Jn atr . ‘son of the N¯ ayas’. Dhaky. “nigan tha and . and the name by which he is known in early Buddhist writings . Both may have adhered to a strict determinism. Our reﬂections lead us to the following tentative two-fold conclusion. On the other hand. . see below. 4 Cp. one passage in the Buddhist canon suggests that the doctrinal position of the early Jainas may have ¯¯ ıvikas than has often been been less distinct from that of the “real” Aj supposed. and av¯ ıra beside “real” may indeed have covered the followers of Mah¯ ¯¯ Aj ıvikas and various other religious wanderers. . 1895: xv: “. . 1991. nigan tha: “nis-gan . I will always use ‘Aj ıvika’.. . . a position which was eminently useful to explain the human shortcomings of their “omniscient” leaders. The feature they all shared was nakedness. No attempt has been made to include Buddhist canonical passages preserved in other languages. suggested above. ¯¯ ıvika The situation may have been more complicated. Does this explain the question mark at PTSD s.
.¯ pasen ı// acelao ya jo dhammo jo imo santaruttaro. 64: saman ¯ ¯ Kalpa Su ıre sam . 67): caujj . 23.2 pp. 8 This does not need to be in conﬂict with Basham’s (1951: 107) observation to the extent that “[i]n later time the rule of nudity does not seem to have been regularly ¯¯ followed [by the Aj ıvikas]”. Recherches I p. . masam ..489–490 . see Freiberger. . . 1962: 29.29 (ed. sam . 23. 155 f.865 (ed. apariyagam . 1884: 259–260. en sa ı// caujj ya jo dhammo jo imo pam .v. 7 ¯¯ Some parallel versions do not record that the person with the ﬂower is an Aj ıvika. agare Jacobi.432–433 (ed. Deleu. bhagavam . 200 s. vas thae ırai naggabhave . ed.9. vaccharam .522 JOHANNES BRONKHORST their doctrines and religious practices.255&257 ¯ tam ¯ e ˘ (ed. vaccharam .9. Lalwani) p. Jacobi. . 6 ¯¯ Some parallel versions do not specify that Upaka is an Aj ıvika. seven nigan . xx): “It is .224. Ladnun p. Mette (1991: 134) draws attention to the fact that P¯ ar´ sva may once have been looked upon as the proclaimer of Uttar¯ adhyayana 6. as and seven paribbajaka ¯ jat thas. ¯¯ see Bareau. 1895: 119 f. Cp. Calcutta I p. [the Nigan thas] wore one garment. Leipzig. a param . c¯ ¯¯ ¯ ten ¯.” He comes to the conclusion (p. Sen.n ¯ . 201). 1999: ch. 1997. 65 – which mentions the presence of seven ¯. camahavvaiyam . . But when praised for their modesty. desio vaddhaman . DPPN II p.. 208): keriso va ı ima .11–13 (ed. . 171). seven ekasat s – does . 9 Another comparable general category (“Allgemeinbegriff ”) in the P¯ ali canon is ¯ designated by the term paribbajaka . 14 Utt 23. . 64 s. ed. i dhammam uvasam pajjitt a n am viharati/ tae n an . am . 15 Utt 23. 4. 13 Mette (1991: 134) takes the name Ke´ sin (“possessing hair”) as a clue that P¯ ar´ sva’s disciples were not shaven headed. see Bareau. 1931: 42–43.v. Bombay p. khu an . Ladnun p.9. . en ¯ . 10 See further Schubring. . 72. mahav . Tr. i saman ¯ . 89): ‘no c’ev’ imen ıhissami . itta ¯ jassat ¯ k¯ ¯ . . modiﬁed. Ladnun p. 1973–1985: I: 134. tr. Cp. 72). PPN I p. ed. 1. 170. Recherches II. ¯ vatthagam ¯¯ ¯ . java ¯ . ih¯ ¯ va keris¯ ¯ amo ¯ ¯. a see Bruhn.h¯ in the following words: “Unlike the Acelakas. Lalwani. p¯ . . . Nigan a paraphrases Dhp-a III. tassa. seven acelas. Ladnun p. Delhi p.” See also Mette’s suggestion regarding the identity of N¯ ataputta and Mah¯ av¯ ıra mentioned below. 