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marked below.

INTERMEDIATE

ALGEBRA
FOR COLLEGES
BY WILLIAM
L.

HART

PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA

D. G.

HEATH AND COMPANY

Copyright 1948, by D. C.

HEATH AND COMPANY

No

part of the material covered by this copyright may be reproduced in any form

without written permission of the publisher.

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (408)

PREFA Cf

HIS

BOOK

offers

school algebra. The study it either (1) as a preliminary to taking college algebra, or (2) as terminal work hi algebra which is intended as a prerequisite for ele-

collegiate substitute for third semester high text was designed for a college student who will

in various fields of natural or social science, or in suitable selection of content from the business administration.

mentary courses

book would provide a

satisfactory algebraic foundation for a first In course in trigonometry or in the mathematics of investment.

the case of a student of the assumed preparation, the text provides sufficient material for a substantial course utilizing from 40 to 60
class hours.

was based on the assumption that the typical student involved is of a mature age but studied his elementary algebra so long ago that practically all fundamentals must be taught
of the text

The plan

they were relatively new material for him. Hence, the early chapters of the book present a mature but frankly elementary treatment of the foundations of algebraic technique with a generous amount
as
if

of discussion

and problem material.

Also, appropriate refresher

work on arithmetic is provided incidentally hi the algebraic problems and explicitly in an early optional chapter devoted to computation.

The tempo

of the discussion in the text is gradually increased until,

in the later chapters, distinctly collegiate speed is attained so that the student will find it easy to make the transition into a substantial

second course devoted to college algebra.

The text makes no attempt

to present material which custom dictates as primarily within the sphere of college algebra, although such material frequently may

enter the most substantial courses in third semester algebra at the secondary level. However, in the interest of efficiency and math-

ematical simplicity, the terminology and general viewpoint of the text is distinctly collegiate. Emphasis is laid on the logical sequence
of topics, accuracy of definitions,

and the completeness

of proofs.

vi

PREFACE
SPECIAL FEATURES

Adult nature of the presentation. The discussion in the text is couched at a level suitable to the maturity of college students. Hence, the available space and assumed class time are utilized mainly to explain and illustrate the mathematical principles involved and only the necessary minimum attention is devoted to artificial motivation of the type which might properly be expanded for younger
students.

given to the language concerning variables, functions, equations, and the most elementary aspects of analytic geometry because of the importance of this vocabulary in fields of application which the students will enter in

Terminology.

Particular emphasis

is

college.

by

technical vocabulary of the algebraic content excluding terms which are of small or doubtful utility.

The

is

limited

Illustrative material.

Extensive use

is

made

of illustrative ex-

amples to introduce new theory, to recall previous knowledge, and to furnish models for the student's solutions of problems.

Emphasis on development of
is

skill in

computation.

The viewpoint

adopted that the student needs refresher training in the operations


as*

appreciation of various features of computation. Hence, work with fractions and decimals is introduced quickly, and substantial early sections are devoted to a disof arithmetic, as well

new mature

cussion of approximate computation. Also, the exercises and applications continue to demand computing skill throughout the text, and

the chapter on logarithmic computation

is

made very

complete.

Supplementary content.

A small

amount

of material not essential

in the typical course is segregated into obviously independent sections labeled with a black star, *. Also, the teacher will understand

that several of the later chapters are optional and that their omission in whole or in part will not interfere with the continuity of other

The book was planned quent omissions by the teacher.


chapters.

to eliminate the necessity for fre-

The
is

extent and grading of the exercises.

The problem

material

so abundant that, in

many

exercises, either the

odd-numbered or

the even-numbered examples alone will be found sufficient for the student's outside assignments, and the balance may be reserved for

work

in the classroom.

In each exercise, the problems are arranged

PREFACE

vii

approximately in order of increasing difficulty. Examples stated in words are emphasized at the appropriate places to avoid the develop-

ment

of

an inarticulate form
skills

does not spend

of algebraic skill. However, the text valuable time in specialized training to develop

problem solving
problems.

devoted to

artificial

or unimportant types of

Answers.

The answers

in the text, and free in a separate


Flexibility.

to odd-numbered problems are provided answers for even-numbered problems are furnished

pamphlet at the instructor's request.

arrangement

of the exercises, various features in the of theoretical discussions, and the location of certain

The grading

chapters are designed to aid the teacher in adapting the text to the specific needs of his class.

Composition and appearance. The absence of excessively small type, the generous spacing on the pages, and the special care taken in the arrangement of the content into pages create a favorable setting for the use of the book by both the teacher and the student.
University of Minnesota

WILLIAM

L.

HART

CONTENTS

CHAPTER
1. 2.

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS


Review of Chapters 1 and 2

22
46 48 58

3. 4. 5.
6.

'

7.

8. 9.

10.

DECIMALS AND ELEMENTS OF COMPUTATION LINEAR EQUATIONS IN ONE UNKNOWN SPECIAL PRODUCTS AND FACTORING ADVANCED TOPICS IN FRACTIONS Review of Chapters 4, 5> and 6 RECTANGULAR COORDINATES AND GRAPHS SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS EXPONENTS AND RADICALS ELEMENTS OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

82
104 118
119
131

142 170
186

ADVANCED TOPICS IN QUADRATIC EQUATIONS I2. THE BINOMIAL THEOREM ^. RATIO, PROPORTION, AND VARIATION
11.
14.
15.
1 6.

204 210
221

PROGRESSIONS*

~~"

"~~~

LOGARITHMS ._. SYSTEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS

240
262
277

APPENDIX TABLES
I

POWERS AND ROOTS


FOUR-PLACE LOGARITHMS OF NUMBERS

283

II

284
287

in COMPOUND AMOUNT: (1-K*)*


IV

PRESENT VALUE OF $1 DUE AFTER


k PERIODS:
(1

-M)

~*

88
289

ANSWERS TO
INDEX

EXERCISES

315

CHAPTER

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS

Explicit

and

literal

numbers

In algebra, not only do we employ explicit numbers like 2, 5, 0, etc., but, as a characteristic feature of the subject, we also use letters or other symbols to represent numbers with variable or undesignated values. For contrast with explicit numbers, we agree that number symbols such as a, b, x, and y will be called literal numbers. In this book, as a rule, any single letter introduced without a qualifying description will represent a number.
2.

Signed Numbers

The numbers used in the elementary stages of algebra are called real numbers. They are classed as positive, negative, or zero, 0, which The word real is used is considered neither positive nor negative.
with reference to these numbers in order to permit contrast with a type of number called imaginary, which will be introduced at a later
stage.

ILLUSTRATION

1.

17,

f and
,

are real numbers.

In arithmetic, the numbers employed consist of zero, the integers and other unsigned numbers which we or whole numbers 1, 2, 3, express by means of fractions or the decimal notation. These numbers, except for zero, will hereafter be called positive numbers. When we choose, we shall think of each positive number as having a plus sign, +-, attached at the left.
,

ILLUSTRATION
*

2.

The positive number

may be written

-f 7 for emphasis.

For a logical foundation for algebra, see pages 1-78 H. B. FINE; GINN AND COMPANY, publishers.

in College Algebra,

by

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS

In a later section, we shall formally define the negative numbers, which will be described as the "negatives" of the positive numbers.
ILLUSTRATION
3.

Corresponding to

+ 6 we shall introduce

the negative

number

6.

Positive

and negative numbers may be contrasted concretely

hi

known to be of one or other of two opposite types. In such a case, we conveniently think of any P as positive number P and the corresponding negative number being opposiies. With this hi mind, we frequently refer to the signs "+" and " "as being opposite signs.
assigning values to quantities which are

ILLUSTRATION 4. In bookkeeping, if a gain of $5000 is assigned the value - $3000. $6000, a loss of $3000 could be given the value

We

shall desire the results of operations

which we

shall define for

signed numbers to correspond with our intuitions are interpreted concretely.

when the numbers

ILLUSTRATION 5. Let t indicate an increase of temperature when t is Let time be considered positive positive and a decrease when t is negative.
in the future

and

negative in the past.

Then, the following concrete statea decrease of 12;

ments should correspond to the indicated addition or multiplication.

decrease of 20

and then a

rise of

creates

or,

(- 20)

+8 = -

12.

decrease of 10 per hour in temperature for the next 3 hours decrease of 30 ; or,

mil

create

(+

3)

(- 10) =

30.

// the temperature has decreased 10 per hour for the preceding 4 hours, the temperature 4 hours ago was 40 higher than now; or,

(-

4)

(- 10) =

+ 40.

EXERCISE
Under
the specified condition,

what meaning would be appropriate for

the

indicated quantity with opposite signf


1.

For

5 miles,
if

if

+ 5 miles means 5 miles north.


$15 means $15
lost.

2. 3.

For

+ $10, For + 8,

if

3 means a fall of 3 in temperature.

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS


4.
5.

3
latitude.

For For

14 latitude,

if

+7
-

latitude

means 7 north means

170' altitude,

if
if

-f 20' altitude

20' above sea level.

6.
7.

For -f 30 longitude, For

20 longitude means 20 west of Greenwich.

5', if

+ 5' means 5' to the right.


signed values and express each of the

Introduce your

own agreements about

following facts by adding or multiplying signed numbers.


8.
9.

A gain of $3000 followed by a loss of $9000 creates a loss of $6000. A fall of 40 in temperature followed by a rise of 23 creates a fall of 17.
backward and then 15 steps forward bring a person

10. Thirty-five steps

to a point 20 steps backward.

you have been walking forward at a rate of 25 steps per minute, then 6 minutes ago you were 150 steps back from your present position.
11. If

water level of a river is rising 4 inches per hour, then (a) the level will be 24 inches higher at the end of 6 hours; (6) the level was 36 niches lower 9 hours ago.
12. If the

3. Extension of the

number system

this point, let us start with the understanding that we have at our disposal only the positive numbers and zero. Then, we shall

At

extend this number system to include negative numbers, properly defined, and shall introduce the operations of algebra for the whole

new number system.


use a
is

Hereafter,

when we

refer to

any number, or
it

number without limiting its value, we shall mean that any number of the final number system we plan to develop.
literal

4. Algebraic operations

operations of algebra are addition, subtraction, Whenever these operations are intromultiplication, and division. duced, the results in applying them will be the same as in arithmetic

The fundamental

when only

positive

numbers and zero are involved.

5. Multiplication

two or more numbers is called their product and each of the given numbers is called a factor of their product. To indicate multiplication, we use a cross X or a high dot between the numbers, or, in the case of literal numbers, merely write them side by side without any algebraic sign between them.

The

result of multiplying

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS

We

separate the factors by parentheses if the dot or cross is omitted between factors which are explicit numbers, or when a factor not at the left end of a product has a plus or a minus sign attached.

ILLUSTRATION

1.

6-3

6X3

6(3)

18.

We
is

read

6X3,
a,

6-3,

or 6(3) as "six times three."

ILLUSTRATION 2. 4ab means 4 X a a = 2 and b = 5, then 4ab = 4(2) (5) =


If

and

read "four

b"

If

40.

is

any number, we agree that


(+
1)

# = N;

NX

0.

(1)

6.

Negative numbers

be a new number symbol, called "minus immediately assign the following property:
Let
1

1," to

which we

(-Ijx (-1) = +1.


By
our standard agreement about multiplication by

(1)

1,

(4-1) x
If

(-1) = -1.
we introduce
(

(2)

is

any

positive number,

P
X
P.

as a

new number
is,

symbol, called "minus P," to represent

1)

That

- P = (-

1)

P.

(3)

We

call

Pa negative number.
1.
(

Our number system now

consists of

the positive numbers, zero, and the negative numbers.


ILLUSTRATION
6,
6, we have the negative number Corresponding to In concrete applications, corresponding to 1) X 6.

defined as

each positive number, we

may

think of multiplication by

as having

the property of producing a


7.

number

of opposite type, called negative.

Absolute value

The absolute value of a positive number or zero is defined as the number itself. The absolute value of a negative number is the given number with its sign changed from minus to plus. The absolute value of a number N is frequently represented by the symbol N
|

|.

ILLUSTRATION 1. The absolute value of + 5 is 5. The absolute value of 5 is also 5. We read - 3 as "the absolute value of - 3." We = 0. have - 3 = 3 and

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS


8. Inserting signs before
If

numbers

we

insert a plus or a

minus sign before

(to the left of)


it

a number,
1

this is understood to

be equivalent to multiplying

by

+
1)

or

1,

respectively.

ILLUSTEATION

1.

-f 5

= (+

1)

+
Hereafter,

= (+

1)

a
if

a.

= 5. - a = (-

16
1)

= (-

16.

a.

we

shall act as

each explicit number or

literal

number

expression has a sign attached, at the left. If no sign is visible, it can be assumed to be a plus sign because, for every number N, we

have

N = H- N.

9. Properties of multiplication

We
I.

* are satisfied. agree that the following postulates

Multiplication is commutative, or the product of two numbers is the same in whatever order they are multiplied.
1.

ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION
II.

3
1)

21.
1)

ab

=
1)

ba.

2.

(-

1)

X (+

= (+

X (-

= -

1.

Multiplication is associative, or the product of three or more numbers is the same in whatever order they are grouped in multiplying.
3.

ILLUSTRATION

5X7X6
abc

= 5X(7X6) = 7X(5X6)= = a(bc) = b(ac) = (a6)c.


a times
b, c,

210.

We

read this

"
o, b, c, equals

equals b times

a, c, etc."
is

ILLUSTRATION 4. The .product of three or more numbers in whatever order they are multiplied:
abc
--=

the

same

a(bc)

(bc)a

bca

(ac)b

acb, etc.

10. Computation of products

a product of two numbers, find the product of their absolute values, and then
I.

To compute

give the result

a plus sign

if the

numbers have

like signs;
signs.
defi-

II. give the result


*

a minus sign

if the

numbers have unlike

postulate is a property which nition of the process.

is

specified to

be true as a part of the

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS

The preceding facts about a product are arrived at naturally in any 1. Stateexample by recalling the multiplication properties of
ments
I

and

II are called the laws of signs for multiplication.


1.
(

ILLUSTRATION

5)(

7)

4-

35

because
1)(36).

(-

1)

X (- 1) X 7 - (- 1)(- 1)(5)(7) = (+ (- 4) X (+ 7) - (- 1) X 4 X 7 - - 28.


5
is positive if

In a product, the result


of factors are negative,
(1, 3, 5,
)

an even number (2, 4, 6, ) and the product is negative if an odd number

of factors are negative.


2.

ILLUSTRATION

- 3(1)

2)(-

5)

(4-

6)(-

5)

* -

30.

ILLUSTRATION

3.

(- 1)(- 1)(- 1)(11. Division

- [(-

1)(- !)][(- 1)(- 1)]

- (+

!)(+

1)

1.

To

divide a

by
bx.

6,

where
call

b is not zero,

means to

find the

such that a
quotient.

We

a the dividend, b the divisor,


-5-

number x and x the

We denote the quotient by a


"a

6,

or r> or a/6.

The fraction

a/6

is

read

numerator and the terms of the

divided by 6," or "a over 6." In a/6, we call a the 6 the denominator; also, a and 6 are sometimes called
fraction.

The
6.

fraction a/6, or a

-s-

6, is

frequently

referred to as the ratio of a to

ILLUSTRATION

1.

36

because

36.

absolute value and sign of any quotient are a consequence of the absolute value and sign of a corresponding product.
quotient of two numbers, first find the quotient of their absolute values, and then apply the laws of signs as stated for products.

The

To compute a

ILLUSTRATION

2.

40 = ~ XTo *"
i"

because
9

10

4)

40.

__

40 o

=4-5

because

X (-

8)

40.

Note 1. Division is referred to as the inverse of multiplication. Thus, if 7 is first multiplied by 5 and if the result, 35, is then divided by 5, we obtain 7 unchanged. Or, division by 5 undoes the effect of multiplication by 5.

Equally

well, multiplication is the inverse of division.

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS


EXERCISE 2

Read each product or


1.

quotient
2.

and
3) 9)

give its value.

8.

((-

4.
7.

8 4

X (X 0.

3).

5.

X (X (-

5).

3,
6.
9.

(((-

2)
3)

X
X

(6).
5.

4).
3).

8.
6).
5).

(+

5)

(8).

2)

X (+ 4)
3).

10. 13.

(+ 4)(+
(- 1)(-

11.

(- 7)(-

12. 15.
18.

X (- (+ - (+

14. 17.

- (-

4).
4).
1).

8).
1).

16.
19.

(-

7). 3).

(+

- (-

20.
4)(6).
4).

- (-

21.

(-

9).

22.

(- 7)(-

23. 26. 27. 29.

(- 2)(- 7)(-

3)(4).
2).

24.
26.

5(- 2)(7)(- 3)(-

(- 5)(- 3)(- 4)(-

28.

- 6(- 4)(- 3). - (- 7)(- 4).

3(5) (2) (- 4).

- 4(-

5)(6)(-

3).

16
.

~
31
*

16

-+8

39 -11. 3

-3

12
+39
5).

-42
38.

-36
^-i8'
1).

36
39.

-28

'T7'

(- 1)(- 1)(- 1)(- 1)(-

(- 1)(- 1)(- 1)(-

State the absolute value of each number.


40. 16. 41.

52.
3,

42.
5,

33.
4.

43.

}.

44. -f 14.2.

45.
46. 47.

Find the product of Find the product of

and

5.3,

4,

and and

+ 2.
4.

Find the product of

1.8, 2,

Read each symbol and


48.
53.
54.

specify its value.


50.
|

7
|

|.

49.

+4
if

|.

|.

61.

31
2.

52.

1.7

Compute 4o6c ifa=


Compute 3xyz
x

3,
2, 3,

6=
y

4 and, c
10,
4,

=
5.

=
a
h

and
x

65. 56.

Compute 2abxy
Compute 5hkwz

if

b
3,

3,
5,

and y

=* 5.

if

2,

w =

and

2.

8
12. Addition

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS

adding two or more numbers is called their sum. Usually, to indicate the sum, we take each of the numbers with its attached sign, supplying a plus sign where none is written, and then write these signed numbers in a line. Each number, with its sign, is called a term of the sum. We usually omit any plus sign at the left

The

result of

end

of

a sum.
1.

ILLUSTRATION
is

The sum

of 15

and 17

is

written 15

17;

the

sum

32, as in arithmetic.

We can state that a plies sign between two


However,
this

numbers

indicates that

they are to be added, because we could write a sum by inserting a plus sign before each term and then writing the numbers in a line.

might introduce unnecessary plus


is

signs.

The most
line,

useful statement

that,

when numbers

are written in a

con-

nected by their signs, plus or minus, this indicates that the numbers
are to be added.
12. represented by 17 Later, we will justify saying that this equals 5, the value of the expression in arithmetic. By using a needless plus sign we could have written 17 (- 12) for the sum.
2.
is

ILLUSTRATION

The sum

of 17

and

12

We
sum

specify that the number 1 is zero. 1 and That of

1
is,

has the new property that the

-1 +
Also, for

0.

(1)

any number N, we agree that

N+

= N.

The operation
I.

of addition satisfies the following postulates.

commutative, or the in whatever order they are added.


is

Addition

sum

of two numbers is the same

ILLUSTRATION

3.

+3

=
1

+5=

8.

a
1.

+ 6 = 6 + o.

ILLUSTRATION
II.

4.

0=

+1=+1
sum

of three or more numbers is the same in whatever order they are grouped in adding.

Addition

is associative, or the

ILLUSTRATION

5.

+5+7=3+

(5

+ 7) - 5 +

(3

+ 7) =

15.

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS


ILLUSTRATION
6.

c -+ (a

+ &)

+a

-{-

b, etc.

Thus, the sum of three or more numbers they are added.

is

the same in whatever order

Addition and multiplication satisfy the following postulate.


* III. Multiplication is distributive with respect to addition, or

a(6

+ c) =
(8

ab

+ ac.
5)

ILLUSTRATION
%

7.

(5

+ 7) =

(8

7)

40 -f 56

96.

1 3.

Introduction of the negative of a

number

The N by
of

is defined as the result of multiplying negative of a number is N. The negative of a 1, so that the negative of

positive

number is the corresponding negative number. The negative a negative number is the corresponding positive number.
1.

ILLUSTRATION 5 because

The

negative of
5)

+ 5 is
X
(5)

5.

The negative

of

is

(-

= (-

1)

+ 5.

Thus, we notice that, if~one number is the negative of another, then the second number is the negative of the first.

We

observe that
2. 1) 1)

the

sum

of

any number and

its

negative is 0.

ILLUSTRATION

By

Postulate III of Section 12,


1) 1)

-5+5= -a+a=

[(-

[(-

X 5] + [(+ X o] + [(+

X 5] = X a] =

X (- 1 + a X (- 1 +
5

1) 1)

= =

X X

= =

0. 0.

14. Subtraction

To

subtract b

from a
a.

will

added to 6 will yield


tion in arithmetic.

mean" to find the number x which when This also is the definition used for subtrac-

Hence, the result of subtracting a positive number from one which is no larger f will be the same in algebra as in
arithmetic.
c." read a(b c) as "a times the quantity b of subtraction which occurs in arithmetic because is the case only t This 25) has no meaning negative numbers are not used in that field. Thus, (15
-

We

until negative

numbers are introduced.

?0
%

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS


1.

ILLUSTRATION 12 + 5 - 17.
If

The

result of subtracting 5

from 17

is

12 because

is

the result of subtracting b from

a,

then by definition
(1)

+ x.

On recalling arithmetic, we would immediately like to write x = a b, b. To prove that x = a b, we add which means the sum of a and
b to a, as given in equation 1
T,

_&=-6 + a = -&+(& + z)
In
(2),

= (-6 +

6)

+ z = z.
is

(2)

we proved
b to
a.

that the result of subtracting b from a

obtained

by adding

Thus,

to subtract

a number, add

its

negative.

(3)

two numbers a and b as the result of subtracting the second number from the first. If x is this difference,
define the difference of

We

we proved

in (2) that

b.

(4)

Thus, we can say that the minus sign in (4) indicates subtraction, However, it is equally important to realize just as in arithmetic. b. that (a b) means the sum of its two terms a and
ILLUSTRATION
(17
5)
2.

The

difference of 17

and 5
5.
is 12.

is

(17

5).

The
5)

difference

represents the sum of 17 and the result of subtracting 5 from 17, which

Also, (17

represents

Note

1.

In a difference a

6,

the

number

b which

is

subtracted

is
is

called
called

the subtrahend, and the number a, from which b is subtracted, the minuend. These names will not be mentioned very often.
1 5.

Computation of a sum
of

a sum of two signed numbers or, as a special case, the subtraction of one number from another, always will lead to the use of one of the following rules.

The computation

I.

To add two numbers with

like signs,

add

their absolute values

and

attach their
II.

common

sign.

To add two numbers with unlike signs, subtract the smaller absolute value from the larger and prefix the sign of the number having
the larger absolute value.

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS


ILLUSTRATION
1.

11

15

22,
17.

just as in arithmetic.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

1.

Add

5 and

To

verify this,

The sum is - 5 - 17 = - (5 + we use Postulate III of Section 12:


1)

17)

= -

22 by Rule

I.

