STRINGS OF THE ORCHESTRA WORKSHEET THE VIOLIN The development of the modern violin stems from ______early types____________________________of

instruments available in Europe during the middle Ages. Some historians even suggest that the origins of stringed instruments can be traced back to ___Asia_________ many centuries before it appeared in _______Europe_____________________. In essence, the modern violin is one of the __________oldest_____________________ stringed instruments. Presumably, the word violin derives from the Latin word __________vitula____________________. Other sources claim that the word violin means _________small____________________ viola. Existing ____________pre-Classical________________________ instruments hint the current look of the modern violin. Today’s quality instruments still follow the same traditions that _______luthiers____________________ or instrument makers followed in the old times. The vielle and the __________rotta_______________________ are two instruments were commonly used in Europe during the 11th century. Throughout the _________12th century________________________, vielle makers continued changing the instrument appearance by cutting a shape similar to that of the violin. The ____________fiddle______________________ was a stringed instrument used

poplar. Along with the piano and the voice. the violin is considered to be the _____soprano___________________ voice of the string orchestra. ebony and _____rosewood______________. The violin is mostly made out of _______wood_____________________. The structure of the fiddle experienced changes that led to the conception of the _____gamba_______________ instrument family that include the ancestors of the violoncello and the double bass and the family of _______viols_________________ that include the ancestors of the viola and violin instruments. A string player can produce double stops when two notes are played ___________simultaneously_________________________________. The violin is capable of playing more than one _______note___________________ at a time. the violin is one of the instruments with the most extensive ______concert_________________ repertoire. The violin comes in different _______sizes______________ for different _________age_________________ groups. . We call this technique double ____________double stop___________________________ technique.throughout the 14th century to accompany ________singing________________ and dancing. The most commonly used woods for all the stringed instruments are: spruce. Major ________composers__________________________ have recognized the musical possibilities of the instrument. The violin is able to play at a higher ______register________________ than all the other instruments of the string family of the orchestra. Because of its _______melodic______________________ character. ____maple___________.

In classical music. most composers divide the violins into two sections: the ____first________________ violins and the ________second__________________ violins.You can start training on the violin as early as _____4____________ years old. In most symphony orchestras. In general. The violin is capable of playing a _________wide____________________ range of notes. thus creating more inner voices and harmonies. The combination of first and second violins gives _____composers_________________ more possibilities of ____greater__________________ melodic creation and interaction. The ____second________________ violin part could also be compared to the _______second_______________ soprano part in the chorus. opera orchestra. Due to the large number of _______violinists_______________________ in the orchestra. the violin is used frequently as a member of the _______symphony____________________ orchestra. Throughout all these years of teaching music. ballet orchestra and solo repertoire to play _________melodies_________________________. there are about _________30_____________________ violinists which represents about 3 times more than any of the other string __________sections___________________ of the . three octaves or ________36_______________________ notes is considered a plausible range. I have learned that reading music and playing a musical instrument stimulates certain areas of the ____brain______________ that are associated with the ___________development__________________________ and coordination of brain and muscle activities. string quartets.

. The Italian word violino means “small________viola”_______________. which refers to the word ____arm______________________ and also to the instrument. This plucking technique is called ______pizzicatto________________ and it is used by all members of the stringed family of instruments. viola da braccio. Later. This number creates a solid sonority and an artistic _______balance_______________________ between sounds coming from the different families of instruments within the ______symphony___________________________ orchestra. THE VIOLA In the 16th and 17th Centuries the term viola had a more _______general__________________ meaning. the instrument was known by the _______Italian_________________ name. you should not be surprised if you see a violinist _______plucking__________________ the strings to produce sounds. Nonetheless. The violin is mostly played using the _____bow__________________. Originally. the _________viola______________________ gets its name from the fact that it is an instrument played on the arm of the performer. braccio means “arm. The term viola was used to describe a variety of ______string____________________ instruments. the viola is known as Bratsche.orchestra.” In Germany. As a member of the viol instrument family. In English. the term viola referred to specific instruments.

the _______viola________________ is mostly made out of _______wood_________________. Similar to the violin. and Bass (lowest). poplar. The most commonly used woods for all the stringed instruments are: _____spruce___________. Alto (high). These changes include: lateral pegs. maple. Tenor (low). ___________violists_____________________ are happy to believe that they might be the earliest link to the stringed instrument family. String makers were building violas and liras do braccio. The viola is exactly the same shape as the . F sound holes and violin ____________shaped________________________ instruments. some of these changes influenced the design of the modern _______violoncello____________________ and the modern viola.Some scholars and performers believe that the viola may have appeared earlier than the _______violin______________________. The tenor viol was difficult to _________play_______________________ because it was too large and hard to hold comfortably. with __________four_____________________ strings since the 1500s. The viola is considered to be the ______alto___________________ voice of the string ____orchestra____________________. Performers and _________luthiers____________________ agreed to make changes to the tenor viol to make it _____easier_____________ to play. The most commonly used ______musical____________________ ranges are: Soprano (highest). __ebony____________ and rosewood. Many of the ___________improvements________________________ made to those instruments are still commonly used by modern luthiers. As a result.