1. se kal . 11 On pratikraman .847–849 (ed. 172.1. a ya mahamun ¯ . i-pad sahhiya-m asam ıvaradhar ı hoththa/ . 12 Viy 1. na rikk’asi ı tam . they answered that their reason for wearing a garment was to prevent dust and dirt from falling into their . 1920: 309–310. 133). a pasen ¯ a ¯. . 1. 1. jam avakah ae. ikkaman ¯ ¯ asavesiyaputte ¯ ¯ bahun ¯. casikkhio/ desio vaddhaman .t . si hemante’ – se para ¯ ¯ eyam ˆhiyam ¯ . tr. e bhagavam . Bombay p.9. 17 For a description of this text and its position in the Jaina canon.1.23–24 ¯ am ¯ ao ¯ dhammao ¯ pam (ed. iggahie . 1884: 79. Jacobi. Bombay ¯ imo dhammo imo dhammo va keriso/ ay ¯ aradhammapan ¯ ¯ va ¯ p. sapad . udhammiyam . ¯. does not change this. . Kesi. not help to arrive at a correct interpretations of these categories. Bombay p. mahajas 16 ¯ Ay¯ ara I. tr. not probable that the doctrines of the Jainas have undergone a great change in the interval between the quoted Buddhist records and the composition of the Jaina canon. acele pan . 1970: 85. a covering in front. a vatthen . ed. . vosajja vattham . a ya 210): acelago ya jo dhammo jo imo santaruttaro. There can be no doubt that Ud p. . Charpentier p. . acelae tao ca .. ilas.150 .9. .2&4 (ed. am . 19 The fact that the Nigan thas are described as shameless (ahirika) at AN V. 218–219. paun ¯ . ai paun ¯ . Charpentier p.300 (ed.a ¯ . agare ¯ an ¯. an . sa . am . 172). Aj ıvikas without further speciﬁcations are also mentioned Vin IV. ¯ ¯ . 18 ¯tra (ed. see Winternitz.
am . . akavuttika.v. 25 ¯ ¯ ˜ ca . . catu-y . Walshe.. id bhujyat[e]. aka. . ah ¯ ¯ . 4.. sabba-var ı-phut tho ca.tti of Abhayadeva. Delhi p. am api bhavat¯ . parigrahavis . 27 ˙ ¯tram and Samav¯ ˙ ¯tram. ¯ Tatr’ puran ati ı odatavasan a ¯ . ¯ arenti. 1987: 96–97. . sadiyanti. habhij ˜n ˜atta. dv¯ ıhi pi datt¯ ıhi yapenti.. bahiddha 29 Cp. : Nando Vaccho.238: “Seyyath¯ ıdam Makkhali Gosalo . . vuto hoti? . . . na yattha sa thito hoti.. ¯ ye va ¯ pan’an ˜n ˜e pi keci macchaghatak ¯ ¯ Tatr’ idam ¯ . . Evam tho catu-y ama-sam . ena kassapena haliddabhij ¯ ¯ pan ˜n ˜atta: ¯ gih¯ ¯ ¯ acelakasavak ¯ a. 1979: 24–25 n. yapenti. thitatto cati . .. akamantaram . p. ¯¯ ¯¯ ¯ ¯ sabba-var ı-dhuto ca. amantaram . na yattha makkhika . vuto hoti.77–78). vastu. . For even dust and dirt are actual individuals and endowed with the principle of life. . na dan . tac ¯ ¯ dharmopakaran ¯ bahir yad ca dharmopakaran ıty ata aha: bahistat . ¯ muttac ¯ ar ¯a ¯ hatthapalekhan ¯ ¯ na ehibhadantika. ad ¯ yos iti. ¯ n¯ ¯ ¯ pan ˜n ˜atta. na el . a. bhante ¯ . na sankittisu. abhij ti. . sabba-var ı-yuto ca. nigan tho gatatto ca yatatto ca . ¯ Tatr’ idam kan . . Ekahikam pi ah dv¯ ıhikam pi ah sattahikam ¯ aram ¯ .1. 1995: 333. 57).136 (ed. ¯ haliddabhij ¯ ¯ pan ˜n ˜atta. na kal . Te ekag a. Puran atiyo pan . am . ¯ arik ¯ a ¯ va ¯ honti ekalopik ¯ ¯ dvag ¯ arik ¯ a ¯ va ¯ honti dvalopik ¯ ¯ sattag ¯ arik ¯ a ¯ va ¯ pipanti. . bhante puran ˙ ¯ ¯ . gives the Sanskrit equivalent bahiradhvan for these two terms. nigan .. parigrahyam ¯ parigrahas tayor dvandvaikatvam athava ıyata ity ad .1. bhante puran ¯ ye va ¯ pan’ an ˜n ˜e pi keci kammavad ¯ a ¯ kiriyavad ¯ a. ¯ lohitabhij ¯ ¯ pan ˜n ˜atta. . 