STRINGS OF THE ORCHESTRA WORKSHEET

THE VIOLIN
The development of the modern violin stems from __________________________________of instruments available in Europe during the middle Ages. Some historians even suggest that the origins of stringed instruments can be traced back to ____________ many centuries before it appeared in ____________________________. In essence, the modern violin is one of the _______________________________ stringed instruments. Presumably, the word violin derives from the Latin word ______________________________. Other sources claim that the word violin means _____________________________ viola. Existing ____________________________________ instruments hint the current look of the modern violin. Today’s quality instruments still follow the same traditions that ___________________________ or instrument makers followed in the old times. The vielle and the _________________________________ are two instruments were commonly used in Europe during the 11th century. Throughout the _________________________________, vielle makers continued changing the instrument appearance by cutting a shape similar to that of the violin. The __________________________________ was a stringed instrument used throughout the 14th century to accompany ________________________ and dancing. The structure of the fiddle experienced changes that led to the conception of the ____________________ instrument family that include the ancestors of the violoncello and the double bass and the family of ________________________ that include the ancestors of the viola and violin instruments.

Along with the piano and the voice. The most commonly used woods for all the stringed instruments are: spruce. Because of its _____________________________ character. The violin is able to play at a higher ______________________ than all the other instruments of the string family of the orchestra. The violin comes in different _____________________ for different __________________________ groups. You can start training on the violin as early as _________________ years old. poplar. the violin is considered to be the ________________________ voice of the string orchestra. We call this technique double _______________________________________ technique.The violin is mostly made out of ____________________________. Major __________________________________ have recognized the musical possibilities of the instrument. I have learned that reading music and playing a musical instrument stimulates certain areas of the __________________ that are associated with the _____________________________________ and coordination of brain and muscle activities. Throughout all these years of teaching music. ebony and ___________________. The violin is capable of playing more than one __________________________ at a time. . A string player can produce double stops when two notes are played ____________________________________________. the violin is one of the instruments with the most extensive _______________________ repertoire. _______________.

The ____________________ violin part could also be compared to the ______________________ soprano part in the chorus. there are about ______________________________ violinists which represents about 3 times more than any of the other string _____________________________ of the orchestra.In classical music. The violin is capable of playing a _____________________________ range of notes. In most symphony orchestras. the violin is used frequently as a member of the ___________________________ orchestra. string quartets. Due to the large number of ______________________________ in the orchestra. ballet orchestra and solo repertoire to play __________________________________. The combination of first and second violins gives ______________________ more possibilities of ______________________ melodic creation and interaction. In general. three octaves or _______________________________ notes is considered a plausible range. thus creating more inner voices and harmonies. opera orchestra. most composers divide the violins into two sections: the ____________________ violins and the __________________________ violins. This number creates a solid sonority and an artistic ______________________________ between sounds coming from the different .

Nonetheless. The violin is mostly played using the _______________________. braccio means “arm. which refers to the word __________________________ and also to the instrument. the term viola referred to specific instruments. THE VIOLA In the 16th and 17th Centuries the term viola had a more _________________________ meaning. viola da braccio. you should not be surprised if you see a violinist _________________________ the strings to produce sounds. Later. the instrument was known by the ________________________ name. The term viola was used to describe a variety of __________________________ instruments. This plucking technique is called ______________________ and it is used by all members of the stringed family of instruments. In English. As a member of the viol instrument family. . Originally.families of instruments within the _________________________________ orchestra. the viola is known as Bratsche. the _______________________________ gets its name from the fact that it is an instrument played on the arm of the performer. The Italian word violino means “small” _______________________.” In Germany.

The most commonly used woods for all the stringed instruments are: ________________. As a result. poplar. Similar to the violin. The viola is considered to be the _________________________ voice of the string ________________________. maple. ______________ and rosewood. Performers and _____________________________ agreed to make changes to the tenor viol to make it __________________ to play. String makers were building violas and liras do braccio. Many of the ___________________________________ made to those instruments are still commonly used by modern luthiers. F sound holes and violin ____________________________________ instruments. These changes include: lateral pegs. ________________________________ are happy to believe that they might be the earliest link to the stringed instrument family. with _______________________________ strings since the 1500s.Some scholars and performers believe that the viola may have appeared earlier than the _____________________________. some of these changes influenced the design of the modern ___________________________ and the modern viola. . The tenor viol was difficult to ________________________________ because it was too large and hard to hold comfortably. the _______________________ is mostly made out of ________________________.

