You are on page 1of 19


Table of Contents Preface Acknowledgments

Chapter 1 An Introduction to the Civil Action and Procedure

o o o

A. The Study of Procedure B. Federalism C. Overview of the Structure of a Court System

1. Trial Courts 2. Intermediate Appellate Courts 3. Supreme Courts 4. Appellate Practice and the Doctrine of Precedent

o o o o

D. The Adversary System E. Alternatives to Litigation F. A Brief History of Our English Judicial Roots G. General Topics of Civil Procedure

1. Selecting the Forum (Chapters 2-6, 10) 2. Learning About the Opponent's Case (Chapters 7 & 8) 3. Adjudication With or Without a Jury (Chapter 9) 4. Preclusion, Joinder, and Supplemental Jurisdiction (Chapters 11-13) 5. Appeal (Chapter 14) 6. Litigation Alternatives (Chapter 15) 7. A Quick Note on Materials

Chapter 2 Personal Jurisdiction

o o

A. Introduction and Integration B. Constitutional Limits on Personal Jurisdiction

1. The FountainheadPennoyer v. Neff (95 U.S. 714)

Pennoyer v. Neff Notes and Questions

2. Interim Developments

Hess v. Pawloski (274 U.S. 352) Notes and Questions

3. The Modern Era

International Shoe Co. v. Washington (326 U.S. 310) Notes and Questions Note on McGee, Hanson, and Gray (355 U.S. 220) (357 U.S. 235) (176 N.E.2d 761) World-Wide Volkswagen v. Woodson (444 U.S. 286) Notes and Questions Personal Jurisdiction in Federal Court Note on Keeton and Calder (465 U.S. 770) (465 U.S. 783) Why Litigants Care About Where Litigation Occurs Burger King Corp. v. Rudzewicz (471 U.S. 462) Notes and Questions Asahi Metal Industry Co. v. Superior Court of California (480 U.S. 102) Notes and Questions

4. General Jurisdiction

Helicopteros Nacionales de Colombia, S.A. v. Hall (466 U.S. 408) Notes and Questions

5. Consent and Forum Selection Provisions 6. In Rem and Quasi-in-Rem Jurisdiction

Shaffer v. Heitner (433 U.S. 186) Notes and Questions

7. Transient Presence

Burnham v. Superior Court of California (495 U.S. 604) Notes and Questions Jurisdiction Over Corporations and Partnerships

8. Personal Jurisdiction and the Internet

Revell v. Lidov (317 F.3d 467) Notes and Questions

C. A Different Perspective

1. The Purposes of Personal Jurisdiction 2. Personal Jurisdiction in Other Countries

Regulation 44/2001 Official Code of Georgia Annotated Notes and Questions D. Statutory Limits on Personal Jurisdiction Flint v. Gust Gust v. Flint Notes and Questions

Chapter 3 Notice and Opportunity To Be Heard

o o

A. Introduction and Integration B. Notice

1. The Constitutional Requirement

Mullane v. Central Hanover Bank & Trust Co. (339 U.S. 306) Notes and Questions

2. Statutory Requirements

National Dev. Co. v. Triad Holding Corp. (930 F.2d 253) Notes and Questions

3. Immunity, Evasion, and ``Sewer Service''

C. Opportunity to Be Heard

Connecticut v. Doehr (501 U.S. 1) Notes and Questions

Chapter 4 Subject Matter Jurisdiction

o o o

A. Introduction and Integration B. State Courts and General Subject Matter Jurisdiction C. Federal Courts and Limited Subject Matter Jurisdiction

1. The Constitutional Grants and Role of Congress

Notes and Questions

2. Plaintiff's Burden to Establish Federal Subject Matter Jurisdiction 3. Diversity of Citizenship and Alienage Jurisdiction

a. Introductory Note b. The Complete Diversity Rule

Strawbridge v. Curtiss (7 U.S. 267) Notes and Questions

c. Determining Citizenship of Individuals

Mas v. Perry (489 F.2d 1396) Notes and Questions

d. Determining Citizenship of Entities

i. Corporations

Randazzo v. Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. (117 F.R.D. 557) Notes and Questions J.A. Olson Co. v. City of Winona (818 F.2d 401) Notes and Questions

ii. Non-Incorporated Businesses

Belleville Catering Co. v. Champaign Market Place L.L.C. (350 F.3d 691)

Notes and Questions

e. Representative Suits and Assignments of Claims f. The Domestic Relations and Probate Exceptions g. The Amount in Controversy Requirement