1951: 243–244. adharas” (Jaini. 22 It is not clear why the Jainas are here described as wearing just one garment ¯. . ena kassapena lohitabhij ¯ ¯ pan ˜n ˜atta: ¯ nigan ¯ ekasat ¯. ah ¯ ad ¯ ¯ ¯ anam ¯ . Kiso Sankicco. These are the practices of someone who tortures himself and purused the practice of torturing himself (puggalo ¯ anuyogam ¯ attantapo attaparitap anuyutto. ˜jaman ¯ anam ¯ . Tatr’ . hanti. bhante ¯ . nigan tho catu-y ama-sam tho . . vuto hoti. 24 It is intriguing that the Digambaras “describe Makkhali Gos¯ ala (called Makkad . pi ah Iti evarupam pi pariyayabhattabhojan anuyogam ˜¯ ¯ viharant¯ anuyutta ı”ti.” 20 ¯ ¯ . 26 ¯ T h a n a 4. N an as¯ ıhan¯ ada . ılabhij ati . Yato . na mam sam . ca ¯ ¯ anam p. amoli and Bodhi. ena kassapena n¯ ¯ ¯ pan ˜n ˜atta: ¯ bhikkhu ¯ kururakammant a. ¯ ¯ san d asan d ac arin ı . iha ca maithunam ıta . . ¯ ¯ ¯¯ ¯ ¯¯ catu-y ama-sam tho sabba-var ı-varito ca hoti. vara-sam ... h¯ . na nimantan . ¯ na musalamantaram an . see Basham.266 (ed. . vuccati ¯ . 134). . na gabbhiniya. aka) where the followers of P¯ (ekasat ar´ sva are allowed to wear an under and upper garment. . . na suram na merayam na thusodakam . na maccham . ¯ Tatr’ idam puran ati tha .342. . na hy aparigr . na dvinnam . ad . Note that the Mah¯ Sutta of the Majjhima Nik¯ aya uses the same words to describe the ascetic practices of the Buddha before his enlightenment (MN I. vuto hoti. . ¯ Tatr’ idam ¯ . ah ¯ ¯ ¯ arenti. Ladnun p. parigrahe ’ntar bhavati. Mette. . hanti. ¯ an ¯. ¯ pan ılabhij ati ati ati ¯ ¯ pan ˜n ˜atta. 103). ao”tti ¯ maithunam ´es ¯ . 1951: 139. . . addhamasikam ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ arenti.383–384: Puran atiyo pan ati . . ena bhante kassapena chal ¯ ˜n ˜atta: ¯ kan ¯ ¯ AN III. 4.57: . Bombay . 135: “bahirddhad bahirddha: . ¯ na payam ¯ ¯ aya. . s. 609). ¯ ¯ Ekissa ¯ pi dattiya ¯ yapenti.d . . bhante puran ¯ ¯ pan ˜n ˜atta: ¯ orabbhika ¯ sukarik ¯ ¯ sakun ¯ . Kathan . bhun ¯ ˙ ¯ upat ¯ na purisantaragataya. ¯ patigan patigan . ika ¯ magavik ¯ ¯ ludda ¯ kassapena kan ati a a . ¯ paramasukkabhij ¯ ¯ pan ˜n ˜atta. ¯ ¯ honti sattalopik a. abhij .. Tr. 673. bhante puran ¯ . bahiddha. nigan DN I. nigan . habhij ¯ a ¯ cora ¯ coraghatak ¯ a ¯ bandhanag ¯ arik ¯ a.d . MN I.. ¯. ah ¯ ¯ aram ¯ . sattahi pi datt¯ ıhi ¯ ¯ ¯ aram ¯ . . Tr. 1991: 135 f. 21 For this translation. ena bhante kassapena ima ¯ chal ¯ ˜n ˜atta ¯ ¯ sankicco makkhali gosalo. Basham. ena kassapena paramasukkabhij ¯ ¯ pan ˜n ˜atta: ¯ nando vaccho kiso idam ati . na uddissakat . 28 Note that Ratnachandra’s Illustrated Ardha-Magadhi Dictionary III p. ena sukkabhij ati ati . nigan . 412). ¯ ¯ na abhihat Te na kumbh¯ ımukha . . 23 ˙ ¯ – ete hi MN I. Cp.¯¯ JAINAS AND AJ IVIKAS 523 alms-dishes. . thabhadantika. . ayam .. vara-sam . am ... Sth¯ an¯ angas u ay¯ angas u . with the Vr Cp.266 (ed.i or Masayari) as a mendicant in the tradition of P¯ ar´ sva who wished to become one of Mah¯ av¯ ıra’s gan . opimukha . vara¯ ¯ sam tho evam ama-sam . ¯ na tit ¯ bho gotama acelaka a. ena kassapena sukkabhij ¯ ¯ pan ˜n ˜atta: ¯ aj ¯¯ ¯ aj ¯¯ idam ati ıvaka ıvikiniyo.