the player needs a _________________________ and thicker bow. The viola’s harmonic and rhythmical role provide musical ________________________ for the violins’ melodic lines. and Bass (lowest). It is. The thicker bow allows the viola to project the full spectrum of the viola _________________________. and is used by ____________________________________ players. Because of this. Professional players prefer a bigger viola for _____________________________ sound. The viola bow is slightly ___________________________ and ______________________ than the violin bow. The smallest viola measures _________________________________ inches. however. The largest is 16 ½ inches.The most commonly used __________________________ ranges are: Soprano (highest). Remember that the viola is larger. The viola is exactly the same shape as the ________________________________. Tenor (low). the ________________ of the viola is to provide _____________________ precision to the string family. . a ___________________________ of inches longer and a bit __________________________. The viola comes in several ______________________________ sizes. so its strings are _____________________. Alto (high). In the string orchestra.

Today. Mozart. composers will use the violins to play the melodies. The modern viola is a _____________________ instrument capable of playing everything than ____________________ write for it. Performers became more _________________________ at the difficult requirements of the music written by composers such as Haydn. At the turn of the ______________________ century. The viola experienced an __________________________ in its playing ______________________ during the later part of the Classical and the beginning of the Romantic periods of music. composers felt uneasy when writing for the viola because performers were not able to correctly play the music that was written for the viola. Throughout the _____________________________ and _____________________ periods. The instrument playing technique was not well developed because of the ______________ of the instrument and the way it was ____________________. A viola concerto is a composition that features the viola as a ___________________ instrument with orchestral ____________________. . violoncellos and double basses provide the ______________________ and __________________________ support.Generally. viola ____________________________ are commonly heard. while the violas. the viola received a more prominent role from _____________________ who were looking for new sonorities. and Beethoven.

Before using the term violoncello. the . the ________________________ has enjoyed some ________________________________. or ____________________. The tenor viol and the viol da gamba are two instruments that aided in the development of the instrument that we today refer to as the ________________________________. This technique is called ___________________________ and can be used with all members of the ______________ instrument family. The early violoncello was member of the ________________________ instrument family. the viola is mostly played with the use of a __________________. basso di viola da _________________. which included different sized instruments.In the popular music world. Instead of using its full name. Today. composers referred to this instrument as the bas de ________________. viola da gamba. you should not be surprised if you see a violist __________________________ the strings to play the viola. THE VIOLONCELLO Early references to the violoncello go as far back as the 17th century. The term violoncello is of Italian origin meaning ________________________________. The melody of the popular tune Dust in the Wind is played on the ________________________. Country music artists Charlie Daniels and Alison Krauss have used the viola in their _____________________________. However.

The most commonly used woods for all the stringed instruments are: spruce. Two close relatives of the modern day cello. the Discant-Viola (Violetta). and also by ______________________ on the strings with the fingers of the left hand. This is true for all members of the string family. . __________________.violoncello is commonly just referred to as _______________________________. A player can change the pitch of the cello in ______________ ways: by _______________________ the bow across different strings. The cello is mostly made out of wood. Composers occasionally use the cello to play the melody in a _____________________________ orchestra. ebony and rosewood. both used during the 16th century. Cellos have a very mellow sound which contributes to the orchestra's bass line. Other instruments which may have played a part in the development of the cello are the ______________________________ di Viola. were the Viola de ___________________ and the Basso di Viola. The Basso di Viola was a part of the string quartets of the 16th century in _________________________. The cello is tuned an ________________________ lower than a viola. maple. the Viola d’Alta and the Viola di ____________________.

Notice that the string quartet does not include the __________________________________________. Generally. The cello can also be a part of a string quartet. the cello makes a _______________. The cello endpin comes out of the ______________ of the instrument. the player sticks it into the _____________________ in order to balance the instrument. Within the symphony orchestra. it provides rhythmic and harmonic support to the melodies of the orchestra. Afterwards. . A string quartet is formed by 2 violins. The cello section and double bass section combined. 1 viola and ______________ cello. The cello _____________________________ within the symphony orchestra is a very important component of the string section. a string ____________________________________ can also include the double bass as an additional member. However. The instrument is part of the _____________________ section of the strings.More commonly. are referred as the ____________________________________ section of the symphony orchestra. warm sound. composers prefer to use the first __________________________________ are the most preferred stringed instrument to play melodies within the symphony orchestra.