Notes and Questions

4. Federal Question Jurisdiction

a. Introductory Note b. Narrow Interpretations of the Jurisdictional Grant

i. The Well-Pleaded Complaint Rule

Louisville & Nashville Railroad Co. v. Mottley (211 U.S. 149) Notes and Questions

ii. Well-Pleaded Complaint Problems Raised by Declaratory Judgments iii. Centrality of the Federal Issue to the Claim

Grable & Sons Metal Products, Inc. v. Darue Engineering and Manufacturing (545 U.S. 308) Notes and Questions

5. Supplemental Jurisdiction 6. Removal Jurisdiction

Noble v. Bradford Marine, Inc. (789 F. Supp. 395) Notes and Questions

Chapter 5 Venue

A. Introduction and Integration B. Local and Transitory Actions C. State Venue Provisions

Maryland Code Annotated Notes and Questions

D. Venue in Federal Court

The Basic Rules Notes and Questions Bates v. C & S Adjusters, Inc. (980 F.2d 865) Notes and Questions

E. Change of Venue

1. Transfer of Civil Cases in State Courts 2. Transfer of Civil Actions in Federal Court

a. Where Can Cases Be Transferred b. Goldlawr Transfers (369 U.S. 463) c. Forum Selection Clauses d. Choice of Law e. Standard for Transfer Under 1404 and 1406 f. Multidistrict Litigation

F. Forum Non Conveniens

Piper Aircraft Co. v. Reyno (454 U.S. 235) Notes and Questions

Chapter 6 Raising Jurisdictional and Related Challenges

A. Introduction and Integration B. The Traditional and Modern Approaches to Challenging Personal Jurisdiction

Notes and Questions

C. Collateral and Direct Attacks on Personal Jurisdiction

Baldwin v. Iowa State Traveling Men's Association (283 U.S. 522) Notes and Questions

D. Challenging Federal Subject Matter Jurisdiction

Chapter 7 Pleadings and Judgments Based on Pleadings

A. Introduction and Integration B. Historical Overview of the Evolution of Pleadings C. The Complaint

1. Requirements

a. Elements of the Complaint

i. A ``short and plain statement of the ground for the court's jurisdiction'' ii. A ``short and plain statement of the claim showing that the pleader is entitled to relief'' iii. A ``demand for judgment for the relief sought, which may include relief in the alternative or different types of relief''

b. Form of Pleadings c. Legal Sufficiency

Notes and Questions

d. Factual (or ``Formal'') Sufficiency: The Debate Over Specificity

i. Code Pleading ii. Federal Rules Pleading

Dioguardi v. Durning (139 F.2d 774) Notes and Questions Bell Atlantic Corporation v. Twombly (127 S. Ct. 1955)

iii. The Common Counts

e. Heightened Specificity Requirements in Certain Cases

Leatherman v. Tarrant County (507 U.S. 163) Notes and Questions

f. Pleading Inconsistent Facts and Alternative Theories

McCormick v. Kopmann (161 N.E.2d 720) Notes and Questions

2. Voluntary Dismissal

Notes and Questions

3. Involuntary Dismissal

Notes and Questions

D. Defendant's Options in Response

1. Motions


2. The Answer

a. Responses to the Plaintiff's Allegations

i. Admissions ii. Denials iii. Denials for Lack of Knowledge or Information

b. Affirmative Defenses

Notes and Questions

3. Claims by the Defendant 4. Failure to Respond: Default and Default Judgment

Notes and Questions

E. Amended Pleadings

1. Basic Principles Under Rule 15(a)

Notes and Questions

2. The Problem of Variance Under Rule 15(b)

Notes and Questions

3. Amendment and the Statute of Limitations Under Rule 15(c)

a. Amendment to Claims or Defenses

Marsh v. Coleman Company (774 F. Supp. 608)

Notes and Questions

b. Amendment Changing a Party

F. Supplemental Pleadings G. Veracity in Pleading: Rule 11 and Other Devices

1. Rule 11

Model Rules of Professional Conduct Notes and Questions Rector v. Approved Federal Savings Bank. (265 F.3d 248) Notes and Questions

2. Other Sanctions

Chapter 8 Discovery

A. Introduction and Integration B. Overview of the Discovery Devices

1. Required Initial Disclosures (Rule 26(a)(1))


2. Depositions (Rules 30, 31)


3. Interrogatories (Rule 33)


4. Production of Documents and Things (Rule 34)


5. Medical Examination (Rule 35)


6. Requests for Admission (Rule 36)


7. Practice Problem

C. Scope of Discovery

1. General Scope

United Oil Co. v. Parts Assocs., Inc. (227 F.R.D. 404) Notes and Questions

2. Discovery of Material in Electronic Form 3. Relation to the Rules of Evidence 4. Privileged Material 5. Work Product

Hickman v. Taylor (329 U.S. 495) Notes and Questions Holmgren v. State Farm Mutual Insurance Co. Notes and Questions