musav ¯ savvam ¯. (no. ”.n . . am .).F. Ladnun p. 32 DN III. Jacobi. am . 31 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯l¯ The ﬁve vows of Mah¯ av¯ ıra are described as follows at Ay ara II (Ay aracu a) ch.392 f. .243 f. a-n .  savvam .” ¯ pehae ¯ parivvayam ¯ man ¯ na sa ¯ maham (samae ı bahiddha/ . 1. e nayaputte edition). am atimapeti ¯ ¯ ayiko ¯ SN IV. 1951: 75.  . am ¯ savvam ¯ an vaidosam . speaks of “the Venerable Ascetic ¯ mahav ¯ ¯ ¯ Mah¯ av¯ ıra of the K¯ a´ syapa Gotra” (saman ıren . Utt 2. a Jn . . text cited from Bombay . . .  .6. T. en . 6). eta . the unfolding of pictures on the inward comments: “Bhavita . . Tr. being indeed only triﬂing. The stanza of the Dasavey¯ aliya concerned (2. the Sraman atr ayaputta/N¯ ataputta).A. dhammam in . knowledge. all sexual pleasures . There is no canonical support for the claim. .g. who then took the lead of the community. 2. . //. he was a K¯ a´ syapa.t . an . .  .) and Up¯ ali Sutta (MN I. . however.ha N¯ the Buddha. 33 Cp.W. . n . as¯ jaso-dam ıle) and 23d: “the Sraman atr . 33: Sang ıti Sutta).  . . in the Abhayar¯ ajakum¯ ara Sutta (MN I. . ‘She is not wanders about with equanimity. ed. am ¯ kasave of the Jinas” (an asupan . 15 (ed. (no. . 1983 (on Jacobi). Jacobi) and therefore identiﬁes Mah¯ av¯ ıra with K¯ a´ syapa. to the extent that N¯ ataputta died soon after spitting blood as a result of the defection of Up¯ ali described in the Up¯ ali Sutta (MN I. . K¯ see Su a´ syapa. kasaven .317: [a] yo koci pan sabbo so ap nerayiko. Later (1895: xxxi–xxxii) he gave expression to the assumption “that . am .117 f. 104: S¯ amag¯ ama Sutta). Jacobi. bhagavaya . 34 Jacobi (1895: xxi) draws attention to another “signiﬁcant blunder” of the Buddhists: “they call N¯ ataputta an Aggivesana. 278–288. on the other hand. . . putra (= N¯ ¯ ¯¯ noble.99–100). Charpentier). to siya . all taking of anything not given .209 f. Bombay pp. . ed. Walshe. Rhys Davids. 38 E. e). adin . putra [is] the highest of men” ¯ (louttame saman ) of the same chapter (tr. and of whose reforms. ed. appears to be equivalent to the content of the term bahiddha in which the warning of the Dasavey¯ aliya stanza was meant”. who is . 1991: 135): “It could be that. . . o nissara¯ . At ﬁrst sight the ¯yagad Su ayaputta (= N¯ ataputta) and K¯ asava (= K¯ a´ syapa). .ı . 283–285): ¯ ¯. pariggaham . no vi aham . [d] yo koci musa nerayiko. Woodward. . .1 (ed. . e. . . .e. ¯ . has proclaimed this highest Law ¯ mun ¯ ¯ ¯. nor am I hers’. . pan .7ab: “The omniscient sage. ed.n . 37 MN II. am . ed. a Jn .387).371 f. 766. according to the Jainas. eye. and C. his opponents were not aware” (1880: 160 (799)).” 35 It would be interesting to know whether Jacobi’s “signiﬁcant blunder” (see the preceding note) might be explained in the light of this possibility. [c] yo koci kamesu micchacarati ¯ ayiko ¯ ¯ bhan ¯ ayiko ¯ sabbo so ap nerayiko. .. . am . uttaram . . 