17

= [(2.

5]

+ [(of 6
is

1)

17]

= (is

1)

(54-17)

- -

22.

ILLUSTRATION

The sum
from 6

and

zero or, as in arithmetic, the

result of subtracting 6

zero:

6
8,

0.

ILLUSTRATION 3. The sum of 20 and of subtracting 8 from 20, is 20 - 8 = 12. ILLUSTRATION


4.

which

is

the same as the result

The sum

of

20 and 8
(20

is,

by Rule
12.

II,

To
verify this,

20

+8= 20

12

8)

- 8.

we

recall that

Hence,

-20 + 8= -12-8 + 8= -12 + 0= -12.


Essentially,

+ 8 cancels
2.

8 of

20 and leaves
6.

12.

EXAMPLE

Subtract

15 from
of

FIRST SOLUTION.

Change the sign


result'^

15 and add:

15

9.

SECOND SOLUTION. Write the


result

difference of

6 and

15:
9.

= -

CHECK. Add

15 and 9:

- (- 15) = - 6 + 15 = - 15 + 9 = - 6.

16. Algebraic sums

An
is

expression like
c

5a

+ 76
an
algebraic

(1)

referred to as a sum, or sometimes as

that minus signs appear. Expression 1 is 5a and 76. In connection with any term whose sign is c, 3, minus, we could describe the effect of the term in the language of
subtraction instead of addition, but frequently this is not desirable. To compute a sum of explicit numbers, first eliminate parentheses

sum the sum

to emphasize of the terms

by performing any
time^,
it is

operations indicated by the signs. Then, somedesirable to add all positive and all negative numbers

separately before combining them.

12

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS


ILLUSTKATION
1.

Since
12)

12)

12 and

16

- (-

7)

+ (-

+ 14 = -

16

+7-

12

+ 14
14

+ 7, = - 28 + 21 = 7)
is

7.

Or,

we could compute mentally from

left

to right:

-16 + 7w-9; -12 is -21; +


Note
of
1.

7.

It is undesirable to use unnecessary plus signs.

Thus, in place

(-

3)

+
1.

(+

8)

we

write
(5z

-3 + 8.
3o6)
if

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

Compute
5x

3,

= = -

4,

and 6

7.

3ab

= [5(-

3)]

[3(-

4) (7)]

15

+ 84 =

69.

Comment. Notice the convenience of brackets to show that the multiplications above should be done before computing the sum.
1 7.

Summary concerning

the

number zero

have mentioned that the operation a -*- 6 is not defined when That is, division by zero is not allowed. However, no exb = 0. ception has arisen in multiplying by zero, adding or subtracting 0, is any number, or in dividing zero by some other number. Thus, if

We

AT

+ = AT;
=

N-Q = N;
because

#X
X
N.
r

0.

If

is

not zero, then TT


1.

ILLUSTRATION
Note
1.

+ = 0.

3X0

=
is

0.

0.

Contradictions arise

when an attempt

by

zero.

Thus,

if

we were

to define 5/0 to be the

made to define division number x which, when

multiplied

by

zero, will yield 5,

then we would obtain 5

Q-x, or

5=

0,

which

is

contradictory.

EXERCISE 3

Compute each sum mentally.


1.

20

7.

2. 6.

28
6

28

15.

9.

3.
6.

12

13

17.

5.

4.
7.

36-4.

13

16.

8.

25. 42.

9.

19.

10. 13.

-35 + 6. - 6 + 6.

11. 7 14. 17.

12.
15.

25.

16. 16.8

15.2.

-18 + 3. - 13.7 - 4.5.

18.

-13 + 0. - 5 + 3.4.

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS


What
19. 7.
is the negative of the

13

number?
4.

20.

21.
(a)

13.

22. 0.
(b) sub-

Without writing the numbers in a line, tract the lower one from the upper one.
23.

add

the

two numbers;

45
16

24.

36

26.

19

13

26.

12 18

27.

53

17

4- 17

Find
33.

the value of the expression in simple


5).

form.

(-

34.

- (-

8).

35.

- (+
8).

7).

36.

(-

6).

Compute each sum.


37.
40.

- (- (-

3)

+ 7.
(9).
3.

38. 4- (4- 4)

- (6).

39. 42.

4) 4-

41. 16

- (44.

+
6.

(-

4).

15

(4- 12).

43. 12
46. 47.

5 4-

16

25

+58

7 4-

10 4- 17

8 4-

14.
8.

46. 43
48. 3

6 4- 8 4- 12.

16 4- 14 4- 36 449.

16 4- 17

9.

3 4-

(-

60. 5

7 4-

- (- 16) - (- 4). (- 3) - (4- 16) - 3.7.


5)

Find
51. 16 64.

(a) the

sum and

(b) the difference

of the two numbers.

and

12.

62. 15

and

3.

63.

33 arid

7.

14 and

5.

66. 6

and

38.

66. 15

and

67.

Compute

the expression

when

the literal

numbers have
7. 5.

the given values.

67. 16 4- Bab]
68.

when a = when a =

4 and b
2, c
5,

2a

3cd;

=
b
4,

3,

and d
7,

69. 26
60.

7 4- 4oc;
2yz
3;

when a =
when x =

=
y

and
2,

=
z
6.

3.
7.

and

61.

2a 4- 56

16.3;

when a = 5 and

= -

of the numbers; (b) their difference; (d) the quotient of the first divided by the second.
62.

Find

(a) the

sum

(c)

their product;

60 and

15.

63.

and

14.

64.
13.

12 and 4.
23.

66. 6

and

3.

66.

52 and

67.

and

14
1 8.

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS


Real number scale

the horizontal line in Figure 1, we select a point 0, called the origin, and we decide to let this point represent the number 0. We select a unit of length for measuring distances on the line. Then,
if

On

is

a positive number, we

let it

be represented by the point on

ixj -543-2-1
i

56
i

ix

Fig. 1

the line which

is

at

points at whole units of distance The other from represent the positive and negative integers. points on the line represent the numbers which are not integers. Thus, all real numbers are identified with points on the real number
to the
left.

negative number of distance from

P units of distance from to the right. The P is represented by the point which is at P units
The

M when the direction from OM considered to M right and negative when the direction from
is

is any real number, it can be thought of as Figure 1. If to on the scale, where a measure of the directed distance from

scale hi

positive

to
is

is

to the

to the

left.

19. The less than and greater than relationships


All real

numbers can be represented in


1.

order from

left to

scale in Figure

We

then say that one number

right

is less

is greater than M, in case second number N, or that is to the on the number scale. We use the inequality signs < and > left of to represent less than and greater than, respectively. This definition includes as a special case the similar notion used in arithmetic for

on the than a

positive numbers.

The

present definition applies to


If

all real

positive, negative, or zero.

7* 6,f

then either a

<

numbers, b or a > b.

In each of the following inequalities, we verify the result by placing the numbers on the scale in Figure 1. Thus, 7 < 3 3 in Figure 1. We read this inequality 7 is situated to the left of because " 3." as 7 is less than

ILLUSTRATION

1.

4<6;
To

0<8;

<

0;

<

5.

is equivalent to saying that P is positive, besay that P > in Figure 1 are positive. To say cause the numbers to the right of is a negative number. that < is equivalent to saying that * Until otherwise indicated, the word number will refer to any real number.

We read

7* as

"not equal."

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS


20. Numerical inequality

15

We say that one number 6 is numerically less than a second number


c in case the absolute value of

bis

less

than the absolute value of

c.

To

distinguish this relation from ordinary inequality, we sometimes place the word algebraically before greater than or less than when they are

used in the ordinary sense.


,

ILLUSTRATION
is

1.

also true that 5

is

numerically less than 9 because 5 algebraically less than 9, because 5 < 9.


is
|

<

1.

It

ILLUSTRATION 2. We see that 3 - 3 = 3 and - 7 = 7, and 3 < 3 is algebraically greater than Thus,
|
| |
|

is

7.

numerically less than On the other hand,

7 because 7 < - 3.
7.

7 but numerically

less

than
if

In Illustration

2,

we observe a

special case of the fact that,

one

negative number b is algebraically less than a second negative ber c, then b is numerically greater than c.

num-

EXERCISE 4
Construct a real number scale 10 inches long, and mark the locations of the 10 to 10, inclusive. Then, read each positive and negative integers from

inequality
1.

and

verify it by

marking
2.

the two

numbers on your

scale.

<
3

9. 8.
9.

<

7.

3.
2.

<0.

4.
7.

< > the


,

5.

8.

< > 5

6.

3.

9.

< > -

4.

10.

Mark

numbers in each probkm on your


11. 14.

scale

and

decide which sign,

<
13.

or

>

should be placed between the numbers.


9.

10. 7

and

2 and

5.

12. 15.
18.

and

8.

6 and 0.

3 and
5.

3.

2 and

3.

7.

16.
19.

9 and 6 and

10.

17. 7
3.

and

8 and
8 and

20.

7 and

9.

21.

10.

Read
22. 24.

the inequalities

and
7

verify that they are correct.

|-7| <|8|and |

<

8.

23.
26.

4|

<
|

9| and 4

-3 >
1

but

- 3 < 0.
|

-8 >

3 but

< 9. - 8 < 3.

26. 27.

-5| <|"-7|but

-5>
6

-7.

< ]

but

> - 9.

76
Stale which

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS


number
(o) is algebraically greater

than the other;

(6) is

nu-

merically greater than the other.


28.

8; 6.

29.

5;

3.

30. 7; 4. 33.

31. 0; 34.

3;

3.

32. 5; 0.
7.

36. 2;

6.

36.

2; 7. 8;

3.

21 . Signs of grouping
Parentheses, ( ), brackets, [ ], braces, { }, and the vinculum, are symbols of grouping used to indicate terms whose sum is to be treated as a single number expression. Any general remark about
,

parentheses which follows will be understood to apply as well to other symbol of grouping.

any

Parentheses are useful for enclosing and separating algebraic expressions written side by side as an indication that they are to be
multiplied.

ILLUSTRATION

1.

3(

5)

means

3 times

5,

or -f 15.

In reading algebraic expressions, the student may use the words as he comes to the left marker for any symbol of "the quantity grouping enclosing more than one term.
1'

ILLUSTRATION 2. 6a." the quantity 2

(3
If

5o)(2

+ 6a)
20) (2

is

read "the quantity 3

5a times

=
(3

4,

(3

5o)(2 -f 60)

24)

= (-

17) (26)

= -

442.

Parentheses can be employed to avoid ambiguity hi regard to the order of application of the fundamental operations.
ILLUSTRATION
it
is

3.
-s-

Doubt
3,

arises as to the

meaning

of (9

-f-

3).

Does

mean
(9

(9

2)

which equals 1, or does it mean 9 (6 -5- 3), which or 7? The two possible meanings were written without ambiguity.
6)
4.

ILLUSTRATION

If

2,

3,

and

5,

then

5-3o& +

2oc

= 5- [3(2)(- 3)] + [2(2) (5)] = 5 - (- 18) + 20 = 5 + 18 +

20

43.

factor multiplying a sum within parentheses should be used to multiply each term of the sum.

ILLUSTRATION

5.

3(2a)

= (-

3) (2) (a)

= -

6a.

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS


ILLUSTRATION
6.

17
2fe)

4(a

26

+ 7) - - 4a - 4(- - 4a + 86 = =

4(7)

(1) (2)

28.

The student should


ILLUSTRATION
7.

write (2) without writing the right-hand side of (1).

+ 3z

y)

('

1)(- 5

+ 3x
any
1

y)

Zx

+ y.
algebraic
1,

of a plus sign or a minus sign before expression indicates that it is to be multiplied by


spectively.

The presence

or

re-

Multiplication

multiplication

by

would leave a sum unchanged, and would change the signs of all its terms. These

by

remarks justify the following


I.

rules.

To remove

or to insert parentheses preceded by a plus sign, rewrite

the included terms


II.

unchanged.

To remove

or to insert parentheses preceded by a

minus

sign, re-

write the included terms with their signs changed.

ILLUSTRATION

8.

+
7y)

(3r

7 -f

%) =

&c

7 -f

(- 2

5x
9.

= (-

1)(- 2

+ 5x -

7y)

5x

+ 7y.
enclose
all

ILLUSTRATION
terms after the

In the

sum on
8

the left-hand side below,

we

first in

parentheses preceded by a minus sign.


2c

5a

+ 3d -

5o

(2c

M+

8).
if

The

signs of the terms enclosed were changed in order that,

the parentheses

were removed, the original terms would be obtained.

In performing an operation which removes parentheses, if only explicit numbers are involved, it is best to compute each sum within
parentheses before they are removed.
ILLUSTRATION
10.

3(2

+ 7)

= -

3(4)

= -

12.

EXERCISE 5
f

Compute
1.

the expression.
5).

(- 2)((0)(3).

2.
5.

7(-

3).

3.
6.

(-

6)(4).

4. 7.

2(-

10.

(-

+ 9). 8 + 6)(5

8.

- (- 5). - 3(5 - 14).


11. (7

+
2).

(-

4).

9.

- 4(-

6).

5 -f 12).

3) (16

J8
12.
13. 14.

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS

Compute

(36

4oc

7) if 6
if

2,

3,

and

5.

+ 3oc - 6c) a - 3, b - 4, and c = - 2. - 5a)(- 2 + 60) when a = 4. Compute (3


Compute (- 6
(c

Compute
16. c

2d)(4d

3c) 16. c

w#A

<Ae pfoen vaJwes for c

and

d.

4;

3.

= -

2;

5.

17. c

= -

2;

= -

3.

Rewrite, by performing
theses.

any indicated multiplication and removing parenare present.


19.

Evaluate, if no

letters

18.

(17

3).

21. 24.

+ c). - (- 3 - 5z + 4y).
(2a

56

22.

+ 16). + (- 3 + 7a - b).
(2

20. 23. 26.

+ (3 - 6 + 15). + (31 - 5a + y).


(2x

26.
2(4c).

(80

36

c).

5y

9).

27. 3(5a). 31. 4(2o


34.

28.
3).

29.

3(-

5o).

30.

5(a

3x).
6c).

32.

2(x

2(- 5

+ 7a - 46c).

36. 3(6

+ 8). - 4a + 56).
y

33. 36.

5(3

- 4(-

+ 66).
a

Rewrite, enclosing the three terms at the right in parentheses preceded by

minus
37. 40. 42.

sign.

+ 7a _ 46. 2a - 3 + 56 - 13 + 5 - c -f 06.
_
5
c.

38.

60 -f 46
41. 16
43. 2ac

c.

39.

3x

4y.

4a
3

6 -f 3c.

-f-

5a
-4-

+ 4c.
3).

44.

Compute

(5

17)

-5-

3;

(17

22. Similar terms

terms such as 5a6c-and 7o6c, where the literal parts are the same, are called similar terms or like terms. In a term such as 5a6c, the explicit number which is a factor is called the numerical coefficient
of the term, or, for short, the coefficient.

Two

ILLUSTRATION
7;

1.

The numerical

coefficient of 5o6c is 5;

of

7o6c

is

of abc is

1.

We

never write the coefficient


for abc.

when

it is 1.

Thus, we

would never write Io6c

A sum of similar terms can be collected


by use

(added) into a single term,

of the distributive property of multiplication.


coefficients

To collect a sum of similar terms, add their numerical and multiply the result by the common literal part.

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS


ILLUSTRATION
If
2.

19
12o6.
is

5ab

+ lab

ab(5

-f-

7)

as a concrete object, the result here the objects plus 7 of them equals 12 of them.
of

we think

"06"

obvious: 5 of

ILLUSTRATION

3.

9o6

+ 4o6 =

ab(

+ 4) =

o6(

5)

606.

In finding a

of algebraic expressions, we collect similar terms. direction to collect terms means to collect similar terms.
1.

sum

EXAMPLE

Find the sum and the difference of


3a
5y

8
is

and

3y

2a
5y

6.

FIRST SOLUTION.

1.

The sum

(3a

8)

+
2y

(3y

2o

6)

=
The
(3a

3a

2a

5y

+ 3y -

14.

The student should


2.

learn to omit the intermediate details hi such a solution.


is

difference

5y

8)

(3y

2a
5y

6)

=
8

3a
-f-

=
like

3a

+ 2a To

3y

5y 6 = 60

Sy

3y -f 2o -f 6

2.

SECOND SOLUTION.

find the

sum, arrange the given expressions with

terms in separate columns, and add. To find the difference, change 2a the signs in (3y 6), or take its negative, and add similarly.
A
1 1

^Lrta:

3a wv < - 2a \ =a
i

_
.

5y
vi/

..

+ 3y2y

8 6
<-*

^oa: AflW<
Difference

r *^O jiii <

"""
*^2/

*""
i

14.

\ ^<z

ot/

o + o
2.

5a

Sy

2o In finding the difference, we could have changed the signs of ( 6) 3y mentally without rewriting at the right. Thus, from the columns for the 2a from 3a gives 5a; etc. sum: subtracting

EXAMPLE

2.

Perform indicated multiplications, remove parentheses, and

collect terms:

3(4a

3xy

56

2)

- 2(6

+ 3o
60

-f-

56

fay).

(1)

SOLUTION.

The sum
12o

equals 156

9xy

10

256

4.

106

6a -f 3xy

12*y
(2)

can obtain a relatively certain check on the work by substituting values for the letters in (1) and (2). The results should be equal. In checking by this method, avoid substituting 1 for any letter.

Comment.

We

CHECK. Substitute a
In In
(1):
(2):

2,

4,

3,

and y

4:

3(8

36

12 -f 36

- 20 - 2) - 2(- 5 + 6 + 20 - 100 + 4 = 52 - 100 - - 48,

72)

= -

48.

This checks.

20

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS

23. Nests of grouping signs

a symbol of grouping encloses one or more other symbols of grouping, remove them by removing the innermost symbol first, and so on until the last one is removed. Usually, we enclose parentheses within brackets, and brackets within braces.
If
.

ILLUSTRATION

1.

[3t/

(2x

5 4- 2)]
z]

= ILLUSTRATION
2.

[3^

2x -f 5
[16
5)

(2

= 7)

3y

+ 2x - 5 +

z.

= -

[16

- (-

(2)]

- (- 3 + 5)] = - [16 + 5 - 2] = -

19.

EXERCISE 6
Collect similar terms.
1.

3o

+ 80.
19o6 -f 5o6.

2. 6.

4.
7.

+ 76. - 2cd + 8cd.


56
8.

3.
6.

13z

5x.

5xy

5xy.

3x

9.

11.

+ 2z - 5a. - 2o - 3c + 5a - 8c. lie - 5cd + 8c - 13crf.


a

6z

3a

10.
12.

Qh

+ 46 -f 7a - 96. - 4y + 12z + 3y. - 5kw - llh + 7kw.

lower one from the upper one. After each operation, check by substituting convenient values for the letters in
(a)

Add

the two expressions;

(6) subtract the

the given expressions

and

the final result.

13.

4a 2a

+
-

76

14.

96

+7
c

16.

3a 9a

56

+5
7

46
46c

16.

3x

5a6

6a6
17.

3c

2a 5a

2d 66c -f d

3m - 6m +
J/ie

5k
4fc

h 5h

18.

7r -f 3*

8r

5s -f 9
First arrange

Find
19.

sum

of the three expressions separated by semicolons.

the expressions with like terms in separate columns.

3x

2y

5;
6c;

fix

20. 21.

+o56

26c

+ 7y - 8; - 12z - 8y -h - 3a + 5; 4a - 56c - 9.
3ac -h 56; 76

13.

2oc

5xz/

86; 4cy

6xy

4ac.

22.

7ad

4a; 6a

3ad

56;

3o -h

5arf

96.

THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS


Remove parentheses and
23. 2(a
collect

21

similar terms.

36)

5(6

24. 5(x

3y

+ 5)
k)

26. 6(2a

+ 3(- a - 36). - 2(* + 2? - 4) - 3(- 4z - y + 6). - 3 (a - 4A + + 2(4A - 3a - &).


2a)
5Jfc)

By

w$e of parentheses, write an expression for the quantity described;


collect terms.

then

remove parentheses and


26. Subtract

3a

26 and 2a

+ 56 from 56)

a
(3a

56.

HINT.

The

result equals

(- a

26)

(2a

+ 56).

27. Subtract

2a

3y

5 from 5a

+ 7y - 8.
sum
of 2o

28. Subtract 29. Multiply

3a 3o

7h and 5A
5y

6a from the
2,

3h and 5a -f

3 by

and

5o -f 7y

5 by

3,

and then

add the

results.
all signs

Remove
30.
32.
34.

of grouping

and

collect terms.

[4o
(a

(2a

+ 3) J
[2o

31.
(a

2)

3)].

33. 36. 37.

(6

2)].

36.
38. 40. 42.

- [> - (y + 3)]. 3o - [3a - 4(5 - a)].


{a

+ (3 - 40 J a + [6 + (a - 6)]. 2r + [> + 4r)J - 5 + [3 - 2(y - 2) J


[2*
(

2i/

39. 3
41.

[2x

2[>

(36

(2x

5)]).

[a

3y)

(2a

7)]}.

{26

[6
8).

4)]}.

3(2z

A;

+ 2[2 3[A

(5x

y)] 3)]

(*

+ 7y -

43. 2(3/i

5)

2(*

4(A

2k -h

2).

CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS

24. Fractions

in

lowest terms

basic properties of fractions as met in arithmetic are primarily consequences of the definition of division. These properties extend

The

immediately to fractions as met in algebra, where the only essential

new

We

the introdmction of negative numbers hi the fractions. shall recall and use the properties of fractions without rehearsing
feature
is

the sequence of definitions and proofs which, logically, would be necessary hi building a foundation for the use of fractions hi algebra.

FUNDAMENTAL
both numerator

PRINCIPLE.
zero.

The value of a fraction

is not altered if

and denominator are

multiplied, or divided, by the

same number, not


ILLUSTRATION
1.

ILLUSTRATION
below,

2.

On

multiplying numerator and denominator by

we obtain

-4
We
To
tor

(- 1)((- 1)(-

3)
4)

say that a fraction is in lowest terms if its numerator and denominator have no common factor except + 1 and 1.
reduce a fraction to lowest terms, divide numerator and denomina-

by

all their

common factors.
=
7acy

ILLUSTRATION

3.

=7y

(Divide out ac)

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS


ILLUSTRATION
4.

23

210 135

0X3X7X2 7X2 3X3X3X3 3X3

14

In the preceding line we divided out the factor 5 and one 3 from numerator and denominator. 25. Change
If the
in sign for a fraction

numerator or denominator of a fraction is multiplied by 1, the sign before the fraction must be changed. These actions are 1, whose equivalent to multiplying the fraction by two factors
product
is H- 1.

This keeps the value of the fraction unaltered.

T ILLUSTRATION 1.

0-3 =

(-

l)(o

3)

3-Q =

26. Multiplication and division of fractions

To multiply one fraction by another, multiply the numerators for a new numerator and multiply the denominators for a new denominator.
3

ILLUSTRATION

1.