6. Experts

Ager v. Jane C. Stormont Hospital & Training School for Nurses (622 F.2d 496) Notes and Questions

7. Discovery in an International Context 8. Review Problem

D. Timing and Pretrial Disclosures, Conferences, and Orders

1. Timing 2. Pretrial Disclosures 3. Pretrial Conferences and Orders

E. Sanctions

Zubulake v. UBS Warburg, LLC (229 F.R.D. 422) Holmgren v. State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Co Notes and Questions

Chapter 9 Adjudication With and Without a Trial or a Jury

A. Introduction and Integration B. The Right to a Jury

1. Scope of the Constitutional Right

a. ``Actions at Common Law'' and the Historical Test

Chauffers Local, 391 v. Terry (494 U.S. 558) Notes and Questions

b. The Complications of Merger and the Federal Rules c. Juries in Non-Article III Courts d. Juries in State Courts

2. Selection and Size of the Jury

a. The Venire and Voir Dire b. Peremptory Challenges

J.E.B. v. Alabama (511 U.S. 127) Notes and Questions

c. Two Views of Voir Dire and Peremptory Strikes

The Mapplethorpe Obscenity Trial

10 Trial Mistakes

d. Jury Size

3. Jury Nullification and Its Limits

C. Summary JudgmentAdjudication Without Trial or Jury

Anderson v. Liberty Lobby, Inc. (477 U.S. 242) Notes and Questions Celotex Corp. v. Catrett (477 U.S. 317) Notes and Questions

D. Controlling and Second-Guessing Juries

1. Judgment as a Matter of Law (Directed Verdict and JNOV)

Lavender v. Kurn (327 U.S. 645) Notes and Questions

2. New Trials

Dadurian v. Underwriters at Lloyd's of London (787 F.2d 756) Notes and Questions

3. Other Techniques for Controlling Juries

a. Admissibility of Evidence b. Jury Instructions c. Form of the Verdict d. Judicial Comment e. Juror Misconduct

4. Motions to Set Aside the Judgment

Chapter 10 What Law Applies in Federal Court

o o

A. Introduction and Integration B. Determining What Law Applies

1. The Erie Doctrine

Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins (304 U.S. 64) Notes and Questions Note: Constitutional Bases of Erie

2. Early Efforts to Describe When State Law Applies

Byrd v. Blue Ridge Rural Electrical Cooperative, Inc. (356 U.S. 525) Notes and Questions

3. The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure

Hanna v. Plumer (380 U.S. 460) Note on Understanding Hanna

a. What Happens When There Is a Federal Rule of Civil Procedure on Point The Rules Enabling Act Prong

i. Determining Whether a Federal Directive Is on Point ii. Determining When a Federal Directive Is Valid

b. What Happens When There Is No Federal Rule of Civil Procedure on Point The Rules of Decision Act Prong

o o

Notes and Questions Gasperini v. Center for Humanities, Inc (518 U.S. 415) Notes and Questions C. Determining the Content of State Law DeWeerth v. Baldinger (38 F.3d 1266) Notes and Questions

D. Federal Common Law E. Federal Law in State Court

Chapter 11 The Preclusion Doctrines

o o

A. Introduction and Integration B. Claim Preclusion

1. Scope of a Claim

a. In General

Carter v. Hinkle (52 S.E.2d 135) Notes and Questions

b. Contract Cases

2. Parties or Persons in Privity

a. Who Can Be Bound?

Notes and Questions

b. Configuration of the Parties

Notes and Questions

3. Valid, Final Judgment, on the Merits

a. Validity b. Finality c. On the Merits

Notes and Questions

4. Exceptions to the Operation of Claim Preclusion

Notes and Questions

C. Issue Preclusion

1. Same Issue Litigated and Determined

Cromwell v. County of Sac (94 U.S. 351)