28. ¯ vin ¯ . while he ¯). san . ´ ˜¯ ¯.. Lalwani pi t¯ ıse icceva tao . . see further Bechert. e nayaputte. 1921: 44 n. 1884: 202–208: mehun . ¯ ayam  pacchakkhami savvam savvam .  pacchakkhami . 241–246. aiv ¯ .  pacchakkhami . 1927: 223–224. his senses digress outwards (bahiddha mine. the product of bhavan a ¯ in just that sense. 39 Jacobi maintained that “the Buddhists ascribed the old Nirgrantha creed [and dressing habits] to N¯ ataputta.g. . Delhi pp. made by Buddhaghosa (Ps III. . ati sabbo so ap Tr. Ladnun pp. an . saman jat ı. 29: P¯ as¯ adika Sutta). . a would seem to identify N¯ ¯y I. jin . . Basham. ˙ ¯ DN III.4) states (Mette. tr.  pacchakkhami ¯ ¯ ayam ¯ . full of faith.48–49. (no. ad . . DN III. 36 It is yet interesting to see that Nigan ataputta is depicted as scheming against . Mette (1991: 136) translates “he aspires not the object of his imagination” and ¯ ¯ ¯. only by thinking of her in this way can he curb his passion. Agnivai´ sy¯ ayana. glorious. . ´ ˜¯ beside verses 14cd: “. [b] yo ¯ ¯ ayiko ¯ ¯ ¯ koci adinnam adiyati sabbo so ap nerayiko. all vices of lying speech . i. 1987: 600 n. pacchakkhami “ I renounce all killing of living beings . all attachments . . . aejja ragam p. . and virtue” (. . and we may credit them in such particulars about their own T¯ ırthakara.524 30 JOHANNES BRONKHORST ¯. . Bombay p.
n . mun .). above. above. 51 Cp. is the one presenting the views of Makkhali Gos¯ ala (DN I. 50 ¯ ˜n ˜u ¯ sabbadassav ¯ ¯ MN I. . The same attribution occurs MN II.has. ¯ ¯ ahosi. . nandam . 516. depicted in the Kukkuravatika Sutta (MN I. paccupat .514. makkhalim . . 1992: 22. ˜¯ ˙ ¯ sankiccam ti. one who regards oral tradition as truth”. vad . ena pi assena samagacchati. one who is “a reasoner.. were not the section of the church. The use of the expression paribbajaka here and in the Sandaka ¯¯ Sutta suggests that this term also covers the Aj ıvikas. yet continued.d .d . which submitted to the more rigid rules of Mah¯ av¯ ıra. Tr.. iyam .” 40 A different kind of naked (acela) ascetic is the one known by the name kukkuravatika “imitating a dog”. tena pavisim . pavisati. N an amoli and Bodhi. the dull and confused one. senti pare ca ¯ aro ¯ pan ˜n ˜apenti. .d . 53 ¯ ˜n ˜am ¯ . at MN II. n . ¯ attana ¯ n ˜ c’ eva ukkam MN I.429. . adassanam ˜an samitam thitan – ti. to retain within the united church some particular usages of the old one. Examples are Seniya. Nathaputto sabban ı aparisesam . . Kukkurena . ena samagacchati.482 the Buddha denies that this characterisation applies to him. And I don’t say it is not so. ikappadhanam . N an .520–521: so mandatta tho samano . . . Tr. Schubring.220. tena nalattham . The Buddha himself is stated to have practised nudity before his enlightenment. . . And I don’t say it is otherwise.t . ¯ Ananda mentions a teacher who is “a traditionalist. 