^ X

6 =
7

18

oo

^=-

c ac ** i* j cr

o a

oa

divide one fraction by another, invert the divisor dividend by this inverted divisor.
2. ILLUSTRATION o

To

and multiply

the

4 7 F^JT^K'Q O o i 4
.)

28
7c' ID

a
b

c
_._
'

_b
c

a d

ad
be

be

d
It is frequently useful to recall that

any number can be expressed

as a fraction whose denominator

is 1.

By

use of this fact

we

verify

the following results.

To multiply a
number.

fraction by a number, multiply the numerator by the

To

divide

a fraction by a number, multiply

the

denominator by
7

the

number.

ILLUSTRATION^

_/5\ 7(g )

75 rg

=*

35

7.4 = 571 = "


""

7
20*

4
1

5*4

24
T

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS


ILLUSTRATION
4.
A

=
7

= 5 T
1

6 ^
/

7 o

7 1

35 -o

ILLUSTRATION

5.

c (r)

/a\
\o/

a T I
c

16
b

'

= ac T" o
'

f? _i.

~ ?^_
I

? I
6
c
be

EXERCISE 7
Express the result as a fraction in lowest terms without a minus sign in numerator or denominator.

32

33. 21

34.

36.

.5(|).
37.

(?).

g).

eg).

36. 5(4).

(6).

38.

1+
-*-

2.

39.

6.

40.

y+

15.

41.

y-

6.

42.

2a.

43.

|| 3o 56
2c
...

y * d.
x 2c 3d
'

.,325
l_

..

8
-

12a
60.
-

48.

49.

5c

15

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS

25

-Ml
We

-H)H)H)H)and a8
for
a.

-(-SX-SX-8a -a' a.

27. Positive integral exponents

write a2 to abbreviate a -a,

We
=

call

a2 the

3 square of a and a the cube of

ILLUSTRATION
If

1.

52

5-5

25.

53

5* 5' 5

125.

m is any positive integer,* we define am by the equation


9

a m = a-a-a-

-a.

(m

factors a)

(1)

am the mth power of the base a and call m the exponent of this power. The exponent tells how many times the base is used as a factor.

We

call

ILLUSTRATION

2.

34

3-3-3-3
4)

81.

(-

4)

= (- 4)(-

4)'=

16.

(_

4)3

= (-

4)(- 4)(-

= -

64. (?)'

f.f

|.

by the laws of signs, an even power number is positive and an odd power is negative. By definition, b 1 = b. Hence, when the exponent is omit it. Thus, 5 means 5 and y means y l
notice that,
1
.

We

of a negative
1

we

usually

28. Index lows

The following laws for the use of exponents are called index laws. At present we will illustrate them, and verify their truth in special cases. The proofs of the laws will be given later.
Until otherwise specified, any represent a positive integer.
*
literal

number used

in

an exponent

will

26
I.

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS


In multiplying two powers of the same am <in = c m+n
.

base,

add

the exponents

ILLUSTRATION

1.

a3o2

a3+2

a6

because

a3o2

= (aa-o)(a-o) = o0'O-a-a = szV = x^x4 = z 1+2+4 = 7


a:
.

a5

II.

7n obtaining a power of a power, multiply m n = fl "


17

the exponents:

(<z

ILLUSTBATION
2

2.

(a

3 2
)

a (3X2)

a6

because

(a*)

a3 -a3

(a-a-a)(a-a-a)

a-a-a-a-a-a

a6

III.

To

obtain a power of a product, raise each factor of the produc

to the specified

power and multiply:


(abc)
n

an 6 n c n

ILLUSTRATION

3.
3

(o6)

o3^3

because
(a-0'o)(6-6-6)

(oft)

ab'ab'ab

IV. To obtain a power of a fraction, raise the numerator and denom


inator to the specified power

and
n

divide:

W
fa\
T

_ "

a? &"'
/^\ (-1 \yi
4

ILLUSTRATION

4.

fa\*

(-) \yl

=-7
y*

X4

u because

X X X X = -------

X4
~i* 4

y y y y

ILLUSTRATION

5.

/2\

(^)

= 24 ^=

16
o7*

/T

(Law IV

(-!)'-[<-(!)]'= -"(1)'If

-I=

-fiwe ma;

that an odd power of a negative number is negative, abbreviate the preceding line by omitting the first two steps.

we

recall

ILLUSTRATION

6.

(2o 6)

2 3 (a2) 3 63

8a663

ILLUSTRATION

7.

(A')

A"

A 12

<IAWS

,,

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS


EXERCISE 8

27

Compute by
1.

the definition of
2.

an exponent.
3.

24

53

102

4.
3

10s

5.
4

104

6.

10 5

7.
3
.

(-

I)

8.

((()
4

I)
3

9.

(62
.

I)

10. 15.

((-

5)*.

11.

(-

3)

12. 17.

((-

2)

6
.

13.
3
.

5)
.

14.

3)*.

16. 10*.

10)
4
.

18.

19. (f) 3 .
.

20. ($).
.

21.

(-

|)

22.
27.

to)

23.

24

24.

33

25. 30.
(

6s

26. 2(3 4 ).

2 3(- 5 ).

28. 6(10*).

29. 5(43 ).
will

- 2(-

5).

31.

For what values of the positive integer n


will it

l)

be positive

and when
32. 33. 34.

be negative?
if

2 Compute 3a 6

= -

2 and b

4. 2.

Compute
Compute
If

5xy*

if

=
if

3 and y

4W

= is

3 and k

2.

35. If

tive?

x x

is
is

positive or negative,

what

is

the nature of x2 positive or nega,

negative,

what

the nature of x and of x ?

Perform

the indicated operation by use of the laws of exponents.

68. 72.

(xV)

4
-

69. (3C2) 3
.

70. (2o264 ) 4 .
.

71. (3xu;) 4 .

(- 2A2) 3
(O/7\4

73.

(- 3x2 ) 4
/^2rr\'

74.

(/

5xt/

2 3 ) .

75.

(/

\*

S)-

80.

Find the value

-(^)of x3 - 3x

77

78
-h 4x

-(-^)=
3;

ro

7 when (a) x

(6)

-(x * -

2.

28

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS

29. Integral rational terms

At present, in any sum, the typical term will be either an explicit number or the product of an explicit number and powers of literal numbers, where the exponents are positive integers. The explicit number is called the numerical coefficient, or for short the coefficient
term of this variety, or a sum of such terms, is said * in the literal numbers. to* be integral and rational An algebraic sum is called a monomial f if there is just one term, a binomial if there are just two terms, and a trinomial if there are just three terms. Any sum with more than one term also is called a
of the term.

polynomial.

ILLUSTRATION

1.

3z

7ab

is

a binomial.

x,

ILLUSTRATION 2. In the trinomial 8 x and 3a& 2 whose numerical coefficients are


,

3a62 the terms are


,

8,

8, 1,

and

3, respectively.

ILLUSTRATION

3.

5z 2

is

an integral rational polynomial

in x.

To multiply two integral rational terms, multiply their numerical coefficients and simplify the product of the literal parts by use of the
law of exponents for multiplication.
ILLUSTRATION
4.

6a62 (3a2 64 )

2 2 4 (6)(3)(aa 6 6 )

18a366

To multiply a polynomial by a single term, multiply each term polynomial by the single term and form the sum of the results.
ILLUSTRATION
5.

of the

5(3z

2x

5)

15z2

lOz

25.

EXERCISE 9
Perform the indicated multiplications and simplify the law of exponents for multiplication.
2. 32/(22/ 5.
6

results

by use of the

).

3. ab(3a).
7.

4. 8.

5(32

).

6.

2a2 (3a9 ).

cd^cP).

x(-integers.

integral refers to the fact that the force of the word rational will be pointed out later.
t

The word

exponents are

The
is

This name need not be used very often because the simple word term

just as desirable.

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS


9.

29
2 **(- 2z ).

4fl(4).

10.

3c(-

c3).

11.

2z(+

xy*).

12.
15. 18.

13.

2 ax*(- 2o x).

14. 17.

5oy(- 2xy

).

2a6(- 4a 862 ).

16. 19.

- 8m (- 2m). - y). 3(4z


3

4r z h(- 6rA4 ).

Gc2

^-

3cd).

20.

S(5x

2z2 ).
4y).

21.

5(3

4a).

22. 4(2a

56).

23.

25.
28. 31.

2x(- 3z

5z3 ).

26.
29.

- 3(- 5x - a ). o(a
2

24. x(2x 2 27. 2*2 (3

3x).

z4 ).

4a(l

2a6).
3u> 4- 4i^).

3fc(fc

M).

30.

ah\a

5w(2

32.
34.

2 2 4 33. 3a6 (2a 63 )(a6 ).

35.

- 4m n(3

3m)(2mn

).

36. 4?/02 (

37.

2aj3a3x 2

38.

2a^-

3a2 63
is

39.

Multiply the polynomial by the term which


40. 5z3

beneath

it.

2x

41. 6

5a2 62

3x
42.

a2

2a6

-6 - 2ab
2

43. 3

Gab

a363

Sab

44. 15(2z 46. 12(f

48.

(12

+ f). - f* + 2 - 6a + 24o
2

46. 8(|

iy

+ Jif).
fa

)2

47. 16(Ja2
).

J).

49.

J(-

16 -f 8x

60.

30. Multiplication of polynomials

the product of two polynomials, multiply one of each term of the other and collect similar terms. ILLUSTRATION
1.

To form

them by

(2x

3y)(x
3

xy)

2x(x

xy)

3y(x

xy)

=
ILLUSTRATION
2.

2s

(x

x(x

5)

5(*

+ 5) =

+ 5) = (x -f 5) + 5) + 5x -f 5x + 25 = a? -f 10x + 25.
2
(a:

Before multiplying, if many terms are involved, arrange the polynomials in ascending (or descending) powers of one letter.

30

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS


3.

ILLUSTRATION

(Multiply)

_
To
3x

multiply (x

x2

+ 3x* - x - 2) (2s + 3) - x-2 2x + 3


2

6s4

2x

2x2

Ox
(Add)
6x*

llx

+ +

3x

a*

4x 3x
7x

(Multiplying by 2x)

6
6

(Multiplying by 3)

product.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

1.

Multiply

x*

+ 2xy
CHECK.

by

+
=

Place x

2 and y

3.

x2

+
2x*y

= =

4 4

12
12

+9

= - 17. = 25.

Hence, the product should equal


-f -f

= -425 when x = 2 and y = 3. = 16 - 144 - 216 - 81 = 25-

(-

17)

425.

Comment. The preceding numerical check does not absolutely verify the In checking, if result, but almost any error would cause the check to fail. 1 were substituted for a letter, we could not detect an error in any of its
exponents because every power of avoid substituting 1 for any letter.
1
is

1.

Hence, in numerical checks,

EXERCISE 10
Multiply and
letters,

collect

similar terms.

Check by substituting values for

the

when

directed by the instructor.


2.

1.

(x

3.
5.

(x

+ 4). - 5)(2x + 7).


3)(x

(x

+ 9)(x +
3) (7

10).
x).

4.
6.

(x

(5a (2h
(a

7)(4a

3).

(3y

2) (2

By).

7. 9.

ZK)(2h

+ 3k).

8.

(3w

4r)(2w

+ 3r).
5).
2

11.

+ 36)(2a - 56). - 5s) (3r + 5). (3r


3)(2a6
-I-

10. (x 12. (a2


14. (3 16.

+ y)(x 2)(2a
5x')(2
2

y).

13. (06

5).

15. (cd

x)(cd +'x).
18. (2x
2
.

(ay

+ 3x - 2z)(2ay + 3).
).

17. (a -f 3)*.

2
t/)
.

19. (h
2
.

4fc)
2

20. (4 -f
24. (5
2
).

21. (3a 26. (y

26)

22. (2x
-f-

+ 4/0

23. (ax

6)

x2y) 2

2)(y

5).

26. (c2

2a2)(c2

+ 3a

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS


27. (as 29. (y 31. (x 33. (2

3?

6 2 )(3a3
2

2)(i/

3)(x

+ 46 + 2y + 4). + 2x - 5).
2

).

28. (x 2

2a

30. (4a2 32. (a 34. (c 36.

+
2

4)(3a

+ 1). - 2a + 1).
l)(2a
2

35. (1

+ x)(3 - 4x - x - 2x)(2x - x + 5).


2

).

37. (5

6) (4

26

62 ).

38.

+ 2)(2c - 5 - 3c - 4)(2A - 1 + A). (h - y)(y + 5 (2


2

).

39. 40. 41.


42.

2x2

+ 5x -

7)(2x

1).

3).

3).

43. (5 -h 3x2 44. (x2 -+ 45. (5z 47. (a

3
a:

+ x).

3x

2y

+ 3)
2

2
.

+346. (x +
2

49.
61.

+ 6)(a - db -f + 3)(* - l)(2a? - 5). - 3)(3a + 5)(a - 2). (2a


fe

).

48. (x

(a;

50. (3x 62. (x

+ 2xy + - y)(2x + y)(2x 2y)(x*


a*)(x
2

y).

+ a*x + a

*).

63. (xn 64. (x 4

4
T/

x?y

+ X y )(x - 2xi/ 2
2

31

Exponents

in division

By

the definition of a power,

a6 a3 a

a'CL'd'd'

a-a

a-a-a
a-a-a a-a-a-a-a

T"
1

= a2 =
-=

(Divide out a-a-a)


(Divide out a a a)

a-a

The preceding

results illustrate the following index law.


specified base by another

In dividing one power of a


subtract the exponents:

power of the

6oae,

(ifm>n);

(ifm<n).

(1)

32

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS


In addition to formulas
1,

we note
an

that

=
=

1-

(2)

ILLUSTRATION

a5
1.

x*
1.

-^ 10 x

~ -^-^ x ia 4

1 -: 6

h? 77 h*

In dividing one integral rational term by another, and 2 to reduce the fraction to lowest terms.

we

use formulas

ILLUSTRATION 2. In the following simplification, we can think of dividing numerator and denominator by 5ox B Or, we can think of dividing numerator and denominator by 5 and, also, of applying formulas 1 to the powers of a and of x, separately: " - 15ax 6 Sa3 1 3 a3 x 6 3a2 ~ 2x 4 2 a x9 2x9 5 lOax 9
.

16a3x2

16

a3 x 2

8a2

ILLUSTRATIONS.
a w6 -= ^) -r 4 2 w> 2/ a
1\

ILLUSTRATION

4.

/
{

=
2a3

where the intermediate details should be performed mentally.

ILLUSTRATION

5.

- 6ay = f

6 ^= 15

a3
-

y*

~ d

32. Division

by

a single term

divide a polynomial by a single term, divide each term of the polynomial by the single term and combine the results.

To

ILLUSTRATION

6x2
1.

9x

3x4

6x2

9x

=
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.

x8

2x -f

3.

Perform the division:

2 4 (4o 6

8a26

262 )

(- 2O68).

Write the quotient as a fraction:

4a2 64

8a2 6

2a63

206s

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS


EXERCISE 11
Perform
the division, expressing the result as

33

in lowest terms by use of the fraction without a minus sign in numerator or denominator.

a fraction or sum of fractions law of exponents for division. Express each final

"a2

x8

h9

x2

3x

5a7
^21.5 ^^

26.
/

*'*'

on

To

36m 18mn

~
32.
35. (8x3?/)
-*

9A3t

*
Trs4).

(- 24X3?/).
(24a6
2

36.

(- 49rV)
-s-

(-

37. 39.
.

(-

80)

+
^-

).
2

38. (4ac)
40.

3 2 (72a c ).

(48xV)

(-

8x2/ ).
5/i

(- 36a62 )

-i-

(.

4a6).

41.

6a H- 206

- -7x 2

25A;

4a

42.

166

-5x

._ 45.

3a3

4
2a4

a2

- 15o _ 3a2
60. (8a3 62. (x4
54.

6a2

4a)

+ (~
H2

2).

61. (6x
63. (y*

3x 2
5y

9) 43 )
-5-

((-

3).
y).

3x 3

5x2 )

x2
)

(_ 36

66. (32a2 64

+ 126 - 96 ^ 3. + 48aV) ^- (16a


2

66. (x 4
).

3x2

+ 5x)

67. (21a262

34
_ DO.

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS

02?

Sax 4- 5o ox
7a62c3

RA 7x*

4x*

2x

3x

+2

+ 6c*
276"

M 62

'

c. * 61
a&d3 co 63 '

--

a2 6d

a3

33. Fundamental equation of division

In the following long division, we use the customary terminology


of arithmetic:

15 (Quotient)
(Divisor) 17

259 (Dividend)
89

85 4 (Remainder)
259
In Section

(17

15)

+ 4;
-5-

= 15^.

(2)

when we met the notation a 6, we called its complete value the quotient of a divided by 6. In (1), the complete value of
11,

the quotient
in (2)

15^. Hence, if there were danger of lack of clearness, we would call 15 the partial quotient. Frequently, the word
is

quotient refers to a partial quotient. When appropriate, the qualifying word partial to prevent ambiguity.

we

shall use

After any step in a division process similar to that remainder and partial quotient satisfy the equation

met

in (1), the

dividend
.

-7T-7

divisor

,.

remainder
divisor
37-7

H quotient H

/ON

(3) v '

Or,

dividend
is

(quotient) (divisor)

+ remainder.

(4)

Equation 4

frequently called the fundamental equation of division.


is

The

first

equation in (2)

an

illustration of (4).

34. Division

by

a polynomial

The long division


in arithmetic.
is zero.

We

process for polynomials is similar to long division say that the division is exact if the final remainder

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS


EXAMPLE
1.

35

Divide:
(x
2
-f-

(x

+ 3x is

40)

-5-

(x

5).

SOLUTION, = x2 x(x 5)
2. (8x
-T-

x)

x; this

the

5x;

we subtract
this
is

this

term of the quotient. Then, from the dividend, obtaining 8x 40.


first

x)

8; 40.

the second

term of the quotient.

S(x

5)

Then,

8x

We

subtract this, obtaining zero.

(Divisor) x

x 5 a2
|

+ 8 (Quotient) + 3x - 40 (Dividend)
5x

(Subtract)

x*

(Subtract)

8x Sx

-40 - 40
(Remainder)
verifying that

CHECK.

Since the division

is

exact,

we obtain a check by

(quotient) (divisor)

dividend.

We find
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
obtaining
.

(x -f 8)(x
2.

5)

x*
3

+ 3x 9x

40,

which checks.

Divide:
1.

(4x

8x 2

+ 7)

-r (2x

3).

We

first

arrange the dividend in descending powers of

a?,

4x 3
2.

&c 2
is

9z

+ 7.
term of the quotient;

Since (4x 8

-s-

2x)

2z 2 , this

the

first

as follows.

2x 2

2x*(2x

(Divisor) 2x
3)

4r*

2x2 )

x(2x

+ - 3) 3)

-> (Subtract) - x. 2x] =


(Subtract)

4s3

x
Sx 2

6 (Quotient) 9x -f 7 (Dividend)

etc.,

6x 2 2x2 2x2

9x

[(-

12x) -r 2x]

= -

+
-

3x
12x

6.

6(2x

(Subtract)

+ 12x +

18
11 (Remainder)

Conclusion.

From equation
4x*

3,

Section 33.

8x 2

9x

+7

2x-3
CHECK.
dividend

_ "^ _

11

2x-3
remainder

Substitute x

3 in the dividend, divisor, and quotient:

16;

divisor

3;

quotient

9;

11.

Refer to equation

4, Section 33:

does
11

16

3(9)

27

11

16?
solution
is

Since this equality

is satisfied,

we conclude .that the

correct.

36

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS


SUMMABT.
1.

To

divide one polynomial by another:


either ascending or descending

Arrange each of them in of some common letter.


2.

powers

term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor and write the result as the first term of the quotient.

Divide the

first

3.

Multiply the whole divisor by

the first term of the quotient

and

subtract the product


4.

from

the dividend.

Consider the remainder obtained in Step 3 as a new dividend and repeat Steps 2 and 3; etc.
Note
1.

The numerical check

in

solute verification of the solution.

Example 2 does not constitute an abTo verify the result, we should (without

substituting a special value for x) multiply the divisor by the quotient, add the remainder, and notice if we thus obtain the dividend.

EXERCISE 12
Divide and summarize as in the solution of Example 2, Section 34. // the division is exact, check by multiplying the divisor by the quotient. If the division
is

not exact, check by substituting convenient values for the literal numbers.
(x* 42

1.

7z 4- 12)

(x
(c

+ 3).
7).

2.

3. 6. 7.

(c
2

lOc 4- 21) -h

4. 6.

(s
2

4- 6s 4-

(y

- 27) ^ (s 4- 9). - 40) 4- (y + 10). Qy


15) -h (2c
2

8.

9. (4c2

+ 3).
2

10.
1).

11. (x4
13.

+ 3x - 4) ^ (2z -f 7z + 8)
2

(x

12.

+ 36) + (y + 12). - 12d + 35) (d - 5). (d - 13x + 15) + (x - 5). (2z -x (6 + x). (54 + 3z - ab - 6 ^ (3a + 6). (6a - 10) -h -f 5). (h* + 3h*
2
(</

4- 15y

-J-

-f-

2 (ft

-i-

(z -f 2).
-*-

14. (3a2 16.


2

15. (2a2 17. (4z 6

ab
3

662 )

(2o (4z
3

+ 6).
3).
2).

19.

+ Sz - 6) - 3) (5x + 3x
2

-i-

18. 20.

-f-

(x

+ (a - 5). - 2t/ ^ (3z + 2y (6z + zy - a - 15) (2a + 5). (2a - 1). (2a (a + 6a + 3)
7)
2 )

-!-

-f-

21. (x 3 22. (60

+ 3x 9*

2x

6)

-*

(x 4- 3).
-*

2a2 4- 3a 3

26)

(a

2). 3).
2

23. (4x3

8x2 4- 7)
19y
2

(2x
-5-

24. (36y

15^)

(3y 4- 5y

4).

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS


26. (Sy* 26.

37

(2^

- 1% - 6 + - 5y - 12 +
2 2

lly) *
llr/)

(W (2y
-J-

3y
3).

+ 2).

(z

27. (x4

4z3 3

+ 3z - 4x +
2

15)

3).

28. (&c2

5z3 )

-^ (7*

2
2

+
)

5z2 ).
*

29. (2z3 30. (a3 31.


3
(a:

+ Wy +
3a2 6

12^

+
2

17zt/
)

+ 27)
3
2/ )

+ Soft (* + 3).
63
y).

4- (a2

+ - 2a6 + 6
(2x
32. (a3

3t/).
2

).

ft

3 )

-s-

(o
*

+ 6).
(2x

33. (x 3

--(-

34. (IGx4

y).

8^-27
43x2

- 9x -7

5
>

3*'

40. (6a3A

ISo2*

4aA

15)

-5-

+ 22 (2a* + 3).

35. Fractions with a

common denominator

In a fraction, the bar should be thought of as a vinculum, a symbol We use this fact in of grouping, which encloses the numerator.

adding fractions.
ILLUSTRATION
1.

