12th IFToMM World Congress, Besançon (France), June18-21, 2007

PDeChoudhury

Rotor Dynamic Unbalance Response Correlation Study
P. De Choudhury* Pran RDA Consulting Inc. Greensburg, PA, USA
Abstract—In the design of high-speed turbo-machinery it is essential to conduct detail rotor dynamic analysis using the available analytical tools to ensure acceptable location of the peak responses relative to the operating speed. The critical speed are defined relative to the amplification factor at the peak responses. The acceptable margins from the operating speed range are defined by the API 617 7th edition requirements. In addition to that, tests are conducted to verify the predicted peak responses relative to the test data. In this paper has been presented case studies of several high-speed rotor-bearing systems’ rotor dynamic analyses and compared to the test data. This comparison helps to bring into focus the accuracy, or lack there of, of the methods of prediction relative to the test results. Keywords: turbo-machinery, rotor-dynamics, bearings, vibration

I. Introduction Increase in the operating speed of modern turbomachinery requires an accurate analysis of the vibration characteristics of the rotor-bearing-support system. The standard design procedure require the calculation of critical speeds, the evaluation of mode shapes, both undamped and damped critical speeds, steady state unbalance response [1, 2] and stability [3, 4]] analysis. It is of utmost importance to utilize accurate analytical tools to determine the lateral critical speeds of the rotor-bearing systems to avoid potential problems in the field. In this paper has been presented detailed rotor-dynamic results along with comparison between the predicted and test results of three rotor-bearing systems. Results of two more rotor-bearing systems have been presented comparing theory with prediction. II. Description of Systems and Comparison of Test Data with Prediction A. System1 The first rotor is a seven stage centrifugal compressor which weighs 49341.7 N, having a bearing span of 3553.5 mm. The static reactions at the bearing locations are 26345.5 and 22996.2 N. The rotor is supported by two identical pressure dam bearings [5] having dimensions, D=152.4 mm, Length of 50.8 mm, diametral clearance of 0.2159 mm, dam width of 38.1 mm, and dam depth of 0.3429 mm. *Email:pranabeshd@hotmail.com 1

Table 1 lists the calculated un-damped critical speed values in the vertical and horizontal directions. It is to be noted that due to the high static bearing reactions and the type of bearing used the un-damped critical speeds in the vertical and horizontal directions are close to each other. Also, the node points at the un-damped critical speeds were close to the bearing center lines. The effect of damping on the critical speeds was expected to be minimum. The predicted peak responses due to mid span unbalance in both the vertical and horizontal directions are very close to the predicted un-damped critical speeds. The predicted peak response in the vertical direction at the inlet end is at 2340 RPM compared to 2245 RPM during run up and 2280 RPM during rotor coast down. Thus the percent deviation of the predicted peak response were -4.2 percent, and -2.6 percent respectively when compared to peak observed during run up and coast down. At the discharge end the predicted peak responses in the vertical and horizontal directions are the same as at the inlet end, however the observed peak responses during run up is at 2287 RPM, and during coast down is at 2295 RPM. The percent deviation of the predicted peak response were -2.3 percent, and -1.9 percent respectively when compared to peak observed during run up and coast down. The difference in the observed peak responses during run up and coast down could be attributed to the differences in the rate of rotor acceleration and deceleration during run up and coast down through the peak responses.
System 1 - Inlet End - Vertical
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2.5

Amplitude (mils) pk-pk

2

Prediction Test

1.5

1

0.5

0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 Speed (RPM)

Fig. 1. Comparison of test data with prediction at the inlet end vertical– System 1