2. Issue Determined Was Essential to the Judgment

Rios v. Davis (373 S.W.2d 386) Notes and Questions

3. Against Whom Can Issue Preclusion Be Asserted?

Hardy v. Johns-Manville Sales Corp. (681 F.2d 334) Notes and Questions

4. By Whom Can Issue Preclusion Be Asserted?

a. Mutuality and Exceptions b. Rejection of Mutuality for Defensive Use

Notes and Questions

c. Rejection of Mutuality for Offensive Use

Parklane Hosiery Co. v. Shore (439 U.S. 322) Notes and Questions

5. Exceptions to the Operation of Issue Preclusion

Notes and Questions

D. Problems of Federalism

1. State-to-State

2. State-to-Federal 3. Federal-to-State 4. Federal-to-Federal

Chapter 12 Scope of Litigation Joinder and Supplemental Jurisdiction

A. Introduction and Integration B. Real Party in Interest, Capacity, and Standing

Notes and Questions

C. Claim Joinder by Plaintiffs

1. Procedural Aspects 2. Jurisdictional Aspects

United Mine Workers v. Gibbs (383 U.S. 715) Notes and Questions

D. Permissive Party Joinder by Plaintiffs

1. Procedural Aspects

Schwartz v. Swan (211 N.E.2d 122) Notes and Questions

2. Jurisdictional Aspects

Notes and Questions

E. Claim Joinder by Defendants

1. Counterclaims

a. Compulsory Counterclaims

i. Procedural Aspects

Dindo v. Whitney (451 F.2d 1) Carteret Savings & Loan Assn. v. Jackson (812 F.2d 36) Notes and Questions

ii. Jurisdiction Aspects

Notes and Questions

b. Permissive Counterclaims

i. Procedural Aspects

Notes and Questions

ii. Jurisdictional Aspects

2. Cross-Claims

a. Procedural Aspects

Notes and Questions

b. Jurisdictional Aspects

Notes and Questions

F. Overriding Plaintiff's Party Structure

1. Impleader (Third-Party Practice)

a. Procedural Aspects

Markvicka v. Brodhead-Garrett Co (76 F.R.D. 205) Notes and Questions

b. Jurisdictional Aspects

Owen Equipment & Erection Co. v. Kroger (437 U.S. 365) Notes and Questions

2. Compulsory Joinder (Necessary and Indispensable Parties)

a. Procedural Aspects

Haas v. Jefferson National Bank (442 F.2d 394) Temple v. Synthes Corp (498 U.S. 5) Notes and Questions

b. Jurisdictional Aspects

Notes and Questions

3. Intervention

a. Procedural Aspects

Notes and Questions

b. Jurisdictional Aspects

Notes and Questions

Chapter 13 Special Multiparty Litigation: Interpleader and the Class Action

A. Introduction and Integration B. Interpleader

1. Background 2. The Two Types of Interpleader in Federal Court

Pan American Fire & Casualty Co. v. Revere (188 F. Supp. 474) Notes and Questions

3. The Limits of Interpleader to Avoid Duplicative Litigation

State Farm Fire & Casualty Co. v. Tashire (386 U.S. 523) Notes and Questions

C. The Class Action

1. Background 2. Policy and Ethical Issues 3. Constitutional Considerations

Hansberry v. Lee (311 U.S. 32) Notes and Questions

4. Practice Under Federal Rule 23

a. Background b. Filing and Certification of a Class Action c. Requirements for Certification Under Rule 23

i. Prerequisites of Rule 23(a)

Notes and Questions

ii. Types of Class Actions Under Rule 23(b)

Notes and Questions

d. Notice to Class Members of the Pendency of the Action

Notes and Questions

e. Court's Role in Dismissal and Settlement

5. Subject Matter Jurisdiction

Exxon Mobile Corp. v. Allapattah Services (545 U.S. 546) Notes and Questions Note on Jurisdiction Under CAFA

6. Personal Jurisdiction

Notes and Questions

Chapter 14 Appeals

A. Introduction and Integration B. Appellate Jurisdiction in the Federal Courts

1. Section 1291 2. Collateral Order Doctrine

Cunningham v. Hamilton County (527 U.S. 198) Notes and Questions

3. Section 1292

Notes and Questions

4. Rule 23(f) 5. Rule 54(b)

Notes and Questions

6. Mandamus

7. Appealability of Discovery Orders 8. Mechanics of Filing an Appeal 9. Appellate Jurisdiction of the United States Supreme Court

C. Appeals in State Courts D. Scope of Review

Notes and Questions

Chapter 15 Alternative Models of Dispute Resolution

A. Introduction and Integration B. Models of Greater Judicial Control

The German Advantage in Civil Procedure Notes and Questions Sempier v. Johnson & Higgins (45 F.3d 724) Notes and Questions

C. Models of Non-Judicial Resolution

The Implications of Apology: Law and Culture in Japan and in the United States Notes and Questions

Table of Cases Table of Scholarly Commentary Index