In the fraction
(3

2 _ a -5
=

>

the bar encloses 3

a and

the fraction equals

a) * 5.

SUMMARY.

To express a sum

of fractions with a

common denominator

as a single fraction:
1.

Form

the

sum

of the numerators, where each is enclosed in paren-

theses
2.

and

is given the sign of its fraction.

Divide by the
2.

common denominator.
8
=
-=

ILLUSTRATION

5 5

3,9 = +5 o
,

-o

8-3 +9 =
2x

14
-=-

ILLUSTRATION
6

3.

o^--- -x
7=
r=

=q

lla
(3

lla

lla

(5

x)

2x)

6-5 + s + 3-2s
lla

x
'

lla

lla

38

INTRODUCTION JO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS

36. Alteration of a denominator

an equal one having an added factor in the denominator, we must multiply both numerator and denominator by this factor, in order to leave the value of the fraction unaltered.
fraction to

To change a

ILLUSTRATION 1. To change $ to 14ths, we multiply numerator and de= 2: nominator by 2 because

3
7

X2 7X2
3

6
14'

ILLUSTRATION 2. To change the following fraction to one where the denominator is 6o36, we multiply numerator and denominator by 2a26, because -i- 3a =
5

3a

2a?b(5
2

x)

10a26

2a?bx

2a 6(3o)

6a 6

37. Prime integers


said to be prime if it has no factors except itself, and Two -f- 1 and 1, which are factors of any algebraic expression. factors are considered essentially the same if they differ only in sign,

An

integer

is

and then
of them.

their product can be expressed as

To factor an integer

will

a power of either one mean to express it as a product of

powers of distinct prime


ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION
1.

factors.

2, 3, 5, 7, 11, etc., are

prime numbers.

2.

When

factored,

200

= 2-2-2-5-5 = 252

38. Lowest

common

multiple

At present, when we refer to a monomial, or single term, we shall mean an integral rational term whose numerical coefficient is an
integer.

multiple, LCM, of two or more monomials is defined as the 'term with smallest positive coefficient, and smallest
lowest

The

common

exponents for the literal numbers, which has the given term as a factor. As a special case, the LCM of two or more integers is the smallest positive integer having each given integer as a factor.
ILLUSTRATION
1.

The

LCM of 3,

5,
8

and 10

is

30.

ILLUSTRATION

2.

The

LCM of 30&

and 5a26

is

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS


SUMMARY.
1.

39

To find

the

LCM of two or more terms:


its coefficient factored.

Express each term with

2.

Form

the product of all letters in the terms

and

all the different

prime factors of
the highest

the coefficients, giving to each letter or integral factor


it

exponent

possesses in the given terms.


2

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION
2.

1.

Find the

LCM of 20a 6
=

and 70o46.

1.

In factored form,
22 -5-7a463

20a2 68

22 -5a263

70a46

2-5-7a4 6.

Hence,
1.

LCM brief,

Note

In

the

LCM of two or more terms equals the product of the

LCM of their coefficients and the highest powers of the Utters seen in the terms.
EXERCISE 13
Express the

sum

of fractions as a single fraction in lowest terms.

,3,79 L i+i-r
2,6 __a *3+3 3* .3 5,7-6 5. ---3

2
ft

,6 + -5-y 5*

18

888'
5 ---z
,

_d _ 7
z

-a
56
7

11 A o.

_ 3 7

--'7
2a

3a

'3~~T~*

^ n

_---_ .
*
3 -a;

_.

40 12.

5 -

2y

5
.

14

2063
Write the missing numerator or denominator
<i

to create equality.

17.

1ft

18.

_ -

10 19.

40

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS

A. ~

__

24

-^- =

__
;

26

36x 7

Express the fraction as an equal one having the specified denominator. 2 5 27. 5 denom., 32. 26. denom., 21. ; o 7
28.

5
30.

denom., 40.

29. |; denom., 35.

*j\

denom.,

be.

31. =-; denom., Qy.

32.

-=

5x?/

-', 2

denom., lOxy

3
.

33. ,5-5,; denom., 2 4

3x
Q

18xV-

?/

34. STTL;

denom.,

20ft

fc

4
.

35.

5 3 denom., 20a 6

is

Find the LCM o/ /ie given a factor of the LCM.


10.

terms.

As a

partial check, verify that each term

36. 5; 4; 39. 15; 42.

37. 16; 24; 48. 40. 200; 36; 28. 15xy*. 43.

38. 12; 54; 30. 41. 300; 27; 21.


;

12; 75.

e^;

9x 2t/2

8a2 6 6

4a3 64

6a6.
.

44. 2o6; 46. 48.

14a2 63
12xi/

664
;

45. 6a2x; 4a'x 2 ; 9ax 4

3zV;

20x.

47.

5W; 10^;

16^.
fractions.

Change

^,

and

^ to the denominator 42, and then add the


*

39. Addition of fractions

a single fraction, the given fractions must be changed to new forms having a common denominaWe define the lowest common denominator! LCD, of a set of tor.
a
of fractions into

To combine

sum

fractions as the

LCM

of their denominators.

is the LCM of 6, 5, and 8 or ILLUSTRATION 1. The LCD of J, f and 3-5'8 or 120. Hence, to add the fractions, we. change them to new fractions whose denominator is 120:
,

1
*

1 4+8 +? 6 5
4_

+ 5-24" "8.15 = 6-20


.

2Q

3-24

7-15

20

+ 72 +
120

105

197
120*

simplify the present chapter, we will deal only with the case where each denominator is an integral rational term.

To

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS


SUMMARY.
1.

41

To express a sum of fractions as a

single fraction:

Find

the

LCD

of the given fractions.

For each fraction, divide the LCD by the denominator and then multiply numerator and denominator by the resulting quotient, to change to an equal fraction having the LCD.
2.

3.

Form

the

sum

of the

new numerators, where each one


its fraction.

is enclosed

in

parentheses and is given the sign of


4.

Place the result of Step 3 over the LCD, remove parentheses in the numerator, and reduce the fraction to lowest terms.

ILLUSTRATION
2/1.

We

In the following = 5 and f observe that


2.

sum

the

LCD

is

20;

we think

of 2 as

2.

Hence,
2(7

_
4
15x

_
10

2-20 20
2x)

5(3s)

20

2x)

20

40

20

2(7

40

15s

14

+ 4x
7

26

20

llx

20 3w

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

1.

Express as a single fraction:


1.

Sax*

The

LCD
5a x
,
3
.

is

15a3z 2

We

have
2

15a3z 2

3z;

Ida's* -r

= 3ax r

5a2

2.

2 Hence, we multiply by 3x and 5o in the given fractions to change to

the

LCD:

7(5a

2 )

9xy

35a2

3aa: 2 (5a2)

EXERCISE 14
Combine
into

single fraction in lowest terms.

14. i

83

-1

15.

?
7

+ ^ 21

42
12 1A 16.

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS

y-5 + 3.
,

17 17 '

To-30

74 +
7

lg 18

'

"

5'

0,1,4 2 + +
6

15

3o-6

a-3
3a

64-2

2a;

~ ~

+7
25
v\ ^ S
OB
b ""
c

2x

10

18

<u
.

Ta

6^'

25*

S
Gx

~ w
33k

4
36'

A- 1.
12y

34

-I'

A.
Sxy

2y
-

36 36>

JL
3a
2

37
1

39

^"
5a6

40

_
4
10

62^
9

54

2X
JIt 47 a:

2o~3

5o

+3

y-2
Ki 51.

-g

4*
52.

4a

-2J

3a

+2

2-x

4 +.

/NTRODUCT/ON TO FRACT/ONS AND EXPONENTS


40.

43

Mixed
of

expressions

an integral rational part and of one or more fractions is referred to as a mixed expression. If a mixed expression occurs as a factor in a product or as the numerator or denominator of a fraction, it is usually desirable to combine the mixed expression into a single
fraction before performing other operations.

A sum

ILLUSTRATION
T

1.

We

refer to

a number such as 5| as a mixed number. 23


17
23(17)

2. ILLUSTRATION o

391

ILLUSTRATION

3.

3z2 -h -

is

a mixed expression.
15

ILLUSTRATION

4.

(2

+ |j(3
15

a
a2

|
a)

=
*

(6

+ a) (15 ~

90

9a
15

'41

Complex

fractions

simple fraction is one without any fraction in its numerator or denominator. A complex fraction is one having one or more fractions in the numerator and denominator.

SUMMARY.
1.

To reduce a complex fraction


the

to

a simpty fraction:

Express

numerator and denominator as simple fractions.

2.

Form

the quotient of the simple fractions

and reduce

the result to

lowest terms.

I A

, _X^ __ -t-

5+3
5

T ILLUSTRATION

1.

5 = -

333
g

8 5 g

8 3 -

12

be convenient to reduce a complex fraction to a simple fraction by the single operation of multiplying both numerator and denominator of the complex fraction by the LCD of all simple
it

Sometimes

may

fractions involved. In this chapter, the problems be met in Chapter 5.


*

will

avoid questions of factoring which

will

44

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS


ILLUSTRATION
2.

a simple

fraction,

To reduce the given complex fraction of Illustration 1 to we observe that the LCD of 3/5 and 4/3 is 15. Hence,
15,

we multiply both numerator and denominator by


15$)

observing that

9 and 15(j)

=
1

20:

+5
4

15

+9

24
10

12

30-20
2
15o6
56
=

, 3a
Q ILLUSTRATION 3.
T

+ yr 56
,

6o6-7
36
36

15o6

+2

56

606

45a6 30a6 - 35

where we divided out 6 from numerator and denominator.

26-5
ILLUSTRATION
36
4.

26-5
36

26

36

4-6

4-6
1

4-6

26-5 126 - 36*

DEFINITION
ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION

I.

The reciprocal of a number

H is =

5.
r

The The

reciprocal of 3 is

J.

6.

reciprocal

ofvis? = Y'o

=::

o'

The

reciprocal of

is

Thus, the reciprocal of a fraction

is

the fraction inverted.

EXERCISE 15
Express the fraction or product as a simple fraction in lowest terms.
1.

(4

+ f)(5).
4. (6 -f |) (6

2.

(3

f)(4f).
6.

3.

(2f)(3f).

f).

(f

36) (f

46).

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS


A 6-

45

T+T
+ i + 5
f-r-^-

7- 15

T+T
1

~*

10. -IS "* -

"'5
14.

12.

13.

g^-4-

5c~f
J-2c'

2_ 3
16.

4_ 3
16.

5_ 3
17.
.

2
5 X*
\Jb

6
e
,

r-

+4
. ,

+:
\J
Fj

+^
,

To

tif^ l/Vx

1ft

J. 2x

_
2

y ^

19

TIT'
a:

01

_
7

2a 26

27. 2

28.

29.

+?
3
31.

'

^
56

2a

30.

!i.

- 12
and express
36.
41.

32. .
a:

-f

3y

Find

the reciprocal of the expression,

the result as

a simple
37.

fraction in lowest terms.

33. 75.
38.

34. 17.
39. 12?
.

36.

f
5J.

a.

10.

40. 2J.

42.

44.

45.

46.

By

means

writing a fraction, show that to divide a number the same as to multiply by the reciprocal of H.

N by a number H

46

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS


EXERCISE 16
Review of Chapters
1

and 2
lowest terms.
3.

Compute each
1.

expression, leaving
5). 2.

any fraction in

(- 3)(- 4)(-

- (-

2)(-

5).

- ((

3)(-

4)(0).

(-7X-3) . * -14 7. - 7 + 19 Find


10.

"
16.
8.

(3

2) (5)

(-3X-6) - {- 4) - 7.
12.

~
9.

(-2X-4)

2 -f

(-

3)

+ 6.
|

the absolute value of the expression.

8.

11.
the two

(- 3)(-

2).

14

|.

13.

17

|.

(a)

Add
17

numbers;
16.

(6) subtract the

lower one from the upper number.


16.

14.

18.

23 9

_
>

15

17. 17

29
0,

25

Read the

expressions

<
,

2 and 17
scale.

and

verify their truth

by marking the numbers on a


Insert the proper sign,
19. 11

real

number

<

and

19.

> between the numbers. 20. - 15 and - 27.


or

21.

and

6.

22.

Which one

of the
less

numbers

15 and 7

is less

than the other?

Which

one

is

numerically

than the other?

Perform any indicated operation, removing any parentheses, reducing any final fraction to lowest terms, and employing the laws of exponents to simplify
expressions.
23.

(3a

26

c).

24. 2(3
27.

5a

c).

26.
28.
3k).

a2 (3a8 6

aft*).

26.

5(-

3*).

3*y(2*

29. 3(2a 30. 31.

+ A)
-

- Wy). - 2(3a + 4h -

- 2*y(-

3*

5j/).

x*(3xy*

2xy

+ 3) + 4i/(2xV 32.

3x*

+ 5).
2[3

3o

[2a

3(5

a)].

(6a

14

6)

(2o

46)].

15

37.

17.
- 2AW(3iUPX-

38.

-4-

6.

39. 7

|2

40.

~
5A).

41.

4A2fc).

42.

4/*V(2%

3/fy

INTRODUCTION TO FRACTIONS AND EXPONENTS


43. (Si8!/) 4 46.
.

47

44.

(- 2oV).
.(-?)'.

46.

(-

(-2)'.
'

47.
(I)''

.(*)'

-(I)66. (2*

+ 3) (2s 2/)(3z

7).

66. (3x*
68. (2a

7x)(2x
36)
2
.

57. (2z

%).

69. (3x*

5x

2r>

+ 3)(4z + 5).

64. (6o3
66. (18

19o2
3

+ 21a 26a;

9) ^- (2o
^- (2x

3).
5).

+ 4x -

2x2 )

4y A7 67 '

+8
2h-3
'

4x

7s*

Express as a single fraction in lowest terms.

33^3
-4-

10

-ft

/ II.

4A-7
ti
.
i

5
-_2.

10
_ 4.

3 2
iO

'

"
5

12

72 " j! 2xy
-. I4

A.
4x2

3y
3
*

^
*

3x

rfc

By

2a
Q

3a
^

AV

5
76. 76.

.!__:>.

35
77.

-J.

|
a

|56

-J
5

78.

^-~9 J_

79.

-L^.
_
_.

_
3
1

a
81.

Find the reciprocal of -=; of (a o 6

5).

CHAPTER

DECIMALS

AND ELEMENTS OF

COMPUTATION

42. Decimal notation

notation * for writing numbers is called a place sysIn this notation, each number is an tem, for which the base is 10. abbreviation for a sum involving units and powers of ten, written by

The decimal

use of the Hindu-Arabic digits or figures


ILLUSTRATION
1.

(0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9).

3456

= =

3(1000)

3(10

3
)

+ 4(100) + 5(10) + 6 + 4(10 + 5(10) + 6.


2 )

We have 3456 as the sum of 6 units, or ones, 5 tens, 4 hundreds, and 3 thousands.
ILLUSTRATION
2.

23.572-

2(10)

+3+~ + 10
'
'

^+
'

100

2 1000
103

10

10 2

'

the decimal point in a number, the places are named the units' place or ones' place; tens' place; hundreds' place; thousands' place; ten thousands' place; etc. Counting to the right -of

Counting to the

left of

the decimal point,


thousandths' place; unit located there.

we have the tenths' place; hundredths' place; etc. The name of any place is the value of a
These values should be remembered in terms
of

powers of

ten.
3.

ILLUSTRATION

1000

103 ;

.001
tc

rrr

= -;

.01

T-

ILLUSTRATION
ten-thousandths"
*

4.

We

read .5073 as

point, 5, oh, 7, 3," or as

"5073

In this chapter, unless otherwise specified, any number referred to

will

be positive.

DECIMALS

AND ELEMENTS OF COMPUTATION

49

In this chapter we will think of each number in its decimal form. The part to the right of the decimal point is called the decimal part
of the

number.

We consider each

even when the decimal part is zero The decimal places of a number are those places to the right of the decimal point in which digits are actually written in the number.
ILLUSTRATION
is

number as having a decimal part and the number is then an integer.

5.

23.507 has three decimal places and

its

decimal part

.507.

In any number, observing


visualize

its digits

from

left

to right,

we may

an endless sequence

of zeros at the right of the last digit


digit.

not zero, if there is such a last called a terminating decimal.

number

of this character is
is

An

endless decimal

however far we proceed to the right, which all digits are zeros. Hereafter, unless otherwise number mentioned will be a terminating decimal.
ILLUSTRATION
6.
,

one in which, we never reach a digit beyond


stated,

any

is a terminating decimal. The 35.675, or 35.67500 is an endless but not a repeating decimal. familiar number TT = 3.14159 The fraction J is equal to the endless repeating decimal .333

a unit in any place in the decimal notation is multiplied by 10, we obtain a unit in the next place to the left. If we divide a unit in any place by 10, we obtain a unit in the next place to the right. The preceding remarks justify the following convenient rules.
If
I.

To multiply a number by
number.

10,

move

the

decimal point one place

to

the right in the


II.
left

To

divide

in the

a number by number.
7.

10,

move

the

decimal point one place

to the

ILLUSTRATION

10(315.67)
is

3156.7.

~~ =

31.567.

To

divide

by

1000, which

places to the left:

21.327

10(10) (10), we move the decimal point three 1000 = .021327.

43. Addition of decimals

In finding a sum of decimals, after they have been arranged with the decimal points in a column, it is desirable to add once going upward and then downward to check in each column.

50

DECIMALS
ILLUSTRATION
1.

AND ELEMENTS OF COMPUTATION


find the

To

sum

of 31.457,

2.6, 3.15,

and

101.41,

we annex

zeros to extend each

31.457

number

to the 3d decimal place,


1.

and then add.


3.150
101.410

EXAMPLE
1.573

Add:
3.671

1.157

4.321

Sum
10.319.
is

138 617
'

SOLUTION.
is

The sum

of the positive terms

15.563; of the negative terms

5.478.

(15

563 5 478

sum -

10.085.

EXERCISE 17
Write the number in decimal form.
1.

3 and 25 hundredths.
4.
10'.

2. Point, oh, 1, 5, 3, 9, oh, 4.

3. 10*.

6.

~
to the

6.

i-

7.

i-

Write each number as a sum involving powers of 10, with one term corresponding to each digit (not zero) of the number.
8. 567.
9.

3149.

10. 16,342.

11. .319.

12. 27.0457.

Write the number in decimal notation equal


13. 5(100)

sum.

+ 3(10) +6 + A +

14. 2(1000) -f 4(10)

+ 3 + 1 + JL + -J+
.459.
-f-

15. 5(10*)

+ 7(10') + 3(10) + 5 +
the indicated

Compute
16. 2.057
17.

sum.

+ 3.11 + 4.985 + 3.05 + 1.5 + 2.177 + 3.193 + .098 -f 1.567 -f 2.457 + 3.167 + 2.13
the

1.5072.
20. 1.721

18. 21.675
(a)

14.521.

'

19. .0938

.0257.

2.468.

Add

numbers.

(6)

Subtract the lower number from the upper one.


23.

21. 5.26

22. .357

1.38
25.

.2983

43.8468
59.923

24.

.02438

.5729

Compute

2.156

3.149

+ 4.183 + 2.147 - 4.159.

DECIMALS
26.

AND ELEMENTS OF COMPUTATION


2.453

51

Compute

13.083

+ 2.148 - 41.397 -

12.938.

Perform

the multiplication or division mentally.

27. 10(.532).

28.1000(1.0219).
13.257
'

29. 10*(32.653).

30. 100(.00415).

.0317

57.38

.0498

oo

wo

IS"

ISSo*

44. Multiplication of decimals

not zero can be written as a fraction whose numerator is an integer and denominator is a power of 10. The exponent of 10 hi the denominator can be taken equal to the number of decimal places in the given number.
decimal part
is

Any number whose

ILLUSTRATION

1.

1.21(.205)

=
24,805 10 6

121
'

205
10
s

(121) (205)

10

102+*

We

decimal places in the result are a consequence of the law of exponents for multiplication, because the factors had two and three decimal places. This result is a special case of the following rule.
conclude that the
five

SUMMARY.
1.

To multiply two decimals:

Find

the digits of the product by multiplying the factors with their

decimal points disregarded (or even removed).


2.

numbers of decimal places in the factors to find the number of decimal places in the product, and insert the decimal point.
the
2.

Add

multiply .0238 X 112.75, we find the digits of the product, at the right, and then point off Notice (2 -f 4) or 6 decimal places to obtain 2.683450.

ILLUSTRATION

To

11275

(X)238
90200 33825 22550 2683450

that the final zero had to be written and counted in fixing the decimal point. In stating the final result, we could then

omit the zero.

product of two decimals depend only on the digits of the factors. If the decimal points are moved hi the factors, this only alters the position of the decimal point in the result.
digits in the

The

ILLUSTRATION
Hence,

3.

In Illustration

2,

.0238(112.75)

2.683450.

2.38(1127.5)

2683.450.

52

DECIMALS

AND ELEMENTS OF COMPUTATION


EXERCISE 18

Perform
1.

the following multiplications.


2.
5. 8.

3.51(1.4).

.46(.107).

3. 6. 9.

13(.461).

4.

.0142(3.6).

21.38(.024).

156.1(1.38).

7. 398.4(.0342).

.00175(.2147).

.0346(.00157).

10. 85.2(1.356).

11. 9.137(.2346).

12. 74.308(.00259).

45. Significant digits

In any number N,

let

us read

its digits

from

left

by definition,

the significant digits or figures of sequence, starting with the first one not zero and ending with the Notice that this definition does not last one definitely specified.
involve any reference to the position of the decimal point in N. Usually we do not mention final zeros at the right in referring to the

to right. Then, are its digits, in

significant digits of

N, except when
The

it is

an approximate value.

ILLUSTRATION
(4, 1, 0, 5, 8).

1.

significant digits of 410.58 or of .0041058 are

46. Approximate values


If

T is

the true value and

is

we

agree to call

A
If

T the
T=
is

error

an approximate value of A.
if

of

a quantity,

ILLUSTRATION 1. T, then the error of

35.62,

and

35.60

35.62,

A = 35.60 is an approximation to or - .02.

should indicate significant digits in an approximate value the maximum possible error of A. This error is understood to be

The

most one half of a unit in the last significant place in A, or, which the same, not more than 5 units in the next place to the right.
at

is

ILLUSTRATION
should

mean

a surveyor measures a distance as 256.8 yards, he that the error is at most .05 yard and that the true result lies
2.

If

between 256.75 and 256.85, since the error (plus or minus) might be

=fc

.05.

it

In referring to the significant digits of an approximate value A, is essential to mention all final zeros designated in A.
ILLUSTRATION
3.

To

state that a

mean that the true weight differs To state that the weight is 35.6 pounds should mean

measured weight is 35.60 pounds should from 35.60 pounds by at most .005 pound.
that the true weight

DECIMALS
differs

AND ELEMENTS OF COMPUTATION

53

from this by at most .05 pound. Thus, there is a great distinction between 35.6 and 35.60 as approximate values although there is no difference between 35.6 and 35.60 as abstract numbers.

47. Rounding off a number

In referring to a place in a number, we shall mean any place where a significant digit stands. In referring to a decimal place, the word
decimal will be explicitly used.