1995: 623–624.) Exactly the same words are attributed ˜jaya Belat ˜n ˜aphala Sutta (DN I. 45 MN I. ¯ vambhenti. Jaini. vaccham .6). amoli and Bodhi. 1995: 628. pavisitabbam MN I. These words are attributed to Pu . 1995: 620. pat . and ﬁnally one who is “dull and confused” (MN I. no no ti pi me no ti. asati. momuho).519: So sun . 44 ˜¯ MN I.218. 1995: 618. ¯ samagacchati. adassanam ¯ ati: ¯ carato ca me tit ¯ n thato ca suttassa ca jagarassa ca satatam . tatha me no. mando . of whom the Buddhist records usually speak. Pin .. gosalan 43 ¯ See note 8..d . N¯ 46 The Sandaka Sutta presents the long enumeration of often obscure items elsewhere attributed to Makkhali Gos¯ ala at the end of the last position. 52 ˜n ˜am pi agaram ¯ . ¯ran AN I. am pi na labhati. .211–212). put . without forming a hostile party. .493 f.¯¯ JAINAS AND AJ IVIKAS 525 the original Nigan . . ¯ ¯ can can can . adassanam ˜an samitam thitan – ti. 1962: 327. ijan . MN I. no ti pi me no. v¯ ımam ı. ˜¯ ¯. . me agaram .. It is hard to derive a to San aman . am .hiputa in the S¯ clear position from these descriptions. apajjati .92–93: Nigan tho . 42 ¯¯ ¯ puttamataya ¯ putta.d . .t .” (MN I. Tr. . 41 See note 8. a Kassapa at AN IV. the one elsewhere attributed to Pakudha Kacc¯ ayana. . amoli and Bodhi. an inquirer”. I imagine. . dit . kisam .524: Ime pan’ aj ıvaka . MN I. . amoli and Bodhi. gamassa .127 he speciﬁes that no one can know and see all simultaneously.d . At MN I. in eel-wriggling: “I don’t say it is like this. tayo c’ eva niyyat seyyath¯ ıdam . s¯ The last of these. N an . Tr. 1995: 624. : evam – pi no. paccupat .53–54.58). ˜an ¯. ¯ avikkhepam ¯ ¯ ¯ pi me no.515: atirekam kho pan’ imassa bhoto satthuno naggiyam . who. And I don’t say it is not not ¯ momuhatta ¯ tatha ¯ tatha ¯ pan ˜ham ¯ so.517–518. ijan . SN III. takk¯ ı .. ¯. . anussavasacco. kesamassulocanam ukkut . ˜ anamoli and Bodhi. me aladdhabbam . tr. ena pi hatthina . . but those followers of P¯ ar´ sva.e. N an . an ˜n ˜atha ¯ pi ¯ vac amaravikkhepam .520: anussaviko . and Korakkhattiya (DN III..77 f.428. IV. And I don’t say it is like that. A passage that might be taken to suggest the opposite.519: idha Sandaka ekacco sattha ı aparisesam . pat . 1979: 27–28.. Dundas. ˜¯ ¯ pi nigamassa pi namam pi maggam pi pucchati. ahosi.515. which in one reading enumerates 4’900 ¯¯ ¯ aj ıvakas and 4’900 paribbajaka s. ¯ . . . 517: idha ekacco sattha ı hoti evam thi.519: So kim idan ti put tho samano sun . ena pi ¯ ¯ pi purisassa pi namam ¯ ¯ gon itthiya pi gottam pi pucchati. 49 ¯ sabban ˜n ˜u ¯ sabbadassav ¯ ¯ MN I. ˜an ¯. 47 ¯ evam ¯ ¯ MN I. adassanam ¯ ati: ¯ carato ca me tit ¯ n thato ca suttassa ca jagarassa ca satatam . i. kukkuro pi d . 48 The remaining three “kinds of holy life without consolation” are less revealing. . pin MN I. . is said to engage in verbal wriggling. .
