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Understanding Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

By PAUL JACOBS, M.D. What Is Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma? Lymphoma refers to a malignancy of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is a network of nodes (knots of tissue) connected by vessels. Together, the lymph nodes drain fluid and waste products from the body. The lymph nodes act as tiny filters, removing foreign organisms and cells. Lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell that helps fight infections caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. The lymph node function is to prevent infections from entering the bloodstream. When the lymphatic system is fighting an active infection, you may notice that some of the lymph nodes in the area of the infection become swollen and tender. This is the body’s normal reaction to an infection. Lymphoma occurs when the lymph-node cells or the lymphocytes begin to multiply uncontrollably, producing malignant cells that have the abnormal capacity to invade other tissues throughout your body. The two main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The differences in these two types of lymphoma are certain unique characteristics of the different lymphoma cells. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is further classified into a variety of subtypes based on the cell of origin (Bcell or T-cell), and the cell characteristics. The subtype of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma predicts the necessity of early treatment, the response to treatment, the type of treatment required, and the prognosis. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is much more common than Hodgkin lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is the fifth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The risk of developing nonHodgkin lymphoma increases with age. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is more common in males than in females and in Caucasians. The incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma is increasing with the passage of time. The United States has the highest incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. What Causes Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma? The exact cause of non-Hodgkin lymphoma is unknown. However, there are multiple medical conditions that are associated with an increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Inherited immune deficiencies: ataxia-telangectasia, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, common variable immunodeficiency, severe combined immunodeficiency, and X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome Genetic syndromes: Down syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome (a genetic condition in men caused by an extra X chromosome) Immune disorders, and their treatments: Sjögren's syndrome (an immune disorder characterized by unusual dryness of mucus membranes), rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus Celiac disease, a disease involving the processing of certain components of gluten, a protein in grains Inflammatory bowel disease, particularly Crohn’s disease, and its treatment Psoriasis Family history of lymphoma Bacteria: Helicobacter pylori, asssociated with gastritis and gastric ulcers; Borrelia burgdorferi, associated with Lyme disease; Campylobacter jejuni; Chalmydia psittaci Viruses: HIV, HTLV-1, SV-40, HHV-8, Epstein Barr virus, hepatitis virus

Non-random chromosomal translocations and molecular rearrangements Symptoms of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) depend on the area of the body affected by the disease.D. Unexplained weight loss. Title: Understanding Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Reference: http://www. or groin. Night sweats. underarm. The most common symptom is a painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck. Pain in the abdomen or back.edu . Itchy skin. Extreme fatigue. Other symptoms may include: Unexplained fever. . A cough or shortness of breath. M. Reddened patches on the skin. by Paul Jacobs.fccc.

Not only that it made me aware. The risk of developing nonHodgkin lymphoma increases with age. The United States has the highest incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. knowing these facts would also help me in handling more future patients with the same diagnosis. armpits and underarm but she just ignored them because we thought that they were just “lusay”. underarm. and the cell characteristics. then second is its symptoms. Immune disorders. Night sweats. not only in the US but also in the Philippines. Other symptoms may include: Unexplained fever. Symptoms of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) depend on the area of the body affected by the disease. Unexplained weight loss. still we were all wrong. Reddened patches on the skin. he was always tired and would always say that his body was very weak.Summary: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is further classified into a variety of subtypes based on the cell of origin (Bcell or T-cell). Although we thought that nothing was wrong with him because he was still so strong and healthy at that age. and the prognosis. Slowly as years passed by. as what we call swollen lymph nodes. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is the fifth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Bacteria. the response to treatment. Inflammatory bowel disease. The article was very helpful for me to render the right and appropriate nursing care given to a patient suffering from such disease. A cough or shortness of breath. As of my own experience. However. Genetic syndromes. Pain in the abdomen or back. I would be the first one to recommend seeking medical attention. the type of treatment required.hodgkin's lymphoma. The subtype of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma predicts the necessity of early treatment. and its treatment.hodgkin's lymphoma. fifth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. my grand mother noticed some growing nodules on his neck. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is more common in males than in females and in Caucasians.Hodgkin's Lymphoma. The exact cause of non-Hodgkin lymphoma is unknown. Viruses and Non-random chromosomal translocations and molecular rearrangements. Family history of lymphoma. first is its causes. Our family truly regretted that we had not detected it earlier. Itchy skin. and their treatments. It is very important to know these important facts about NHL because as what had been mentioned in the article. . more and more cases are reported for NHL. Reaction: After reading the entire article. my grand father died at the age of 84 due to Non. The most common symptom is a painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck. He couldn't control his sleeping habits. What we just noticed abnormally to him was his constant sleeping. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is much more common than Hodgkin lymphoma. What we thought as normal symptoms of aging turned out to be Non. there are multiple medical conditions that are associated with an increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Inherited immune deficiencies. particularly Crohn’s disease. Extreme fatigue. it made me realize certain important points that I should remember about Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. Celiac disease. The incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma is increasing with the passage of time. Knowing the causes and symptoms of Non. or groin. Psoriasis. I am now very aware and welleducated of the basics of the disease so whenever a member of our family would portray the same symptoms manifested by my grand father.