To round
for

off

N, means

to k figures, or to write a fc-place approximation to write an approximate value with k significant digits
is

so that the error of this value

not more than one half of a unit

in the kth place, or 5 units in the first neglected place.

This condition

on the approximate value of

SUMMARY.
1.

N leads us to the following method. To round off a number N to k places, drop off the part of
-f-

N beyond the kth place and then proceed as follows: // the omitted part of N is less than 5 units in the (k
leave the digit in the kth place unchanged.
2.

l)th place,

is more than 5 units in the (k -f l)th place, // the omitted part of increase the digit in the kth place by 1.
is exactly equal to 5 units in the (k 3.* // the omitted part of l)th place, increase the digit in the kth place or leave it unchanged, with the object of making the final choice an even digit.

ILLUSTRATION
rounding
places

1.

off to five

seven-place approximation to TT is 3.141593. places (or four decimal pldles) we obtain 3.1416.

The

On

We
three

changed 5 to 6 because .000093

>

.00005.

On

rounding

off TT to

we obtain

3.14.
2.

315.475 to five figures, with equal In justification we could specify either 315.47 or 315.48 as the result. accordance with Item 3 of the Summary, we choose 315.48.
off

ILLUSTRATION

In rounding

48.

A notation for large numbers

For abbreviation, or to indicate how many digits in a large number are significant, it is sometimes convenient to write a number AT as the product of an integral power of 10 and a number equal to or greater
than

by
*

but less than 10, with as the data.


1

many

significant digits as are justified

Item 3 could be replaced by various similar and equally

justified agreements.

54

DECIMALS
ILLUSTRATION
1.

AND ELEMENTS OF COMPUTATION


an approximate value,
its

If 5,630,000 is

appearance

fails to show how many zeros are significant. If just five digits are significant we write 5.6300C106), and, if just three are significant, 5.63C106).

49. Accuracy of computation

By

illustrations,

we can

verify that the following rules

do not

underestimate the accuracy of computation with approximate values. On the other hand, we must admit that the rules sometimes overestimate the accuracy. However, we shall assume that a result obtained by these rules will have a negligible error in the last significant

place which
I.

is specified.

In adding approximate In multiplying

values,

round

off the result in the first


is

place where the last significant digit of


II.

any given value

found.
off the

or dividing approximate values,

round

result to the smallest

number of

significant figures

found in any given

value.

Let a = 35.64, 6 = 342.72, and c = .03147 be approximate values. Then, a + b -\- c is not reliable beyond the second decimal place because both a and b are subject to an unknown error which may be as large as 5 units in the third decimal place. Hence, we write

ILLUSTRATION

1.

+b+c=

378.39147

378.39, approximately.

ILLUSTRATION 2. If x = 31.27 and y = .021 are approximate values, = .66, because y has only two significant digits: then,*by Rule II, we take xy
xy

31.27(.0ll)

.65667

.66,

approximately.

ILLUSTRATION 3. If a surveyor measures a rectangular field as 385.6' by 432.4', it would give an unjustified appearance of accuracy to write that
166,733.44 square feet. For, an error of .05 foot in either dimension would cause an error of about 20 square feet in the area. By Rule II, a reasonably justified result would be that the area is 166,700

the area

is

(385.6) (432.4)

square

feet,

to the nearest 100 square feet, or 1.667(10*) square feet.

In problems where approximate values enter, or where approximate results are obtained from exact data, the results should be rounded off so as to avoid giving a false appearance of accuracy. No hard and fast rules for such rounding off should be adopted, and the final decision as to the accuracy of a result should be made only after a careful examination of the details of the solution.

DECIMALS

AND ELEMENTS OF COMPUTAT/ON


EXERCISE 19

55

Round
1.

off, first to five

and then

to three significant digits.

15.32573.
195.635.

2.

.00132146.
'

3.

.3148638. .0345645.

4. 5.62653. 8.

6.

6.

.00128558.

7.

392.462.

Tell between

what two values

the exact length of

line lies if its

measured

length in feet is as follows.


9. 567.

10. 567.0.

11. 567.4.

12. 35.18.

Assuming that the numbers represent approximate and product and state the results without false accuracy.
13. 31.52

data,* find their

sum

and

.0186.

14.

.023424 and 1.14.

15. .0047(11.3987126).

Problem 15. In proceeding to multiply or divide approximate values, there is no advantage in keeping many significant digits in one value when other values have relatively few significant digits. A conservative
for

HINT

rule

is

that, before multiplying or dividing,

we may round

off

any given

value to two more significant digits than appear in the least accurate of the given values.^

Write the number in ordinary decimal form.


16. 100(3.856). 17. 27.38(102 ).
18. 1.935(10<).

19. 2.056(10).
1

Write as the product of a power of 10 and a number between


20. 38.075. 21. 675.38.
is

and

10.

22. 153,720,000.

23. 45,726.

Given that the number


integral

an approximate value, write it as the product of an power of 10 and a number between 1 and 10, assuming, first, that there
25. 453,120. 26. 23,523,416.

are five significant digits and, second, that there are three significant digits.
24. 9,330,000.
27. 72,200,000.

In
28.

the following problems, state each result without false accuracy.

The measured dimensions


Find

57.3 feet.
29.

of a rectangular field are 469.2 feet and the perimeter (sum of lengths of sides) and area of the field. of a rectangular box are 20.4 feet, 16.5 feet, of the box in cubic feet.
gallons,

The measured dimensions


feet.

and 7.8
30.

Find the volume

Given that one cubic foot contains approximately 7.5


gallons are contained

how

many
*

by 2.576 cubic

feet?

In this book, unless otherwise stated, the numerical data in any problem should be assumed to be exact. Results obtained from exact data may sometimes be rounded off. t See Note 3 in the Appendix for a convenient abridged method for multiplyic two numbers with many significant digits.

56

DECIMALS

AND ELEMENTS OF COMPUTATION

50. Division of decimals

When one decimal is divided by another,

times gives a zero remainder if number of decimal places. Usually, however, we may expect a remainder not zero however far we continue the division. We can always arrange the details so that the actual work amounts to division by an integer. This arrangement is useful in locating the decimal point in the result.
ILLUSTRATION
its
1.

the division process somethe work is carried to a sufficient

To compute

372.173

-5-

1.25 with accuracy to

two

decimal places, we

numerator and

indicate the division as a fraction, and then multiply denominator by 100, to obtain an integer as the divisor:
first

372.173
1.25

372.173(100)
1.25(100)

37,217.3

125

(1)

At the

right,

we

insert the original


1.25,

decimal points in dividend and divisor and mark with "A" the new locations of the decimal points observed
in the final fraction in (1).

297.738

(Quotient}

The mul-

372.17*300 (Dividend) 250 122


112

tiplication

to

by 100 in (1) is equivalent the action of moving the decimal

67 75 92 3 87 5 4 80
3 75
1

point two places to the right in both dividend and divisor. In the process

the integral part of the quotient ends when we begin using digits of the dividend at the right of " the new decimal point A ." If we place each digit of the quotient directly
of division,
,

050

above the last digit being used at that stage from the dividend, the decimal point in the quotient occurs exactly above the altered decimal point, A in the dividend. We find the quotient to three decimal places, 297.738, and
,

1J300 50

then round

it off

to 297.74, which

we say

is

correct to

two decimal

places.

To

check,

we compute
1.25(297.74)

372.175.

We

do not obtain
1.

exactly 372.173 because 297.74 is not the exact quotient.

In any division, estimate the result before dividing, to check the location of the decimal point in the quotient. Thus, in Illustration 1, a convenient estimate would be 375 -5- 1.25, or 300. Then we are sure that the actual answer should have three places to the left of the decimal point.
Note

DECIMALS
Note
2.

AND ELEMENTS OF COMPUTATION

57

In dividing approximate values, obtain the quotient to one more figure than is specified as reliable by Rule II, Section 49. Then, round off
the quotient in the preceding place.

Any terminating decimal can be expressed as a fraction, which then may be reduced to lowest terms. Conversely, we can express any common fraction as a decimal by carrying out the division indicated
by the
exactly.

fraction, to obtain either


2.

a terminating or an endless decimal.

ILLUSTRATION

On

carrying out the division,

we obtain J =

.875,

ILLUSTRATION

3.

3.125

3125 1000

25 8

.45833

24

11.00000

96
ILLUSTRATION
4.

To

we

divide, at the right.

express ii as a decimal After reaching .458 in the

140 120
200
192

quotient, we meet 8 each time as the only digit in the remainder. Hence, 3 will be obtained endlessly
in the quotient.

The

result is the endless repeating

decimal .4583, where the dot above 3 means that the digit repeats endlessly.

80 72 80

etc.

EXERCISE 20
Write each expression as a fraction, and then an integer. (6) Divide until the remainder is zero.
(a)
1.

alter it to

make

the divisor

3.562

-T-

2.6.

2.

2.849

-f-

.74.
to three
-5-

3.

140.14

-^ 2.45.

Obtain the result of the division correct


4.

decimal places.
6.

381.32

-5-

58.

5.

.083172

.316.

.5734

*-

12.8.

Assume

that the

Carry out the to Rule II, Section 49.


7.

numbers in the following problems are approximate values. division and state the result without false accuracy, according
8.

573.2 * 3.83.
-s-

19.438

-s-

2.21.

9.

.09734

-f-

3.265.
.5634.

10. 98.3

21.473.

11. .003972 4- .0139.

12. .01793

Change
13. 2.75.

the decimal to

a fraction in

lowest terms.
16. .0175.

14. .0125.
to the

16. 2.375.

17. .0325.

Obtain the decimal equal

given fraction.

If the decimal repeats endlessly,

carry the division far enough to justify this conclusion.


18.

19.

20.

A.

21.

A-

22. ft.

23.

CHAPTER

4
ONE UNKNOWN

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN

51

Terminology about equations


equation
is

a statement that two number expressions are equal. The two expressions are called the sides or members of the equation. An equation in which the members are equal for all permissible values of the letters involved is called an identical equation, or, for short, an identity. An equation whose members are not equal for all permissible values oi the letters is called a conditional equation.
ILLUSTRATION 1. In the following equation, by carrying out the multiplication on the left-hand side, we verify that the product is the same as the right-hand side. This is true regardless of the values of a and b. Hence the equation is an identity.
(a

An

+ 26) (a +

36)

a2

5a6

662

2 = is a conditional equation beILLUSTRATION 2. The equation x cause the two members are equal only when x =-2.

be used in referring to both identities and conditional equations, except where such usage would cause confusion. Usually, however, the word "equation" refers to a conditional equation. At times, to emphasize that some equation "s" " " instead of = between the members. is an identity, we shall use A. conditional equation may be thought of as presenting a question: the equation asks for the values which certain letters should
itself will
. ,

The word "equation" by

values are requested, are called unknowns. an equation may represent known numbers.

Some

of the letters in

ILLUSTRATION

3.

x*

+ 3x -

is

an equation

in the

unknown

x.

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
52. Solution of an equation

ONE UNKNOWN

59

An equation is said to be satisfied by a set of values of the unknowns


the equation becomes an identity when these values are substituted for the unknowns. A solution of an equation is a set of values of the
if

unknowns which satisfies the equation. A solution of an equation in a single unknown is also called a root of the equation. To solve an equation in a single unknown means to find all the solutions of the
equation.

ILLUSTRATION 1. 4 is a root of the equation 2x x = 4 the equation becomes [2(4) 3] = 5, which


53. Equivalent equations

3
is

5,

because when

true.

Two

equations are said to be equivalent

if

they have the same

solutions.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

1.

Solve:
1.

3x

= -

5x.

(1)

Add

5x to both members:

1
2.

3x -V 5x

= -

5x -V 5x,
or,

or

3
is

+ 2x = = -

7.

(2)

Subtract 3 from both members,

which
or

the same, add


10.

3 to

both sides:

3.

-f-

2x

= -

3,

2x

(3)

On

dividing both sides of (3)

by 2 we obtain

= -

5,

(4)

and conclude that


CHECK.

this is the only solution- of (1).

Substitute x

=
3

5 in

(1).

Left-hand side:

Right-hand side:

- 3(- 5(-

5) 5)

+
7

15

18.
18,

= -

+ 25 =

which checks.

Comment. Each equation obtained from (1) was equivalent to it and this would justify us in saying that (1) has just one root, x = 5, without any
necessity for the check.

and (4) is a consequence of the following familiar facts: if equal numbers are added to or subtracted from equal numbers the results are equal; if equal numbers are multiplied or divided by equal numbers the results are equal.
of (1), (2), (3),

The equivalence

60

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN

ONE UNKNOWN
(1) will also satisfy (2), be-

ILLUSTRATION 1. cause we pass from


of (1).

Any

value of x satisfying

(1) to (2)

by adding

equals,

And, any value of x satisfying (2) pass from (2) back to (1) by the inverse operation of subtracting 5x from both sides of (2). Hence, (1) and (2) are satisfied by the same values of x, and
thus are equivalent.

5x and 5x, to the equal sides will satisfy (1) because we can

In solving an equation in a single unknown, by use of the following operations we pass from the original equation to progressively simpler equivalent equations, which finally yield the desired roots.

SUMMARY.
1.

Operations on an equation yielding equivalent equations.


the

Addition of

same number

to both

members.

2. 3.

Subtraction of the same number from both members.

Multiplication (or division) of both members by the same number, provided that it is not zero and does not involve the unknowns.
1.

observe that Operation 2 is a special case of Operation 1 is equivalent to addition of N. The because subtraction of a number

Note

We

division part of Operation 3 because division by a number

is

a special case of the multiplication part, is equivalent to multiplication by 1/N.

Convenient mechanical processes, and corresponding terminology, grow out of Operations 1, 2, and 3.
term appearing on both sides of an equation can be canceled, by subtracting the term from both sides.

ILLUSTRATION

2.

Given:

-j-

Subtract 3 from both sides:

= =

f
f.

-f 3.

term can be transposed from one member to the other, with the sign of the term changed, by subtracting it from both members.

ILLUSTRATION

3.

Given:

+5=
2.

7.

Subtract 5 from both sides, or transpose 5:

5,

or

=
x

ILLUSTRATION
Transpose
4:

4.

Given:

4 x

x
all

+ 4,
may

or

= 9. = 13.

The signs of
both sides by

terms on both sides


1.

be changed, by multiplying

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
ILLUSTRATION
5.

ONE UNKNOWN
3x
6 = 5
:

61

Given:

ox.

Change

all

signs (multiply both sides

by

1)

5 H- ax.

54. Degree of a term

The
is

degree of

an

integral rational

term

in a certain literal

number

the exponent of the power of that number which is a factor of the term. If the term does not involve the number, the degree of the term is said to be zero. The degree of a term in two or more letters
together is the

polynomial

is

The degree of a of their degrees in the term. defined as the degree of its term of highest degree.
1.

sum

ILLUSTRATION
3.
is

With x as the
is 1

literal

The degree
3

of 2x

because x

xl

number involved, the degree of Sx3 is The degree of (5x3 3z2 -f 2x 7)

ILLUSTRATION
together is (3
-f-

2.

The degree

of

3#V

in x is 2, in y

is 3,

and

in

x and y

2) or 5.

ILLUSTRATION 3. polynomial in x and

A
is

polynomial of the first degree in x is called a linear of the form ax b, where a and b do not involve x.

55. Linear equations


integral rational equation is one in which each member is an linear equation, or integral rational polynomial in the unknowns.

An

an equation of the first degree, is an integral rational equation the terms involving the unknowns are of the first degree.
ILLUSTRATION
1.

in

which

The equation 3x
solve

is

a linear equation in

x.

a linear equation in one unknown: 1. If fractions appear, place parentheses around each numerator and clear of fractions by multiplying both members by the LCD of the fractions; then, remove parentheses and combine terms.
2.

SUMMARY.

To

Transpose
to-

all

terms involving the

unknown

to

one member and


the

all

other terms

the other

member.

Combine terms in

unknown,

exhibiting
3.

it

as a factor.
coefficient of the

Divide both sides by the

unknown.

4.

To

check the solution, substitute the result in the original equation.

62
r. EXAMPLE

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN

ONE UNKNOWN
3
~

*oi Solve:
1.

x ---

x + -r

2.

SOLUTION.
serving that

1.

The

LCD

is

30.

Hence, multiply Ijoth sides by 30, ob-

30

-p =
2.

10(z-4);
10(x

30--

15(s

3);

30

-_ =
60;

3(3

- 4) - 15(x - 3) = 10* - 40 - 15* + 45 = - 5x + 5 =


5x

3(3

+ x) 51.

+ 3x -

60;

3x

Subtract 3z and 5 from both sides:

3.

3x

= 8:

51

5;

8x
x

= -

56.

Divide both sides by

7.

CHECK. Substitute x
j ; Left-hand side:
r
1

7 in the original equation.

~
^ o

---4
7
j;

3 4 ___
o

==

A 2

o 1_2=
1

1.

Right-hand side:

34-7 -^.

-r

10

2=1

2=

1.

This checks.

In the case of a linear equation in a. single unknown x, if the unknown remains in the equation after Step 2 of the standard method of solution is applied, the equation is then of the form ex = 6, where b c j* 0, and b and c do not involve x. On dividing both sides of ex

by c we obtain x = b/c. known has just one root.


Note
1.

That

is,

a linear equation

in

single un-

In directions for solving an equation, in this book, a specification to add, subtract, multiply, or divide will mean to perform the operation on both sides of the preceding equation.

EXERCISE 21
Solve the equation for the literal
1.

number in
2.

it.

5x

x 2

+
-

7.

3z
3

18

x.

3.
5.
7. 9.

5 2
5

2y

3y.

4.
6.

3x

= -

4y.

5x.

+55y

4(2
5

).

2y
2(4

=
-

4y.
4.

B.

x}

3x.

Sy

+3

5y

10. 7

2(1

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
11. 2(7 13.

ONE UNKNOWN
llh

63

+ a) - 1 -

7x.

12. 14.
3.

8fc

4.
7.

16.

- 7h = 14A - 12. 52 - 11 + 32 = 2 4* -f 3* 3s
2.

7k

+ 12 =
6w>

2k

16. 11

- 34w 32

9.

17.
19.

5x -- 1

18. 42

+f

4*

+*-f,

}.

21. to

+ ft.
h

22. 5*

+Y=

17*

3*

5*

3*

25 .

--44 _
10

_
3

-------. ~
15

27.

_
2
6
__ ""

_
2

28.

10

=
3

12 13

" 31.

3
5*

T
7

3 5
32.

TO

+y

_ ~
5 6

25

5x

2x

35.

3 -a:

~6~
6

"

a;

~2~

37 TO

+7 ^ + 2a; ~~5~~

3x

13

a;

43. .26

=
.2

.98

T.38.

16

3
44.

2s
3x

3.

.55

.33

1.7*. .96*.
.07.

46. .26a:
47. 2.5*
49.

.53*

46. 2.3z
48. .21*

2.4
.46

1.6

3.7

13.5

1.8x. .07*.

.79

.19*

.358

.032

60. 4.088

.03*

3*

64

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
61. 2.035
62. 3(5z

ONE UNKNOWN
.215.
1)

- Mix = - .212* + 2) - 12 = 25(2z +


10(y

3.

63.

2y

-I -

+
= =

1)

2(2
3(z

3t/)

1.

64. 82 66. 66.

2(32
6(z

1) 1)

7z
1

1).
1).

2x

1)

3(3*

S(w

+ 2) -

5(2w

6(w

2)

+ 3.

68. 4r

7(2

r)

60.
62.

6(r

1).

Solve for P, or
69.
61.

A,

correct to

two decimal places, by

first clearing

of fractions.

300
500

= P[l + f (.07)]. = A[l - A(.06) J

250
750

= A[l = P[l +

J(.05)].

tt(.07) J

56. Simple Factoring of polynomials

terms of a polynomial contain a common factor, we may express the polynomial as a product of this factor and a second factor. The second factor is the sum obtained by dividing each term of the
If all

polynomial by the common factor of the terms.


ILLUSTRATION
1.

+ ax -f bx = z(3 + a + + 2xy + 4zy = xy(3y + 2


3x
3

6).

present, in solving equations in an unknown x, we will be interested in factoring polynomials only where a: is a common factor

At

we express such a polynomial as the product and another factor, we then refer to this factor as the coefficient
of the terms.
If

of

of x.

ILLUSTRATION

2.

On
2x

factoring,

we obtain

+ 4ox + %cx

=
a:

2x(l -f 2a
is

+ c).
c).

(1)

In

(1),

we say

that the coefficient of

2(1

-f-

2a -f

57. Constants and variables

In a given problem, a constant is a number symbol whose value does not change during the discussion involved. A variable is a number symbol which may take on different values. Any explicit number,

such as

7,

automatically

is

a constant wherever

it

appears.

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN

ONE UNKNOWN

65

ILLUSTRATION 1. The volume V of a sphere is given by the formula V = Jur3 where r is the radius. In considering all possible spheres, r and V are variables but TT is a constant, approximately 3.1416.
58. Literal equations

Sometimes an equation in an unknown x may involve other literal numbers besides x. In such a case, during the process of solution for x, we assume that the other literal numbers are constants. The summary of Section 55 still specifies our method of solution.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

1.

Solve for x:
1.

3bx
2 and 2cx:
36z

2cx

+
(1)

Transpose

_ ~

2cx

= =

+ a.
+
a.

2.

Factor on the

left in (1)

x(3b
3.

2c)

(2)

Divide both sides of

(2)

by
X

(36

2c),

the coefficient of x:

W^2c'
2x

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

2.

Solve for x:

^r
ao
is

3 --

2a

1.

The

LCD
4*;

2ab.

Hence, multiply both sides by 2ab,

noticing that

=
2a6(|)

2o6(|)

66;
bx.

2^) x

te.

We

obtain

4z

66
:

2.

Transpose terms, and solve for x


4x

bx

66;

x(4

6)

66;

^y
5
7-

fiA

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

3.

Solve for x:

37 -- =
=-

(4)

The
18

LCD
28

is

12z.

= -

15*;

Multiply both sides by 12x: - 10 = - ISz; x =


:

(5)

CHECK. Substitute x =

in (4)

797 ____
3

5
,

5
Right-hand
side:

T-

This checks.

66

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN

ONE UNKNOWN

Comment. In this chapter, the unknown will occur in a denominator only under the most simple conditions. In solving (4), an incorrect choice of the LCD, containing an unnecessary factor, might have prevented the equations in (5) from being linear in x.
59. Formulas

Frequently, the data in a problem


set of variables,

come to us

as the values of a

which we represent as literal numbers. Sometimes we are able to write a mathematical expression for one of the variables in terms of the others. The resulting equation is referred to then as a formula for the first variable. An algebraic formula is one involving only the operations of algebra.

ILLUSTRATION 1. The Fahrenheit reading, F, and centigrade reading, (7, in degrees for a given temperature are related by the equation 5F = 9(7 -f 160. On solving for F, we obtain a formula for F in terms of C:

F = fC
To
find

+ 32.
C =
36 in
(1)
:

(1)

corresponding to 36 centigrade, substitute

F=

f (36)

+ 32 =

64.8

+ 32

96.8.