while the violas. so its strings are ______longer_______________. The viola bow is slightly ________heavier___________________ and ________thicker______________ than the violin bow. Remember that the viola is larger. Generally. It is. The largest is 16 ½ inches. composers will use the violins to play the melodies. Because of this. In the string orchestra. the viola received a more prominent role from _____composers________________ who were looking for new . violoncellos and double basses provide the _____harmonic_________________ and ________rhythmic__________________ support. The thicker bow allows the viola to project the full spectrum of the viola ______sound___________________. and is used by _____professional_______________________________ players. The smallest viola measures ________12_________________________ inches. At the turn of the ______20th________________ century. a _________couple__________________ of inches longer and a bit ______thicker____________________. The viola’s harmonic and rhythmical role provide musical ______support__________________ for the violins’ melodic lines. The viola comes in several __________different____________________ sizes. the player needs a ______heavier___________________ and thicker bow. Professional players prefer a bigger viola for ______deeper_______________________ sound. however.__________violin______________________. the __role______________ of the viola is to provide _____rhythmical________________ precision to the string family.

The modern viola is a _____versatile________________ instrument capable of playing everything than _____composers_______________ write for it. Mozart.sonorities. Performers became more _____adept____________________ at the difficult requirements of the music written by composers such as Haydn. Today. viola _______concertos_____________________ are commonly heard. Today. In the popular music world. The instrument playing technique was not well developed because of the ___size___________ of the instrument and the way it was _____held_______________. the viola is mostly played with the use of a _____bow_____________. Throughout the ______Baroque_______________________ and _______Classical______________ periods. Country music artists Charlie Daniels and Alison Krauss have used the viola in their _______recordings______________________. The viola experienced an _____improvement_____________________ in its playing _____technique_________________ during the later part of the Classical and the beginning of the Romantic periods of music. A viola concerto is a composition that features the viola as a ______solo_____________ instrument with orchestral __accompaniment__________________. The melody of the popular tune Dust in the Wind is played on the ______viola__________________. the ____viola____________________ has enjoyed some ______notoriety__________________________. and Beethoven. composers felt uneasy when writing for the viola because performers were not able to correctly play the music that was written for the viola. .

viola da gamba. The tenor viol and the viol da gamba are two instruments that aided in the development of the instrument that we today refer to as the ______violoncello__________________________. The early violoncello was member of the _____viol___________________ instrument family. the Viola d’Alta and the Viola di ____Tenore________________. composers referred to this instrument as the bas de _____violon___________. The term violoncello is of Italian origin meaning ______Great Violin__________________________. both used during the 16th century.However. which included different sized instruments. The Basso di Viola was a part of the string quartets of the 16th century in ______Italy___________________. you should not be surprised if you see a violist _______plucking___________________ the strings to play the viola. Other instruments which may have played a part in the development of the cello are the ____________Basso_______________________ di Viola. . THE VIOLONCELLO Early references to the violoncello go as far back as the 17th century. or _____violone_______________. the Discant-Viola (Violetta). basso di viola da ___braccio______________. were the Viola de _____gamba______________ and the Basso di Viola. the violoncello is commonly just referred to as _______cello________________________. Instead of using its full name. This technique is called _____pizzicato______________________ and can be used with all members of the _______stringed_____________ instrument family. Before using the term violoncello. Two close relatives of the modern day cello.

Composers occasionally use the cello to play the melody in a ________symphony_____________________ orchestra. maple. the player sticks it into the ______floor_______________ in order to balance the instrument. warm sound. The cello is tuned an ______octave__________________ lower than a viola. A player can change the pitch of the cello in ____two__________ ways: by _______drawing________________ the bow across different strings. ___poplar_______________. Within the symphony orchestra. A string quartet is formed by 2 . the cello makes a ____rich___________. Generally. Cellos have a very mellow sound which contributes to the orchestra's bass line. Afterwards. The instrument is part of the ______rhythm_______________ section of the strings. composers prefer to use the first ___________violins_______________________ are the most preferred stringed instrument to play melodies within the symphony orchestra. The cello endpin comes out of the _________bottom____________ of the instrument. are referred as the ____________bass clef________________________ section of the symphony orchestra. ebony and rosewood.The cello is mostly made out of wood. it provides rhythmic and harmonic support to the melodies of the orchestra. More commonly. The cello section and double bass section combined. The most commonly used woods for all the stringed instruments are: spruce. The cello can also be a part of a string quartet. and also by _______pressing_______________ on the strings with the fingers of the left hand. This is true for all members of the string family.

