You are on page 1of 27

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Financial Modeling E-book


Part 1 of 4

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

www.educorporatebridge.com

Discussion topics
Overview of Financial Modeling Excel Best Practices Modeling Warm Up Key Financial Statements Working Capital Schedule Depreciation Schedule Amortization Schedule Long Term Items (Others) Schedule Building Income Statement Shareholders Equity Schedule Shares Outstanding Schedule Preparing for Debt & Interest Trouble Shooting

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Completing the Financial Model

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

www.educorporatebridge.com

Introduction to Financial Modeling


Simplified representation of performance
Both past and future

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Blend of skills is required


Understanding of the companys (projects) operations Accounting Knowledge Corporate Finance principles Excel (spreadsheet) techniques

Different Types of Models


Earnings model with projected earnings/ profits Debt/ Recapitalization/ Financing Model Merger Consequences model (Mergers/ Acquisitions/ Divestitures) Discounted Cash Flow models

Utility of Financial modeling


Virtual recreation of the actual business (need to understand the business logic) Ability to test assumptions to analyze impact on future performance
Growth Rates Operating Margins Product lines/ business segments Refinancing/ recapitalization

Understanding the purpose of the modeling in order to create the right design and functionality

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

www.educorporatebridge.com

Assumptions Importance in Financial modeling


Need to have clear and well defined assumptions
Referred to as drivers or inputs these are based on a thorough understanding of the business

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Assumptions should reflect business realities and expectations


No bias should get into the assumptions on the business Always remember GIGO Garbage In Garbage Out Use the past performance and a guide for future expectations Clearly understand the expected changes in future performance Understand Management expectations Check out what other analysts think about the company

How to make Assumptions


Past as an indicator of future performance, except in case of
Start up situations Significant acquisitions or divesture activities Volatile industry structure

Key tests a financial model should withstand


Is it a reasonable model Can the assumptions/ model be defended

Features of an effective model


Should be realistic based on reasonable and defensible assumptions and projections Should be flexible and adaptable with dynamic working schedules (or modules) Should be easy to follow, should not intimidate the reader
TM

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

www.educorporatebridge.com

Excel Best Practices


Maintain Consistency
Makes understanding and constructing easier Consistent Color scheme makes life easy for self and others using the model

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

BLUE for inputs (historical data, assumptions, drivers)


BLACK for calculations and references on same schedule/ asset GREEN reference from another schedule/ sheet RED warnings to another user/ links to another model

Clarity of presentation
You should be able to understand the model when you revisit after some time lapse! More Important Others should be able to understand!

Be efficient
Utilize excel to improve productivity Do Not hard code in formulae cells

X
Separate line items are always useful

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge


TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com

Excel Best Practices


Be efficient
Do not input same numbers twice. Also, Excel takes care of formatting!

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Never Hide rows or columns its useful to group them instead (Data -> Group)

Set up the first sheet as a template for a complete worksheet using Page Set Up
Use Edit -> Move/ Copy Sheet to create as many sheets as required in the model Take care as named cells will be duplicated in the new sheet

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com

Modeling Warm Up!


Use a Modular Approach
Core Statements Income Statement, Balance Sheet, Cash Flow Statements
Focus on Others

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Prepare supporting schedules


Do all the dirty work Use them as a conduit between core schedules Export the supporting schedules to the core statements on completion
All projections need to be referenced from Schedules

Balance Sheet and Cash Flow Statements

Working Capital

Income Statement

Debt & Interest

Plant & Machinery, Depreciation

Cash Flow Statement

Shareholders Equity

Intangibles, Amortization

Balance Sheet

Other LT Items

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com

Things to Remember
Historical data as a guide for projections
Aim at projecting future performance Remember you are an Analyst and not an Auditor! Do not get worked up if historicals do not reconcile (its quite common!)

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Reasonable and Defensible set of Assumptions and Projections Models need to be efficient and clear
A bad model is difficult to follow and audit A good model should be easy to follow and focus on key drivers

Use Beta testing


Test the logic after inputting right or down check for flow

Challenge each assumption with the following


How does the model behave if you increase the assumption? What is a impact if the assumption is decreased? Try making the assumption equal to Zero What if the sign of the assumption changes?