EXERCISE 22
Solve for x, or y, or lowest terms.
1.
z,

whichever appears.

Reduce any final fraction


3. 6.

to

bx

3 Hby
5c

c.

2. 6.

16z

h.

ex 2z

5a

3h.
a.

4. 7. 9.

ay
2ay
ax

5.

3x

ax 48.

26.

bz

= =

3by -f 4a.
5c

Sax
a.

bx.

10.

11.

12.

3x
26
c

= ~

b
-

ax
b

14. -T

c j

A 0.

...

15.

3x = n --a

be
7x

2dx

+ 8. = d?x + b.
Sax
13.

= =

d.

0.

16. -r-

.,_

a?x

3
-

, 2a3

17 JL f

3T7"

_ _ _ mo

U.

18 AO

2c

rt

o \J "'

19 AU *"

-~
4

BC
a

a
2 o

= 24.--3 2c

c2

-1 1%

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
26. 3a(2x

ONE UNKNOWN

67

3z

36)

5(cz

3)

26.

26. 4c(ax

6c)

2a(bx
*

+a

0.

V/ 97

4 2 =15

Ho*

'

5 -

==

3 29 -

3z
.

24

4x

29

10*
31.

=
12

+ ^

15z

662

15az

In the Fahrenheit-centigrade equation, 5F = 9C 160, solve for C in terms of F. Then, use the resulting formula to find the centigrade tem-

perature correct to tenths of a degree corresponding to the following Fahrenheit temperatures:


32.
(a)

32;

(6)

212;

(c)

80;

(d)

50.

Let an object be shot vertically upward from the surface of the earth
initial velocity of v feet

us neglect air resistance and other disturbing features. Then, it is proved in physics that s = vt %gP, where s feet is the height of the object above the surface at the end of t 100 and t = 6. seconds and g = 32, approximately, (a) Find s if v
let
(6)

with an

per second, and

Solve for v to obtain a formula for v in terms of s and

t.

(c)

From

(6),

compute the velocity with which the object must be shot to attain a height
of 1000 feet in 5 seconds.
33. Solve 36. Solve

/
I

= ma for a. = a + (n
=
I

34. Solve 8

-{-

vt

for

v.

l)d for a; for

for d.

36. Solve

37. Solve

S -

r r

M for
1

M;

for

t\

for

J.

r- for a.

38. Solve

S =

for

I:

for a.

of the following problems states a rule for computing values of a certain variable in terms of others. State the rule by means of a formula.

Each
39.

The
The

average, A, of three numbers

M, N, and P

is

one third of their

sum.
per kilowatthour for the first 10 kilowatt-hours, 5^ per kilowatt-hour for the next 20 kilowatt-hours, and 2%i per kilowatt-hour for all over 30 kilowatt-hours. Write an expression for the total cost, C, of (a) 60 kilowatt-hours; (6) n kilowatt40.
is 7jf

cost of electricity for a house in a certain city

hours where n
41.

>

30.

On any

order for more than 200 units of a certain manufactured

product, the cost is 15^ per unit for 200 units and 12^f per unit for the remain(}er of the order. Write a formula for the cost, C, in dollars, of n units if n > 200.

63

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN

ONE UNKNOWN

60. Algebraic translation

In applying equations in the solution of problems stated in words,

we

translate

word descriptions into algebraic

expressions.

ILLUSTRATION 1. If x is the length of one side of a rectangle and if the other dimension is 3 units less than twice as long, then the other dimension
is

(2x

3)

the perimeter (sum of lengths of sides)

is

2z

2(2z

3),

or

6z

6,

and the area

is

x(2x
2.

3).

ILLUSTRATION
integer
is

If x, y,

and

z are, respectively, the units', tens',

and

hundreds' digits of a positive integer with three digits, the value of the

+ Wy +
To

lOOz.

SUMMARY.
1.

solve

Introduce one or

an applied problem by use of equations: more letters to represent the unknowns and

give

a description of each one in words.


2.

Translate the given facts into one or more equations involving the
solve for their values.

unknowns, and
3.

Check

the solution by substituting the results in the written state-

ment of

the problem.
1.

EXAMPLE
Jones
will

$350 is to be divided between Jones and Smith so that receive $25 more than Smith. How much does each receive?
1.

SOLUTION.

Let x be the number of dollars which Smith receives.


(x

Then, Jones receives


2.

+ 25)
x

dollars.
is

The sum

of the

amounts received

$350, or
350.
..

(x

+ 25) =

(1)

On

solving (1), we obtain x = 162.50. Hence, Smith receives $162.50 and Jones receives $162.50 $25 or $187.50. These results check.

EXAMPLE

2.

of the larger is

Find two consecutive even integers such that the square 44 greater than the square of the smaller integer.
1.

SOLUTION. integer is x
2.

2.

Let x represent the smaller integer. Their squares are x* and (x -f 2) 2


.

Then, the larger

From

the data,

Expanding:

+ 2) - x = 44. x* = 44; x* + 4z + 4
(x
2
2

(2)

4z
3.

40;

10.

The

integers are 10

and

12.

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
CHECK.
10 2
3.

ONE UNKNOWN
144

69

100;

12 2
it

144;

100

44.

EXAMPLE

How

to plow a field in 8 days?

take Jones and Smith, working together, which Jones can plow alone in 5 days and Smith, alone,
long will

SOLUTION.

1.

Let x days be the time required by Jones and Smith,


field.

working together.
2.

In

day, Jones can plow J and Smith J of the

Hence, in x

X 3/ days Jones can plow ^ and Smith can plow ^ of the 5 o


3.

field.

Since the whole field

is

parts plowed

by the men

in

plowed in x days, the sum of the fractional x days is 1


:

= 3^

days.

EXERCISE 23

an equation in just one unknown. 1. A line 68 inches long is divided into two parts where one longer than the other. Find their lengths.
Solve by use of
2.

is

3 inches

cut into two pieces such that one part is 4 inches less than twj 'as long as the other part. Find the lengths of the parts. ;he

rope 36 inches

Sng

is

3.

Find the dinu J P| (jns of a rectangle whose perimeter


is

is

55

feet,

if

the altitude
4.

f of the base.
of a rectangle
is

One dimension
if

the other.

of the rectangle
is

its

perimeter becomes 130 feet

Find the dimensions when each dimension

increased
5.

by 5

feet.

What number

should be subtracted from the numerator of fj to

cause the fraction to equal f ?


6. 7.

Find two consecutive positive integers whose squares Find three consecutive integers whose sum
is

differ

by

27.

48.
is

Find the angles of a triangle where one angle angle and six times the third angle.
8.
9.

three times a second

and a triangle have equal bases. The altitude of the rectangle is 25 feet and of the triangle is 20 feet. The combined area of the triangle and the rectangle is 280 square feet. Find the length of the base.
rectangle
10. J?ind

two consecutive

positive

odd integers whose squares

differ

by

32,*

70
11.

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN

ONE UNKNOWN

is

length of a rectangular lot is three times its width. If the length decreased by 20 feet and the width is increased by 10 feet, the area is

The

increased
12.

by 200 square
triangle

feet.

Find the original dimensions.


base.
triangle

the rectangle is than the base.

and a rectangle have the same 4 feet longer, and the altitude of the

The
is

altitude of

5 feet shorter

The area

of the rectangle

is

90 square feet greater than

twice the area of the triangle.


13.

Find the length of the base.

A sum

quarters.

to $13.55 consists of nickels, dimes, and There are three times as many dimes as nickels and three less
of

money amounting

quarters than dimes.


14. If (59

How many
divided

of each coin are there?

3z)

is

by the
x.

integer x, the quotient

is

5 and the

remainder

is 3.

Find the value of


dividend

HINT.
16.

Recall:

(quotient)

(divisor)

+ remainder.

peddler sold 7 bushels more than f of his load of apples and then had 9 bushels less than f of the load remaining. Find his original load.
hour, Jones can plow J of a field and Roberts -fa of work together, how long will it take them to plow the field?
16.

In

it.

If

they

17.

room can be painted

in 21 hours

Johnson.
18.

How

long will

it

take them to

by Smith and in 14 hours by paint the room working together?

f long will it take two mechanical d .chdiggers to excavate a ditch which the first machine, alone, could con lete in 8 days and the

How

second, alone, in 11 days?


19.

Jo*
*

long will it take workers A and B, together, to complete a job which could be done by A alone in 7 days, and by B alone in 9 days?

How How

long will it take to fill a reservoir with intake pipes A, B, and C open, if the reservoir could be filled through A alone in 6 days, B alone in 8 days, and C alone in 5 days?
20.

1000 articles of a given type can be turned out by a first machine in 9 hours, by a second in 6 hours, and by a third in 12 hours, how long will it take to turn out the articles if all machines work together?
2JL.

If

22.

An

integer between 10
if it is

and 100 ends

in 5.

By

writing an equation,

find the integer

5 times the

sum

of its digits.

61. Percentage

The words
hundredths.

per cent are abbreviated by the symbol That is, if r is the value of h%, then

and mean

=
156

'

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
ILLUSTRATION

ONE UNKNOWN
4J% =
4
7*i

7?

1.

6% =
1,

fi

.06.

.0475.

From equation

to per cent form,

we obtain h = lOOr; hence, to change a number we multiply r by 100 and add the symbol.

ILLUSTRATION

2.

If r

.0175, then lOOr

=
-

1.75

and .0175

1.75%.

ILLUSTRATION

18
3.

cnn oLMJ
of a ratio

9
xrv\

0225

2 25 %-

The description
If

M/N in per cent form is the background


relation
r is
is

for the following terminology.


of

is

described
r as

to

N,

M = Nr, where the ratio we sometimes say that M expressed as a percentage


by the
the rate and AT as the base for the percentage:
or
or

of

N, with

M = Nr, = M
r
-TT*

percentage
.

=
=

(base)

rate

percentage * r base

(rate)

(2)
/0
,

' (3) v

ILLUSTRATION
rate r

4.

To

fj$

=
1.

.75.

express 375 as a percentage of 500, we compute the Hence, 375 = .75(500), or 375 is 75% of 500.

Find the number of residents of a city where population, or 962 people, had influenza.
SOLUTION.
Let

EXAMPLE

13%

of the

P be

the

number

of residents:

.UP Note
1.

962;

P .lo

,
lo

7400.

In the formation of a mixture of different ingredients, we shall assume that there is no change in volume. Actually, a slight gain or loss of

volume might occur,

for instance, as

a result of chemical action.

In the typical mixture problem, where one special ingredient is involved, the equation for solving the problem frequently can be obtained by writing, in algebraic form, the statement that
(

the

sum of the amounts of the] _


/

amount

of the ingredient

ingredient in the parts

in the final mixture,

the price of a mixture is the fundamental feature, the equation may be obtainable by using equation 4 with the costs of tHe parts thought of in place of the ingredients.
If

72

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN

ONE UNKNOWN

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
In 5

2.

should be added
1.

gallons of a mixture containing 80% alcohol to 5 gallons of a 20% solution to give a 30% solution?

How many

Let x be the number of

gal.

added.

In x

gal.,

80%

pure

alcohol, there are .80x gal. of alcohol.


2. 3. 4.
gal.,

20%

pure, there are .20(5) gal. of alcohol.

In (5 4- x)

gal.,

30%

pure, there are .30(z


-f-

5) gal. of alcohol.
is

alcohol in the final mixture of (5 in the x gal. and in the 5 gal. Or,
.30(z

The

x) gal.

the

sum

of the alcohol

5)

.80*

.20(5);

1.

EXAMPLE

3.

What
off

should be drawn

percentage of a 20% solution of hydrochloric acid and replaced by water to give a 15% solution?

SOLUTION. 1. Think of the solution as consisting of 100 units of volume; then the solution contains 20 units of acid.
Let x% be the rate for the percentage which should be drawn Then, from the 100 units we should draw off x% of 100, or x units.
2. 3.
off.

In x units there are .20# units of acid.

units in the final solution of 100 units,


.15

There remain (20 .20z) after water is added. Therefore,

2
;

15

20

.20z;

25.

Or,

we should draw

off

25%

of the original solution.

EXERCISE 24
Change
1. to

decimal form.
2.

5%.
to

4J%.

3.

3|%.

4.

45%.

5.

126.3%.

6.

Change
7.

per cent form.


8.

.07.

.0925.

9.

.025.

10. .0575.

11. 1.35.

Compute each
12.

quantity.
13.

6%

of $300.

3^%

of 256.

14.

110%

of 1250.

Express the first number as a percentage of the second.


15. 75, of 200. 18. 16. 400, of 640.

17. 350, of 200.

price of copper per pound in the United States was approximately $.138 in 1926, $.081 in 1931, and $.215 in late 1947. Find the per cent of change in the price from 1926 to 1931; from 1931 to 1947. Solve each problem by using
19. If

The average

385

is

85%

of x,

an equation in just one unknown. find x. 20. If 268 is 24% less than

y,

find y.

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
21. After selling

ONE UNKNOWN

73

85%

has 84 dresses
22.

left.

of a stock of dresses, a What was his original stock?

merchant finds that he

merchant buys 100 dozen

shirts at $13.20 per dozen.

He

sells

90 dozen at a markup of 30% over the purchase price. At what price per shirt could he afford to sell the remaining 10 dozen to clear his stock if he desires his total receipts from the shirts to be 25% greater than the cost?

$3000 of Smith's income is not taxed by the state where he lives. All of his income over $3000 is taxed 2% and all over $8000 is taxed 3% in addition. If he pays a total tax of $800, what is his income?
23. 24.

Under the taxes

of

Problem

23, with
is

on

all

income over $20,000, Johnson's tax

an additional surtax of $1400. Find his income.

5%

25.

50^.

A merchant has some coffee How many pounds of each


How many

worth 70^f per pound and some worth are used in forming 100 pounds of a

mixture worth 65^ per pound?


gallons of a mixture of water and alcohol containing 60% alcohol should be added to 9 gallons of a 20% solution to give a 30% solution?
26. 27.

55% 40%

gallons of a solution of glycerine and water containing glycerine should be added to 15 gallons of a 20% solution to give a solution?

How many

ounces of pure silver must be added to 150 ounces, pure, to give a mixture containing 60% silver?
28. 29.

How many

45%

feed merchant wishes to form 200 bushels of a mixture of wheat

at $1.25 per bushel and wheat at $.80 per bushel, so that the mixture will be worth $1.00 per bushel. How much of each kind should he use?

pounds of cream containing 35% butterfat should be added to 800 pounds of milk containing 3% butterfat to give milk con30.

How many
3.5%

taining
31.

butterfat?

40%

automobile radiator holds 8 gallons of a solution containing glycerine. How much of the solution should be drawn off and replaced
to give a solution with

An

by water
32.

25%

glycerine?

percentage of a 30% solution of sulphuric acid should be drawn off and replaced by water to give a 20% solution?
33.

What

What What

percentage of a

40%

solution of alcohol

and water should

be replaced by pure alcohol, to give a


34.

75%

solution?

taining

30%

percentage of a mixture of sand, gravel, and cement, concement, should be replaced by pure cement in order to give

a mixture containing

40%

cement?

74

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN

ONE UNKNOWN

62. Lever problems

A lever consists of a rigid rod with one point of support called the fulcrum. A familiar instance of a lever is a teeterboard. If a weight
w
attached to a lever at a certain point, the distance h of w from the fulcrum is called the lever arm of w, and the product hw is called
is

the moment of

about the fulcrum.

The

following statement

is

demonstrated in physics.

LEVER PRINCIPLE. // two or more weights are placed along a lever in such a way that the lever is in a position of equilibrium, then, if each weight is multiplied by its lever arm, the sum of these products for all weights on one side of the fulcrum equals the sum of the products for all weights on the other side. In other words, the sum of the moments of
the weights about the

fulcrum

is the

same on both
it will

sides.

Note

1.

In

all lever
is

problems in this book,

be assumed that the

weight of the lever

negligible for the purpose in view.

ILLUSTRATION
of the
is

1.

In Figure

2,

the

sum

moments

MIAMI

for the weights at the left

(5-80 -h 4-250) or 1400, and for those at the right is


(4-

100

+ 5-200), or
girls,

1400.
Fig.

Hence,

this lever is balanced.


1.

EXAMPLE
sit

weighing 75 pounds and 90 pounds, respectively, at the ends of a teeterboard 15 feet long. Where should the fulcrum be

Two

placed to balance the board?

SOLUTION.
girl.

1.

Let x

feet

be the distance from the fulcrum to the lighter


for

Then, the lever arm


x) feet.
3,

the other
>

girl is (15

x-

2.

Hence, from Figure


75* x

= =

(15

z)90;

83^

feet.

EXERCISE 25
weight of 300 pounds is placed on a lever 20 feet from the fulcrum. Where should a weight of 275 pounds be placed to balance the lever?
1.

2.

How

weight of 60 pounds is placed on a lever 8 feet from the fulcrum, heavy a weight should be placed 12 feet from the fulcrum on the

other side to give equilibrium?

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
3.

ONE UNKNOWN
girl

75

weighing 80 pounds sits 4 feet from the fulcrum, another girl weighing 100 pounds sits 7 feet from the fulcrum on the other side, and a third girl sits 6 feet from the fulcrum. How much does the third girl weigh?
teeterboard
is

balanced when one

Jones and Smith together weigh 340 pounds. Find their weights if they balance a lever when Jones sits 5 feet from its fulcrum on one side and Smith sits 6 feet from the fulcrum on the other side.
4.

40-pound weight is placed 6 feet from the fulcrum on a lever, and a 60-pound weight 8 feet from the fulcrum on the other side. Where should a 30-pound weight be placed to give equilibrium?
5.

heavy a weight can a man lift with a lever 9 feet long if the fulcrum is 2 feet from the end under the weight and if the man exerts a force of 140 pounds on the other end?
6.

How

7.

How many
lift

lever to

pounds of force must a man exert on one end of an 8-foot a 300-pound rock on the other end if the fulcrum is 1J feet

from the rock?

63. Uniform motion

When we
we mean

say that a body is moving in a path at constant speed, that the body passes over equal distances in any two equal

referred to as uniform motion in or speed or rate of the body in its path is the path. The velocity defined as the distance traveled in one unit of time. If v is the velocintervals of time.
is

Such motion
*

ity,

and d

is

the distance traveled in

units of time,
(1)

d =
j

vt.

Since v

=,

the velocity

is

referred to as the rate of change of the

distance with respect to the time. In stating a velocity, the units for the measurement of time and of distance must always be mentioned.

ILLUSTRATION
speed, the speed

1.

If

an airplane
1250
>

flies

1250 miles in 5 hours at uniform

is

d t

or

_n ., 250 miles per hour.


,

The speed
*

of the airplane per

minute

is

or 4J miles.

In physics, velocity is denned as a vector quantity, possessing both magnitude and direction. In this text, wherever the word velocity is used, it will refer to the

magnitude (positive) of the velocity vector.

76
Note
bring in
1.

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
All motion considered in this

ONE UNKNOWN
book
will

be uniform motion.

If

the velocity of a

moving body is variable, a discussion of the motion must more advanced notions met in physics and calculus.
1.

messenger, traveling at a speed of 65 miles per hour, pursues a truck which has a start of 2 hours and overtakes the truck in 3 hours.

EXAMPLE

Find the speed of the truck.


SOLUTION.
3. (65)

Let x miles per hour be the truck's speed.

Then,

(3

+ 2)z;
rt

195

5z;

39 miles per hour.

applies in the discussion of any variable quantity d which changes uniformly at a specified rate r with respect to change in the time t. Thus, we may refer to a rate of increase

The equation d =

or a rate of decrease under various conditions.

EXAMPLE
full

motorboat went 70 miles in 4 hours when traveling at speed upstream on a river whose current flows at the rate of 6 miles
2.

per hour.

How
1.

fast can the

boat travel in

still

water?
still

SOLUTION.
(x
2.

Let x miles per hour be the speed of the boat in

water.

In travel upstream, the rate of the current reduces the speed of the boat to
6) miles per hour.

From d =

vt,

with

4, v

= x 6, 70 = 4(s 4x

and d
6).

70,
(2)

On

solving (2)

we obtain

94;

x
still

23.5.

Hence, the boat can travel 23.5 miles per hour in

water.

64. Radius of action of an airplane


* Suppose that an airplane flies with a groundspeed of Gi miles f per hour in a particular direction from a base B and then back along

path at a groundspeed of (?2 miles per hour, when the engines are working at full power, and while the wind maintains a constant direction and speed. G\ and <? 2 in general would be different because of the effects of the wind. Suppose that the gasoline tanks of the airplane permit it to operate at full power for only T hours after
this

refer to leaving B. interest to consider the

We

as the available fuel hours.

Then,

it is

of

maximum
fly

which the airplane


*

may

out

if

length of time, h hours, during it is to return to B by the end of

Speed with respect to the ground as contrasted to the airspeed, or speed with respect to the air, which itself may be in motion because of a wind. We read "Gi" as "G sub 1 " or "G, 1," t The subscript 1 on GI is just a tag.

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN

ONE UNKNOWN
flies

77

hours.
is

The

distance

which the airplane

out from

in

h hours

called the radius of action of the airplane in the specified * that direction, with the given wind. It can be proved

EXAMPLE

1.

How many

fuel

hours must be available in order to have

900 miles as the radius of action in a direction where the groundspeeds out and back are, respectively, 300 and 200 miles per hour?

SOLUTION.
equation in
(1)

Substitute
:

R =

900, Gi

300,

and

G =
z

200 in the second

900

_ "

7X300X200) 100 + 200

'

Hence,

T =

7J hr.

EXERCISE 26
1.

At what

rate does

an automobile

travel

if it

goes 450 miles in 9 hours?

Jones and Smith travel toward each other from points 500 miles apart, Jones at the rate of 60 miles per hour and Smith at 50 miles per hour. When will they meet if they start at the same instant?
2.

from the same place, in opposite directions, at speeds of 36 miles and 48 miles per hour, respectively. When will they be 600 miles apart?
3.

Two men

start at 7 A.M.

a motorcycle messenger starts from a city at a speed of 45 miles per hour to meet a regiment which is 120 miles away and is approaching at a speed of 5 miles per hour. When will the messenger meet the regiment?
4.

At 6

A.M.,

6.

One man can run 400 meters

in

54 seconds and a second


it

the distance in 60 seconds.


race?

How

long will

take the faster

man man

can run
to gain

a lead of 12 meters on the slower

man

if

they start together in a 400-meter

airplane leaves the deck of a battleship and travels south at the rate of 230 miles per hour. The battleship travels south at the rate of 20
6.

An

miles per hour. If the wireless set on the airplane has a range of 800 miles, when will the airplane pass out of wireless communication with the ship?
*

See page 51, in WILLIAM L. HART'S College Algebra, 3d Edition, D. C.

HEATH

AND COMPANY.

78
7.

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN

ONE UNKNOWN
travels

How many seconds will it take for a man to travel y miles if he


in
t

x miles
8.

seconds?