Jozef (1970). Pt. (1991). Erster Srutaskandha. commentary & indexes. 1956: 283. ed. Paul (1992). Bombay: Shr¯ Ay ara (= Ac ar¯ anga Su aranga-Suttam. HERENOW4U (http://www. Ladnun: Jain Viswa Bh¯ arati. Reprint: Motilal Banarsidass. then the Nigan thas surely must . Ac ar¯ anga-S u Text. Research Institute. 2) Ac ar¯ angas u ¯trakr ˙ ¯tram. Can . 1895: xxx. 1) Ay ˙ ¯vijaya. . M. Delhi. 1983. ¯ ¯ Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 1995: 833). ed. 120–124. London and New York: Routledge. Viyahapannatti (Bhagava¯ ı): The Fifth Anga of the Jaina Canon. “ ‘N¯ ataputta’ in Early Nirgrantha Literature’. since they now feel such painful. REFERENCES ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˙ ¯tra). . isam . piercing feelings”. . Introduction. this passage is part of a list of similar remarks.A. N an .here-now4u. Schubring. . Tr..herenow4u. (Lala Sundar Lal Jain Research Series. uka caused by class [among the six classes of birth]. critical analysis. S¯ agar¯ anandasu ı. 1. tenapucchim . Leipzig: F. Ed. ahosi. addha. Frauwallner. belong to a bad class. .A. tena . 2 (I)). re-edited with appendices etc.222: sace. Ladnun: Jain Vishva Uttarajjhayan an ac¯ arya Mah¯ aprajn . Delhi. 1987.de/ger/spr/religion/Bruhn/ and http:/www. 2. ¯ Deleu.. Klaus (1999). Jaini. A. 54 E. t¯ ´¯ ˙ ¯ ri. IT 11: 287–290. vedenti. ahosi. tena samagamam . ena hatthina ¯ ¯ ¯ samagamam . Gamassa ˜¯ ¯ pi maggam pi pucchitabbam ti. ¯ abhijatihetu ¯ accepted the abhij¯ atis (MN II. Varanasi: P. ‘A Remark on the Problem of the Date of Mah¯ av¯ ıra’.526 JOHANNES BRONKHORST ¯ samagantabbam ¯ d tho.de/eng/spr/Bruhn/).A. Heinz (1983).) Pp. ena assena samagantabbam .d .L. Muni Nathamal. M. Reprint: Motilal Banarsidass. Dhaky & Sagarmal Jain. V. ¯tra). Kanons in Auswahl u . R. A Vanished Indian Religion. . ¯ bhikkhave. ˜¯ tr. ena samagantabbam . Dalsukh Bhai Malvania Felicitation Volume I. Bechert. Tsuchihashi. Fu Ethik / Five Vows and Six Avashyakas – The fundamentals of Jaina ethics.V. ten’amhi dat . (1951). ed. amoli and Bodhi. (The Library of Religious Beliefs and Practices. bhikkhave. tenapucchin 624. Muni Jambu ı ¯ ¯ ¯ ˙ ¯tram Mah¯ av¯ ıra Jaina Vidy¯ alaya. 1977 (Jaina-Agama-Series No. Jacobi. N an . 2) Nava Sutt¯ . (Aspects of Jainology.) ¯ Franke. ahosi. Nigan ¯ pap ¯ abhij ¯ ¯ a ¯ yam ¯ a ¯ pat tha atik . 1951: 245. The Jains. . 1973. 1979: 114: 26. ena ¯ ¯ ¯ pi purisassa pi namam ¯ gon .) Dhaky. i V. Analyse und Glossar von Walther Schubring. History and Doctrines of the Aj ıvikas. 4) Anga Sutt¯ ani I.d .g. 10. Yuv¯ Bharati. D¯ ıghanikaya. 1996. Go ¨ttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. A passage in the Devadaha Sutta suggests at ﬁrst sight that the Nigan thas themselves . some of which (such as the belief that feeling pleasure and pain is caused ¯ by the creative act of a Supreme God.d . ¨nf Gelu ¨bde und sechs Avashyakas – Grundzu ¨ge der JainaBruhn. 3. ed.. asitabbam . 3) = Lalwani. Das Buch der langen Texte des buddhistischen ¨bersetzt. 1962: 196 n. Otto (1913). 1910. Bombay edition. ¯¯ Basham. a. etarahi evarup ¯ tippa ¯ kat ¯ vedana ¯ vediyanti “If the pleasure and pain that beings feel are dukkha . ahosi. ahosi. However. 1995: . Itthiya ¯ ¯ ¯ pi gottam pi pucchitabbam pi nigamassa pi namam . satta sukhadukkham . ahosi. Dundas. 2031. Leumann. 1978 (L¯ al¯ a Sundarl¯ al Jain Agamagrantham al¯ a I) 3) ¯ ¯ ´ ˙ ¯tram. 1889: 331 (517). Can . amoli and Bodhi. issaranimmanahetu ) clearly do not concern the Jainas. 1981. Can . by Muni Jambu ¯vijayaj¯ S ıl¯ anka. Brockhaus. 1951. racking. with the Niryukti of Bhadrab¯ and Su angas u ahu and the commentary of . for details see Dasavey¯ aliya Sutta (= Da´ savaik¯ alika Su ˜a.S. Basham.. tena samagamam .
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