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com

Key Financial Statements - Overview


Create the line items
Income Statement Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Income Statement
Historical information Project Revenue and Operating expenses (Sales to EBITDA)

Balance Sheet
Historical data only

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com

Income Statement - Sample

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Setting up the Income Statement


Sources for appropriate line items financial statements, management guidance and research Incorporate detailed line items to suit the business under analysis Ensure the income statement represents the company/ industry

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com 10

Balance Sheet - Sample

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Setting up the Balance Sheet


Sources for appropriate line items financial statements, management guidance and research Simplify or expand line items to sit the analytical objective Modify as required to represent the company/ industry

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com 11

Cash Flow Statement - Sample

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Setting up the Cash Flow Statement


Past allowances are usually not made historical cash flow statements are often difficult to reconcile Ensure the columns are consistent with the Income Statement and the Balance Sheet Standard layouts are useful for references from other schedules

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com 12

Income Statement - Sample

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Calculations in Black Inputs are in Blue

Input past information in the Income Statement Normalize for any non-recurring items Ensure to make notes as necessary Calculate historical ratios & growth rates Do not forget formatting!

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com 13

Income Statement - Sample

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Forecasted figures

Forecast net sales for future years Drivers: forecasted annual sales growth Sources: management guidance, research, past trends Challenge assumptions for being reasonable Footnote all sources for assumptions

Drivers based on input assumptions

Only one blue input cell if constant growth is assumed

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com 14

Income Statement - Sample

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Inputs from research/ past trends

Forecast future operating expenses Drivers: margin assumptions for future operations Sources: management guidance, research, past trends Challenge assumptions for being reasonable Other Expense/ (Income) is usually a number based on research/ past trends (but not in % terms like other specific line items) Calculate till EBITDA. Depreciation & Amortization will be referenced from schedules to be built in model Drivers

Calculations

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com 15

Balance Sheet - Sample

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Calculations in Black Inputs are in Blue

Its practical to show 2 condensed debt items

Input past information for the Balance Sheet Check if past Balance Sheets are balancing If combining line items into one item, make sure not to miss out any items

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com 16

Illustrative Flow of Funds

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Income Statement

Cash Flow Statement

Balance Sheet

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com 17

Working Capital Schedule


Working Capital Overview
Create the working capital line items Reference the historical balances Calculate past ratios related to working capital items Project future working capital by each line item Calculate projected cash flows generated out of working capital items Link with balance sheet & cash flow statement work sheets

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Referenced from Income Statement

Setting up the Working Capital Schedule


Ensure clarity by using the same working capital line items in the same order in the balance sheet Reference Net Sales & Cost of Goods Sold from the Income Statement these are the drivers for working capital line items

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com 18

Working Capital Schedule - Sample

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Referenced from BS

Calculations

Reference the past data from the balance sheet


Calculate net working capital Arrive at increase/ decrease in working capital

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com 19

Working Capital Schedule - Sample

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Calculations

Calculate historical ratios and percentages


Use the ending or average balance Both are acceptable as long consistency is maintained

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com 20

Working Capital Schedule - Sample

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Assumptions

References, if constant

Assumptions for future working capital items


Certain items without an obvious driver are usually assumed at constant amounts Ensure assumptions are reasonable and in line with the business

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com 21

Working Capital Schedule - Sample

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Drivers

Projections

Drivers

Use the future ratios and assumptions to project the forecasted working capital balances

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com 22

Working Capital Schedule - Sample

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Check and make sure the signs match!

Calculations


All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge
TM

Arrive at Cash Flows based on individual line items Ensure signs are accurate!
Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com 23

Balance Sheet - Sample

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Referenced from Working Capital Schedule

Link up the forecasted Working Capital to the Balance Sheet

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com 24

Cash Flow Statement - Sample

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Referenced from Working Capital Schedule

Link up the forecasted Working Capital cash flows with the Cash Flow Statement

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com 25

Illustrative Flow of Funds


Working Capital Schedule

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Sales COGS

Income Statement

Working Capital

Change in WC Working Capital

Cash Flow Statement

Balance Sheet

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

Private and Confidential Not for Circulation

www.educorporatebridge.com 26

For FREE Resources


MS Excel 2010 https://www.educorporatebridge.com/Microsoft-Excel-2010-Beginner-Global

Financial Modeling Ebook 1 of 4

Valuation & Financial Modeling https://www.educorporatebridge.com/valuation-financial-modeling.php

Corporate Bridge Blog


Finance News, Articles, Interview Tips etc
https://www.educorporatebridge.com/blog

For Online Finance Courses


https://www.educorporatebridge.com

For any other enquiry / information


Email info@educorporatebridge.com

All Rights Reserved. Corporate Bridge

TM

www.educorporatebridge.com