In an 800-meter race between two men, the winner's time is 2 minutes, and his lead is 40 meters. How many seconds would it take the loser to run 800 meters?
airplane flew 850 miles in 2J hours against a head wind blowing 30 miles per hour. How fast could the plane fly in still air?
9.

An

start together in a race around a 300-yard oval track, one man at a speed of 9 yards per second and the other man at 7J yards per second. When will the faster man be exactly one lap ahead?
10.

Two men

Johnson be twice as wealthy as Smith if each has $4000 now and if their estates are increasing at the annual rates of $400 for Smith and $1200 for Johnson?
11.
will

When

can run around a 400-meter track in 65 seconds. How long does Smith take to run the 400 meters if he meets Jones in 35 seconds after they start together in a race around the track in opposite directions?
12. Jones

In each problem,

(a) find the radius of action for

flight by

an airplane
(b)

in a direction where the groundspeeds have the indicated values; number of hours flown on the maximum outward trip.
13. Sixteen fuel

find the

hours available; groundspeed out

is

240 miles and back

is

210 miles per hour.


14.

Twelve

fuel

hours available; groundspeed out

is

190 miles and back

is

225 miles per hour.


16.
is

Fourteen fuel hours available; groundspeed out

is

175 miles and back

200 miles per hour.


// an airplane is
to

have the specified radius of action in a direction corresponding to the given groundspeeds, find the number of fuel hours which must
be available.
16.
is

Radius of action

is

1350 miles; groundspeed out

is

200 miles and back

225 miles per hour.


17.

Radius of action

is

750 miles; groundspeed out

is

195 miles and back

is

175 miles per hour.


18.

hours must be available to permit an airplane flight out from a field for 5J hours in a direction such that the groundspeed out is 200 miles and back is 185 miles per hour?
fuel
19.

How many

At how many minutes

after 2 P.M. will the

minute hand of a clock

overtake the hour hand?


20. After 10 P.M.,

when

will

the hands of a clock

first

form a straight

line?

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
65. Interest
Interest is

ONE UNKNOWN

79

income received from invested

capital.

The

capital

At any time a'fter the originally invested is called the principal. investment of the principal, the sum of the principal and the interest
due
is called

the amount.
is

The

rate of interest

to the principal.

If r is

the ratio of the interest earned in one year the rate and P is the principal, then

interest per year _ J

interest for

one year

Pr.

(2)

Thus, the interest


ILLUSTRATION
equation
1,

is

a percentage of the principal, with r as the rate.


$1000 earns $36.60 interest in one year, then, from
r

1.

If

=^^ =

.0366,

or

3.66%.

66. Simple interest


original investment during the whole life of a transaction, the interest earned is called simple interest. is invested at simple interest for t years at the Suppose that
If interest is

computed on the

rate

r.
t

Let / be the interest and


years.
t

of the

be the final amount at the end Then, the interest for one year is Pr and, by definiyears
/
is

tion, the simple interest for

t(Pr) or Prt',

that

is,

Prt.
interest,

(1)

Since amount equals principal plus

F = P
From
(1),

/.

(2)

P+
Hence, from
(2),

/-

P + Prt =

P(l

+ rt).
(3)

F = P(l

4- rt).

In equations 1 and 3, t represents the time expressed in years. If the time is described in months, we express it in years assuming a year to contain 12 equal months. If the time is given in days, there
are

two

varieties of interest used, ordinary

and exact simple interest

In computing ordinary interest we assume a year to contain 360 days, and, for exact interest, we assume a year to contain 365 days.

80

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
find the

ONE UNKNOWN
find the

To

interest

amount F when P, r, and t are given, first from 7 = Prt and then compute P + / to find F.

Note

l'.

Unless otherwise specified, the word "interest" in this book will

refer to simple interest.

ILLUSTRATION

1.

If

$5000
is

is

invested for 59 days at

5%,
$40.97;

the ordinary interest due

the final

amount due
1.

is

5000(.05)^y 5000 + 40.97

= =

$5040.97.

EXAMPLE

If

$1000 accumulates to $1250 when invested at simple

interest for 3 years, find the interest rate.

SOLUTION.
2.

1.

We have P =
Prt with
t

$1000;

F=

$1250; I

1250

1000

$250.

From
250

3,

1000(r)(3);

250

3000r;

OKA

.08J

In

F=

P(l

+ rt),

the principal

value of the

amount F because, if the accumulated amount at the end

P P

is is

frequently called the present invested today at the rate r,


t

of

years will be F.
is

EXAMPLE 2. Find the present value of $1100 which 21 years, if money can be invested at 4%.
SOLUTION.
2.
1.

due at the end of

We

have

F=

$1100, r

.04,

and

Hence, from

(3),

1100

= P[l
1.1P

+ f(.04)];
1100;

1100

= =

P(l

.10);

P=
$100;

~
JL
.L

$1000.

CHECK.

1000(.04)(f)

F =

1000

100

$1100.

EXERCISE 27

Find
1.

the ordinary interest

and

the final

amount.
2.

On $5000

at

6%

for

216 days.
the final

On

$8000 at

4J%

for

93 days.

Find
3. 6.

the exact interest

and

amount.
4.

On

$3000 at

4%

for 146 days.

On

$2500 at
if

51%
$150

for
is

27 days.
invested

Find the amount due at the end of 8 months

at

9%.
With
6.

the given data, solve

F=

$1000; r

F = P(l = .03; - f
t

+ rt) for P,
7.

to the

nearest cent.

F=

$3000; r

.05;

LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
8.
9.

ONE UNKNOWN
on $6000?

B1

At what

rate will $750 be the interest for 5 years


if it

Find the invested principal


is
if it

earns $375 interest in 3 months when

the interest rate


10.

Find the principal


(a)

earns $150 interest in J year at


will

8%.
by the end
of

11.

Find the principal which

amount

to $1300

6 years when invested at on it for 6 years.


12.
if

5%.

(6)

Verify the result

by computing

interest

Find the present value of $1888 which


is

is

due at the end of 4 years,

the interest rate


13.

4%.

Jones agreed to pay Smith $6000 at the end of 5 years. What should Jones pay immediately to cancel his debt if Smith agrees that he can invest

money
14.

at

4%?
y

Roberts buys a bill of goods from a merchant who asks $2000 at the end of 2 months. If Roberts wishes to pay immediately, what should the seller be willing to accept if he is able to invest his money at 8%?
15.

debtor owes $1100 due at the end of 2 years and he requests the

privilege of paying simple interest rate

ment, at
16.

5% How long
A man

an equivalent smaller sum immediately. At what would the creditor prefer to compute the present payor at 6%, and how much would he gain by the best choice?
will it

take a given principal to double

itself if

invested

at

5%
17.

simple interest?

invests $7000, one part of it at If the total annual interest is $320, how much

5%
is

and the balance at 4%.

invested at each rate?

CHAPTER

5
AND FACTORING

SPECIAL PRODUCTS

67. Square root


If

R2

A, we

call

R
is

a square root of A.

ILLUSTRATION

1.

a square root of 16 because 42

16.

Every positive number

has two square roots, one positive and

one negative, with equal absolute values. The positive square root is denoted by H- VZ, or simple VA, and the negative square root b VZ. We call a radical and A its radicand. Unless other-

VZ

wise stated, the square root of A will By the definition of a square root,

mean

its positive

square root.

If

is

positive or zero,

~3 because 32
or
3.

x.

(2)
9.

ILLUSTRATION
are

2.

V9 =
or

The two square


"
rfc"

roots of 9

V9

and

V,
3.

V9,

We
J

read

as "plus or minus."
2

ILLUSTRATION

VJ

because

(|)

4-

68. Perfect squares

In the square of an integral rational term, each exponent will be an even integer because, in squaring, each original exponent is multiplied

by

2.
1.

ILLUSTRATION

(3xV)

32 (x2) 2 (i/s ) 2

be a perfect square if it is the square of an The student should learn the most common perfect square integer. integers, with the aid of Table I, page 283.
integer is said to

An

SPECIAL PRODUCTS
ILLUSTRATION
2.

AND FACTORING
1, 4, 9, 16,

S3
25, 36, etc.

The

perfect square integers are

Their square roots are, respectively, because 52 = 25.

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, etc.

Thus, \/25

integral rational term is said to be a perfect square if it is the square of some other term of the same variety. Hence, in a perfect

An

square, each exponent

is

an even
is

integer.

ILLUSTRATION
I.

3.

25a264

a perfect square because 25a2 64

2 2

(Safe

To find

the square root of


literal

a perfect square monomial:

1.

Rewrite the

part with each exponent divided by 2.


coefficient of the

2.

Multiply by the square root of the numerical

given term.

ILLUSTRATION

4.

Vl6x*y*

= VT6Vx*y* = 4#y,

because

To find the square root of a fraction, find numerator and of the denominator and divide:
II.

the square root of the

ILLUSTRATION

5.

\/T^

= v^4 7= =
V25
IWQa6

2
^*

ILLUSTRATION

\/100a6

10o3

6.

For the present, we shall consider \/A only where A is a perfect square monomial, or where A is a fraction whose numerator and denominator All literal numbers in A will be supposed are perfect square monomials.
Note
1
.

positive or zero.

EXERCISE 28
Find
1.

the two square roots of the


2. 49.

number and check by squaring


4. 64.
6.
fc.

the results.
6.

25.

3. 121.

Find each square


necessary.
7.

root

and check by squaring

the result.

Inspect Table I if

V9.

8.

VIOO.

9. \/81.

10. \/l44.

84
11.

SPECIAL PRODUCTS

AND FACTORING
13. \/if. 17. 14.

Vl96.

tf. 16.

Vf.

15.
19.

V.
Vz
4
.

Vg.

20. 24.

V.
V^
5
.

21.

VSVo
2
".

18.

22.

23. Vtf*.
27. \/4^.

25.

Viol

26.

28. \/16^. 32.

29. \/49?.
.

30.
.

31.

\64a.

fo2

33.

\49w*c4

34.

39.

tv

40.

t/=?.

41.

\(1-

each quantity.
51. (\/37)
55.
'root.
2
.

52.

(\/142^)

2
.

63.

(V^) 2

64. (>/659)2.

A negative number can have neither a Why is this true?

positive nor a negative square

69. Products of binomials

When

desired, the product of

two binomials may be found by

longhand methods.
ILLUSTRATION
1.
2

(3s

5y)(2x

6x

21xy

- Wxy +
y)

= 3x(2x - ly) - 5y(2x 2 = 6x - Zlxy + 35y2 35t/


7y)
2
.

7y)

ILLUSTRATION

2.

(x -f y)(x

x(x

y)

+ y(x
y
2
.

y)

xz

xy
2

+ xy

x2

ILLUSTRATION

3.

+ 6) = (a -f fe)(a + 6) a(o + 6) + 6(a + 6) = a + 2ab +


(a
2

ft

2
.

70. Special products

able to dispense with the longhand methods of the preceding section and should form the product of two binomials mentally. Products of the following types occur frequently.

The student should be

The student should

verify each right-hand

member.

SPECIAL PRODUCTS
I.

AND FACTORING

85

a(x

+ y)
2

ax

-f

II.

III.

2 (*4-y)(*-if) = x 2 (a + b)* = a + 2a& +

IV.

V.
VI.

- 2ab + = x2 + (ax -f 6x) -f ab. (x + a)(x + 6) 2 (ax + b)(cx + d) = acx -f (aa*x + bcx)
(a

&)

a2

6<f.

It proves convenient to

memorize Types

II, III,

and IV as formulas

and

also in words.
the

ILLUSTRATION 1. Type II states that the product of ence of two numbers is the difference of their squares. ILLUSTRATION
2.

sum and

the differ-

III states that the square of the sum of two numbers equals the square of the first, plus twice the product of the numbers, plus the

Type

square of the second number.

ILLUSTRATION

3.

(c

2d)(c

+ 2d) =

c2

(2d)

c2

4#.

(Type

II)

ILLUSTRATION

4.

From Type

III with a

3x and 6

=*

2y,

=
The
right

9x 2

Types V and VI should not be committed to memory. However, the nature of the right members should be memorized, with (ax 4- bx) in Type V and (adx + bcx) in Type VI remembered as the sum of the cross products.

members

of

ILLUSTRATION

5.

To
f

obtain (2#

5) (3x

7)

2* 3z

-5
I

'

j^XT
Sum
The diagram and
lustration.

Product

6z2

35.

-F7
I4x
15x

of the cross products:

x.

auxiliary computation of the

should be omitted and replaced by

of the cross products mental computation as in the next il-

sum

ILLUSTRATION
because the

6.

(2x

7fc)(3z -f 2h)

6x2

I7hx

sum

of cross products is
7.

2lhx
(z
2 2

ILLUSTRATION

(x

3y*)

+ 4hx, or I7hx. - 2(a; )(3^) + W)


2

(Type IV)

86
ILLUSTRATION

SPECIAL
8.

PRODUCTS AND FACTORING


2

(x

2y)(x*

+
2

2y)(x*

+
-

4t/ )
2

(Type
-f 4s/
2

II)

/)](z<

+
2 2

4s/ )

=
8

(x*

4i/ )(z<

(4i/ )

(4

ILLUSTRATION

9.

(- 3x

- 4)(- 3s + 4) = = EXERCISE 29

+ 3z)(4 - 3x)
- 9z ) = 2

(16

16

+ 9z

2
.

Expand and collect terms, performing as miich of the work as possible mentally.
1.

5(3a

4t>).

2. 6.

3c(2
(c

6c).
.

3.

ab(4x

ax).

4.

5x(2y

3z).

7. (a

+ y)\
2y)(5

8. (c

10. (5

12.
14. 16.

+ 2y). - 4) (3 + 42). (3x - 2) (06 + 2). (a6 (c + 3).


2

6. (h + d). - 3x)(c + 3x). 9. (4 11. (3 + 2r)(3 - 2r).

d)(c

+ 2k}. y)(4 + y).


2k)(h

13. (a2 16. (a


17. (x

36) (a -f 36).
2) (a

4).

+ 5)
-

2
.

18. (y
2
.

4)

2
.

19. (2a

5)

20. (3x
.

2)

21. (2z

22. (3x

4y)

23. (2a

+ 6)

2
.

24. (x

26. (3 -h *)(2 4- x). 27. (x

26. (2x

5)(* -f 9).

28.

+ 5y)(- 2x - 4). (x + 13)(*


2z}(w -f &).
5)(2x

5y).

29. (a 31.

+ 26) (a + 36). (2x + 3)(3x + 4).


3x)(2y

30. (w

32. (3x 34. 36. 38.


(2^/

3).

33. (4y 36. (2y

x).

3)(3y -h 5).

37. (3u> -f 5)(7w

2).

39. (4x
41. (6

3y)(2x

+ 3y).
-h x).

40. 42.
44.
46. (4

+ w)(y + 5w). - 3)(2y + 7). (y - 4z)(2 + 5x). (3 - 5w)(2w + 3io). (3u


(- 3

5x)(~ 2

2x)(2
3)(fy

x).

43. (3*

4)(- x

+ 5).
+ 36
49. (3

(- y

+ 4).
2wxr2 ) 2
.

45. (x2 -h 2) 2 . 48.

2 2

47. (2xy
.

(4a^

2
2/)
.

+ 46x)

60. (x

SPECIAL PRODUCTS
61. (x 64.

AND FACTORING
63. (J

87

J)

2
.

62. O/

+ i)

2
.

2*)'.

(we

2a)(wx* 4- 2o).

66.
67.

(cd
(a;

3^)(cd

+ 3x).

66. (x
68.

60. 62.

+ .l)(z + .5). - *). (.3 + z)(.2 (a - 6)(o + b). (& + fe)(fz y)(x 4- 2/X*
2

.2)(x -f .5).

69. (3

.2z)(2 -f .5x).

61. (Jo
/).
2

a;

#>)(Ja

+ J6).
.5).

63. (.4*
).

.3)(.2x
2

64. (x

66.
68.
70.

+^ - 3)(w 4- 3)(w> + 9). (w - 3yz(2y* - 3yz + 2


2
2

66. (2
67.
69.

)(2

+ z')(4
3x2

7x(2ax

).

(- 3
2
.

- 4)(72.

2 -f fa).

(- x

2
t/)
.

71.

(- 2s -

3y)
2
.

(- 3

73. [2(*
76. (3o:2

?/)]

74. [3(o

+ 6)]

76. [5(2c

8)(x*
2

+ 2).
2
2

77. (4z2

3)(3x
2

+ 2).
s

78. (2x 2

3i/

)(x -f
3

4?/ ).

79. (2a2

80. (z 3

+ 3)(3x 3v2 )(3w4


2
2

4).

81. (3a
2

82. (2u4
84. (2x2

+ 2v

).
2

83. (4x 86. (3w2

+ 56 )(a - 36 - 26 (7a + 66 - 3^)(3x + 2y*).


2

).
s

).

5i/

)(2z -f 5y

).

7v2)(3w2 -f 2V2 ).

86. (2a6c 2

71. Grouping

in multiplication

of the following illustrations is particularly useful in applications of Types II, III, and IV of Section 70.

The method

ILLUSTRATION

1.

(c

-f

2d

lla)(c -f 2d -f
-f-

Ho)
(Type
.

= [(c + 2d) - llo][(c + 2d) llo] = (c + 2d) - (Ho) = c + 4cd + 4cP - 121o - 3z) = [(2x + y) - 3] ILLUSTRATION 2. (2x + y = (2x + 2 - 2(32) (2* -f y) + (3s) 2 = 4s + 4x + - 12x2 - 6z + 9s
2 2 2
2
t/)

II)

(Type IV)

2 .

t/

ILLUSTRATION

3.
2

(a

+ &)

+ 6 + c + 2) = [(a + 6) + + 2(o + 6)(c 4- 2) + (c + 2)


(a
2

(c

+ 2)?

(Type

III)

a2 4- 2o6 4- 12 4- 2oc 4- 4o 4- 26c 4- 46 4-

c2 4- 4c 4- 4.

88
ILLUSTRATION

SPECIAL PRODUCTS
4.

AND FACTORING

[2*

- 3 + 2y)(2x + 3 - 2y) - (3 - 23,)] + (3 - 2y)] - (3 - 2y) = 4x* - 9 4- I2y (2x

O
2

EXERCISE 30

Expand and
1.

collect
2
.

terms by use of preliminary grouping.


2. 6.

[(* 4- y) 4- 2]
(2

[(o

4.
7.

+ a 4- w)\
b

(4a

c)

8.
2
.

+ 5J. (3s + y + 5) (- 2 + a + 6)
6)
2
.

3.

[3

(2x

y)J.
2
.

6. (*
.

2y

3)

9.

[2x

3 (a

fc

)]

2
.

10. (2x
12. [(c

3*2

3?/)

11. [(ar 13.

14.
16. 18.

20.

+ 2x) - 2][(c + 2x) + 2], - 4). (a + w -f 4) (a + w - 2) (3* + y + 2). (3* + y - + )(a -f t 4(a - 3)] [(a 4. 6) + (c
fc

15. 17.

2).

19.
'

21.

22. (a 4- c 4- 6

5)

2
.

23.

+ y) - 3][> + y) + 3J - (2o + 6)] [4 + (2o + 6)1 [4 - x)(a + b + x). (a + 6 - y + 4)(3o - y - 4). (3a - y + 2)(a; + y (z - 3] [2s + y + o - z + y - 2) (2x
2 2

).

24. (o 4- b 4- c 4- d)(a 26. 26. 27.

+ 6 - c - d). (2x + y-z + 3)(2x + (a + 3y 5)(a 4- 3y - 2d - a - x)(c 2d + a + x). (c


2

28.

Expand
Use
the

(x

-\-

y +

z)

and

state the result in words.


to

formula of Problem 28
.

expand each square.


30. (3a 32. (42s

29. (2a 4- 36 H- 4c) 2 31. (w

26 4- 3c) 2
3*i/
2

to 4- 3a) 2

5X8 ) 2

72. Terminology about factoring

In our discussion of factoring, unless otherwise stated, the coefficients will be integers in any polynomial referred to. Such an expression will be called prime if it has no integral rational factors except No simple rule can be stated for determinitself, or its negative, or 1. ing whether or not an expression is prime.

SPECIAL PRODUCTS
ILLUSTRATION (.

AND FACTORING

89

We shall say that (x y) is prime although x - y = (Vx -f Vy)(Vx - Vy),

because these facltors are not integral and rational. Other prime expressions 2 2 2 are (x ?/ ), and (x* y), (x* --f- y ), (z xy xy

factor a polynomial will mean to express positive integral powers of distinct prime factors.

To

it

as a product of

ILLUSTRATION

2.

To

factor 4c4

462z2 we write
,

After an expression has been factored, the factors should always be verified toy multiplying them to obtain the given expression.
73. Factoring

by

inspection

Each ty/pe formula of Section 70 becomes a formula when read! from right to left.
I.

for factoring

ax
1.

+ ay +
by
2

az

a(x -f y -f
2

z).

iLLUS-niiATiON

+ 3y + % =
z

t/(6?/

+ 3 + Sy).

ILLUSTRATION 2. If a factor 2x y the remaining factor can be verified by


Hence,

is

removed from the term

division:

14xV =

2xV(7x?/

).

ILLUSTRATION 3. In the following factor hxy 2 from each term


:

factoring,

we remove the common


3

sum and

II.

T/ie difference of two squares equals the product of the

the difference of their square roots:

ILLUSTRATION
ILLUSTRATION

4.

#2

=
4
,

(x

3)(z -f 3).

5.
.

To

factor 25s2

Oy

we observe that
H-

25a?

(6x)

and Oy4

2 2

(32/ )

Hence,

ILLUSTRATION

6.

a4

IGt/

(a

2 2 4y )(a 4-

(a

90

SPECIAL PRODUCTS

AND FACTORING
j

* 74. Perfect square trinomials

integral rational polynomial with three tei;ms is called a trinomial. The square of any binomial is a perfect s}quare trinomial.

An

trinomial of this type can be recognized formulas of Types III and IV of Section 70.
Perfect square trinomials:
III.

and factored by the

a1
a1

IV.

+ 2ab + = - 2a& + b* =
fc*

(a

+
-

&);
&).

(a

In a perfect square trinomial,


1.

we

notice that

two terms are perfect squares, and


the third term is plus (or

2.

minus) twice

the product

of

the square

roots of the other terms.

take the square roots of the terms which are perfect squares, compute the third tlerm which should be present, and check by inspection.
\

To verify that a trinomial is a perfect square,

2 ILLUSTRATION 1. To factor 4z2 2Qxy -f 25y we observe perfect squares 4z 2 and 25y 2 whose square roots are 2x and 5y. Hence the third term should = be 2(2x)(5y) 2Qxy, which checks, and gives
, ,

ILLUSTRATION
2.

2Qxy

+ 25y*

(2x

1624

+ 242^ + 9w
31

(4Z -f 3w)*.

'

EXERCISE
Factor by use of Types I and II.

// fractions occur, leave the factors in the form which arises most naturally by standard methods. Check by multiplying
the factors.
\

bx.
4.

2.

2cx

+ 4<fc.
5.