The cello has a different sound partly due to its size and the special _____way__________________ it is played. However. It is common to hear a cello solo. The cello is highly regarded as a valued member of the string quartet and a very important member of the string family used for _______________recordings__________________________ of all kinds. . The principal cellist is also responsible for marking all the conductor’s musical _____indications________________ for the rest of the cello section. The sound of the cello is very rich and _________resonant____________________. the cello enjoys a __________respectable___________________ position in the musical scene.violins. The cello is considered to be the ________tenor_____________ voice of the string orchestra because of its majestic and ______elegant_________________ sound. Many composers have written solos and other ________types__________________ of music for the cello. and these solos are usually played by the _______principle________________________ cellist. Notice that the string quartet does not include the _____________double bass_____________________________. This is due to its larger body as compare to the smaller strings such as the violin and the viola. 1 viola and ______1________ cello. The cello ________section_____________________ within the symphony orchestra is a very important component of the string section. As a solo instrument. a string __________quintet__________________________ can also include the double bass as an additional member.

which was considered the _______largest_________________ member of the viol family. about _______8______________ feet tall. the original intent of the early double bass makers was to build an instrument similar to the _______violone______________________. a 17th century composer.THE DOUBLE BASS According to double bass artist Lawrence Hurst. Originally. Therefore. This instrument had ______five_____________________ strings and played notes an _____octave_________________ lower than written. the frets were removed from the fingerboard. Eventually. known as ___________violon_______________ da gamba. Both the viola da gamba and the violone are the _________ancestors_______________________ of the double bass. and the sounds they produced were one octave lower than the written notes. drew sketches of a rather large instrument. It is generally believed that the double bass is an instrument with roots in the gamba and viol families. Michael Praetorius. the prefix _______double_____________ means that the instrument sounds an octave ______lower_______________ than it is written. as the performers felt more _______comfortable________________ with the instrument. The instrument also had _________frets_____________________ along the fingerboard and used a bow. The violone and the violon da ___________gamba______________________ were introduced to the musical scene. the violoncello was the _________bass_____________________ of the strings. .

The double bass is mostly made out of ________wood___________________. a double bass player or a bass player. unquestionably. the _________lowest_____________________ sounding instrument of the string family. ebony and ___rosewood___________________. The double bass provides the __________foundation____________________ for the string family. The technique for playing the bass has evolved greatly since the early part of the __________20th____________________ century. In general. the string bass. The double bass is the only member of the string family that is tuned in ______fourths__________________. The most commonly used woods for all the stringed instruments are: spruce. The double bass is also known as the contrabass. the ________upright________________ bass and the bass. The double bass provides harmonic and _________rhythmic_______________________ support to the string orchestra. The orchestral playing range is about two _______octaves______________ and . the music played by this section moves at a _____slower_____________ pace that the music played by most other instruments.Today. All other ones are tuned in _________fifths_____________________. A person who plays the double bass is called a _______bassist_________________. poplar. The ______modern_________________ double bass player is able to play ______melodies___________________. maple. you find a variety of double bass _______models_____________ that are descendants of these two significant ancestries. It is.

which is different from other stringed instruments. The double bass is the _________largest____________________ member of the stringed instruments. Basically. _______chamber_______________ music and _______solo______________ playing add new sonorities to the musical palette of the double bass. Depending on the performer's skill. It is also the __________lowest___________________________ sounding instrument in the strings of the orchestra. the performer presses the ________thumb__________________ on the fingerboard and then taps the same string with another finger to create a note that will sound two __________octaves______________ above its thumb position. it is very __________rewarding_________________ for the musician. artificial harmonics is a __________difficult_______________ technique for the performer. A bassist may feel as though they have achieved a great _______challenge__________________. The double bass can be played ____________standing______________________ up. It is the foundation for the rest of the ________string__________________ family. composers use the bass because of its typical ___low_________ and _________dark_________________ sound.______one______________ half. The characteristic bass sound provides a solid ___________foundation_________________________ for melodic instruments. Once played. . one can play the double bass up to the violin register by the use of a special technique called _____________artificial_____________________ harmonics. ________Technically_____________________. Generally.

. it seems that more players around the world use the _______French______________ style of playing over the German style of bow playing. the player produces sounds by ____plucking_______________ the strings. This instrument uses an _________amplifier____________________ to increase its sound volume. The bass is a ________required________________ instrument for all kinds of music. Nonetheless. There are two different _______types__________________ of bow styles. You are probably most familiar with the _________electric__________________ bass guitar. This is used frequently in ______jazz_______________ playing.The double bass uses a ________bow________________ to produce sound. When it is used in __________popular_______________ music. Each one of these techniques is equally ________good___________________. Plucking the ______strings_______________ is a special playing ______technique_______________ known as pizzicato. The ___________German_____________________ style bow requires the player to hold the bow over the palm of the hand. The ________French_________________ style bow requires the musician to hold the bow with the palm of the hand over the wooden stick.