the fluid film bearing stiffness in the vertical direction being higher than in the horizontal direction.Discharge End . and. the un-damped critical speeds in the vertical direction was much higher than in the horizontal direction.5 Amplitude (mils) pk-pk Prediction Test 2 1. 2007 PDeChoudhury System 1 .1 N.System 1 Figure 1 shows comparison of the test data with prediction at the inlet end in the vertical direction during run up. The test data does not show the minor predicted peak.1. and 14. including the second peak response. compared to the test at 7. The effect of damping on the critical speeds in the vertical direction was expected to be minimum. however. Figure 3 shows comparison of the test data with prediction at the inlet end in the vertical direction during run up. It is to be noted that the prediction shows a minor peak along with the major peak at 2340 RPM.34. At the discharge end the predicted amplification factor is 10 compared to the test at 7. Thus the percent deviation of the predicted first peak response were 0. The first predicted peak response in the vertical direction at the inlet end is at 4285 RPM compared to 4322 RPM during run up and 4450 RPM during rotor coast down. However. however.2 percent. diameter of 101.8. and 2066. 2. June18-21. Besançon (France). B System 2 The second rotor bearing system is a ten stage centrifugal compressor and weighs 4212. Thus the percent deviation of the predicted second peak response were -0.5 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 Speed (RPM) Fig. length of 38. the node points at the un-damped critical speeds in the vertical direction was close to the bearing center lines.5 3 2. the test data do not show any peak around the second predicted peak. compared to 11387 RPM during run up and 10000 RPM during rotor coast down. Thus the percent deviation of the predicted first peak response were -6.02 percent.7 percent respectively when compared to peak observed during run up and coast down. The predicted peak responses due to mid span unbalance and out-of-phase unbalances at the two ends of the rotor show two peak responses in the vertical directions both at the inlet end and discharge ends. indicating possible location of second peak somewhat higher than the predicted second. Figure 4 shows comparison of the test data with prediction at the discharge end in the vertical direction during run up. The static reactions are 2126. the test data does not show any peak around the second predicted peak response. The first predicted peak response in the vertical direction at the discharge end is at 4622 RPM compared to 4350 RPM during run up and 4195 RPM during rotor coast down.1.5 mm. In the horizontal direction a well damped peak response is shown around 8000 RPM. the difference in the observed peak responses during run up and coast down could be attributed to the differences in the rate of rotor acceleration and deceleration during run up and coast down through the peak responses.8 percent. Comparison of test data with prediction at the discharge end vertical– System 1 Undamped Critical Speeds Peak Responses Test Vertical Horizontal 2335 2047 7202 6318 8451 7261 Inlet End 2340 2070 Run Up 2245 Coast Down 2280 Comments Nodes Close to Bearing Centerline Discharge End 2340 2070 Run Up 2287 Coast Down 2295 TABLE I. the test data does show two peaks around the predictions. The bearing span is 1727.3 N. It is to be noted that the prediction shows two peaks. wherein comparison of the test data during run up with prediction at the discharge end has been shown in the vertical direction.1 percent respectively when compared to peak observed during run up and coast down. and having diametral clearance of 0.2 percent respectively when compared to peak observed during run up and coast down.Vertical 3. damping would be very effective in attenuating the vibratory motion in the horizontal direction. Table 2 lists the calculated un-damped critical speed values in the vertical and horizontal directions. It is to be noted that due to the type of bearing used. The physical dimensions of the bearings are. The amplification factors at the test and predicted responses at the inlet end 2 . Again. The same characteristics could be observed in figure 2. five shoe tilting pad journal bearing with load on pad configuration. and 3. The predicted amplification factor at the inlet end bearing in the vertical direction is 8.9 mm. It is to be noted that the prediction shows two peaks. The analysis shows a second peak response at 11412 RPM . Also. Summary of Results ..1534 mm. but there was large relative deflection of the undamped critical speeds in the horizontal direction.2 mm.12th IFToMM World Congress. The analysis shows a second peak response at 11700 RPM. The test data show a rising characteristics after the first. and -10. The rotor is supported by two five-shoe tilting pad journal bearings [6] with load acting on the pad.5 1 0.