the cello enjoys a _____________________________ position in the musical scene. The cello is considered to be the _____________________ voice of the string orchestra because of its majestic and _______________________ sound. The sound of the cello is very rich and _____________________________. Many composers have written solos and other __________________________ of music for the cello. The principal cellist is also responsible for marking all the conductor’s musical _____________________ for the rest of the cello section.The cello is highly regarded as a valued member of the string quartet and a very important member of the string family used for _________________________________________ of all kinds. . This is due to its larger body as compare to the smaller strings such as the violin and the viola. It is common to hear a cello solo. As a solo instrument. and these solos are usually played by the _______________________________ cellist. THE DOUBLE BASS According to double bass artist Lawrence Hurst. The cello has a different sound partly due to its size and the special _______________________ it is played. which was considered the ________________________ member of the viol family. the original intent of the early double bass makers was to build an instrument similar to the _____________________________.

as the performers felt more _______________________ with the instrument. This instrument had ___________________________ strings and played notes an ______________________ lower than written. Originally.Michael Praetorius. The double bass is mostly made out of ___________________________. Eventually. and the sounds they produced were one octave lower than the written notes. drew sketches of a rather large instrument. Therefore. . known as __________________________ da gamba. about _____________________ feet tall. the violoncello was the ______________________________ of the strings. a 17th century composer. The violone and the violon da _________________________________ were introduced to the musical scene. the frets were removed from the fingerboard. Both the viola da gamba and the violone are the ________________________________ of the double bass. Today. the prefix ____________________ means that the instrument sounds an octave _____________________ than it is written. you find a variety of double bass ____________________ that are descendants of these two significant ancestries. The instrument also had ______________________________ along the fingerboard and used a bow. It is generally believed that the double bass is an instrument with roots in the gamba and viol families.

The double bass provides the ______________________________ for the string family. . The double bass is also known as the contrabass. It is. poplar. The double bass provides harmonic and ________________________________ support to the string orchestra. A person who plays the double bass is called a ________________________. the string bass. The double bass is the only member of the string family that is tuned in ________________________. The orchestral playing range is about two _____________________ and ____________________ half. the ______________________________ sounding instrument of the string family. The _______________________ double bass player is able to play __________________________. a double bass player or a bass player. All other ones are tuned in ______________________________. The technique for playing the bass has evolved greatly since the early part of the ______________________________ century. In general. ebony and ______________________. the ________________________ bass and the bass. maple.The most commonly used woods for all the stringed instruments are: spruce. unquestionably. the music played by this section moves at a __________________ pace that the music played by most other instruments.

_____________________________. . Depending on the performer's skill. It is also the _____________________________________ sounding instrument in the strings of the orchestra. Basically. composers use the bass because of its typical ____________ and __________________________ sound. Once played. ______________________ music and _____________________ playing add new sonorities to the musical palette of the double bass. artificial harmonics is a _________________________ technique for the performer. the performer presses the __________________________ on the fingerboard and then taps the same string with another finger to create a note that will sound two ________________________ above its thumb position. A bassist may feel as though they have achieved a great _________________________. The double bass is the _____________________________ member of the stringed instruments.Generally. one can play the double bass up to the violin register by the use of a special technique called __________________________________ harmonics. The characteristic bass sound provides a solid ____________________________________ for melodic instruments. it is very ___________________________ for the musician. It is the foundation for the rest of the __________________________ family.

The bass is a ________________________ instrument for all kinds of music. . Nonetheless. which is different from other stringed instruments. The _________________________ style bow requires the musician to hold the bow with the palm of the hand over the wooden stick. There are two different _________________________ of bow styles. This instrument uses an _____________________________ to increase its sound volume. The double bass uses a ________________________ to produce sound. it seems that more players around the world use the _____________________ style of playing over the German style of bow playing. You are probably most familiar with the ___________________________ bass guitar.The double bass can be played __________________________________ up. When it is used in _________________________ music. Plucking the _____________________ is a special playing _____________________ known as pizzicato. the player produces sounds by ___________________ the strings. The ________________________________ style bow requires the player to hold the bow over the palm of the hand. This is used frequently in _____________________ playing. Each one of these techniques is equally ___________________________.

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