4 0. The rotor analytical model is shown in figure 5. the concentrated masses.28 observed during test.Nominal clearance 1. 2007 PDeChoudhury are such that no conclusive observation can be drawn at the inlet end at first peak response.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Axial Location. Figure 7 shows the first undamped mode of SYSTEM 3 .Discharge End . there was no observed second peak response at the inlet end. The intersection of the mapped critical speed lines with the equivalent bearing stiffness coefficient curves give the system undaped critical speeds. The pedestal stiffness of the balance facilty was 0. and the static bearing reactions are 4289.Nominal clearance Fig. June18-21. Summary of Results . 100000.55 compared to 3. load between pads configuration. Centerline is Large Discharge End 4622 8045 11412 Run Up 4350 11387 Coast Down – 4195 10000 Kxx Kxx Kyy Kyy 10000 1000 100 10000. cpm Undamped Critical Speeds Peak Responses Test Vertical Horizontal 4194 1531 10364 3729 17455 13131 Inlet End 4285 8000 11700 Run Up 4322 No 2nd Coast Down – 4450 No 2nd Comments Relative Deflection at Brg. At the second peak response the predicted amplification factor is 3.8 -10 0.2984 mm. There is a predicted second peak response. System 2 .0 N. and the location of the bearing centerline. Comparison of test data with prediction at the discharge end vertical– System 2 100000 Critical Speed.Vertical 1. In the critical speed map of the rotor bearing system shown in figure 6 are also plotted the equivalent bearing support stoffness. This finite pedestal stiffness was taken into account analytically to compare the response with the test data.4 1.System 2 the rotor bearing system.6 N and 5052.4 20 1. 4.12th IFToMM World Congress.Vertical 1.2 Amplitude (mils) pk-pk 1 0.13 compared to 4. in 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 Speed (RPM) Fig.6 Prediction Test C System 3 The third rotor bearing system is a six stage centrifugal compressor.4 -30 0. and figure 8 shows the second undamped rotor mode shape. Rotor analytical model of system 3 rotor-bearing system Undamped Critical Speed Map SYSTEM 3 . Bearing Stiffness.Inlet End . 10000000.8 0. lb/in Fig. 1000000.2 Shaft Radius. the predicted amplification factor at the first peak response is 8. however. in Amplitude (mils) pk-pk 10 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 74 1 0 0. This assures that the bearing damping will be 3 . The bearing diameter is 127 mm. 3 Comparison of test data with prediction at the inlet end vertical– System 2 System 2 . supported by five-shoe tilting pad journal bearings.06 observed in test.6 -20 0.SIX STAGE CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR Rotor w ith 5 shoe tilt pad LBP . 6.2 N. Critical speed map of system 3 TABLE II. 5.6 Prediction Test 1.SIX STAGE CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR 30 Rotor with 5 shoe tilt pad LBP .2 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 Speed (RPM) Fig.6 0. At the discharge end. Besançon (France). It is to be noted that the rotor bearing system was run on a high speed balance facility. This shows the shaft diameter of each section. The total rotor weight is 9342.426. the bearing preload is 0.56E6 N/mm For the unbalance response correlation study. and the pad machined radial bearing clearance is 0. Both the modes show appreciable relative rotor deflection at the bearing center lines.

1 0.Span 2138.1016 mm Winl=3976 N Wdis=4439 N 3848 13205 V 3494 9121 H 1794 5438 Inlet Brg. Unb. Wdis=reaction at discharge end bearing.14 Test Prediction Amplitude (mils) pk-pk 0. Dam D=88. 5 shoe tilt pad Load on pad D=101. V 5000 H 5000 V 17000 H 17000 Disch. The percent deviation of the predicted peak response from the test is thus 4. V 5000 H 5000 Disch. V 4880 % Dev. III Additional Correlation Studies of Two more Rotor Bearing Systems 4 Test Results Note: V= vertical.3 cpm K=316228 lb/in Table III lists the results of the rotor-bearing dynamic analyses for two more multistage compressors. A summary description of the rotor-bearing system is given.7 mm 8 stage compr. documented on the test floor. Summary of Rotor Dynamic Results of Systems 4 and 5 . V 12500 H 13000 Inlet Brg.5.6 mm L=40.Nominal clearance Shaft Radius. H=horizontal. 8. –3. V 12500 H 13000 Disch.02 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 Speed (RPM) Analytical Results Rigid Bearing Criticals Undamped System Criticals Resp. Static Unb Resp.SIX STAGE CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR - Machine Type 30 Rotor with 5 shoe tilt pad LBP . System no. Brg. L=length. Brg.6 compared to the observed during test at 19. D=diameter. –6. the dynamic unbalance response run indicates calculation in which two out-of-phase unbalances are placed between the bearings.0 Disch.3429mm Winl=1712N Wdis=1708N 5037 17218 V 4280 13769 H 3803 11070 Inlet Brg.5 mm Cd=.5 120 Axial Location. Comparison of test data with prediction at the coupling end vertical– System 3 Figure 9 shows comparison of the test data with prediction at the coupling end in the vertical direction during run up.18 0. 9.1. Second un-damped mode shape of system 3 System 3 . Besançon (France).12 0. V 3600 H 3600 Disch.9 mm L=73 mm Cd=. The results of vibration measurements taken in the vertical direction. Cd=Diametral clearance.122mm Tw=19 mm Td=. 2007 PDeChoudhury effective in controlling the response of the rotor due to unbalances. Press. The static unbalance run indicates the rotor unbalance response calculation in which a single unbalance is placed near the center of the bearing span.04 0.06 0. Tw=dam width. Fig. First un-damped mode shape of system 3 SYSTEM 3 . V 3400 % Dev. are also presented. in 20 10 4 8 12 16 2024 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 74 0 -10 -20 -30 0 20 40 60 80 100 f=5522. in 20 10 4 8 12 16 2024 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 74 0 -10 -20 -30 0 20 40 60 80 100 f=2329.9 cpm K=316228 lb/in Bearing Data 120 Axial Location. The predicted amplification factor is 13. in Fig. in Fig. V 3600 H 3600 Inlet Brg. June18-21.16 0. Brg.08 0. Brg. V 3500 % Dev. Td=dam depth. Rotor Data 4 W 8415 N Brg.–2. The predicted peak response is at 2865 RPM. TABLE III. Span 1684 mm 6 stage compr.12th IFToMM World Congress. Dyn.SIX STAGE CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR - 30 Rotor with 5 shoe tilt pad LBP .Nominal clearance Shaft Radius. SYSTEM 3 . V 17000 H 17000 Disch. 7. Winl=reaction at inlet end bearing.Coupling End .0 5 W 3420 N Brg.Vertical 0. along with the analytical results. Brg. compared to the observed at 3000 RPM. Brg.

. June18-21. observed peak is at 3500 RPM. 2003. Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory Research and Technology Division. E. P.8. S. Inc. 5. Part III. W. Conclusions 1. Additional work needs to be done to predict better the amplification factors through the critical speeds.. pages 471-476. 4. The effect of oil film damping on the second system critical speed is to be noted. [4] De Choudhury.. which is characteristic of the tilting pad journal bearing load between configuration. Design Handbook for Fluid Film Type Bearingsy. a percent deviation of – 3. Unbalances in actual rotor are random. The observed peak at the discharge end bearing in the vertical direction at 4880 RPM has a percent deviation of –2. More study is required to correlate the higher peak responses. as evidenced by the nearly equal bearing loading. 3. October. Air Force Systems Command. Besançon (France). J. (96-2). 2.0.. System 5 is a six-stage centrifugal compressor rotor.F. 2007 PDeChoudhury System 4 is an eight-stage centrifugal compressor rotor.. [6] Lund J. Barth. The correlation of the first peak response. The deviation of the second peak response could be higher from prediction. pages 504-513. 5 . July 2002.. Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory Research and Technology Division. Part V. Wright Patterson Air Force Base. J. The results of the unbalance response prediction shows the first peak response to occur at 5000 RPM. May 1965. The response peak due to static unbalance at the inlet and discharge end bearings both in the vertical and horizontal directions are at 3600 RPM. the investigation showed that a logical specification [7] regarding the acceptable location of peak responses could be arrived at by means of such analysis during the design stage to avoid potential field problems which could become expensive. Journal of Vibration and Acoustics.0.5%. Air Force Systems Command. May 1976 [3] Lund. Computer Program Manual for Rotor Response and Stability. both in the vertical and horizontal directions. 6. W.. [2] De Choudhury... V. Booser. Ohio. Jouranal of Engineering for Industry.12th IFToMM World Congress.Edition. Ohio. It was realized that the amount and location of unbalances are arbitrary. Rotor-Bearing Dynamics Design Technology. The correlation of test results with the predicted lateral critical speeds obtained from steady state unbalance response analysis has been found to be good for different kinds of rotor bearing systems. McGraw Hill Book Co. The percent deviation from the prediction is thus –6. Seventh.. ASME Transactions. The presentation attempted to show the application of the analytical tools in the design of high speed turbomachinery. Effect of Damping on the Lateral Critical Speeds of Rotor-Bearing Systems. Rotor-Bearing Dynamics Design Technology. Zsolcsak. First Edition. R. in general. [7] API Standard 617. ASME Journal of Industry. D. Stability and Damped Critical Speeds of a Flexible Rotor In Fluid Film Bearings. The test data shows a peak at 3400 RPM in the vertical direction. Overall. Bearing Design and Application. Application of Lund's Stability Analysis Program In Design of Modern Turbomachinery. Wright Patterson Air Force Base. May 1965. The un-damped system critical speeds indicate considerable difference in bearing stiffness in the vertical and horizontal directions. E. at the inlet and discharge end bearings. [5] Wilcock.. At the discharge end bearing. The rotor is the lightest of the test cases and has good symmetry. 1957. P. pages 509-517. New York. W. is within +/. W. References [1] Lund J.

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