3.

2 6zy -f 2ax.

bx

-4-

-f-

c2^.

2cy

6.

3o&

+ 2a 6te2

5a2

7.

ac

+ 3bx + ex
2 <

8.

5y*

2 3y -f ay

9.
2
.

4o< -f

cf

3
.

10.
*

46V -f

+ 86cx

11.

3aV -

2o?/

+ ay

See Note 5 in the Appendix for an explanation of the process for finding the square root of a number expressed in decimal notation, by means of pure arithmetic. This process is intimately related to the formula of Type III.

SPECIAL PRODUCTS
12. 14. 17.

AND FACTORING

91

6aV x2 - a2
64

3<w2

+ 40^.
15. w>2 18.

13. 2t04z

6w*c2

+ 5w*r*.
16. y*

s2 .
2s .

25.

x*y\
25s2 .
9ft
2
.

36

19. 4x*

y\
1.

20. 9x2 23.

21.

36# -

121.
.

22. 9s*

4a2

24. 1
27.

25x2
w*.

25. 256a* 28. 31.

1.

26. 9s2

J.

9a26*u>

16s*u>.

29. 25W?2

c2^.
.

30.

49u 2

32. 9

144a262

33. ax*

- 16v^. - ay*.
36.

36a26s

64x 8

34.

Which trinomials
36. x2 37. 39.

are not perfect squares?

+ 3x + 4. 4z + 6z + 9. 3z + fay + 4y*.
2

a2

+a+
6x2

1.

38. 9x 4

40. 4z2
to

any missing term of Types III and IV. 41. x 2 -f 2bx + b*.
Insert
43.

complete a perfect square.


2

Then
2

factor by use

42. 44.

a2

2a
(

+
-

1.

46. u?
47.

-h 36.

46.
48.

x2 -h 81

l&c.

49. 49x 2
51. 64

+
(

14ox

+a

2
.

60. 62. 64.


2
.

53. 66.
67. 69. 61.

+a6 4x + +9 4c (P + 25a - 30xy + 9x + 25y 4x - 28x + 49. 4a - 12a*b* + 96


16a6
2 2
.

56.

2
.

68.
60.

+ 2<fy + y x -f + 16. 4z - 20xz + 25 x + x + J. 1 + z z - 2x2. 9a + + 256. 166 + 49x 9x + hW. 24ax + 9x + 16a 25 - 30x + 9x
rf
.

2 2

2
.

62.

Factor.
63.
.

49

4ft

2
.

64. 75o2

3a262

65.

25s2

30^2
4

+ 9u

2
.

67.

x2 -f 25^

x.

68. 9X4

+ 49s/ -

42xV-

60.

4a2x

4ax -f

92
70. x*

SPECIAL PRODUCTS

AND FACTORING
50. Y2.

9y*>

71.
.

98u4
3a2x2

9oz2

lay*.

73. 25x2 76.


78.

10064

74.

5ay.
18u2

76. 16x 4

25wV - TOu2
2w6

^+
2

49t^.

77.

60wt>

12t*V

18y8

79. 147x2

First factor

and then compute.


.

80. 23 2

17 2

Check by expanding the original expression. 81. 522 - 482 82. 27 2 - 232 .
.

83. 1042

962

84.

452
trial

552

85. 37 2

33 2

75. Factoring trinomials

by

and

error

method

We recall the formulas of Types V and


V.
VI.
x*

VI

of Section 70.

(a

flex* -f

+ ab = (x + a)(x + b). (ad + bc)x + bd = (ax + b)(cx + d). +


b)x

* k can be factored by a Certain trinomials of the form gx* -f hx trial and error method suggested by the preceding formulas.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
(x
2.

1.

Factor:
1.

2x

8.

We
=
sum
is

wish to find a and 6 so that


x*

+ a)(x + 6) =
8;

(a

+ 6)a? + ab =

x2

2x

8.

Hence, ab
Since the

of 8.

thus a and 6 have opposite signs and are factors of the cross products is 4 2x, we guess that a =

and 6

2.

This

correct because
(x

4)(*

+ 2) =
a, 6, c,

x*

2x

8. 8.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
(ax

2.
1.

Factor:

15x2

+ 2z
=

We
6d

wish to find
oca;
2

and d so that
15z2

+ 6) (ex -f d) =
=
15,

(ad

+ bc)x + bd
=

+ 2z is

8.

Hence, oc
choose 6

=
=
(15z

8,

and the sum


15,

of the cross products

2x.

2. First trial.

Since oc

=
4.

choose a

15 and c
is

=
8.

since bd

8,

2 and d

This selection

wrong because

+ 2)(z - 4) =
3, c
5,

15s 2
6

5&c
2,

is

Second trial. Choose a correct because


3.

=
-f-

and d

4.

This selection

(3x
* If g, h,

2) (fir

+ 4) =

15x2

2z

8.

and k were chosen at random, without a common

factor, the trinomial


g, h,

would probably be prime. Later, we shall discuss a condition which satisfy when and only when the trinomial is not prime.

and

A;

SPECIAL PRODUCTS
If

AND FACTORING

93

merely the negative of another, we do not consider them as distinct prime factors; we combine their powers into a single power of one of them.

one prime factor

is

ILLUSTRATION = x 2)

1.

In 4x

x
4

2}(x

-f-

2)

x*

4x

4,

we
2
.

notice that

(x

+ 2).
-

Hence, we write

Note
1.

xz

= -

(x

+ 2)(z + 2) = -

(x

+ 2)

The preceding

factoring

methods apply to polynomials

in

which

the coefficients are any real numbers, not merely integers as in the illustrations. The nature of the coefficients which we agree to allow in a polynomial and its factors affects our definition of a prime expression but not our
general factoring procedure.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

3.

Factor:

6z 4
error,

x*

15.

By

trial

and

6s4

z2

15

(3z

5)(2z

+ 3).

EXERCISE 32
Factor by
1. x*

trial

and

error methods.
2.

3.

a2
x2
< 2

6.
7. 9.

+ Sx + 15. - 8a + 12. - Sx + 15. + 4* - 21.


3x

z 2 -f lOz

4. y*
6. 2
2

+ 21. - 1y + 12.
52

6.

8.

w*

5w

24.
16.

z2

18.

10.

a2

+ 6a 3y
7a

11. w*

+ 2w - 48.
2w

12.
14.

4
8

2
.

13. 15 16. 17.


19.

w>

2
.

a2

24
32 54

+ 2w - w
4y

2
.

16. 62 18.

y\
fc

3&
6z

2
.

20. 22.
24.

21. x 2 23. 25.


27.

72.

'2o:

29.

+ 7. 10z - llz + 3. 8x - 10z + 3z 3 + 2 - 5.


5a2
12a
2

26.
.

+ 36 - 28. 27 + Qw 36 + 5h - K. + 7z + 3. 3o + 8a 4- 5. 3a - lOa + 7.
w?
2
.

28. 2x*

x*

30.

94
31. 3x*
33. 8u*

SPECIAL PRODUCTS

AND FACTORING
4y

+x 9

10.
9.

32. 15j/2 434.


36.

4.

6I08

5 4- 3x 4- 2z2 8
4- 2y
2

35. 1504
37. 7

a2

28.
.

15^.
8fc

19z

6z2

38.
40.

12fc2

4- 15.
7b*.

39.

27z2 4- 3x

+ 2.
15z2
.

5a2 4- J2a& 4-

41. 3s2 4- 5xy 4- 2y2 .


43.

42.

3x2 4- 7ax

6a2

Sw2

4- 14u

44. ISwr4 4- 9t^

20.
2

45.

5w2

28wu> 4- 12^.

46. 45fc2

Sxy

4t/

Factor by the appropriate method.


47.

6a2

13o6 4- S62

48. 60. 49
2

4a;

7xy

3t/

49. lOOa2
52. Tc2

- x*.
19cd

462

61.

+
2z2

6tf.

63. 65.

64a2

48ac

+ 9c

2
.

64.

+ 15 4- x.
30tw.

6z 2

+ 20 -

7*.

66. 9 4- 2502io2
58.

57. 2x?
59.

8a2c

18c.
.

W+
10064 .

60.

3a 4- 13a6 4- 10a62
2
rf

61. 25x2
63. 2r 65.

62. 75ccP 64. .Sic4 66. Sx4 68.


70.

+ 30c + 3cX
.16d4 .
3.

llhr 4- ISAV.
16y*.

^31x 3s4

16x2 H-

67. 69.

5x2
7z2

3.

xV 4- 9xy
6s
1
4.

52.
9s*.

20.

71. 73.

72. 9s2* 74.

4x2 4- 12s

9.

76.

9a2 4- 30a6

2S62

76. 3s4

17x2 -f 10.
2y*.

77. 2X4
79.

+x 2

15.

78. 3s4

- 5xV by

3O4

76. Factoring

use of grouping

following methods make frequent use of the fact that an expression enclosed within parentheses should be treated as a single

The

number

expression.

SPECIAL PRODUCTS
1.

AND FACTORING
3(x
a)
*=

95

ILLUSTRATION
ILLUSTRATION

5(x

a)

2(x

a).

2.

To
6),

factor the following expression,


it

we observe

the

common

factor (a

and remove
b) 4-

from each term:

2c(o

d(a

b)

(a

6)(2c

+ d).
factor,

After grouping, and then complete the factoring:


3.

ILLUSTRATION
bx

we observe a common binomial


(bx

+ by 4- 2&c 4- 2hy =
4.

(* 4- y)

+ by) + (2kc + 2%) = (6 + 2A)(* + y).


altered

ILLUSTRATION
(or,

The second term below was

by changing

signs

1) both within and without the parentheses in order multiplying by to exhibit the same binomial factor as the first term:

6)

+ 40(6 - 2a) -

3x(2a

b)

4y(2a

b)

4t/)(2a

6).

In order to factor below, we group two terms within parentheses preceded by a minus sign, and hence change the signs of the terms, in order to exhibit the same factor as observed in the other terms:

ILLUSTRATION

5.

xz

kx 4- kw
z(x

wz
k(x

(xz

wz)

(kx

kw)
w).

w) 6

w)

=
3

(z

k)(x
(6

ILLUSTRATION

6.

3s2

8x

+ 4z =
4c)

Sx)

=
ILLUSTRATION
(c

2(3
7.

40)

x*(3

(3

40) (2

- (3z - &)
2

2z)

(6

We factor below as the difference of two squares: - a) 2 = [(c - 2x) - (b - a)][(c - 2) + (6 - a)] = (c - 2x - 6 + a)(c - 2x + 6 - a).
a2
s

ILLUSTRATION
2

- c + 62 d - 2db - 2cd = (a - 2a6 6 - (c + 2cd + <P) = (a - 6) = [(a - 6) - (c + d)][(a - 6) + (c +


8.
2 2 2 2
-|-

(c -f d)

(a

d)(o

+cH

EXERCISE 33
Factor.

5(* 4-

2|/).

2.

4(3A

+ *) 3d)

9(3A 426(c

3. c(x 4- y) 4- <*(* 46.

J/).

4- 5a(c
2).
6.

3d).

2A(m

2)

3fc(m

2c(x 4- 40)

96
7. 9.

SPECIAL PRODUCTS

5c(r

+
)

+ 2d(r + s).
(>
*)

3A(w
3a(w

AND FACTORING 8. - 2x(a + h) - 3y(a + h), 10. 2x(h - 2fc) + 3% - 6ky.


12.

11. 13.

15.

17. 19.

+ 26u> - 46fc. 3ac + 3bc + ad + bd. cs + 3dr cr 3ds. 2cx + cy 2dx %. 4Ax 4bh 8cx + 8bc.
2k)

14.

16. 18.

+ -h 2hx + 2%. 2a + 2ay + bx + by. 4&c 46A + bcx 56c. lOod 4bd. box + 26z
fee fa/

20.

36tt>

360

4aw

-f 4az.

21. (x 3

2a; )

(x

2).

22. (ax 3
24. ax2 26.

23. x*
26. x8 27.

+ 2x* + x + 2. - 3x + x - 3.
2

+ + 6z
-

fee )
2

4(ax

+ b).
.

2 -h ad

+ b&.
8z3

2x2

4x

+1lOx4

29.

- 3a - 3 H- a. 3X - 2x2 + 6x - 4.
a3
2 3

28. 2 30.

+ 4x &c2
y)
2

5x

+
2
.

31. 2(r
33.

s)

x(s
2
.

r).

32. a(x

+ 6(?/
2
?/)
.

x2

(s H- 3)

34. (w 36.

35. (2z

+ wY 3d)
2

y*.

37. (c
39. z2

(2x

+ y)
2
.

2
.

38.

41.
43.

2
2/

+ 20 H- 1 - 9* + 2y + 2 - 4x
2

40.
2
.

42.
44.

4a2

922
2
2/

62

1.

- I) - 16& 2 (4a (2x (4x - 3y) - 25. 4i^ + 20w + 25 9w> - 4a - 4ab - a -f 2ab 16i/
fe)

81
62 .
fe

2
.

46. 9x2

+ 2y

z2 .

46. t^2

4x2

y*

4xy.

47. 16a2
49. bx 4 61. 2*

9x2 H- 6x.
cy
4
.

48. a2c
60. a2

ft

a2d
2

-by4 + ex* - w2 + - 22
t*>
.

62. ch -f 6dfc
2

- 53.
64. 66.

+ 6r< + 9/ - a - 2a6 - 9a - I2at 4z + 4x^ -f c + 4c 4- 4 - 9eP - 6dh r2


2
fe

2/

4<2 .

ft

66. 16x2 67. 9x2

24xj/ H- 9j/

9a2

12a

Qxy

2
2/

25a2

10a6

- 4. - 6.

SPECIAL PRODUCTS
68. 4z2 59. 62

AND FACTORING
9s2

97

4xy -f

y*

+
2
.

6w?

- w2

9z 2

+
2

2ab

+ a*. +c
y
2

60.
61. 62.

4# 4o2
a2

16102

4cd

+ 96 96s

4z 2

2o
2

4zy

12o6.

d2

66d

63. 16s4

Sly
81c2

+ 4z -

9y\
4s4
.

'64

cV -

+ 324 -

77.

Cube

of a binomial

We verify that (x + y)* =(x + y)


=
x3
-t-

(x

2x2!/

+ y) - (z + 2^ 4- )(z 4- y) + xt/ + x?y + 2^!/ + y


2 2
2/

On collecting terms we obtain (1) and, similarly, we could verify (2) 8 = y* + 3x*y + 3xy* + y8 (x + y) (1) - y) 8 = x8 - 3xa# + 3xya - y8 (x (2)
;
.

The student should memorize


ILLUSTRATION
1.

these formulas.
1,

From formula
3

with x
2

2a and y
2

6,
s

(2a

+ 6) =

(2a)

+ 3(2a)
12a2 6
2,

(6)

+ 3(2a)(6 + 6
)

ILLUSTRATION

2.

From formula
(4

- xY =

64

78.

Sum and

difference of

two cubes

By

long division

we

could verify that

- a2

Hence, we have the following formulas, useful for factoring when read from left to right, and useful in multiplication when read from
right to
left.

98
ILLUSTRATION

SPECIAL PRODUCTS
1.

AND FACTORING
left,

By

use of

(1),

read from right to

with 6

3,

(a

2 3)(a 4- 3a

+ 9) -

a3

3*

a8

27.

ILLUSTRATION
27s8

2.

From formula 2 with a = 3s and


3

8s/

= =

(3*)'

(3* 44-

ILLUSTRATION

3.

64s8

I8

(4z)
6
j/

(1
19?/
3

4z)(l
216.

+ 4z 4-

16z2 ).

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

1.

Factor:
tf

lty

216

(y

27) (^

+ 8)
4).

EXERCISE 34
Divide by long division and check by use of Section 78.
*'

+y
2

~
-

a3

-A a-h

O. ~

o 2763 a 4- 36

8s3 2x

3y

Multiply by inspection.
5. (c 4- w?)(c

cw

4- w*).

6.

(u

2 v)(w 4- uv 4-

2
t>

).

7.

(3a
(1

2 2 c)(9o 4- 3ac 4- c ).

8. (1

w)(l 4-

9.

2 3x)(l 4- 3x 4- 9x ).

10. (2

3u)(4 4-

11. (6

2 2 2x)(6 4- 2bx 4- 4x ).

12. (4# 4- l)(16y2

4y 4-

1).

Factor.
13.

d3

^.
v9 .

14. 18.

A3 48

2*.

15.

27.

16.

u3
64 8

4- 1.

17. 1

x8

19. s3 4- 1000.

20.
24. 27.

t^.

21. 1

27s3

22. 125 4-

8^.
26. x8

23. s3

SwA

27x3

25. 216s3

yV.

64^.

343a3

Sz3*3

Expand each
28. (c 4- d)*.
32. (5

cube by use of the formulas of Section 77.


29. (h
.

3
A;)
.

30. (2 4- y) 3 .

31. (u 4- 3) 3
8
.

y)
ft

8
.

33. (2x 4- w) 8 .

34. (y
38. (x2

3x)
i/

35. (4x 4- y) s . 39. (c


42. (.1

36. (a

2 8

37. (a
,

2x)

2 8 ) .

2ft )

2 8
.

40. (o

2s8) 8

41. (2c*

3s)

8
.

2x)

8
.

SPECIAL PRODUCTS
Factor.

AND FACTORING

99

43. y*
46. 8z 47. 49.

+ 7z* 2

8.

44. 276

+ 26fc 16a*6

1.
6

- 19xV - 27y. - 3o + 3a - 1.
9w*x
d)
3

46. 64a
48. s3
8
.

+6 + 62? + 12s + 8.
.

w -

+ 27w*c - 27s
2

60.

125us

x)*

75u2

-f

51. (c

as

- 62. (h

(y

*79. Trinomials equal to differences of squares

can be written as the difference of two squares if the expression becomes a perfect square 2 after the addition of a perfect square multiple of x2y
of the
-f
.

An expression

form z4

kx 2y2

+y
2

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

1.

Factor:
1.

64o*

64a2 62 44

256*.
4

A perfect square involving 640


2 2 2 (8a -f 56 )

aqd

25ft

is

640*

+ 80a 6

4 -f 256 .

64a262 + 2564 becomes a perfect square if we add 144a262 2 2 2 2 Therefore, we add 144o 6 and, to compensate for this, also subtract 144a 6
2.
4 Hence, 64a

64a*

64o2fe2
4

+ 256
5ft
2

(640
4 )

= =

(64a
(8a
2

+ 80a 6 + 2S6 + - 12a6)(8a


2 2

- 64O2 2 256 -h 144a 6 - 144a 62 - 144a 62 = (8a + S62 2 - 144a 6


?)

-f-

2 H- S6

12a&).

EXAMPLE

2.

Factor:
1.

Qx4

I6x*y*

+ 4y*.
and 4y* are

(1)

SOLUTION.

The

4 perfect squares involving 9s

9s4

db

In order to obtain 12a:V from (1), we would have to add 2&rV> but this is not a perfect square. To obtain 12#V we must add 4afy2 which is a perfect square.
,

2.

Add, and also subtract, 4zy in (1) Ox4 - 16zy + 4^ = (9s4 - 16*y
:

+ 40*
2xy).

*EXERCISE 35
Factor by reducing to a difference of two squares.
1. a*

4.

+ +L ftc + lla; + 4.
2

2.

^-

4 5. s

+ 1. + A ^ + h*.
3
2
2

3.
6.

Qo4
9s4

+ 2o
-

-f 1.
1.

10*' -h

700
7. 4t0*
2

SPECIAL PRODUCTS

AND FACTORING
4

10.

+ Sa ^ -h 9a 4# + 4d?h* + 25A
64A4
.

4
.

8. a<

- 9oV +
4

Ify/

9.

25a4

- 5aW -f
4
.

46*.

4
.

11. s* 14.

13. s4 -h 16. x*

+ 4. 625Z + 4w*.
17.

12. w^ 16.

+ 4s 81* + 64s
4

4
.

- 12aW +

1604

Oa4

16a2c2

+ 4e*.

18.

20.

+ 4x* -h 490 4a^ - 24 + 25.


19aV
4

19.

25O4

+ 9^ - 34ay.

21.

*80. Perfect powers


integral rational term is said to be a perfect nth power the nth power of an integral rational term.

An

if it is

ILLUSTRATION

1.

IGa4 ^8

is

a perfect 4th power because 16o4 68

(2O6
.

2 4 ) .

8o666 is a perfect cube because 8o666 original exponents have 3 as a factor.

ILLUSTRATION

2.

2 2 3 (2a 6 )

The

In a perfect nth power, each exponent has n as a factor because in raising a term to the nth power we multiply each of the original exponents by n.
ILLUSTRATION
3.

(2

a2 64 ) n

2 3n a2n 64n

*81
I.

Special cases of

sum

or difference of perfect powers


(a
n

//

is even,

commence factoring

b n ) by recognizing

it

as the

difference of two squares.

ILLUSTRATION

1.

x6

6
t/

(x

3 2 )

(y

=
6
t/ )

3
(a:

^)(x

+ y*)

(x

t/)(x

+ xy + y*)(x + y)(x* factoring (x


8

xy

+ y*).

We

could have

commenced by

as the difference of two

cubes,

but

this

would have been an


2.

inefficient

method.
that each term
is

ILLUSTRATION
perfect square.

To

factor 16o4 64

81,

we observe
2 2 9)(4a 6 2 2

Hence,
16a4 &4

81

=
where the
II. n
final factor is

(2afe

2 2 (4a 6

+ 9)
9),'

3)(2afe

+ 3)(4a 6 +

a prime

sum

of perfect squares.

//

is

odd and has 3 as a


it

factor,

we can commence factoring

(a

6 n ) by recognizing

as the

sum

or difference of two cubes.

SPECIAL PRODUCTS
ILLUSTRATION
3.

AND FACTORING

707

x9
(x
3

+y =
9 6

(z

3 3
)

+ 2/*)(z

3 3
!/

+ (y +

3 3
)

|/*)

(Using Section 78)

*EXERCISE 36
Express the perfect power as the 3d or 4th power of some other term, whichever is the case.
1.

8a363

2. 6.

27ay. 64xy.
is

3.
7.

16a4 64

4.
12
.

81xy.
625ay.

5.

125xy.

256W8

!;

8.

Factor each expression which


9.

not prime.
11. 16 15. 81 19.

a4 x8

x4
y
8

10. y4
14.

81.
.

13.

x4 -f y4 a6

- w4 - 16x
.

12.
4
.

Six4
y a6

4
.

16.

x*.

17. 21.

w
x6

1.

18.

64.

64/.
6
.

20.

+ 64.
fl

1.

22. 729

a6

23. 27.

729

25.

256

a8
y

26.
.

h9

k*.

a9

+x +6
9
.

24. 125

<z

28. a8
.

+6

s
.

29. Six8
33. a6

30. 16x 4 34.

Sly
.

8
.

31. 35.

625

16X8

32. x8 36.

646.

64

+ xy

8a3

27x6

- w* xu - yu

8 8
.

*82. Properties of

factors of a" db

bn

verified special cases of the following results, where n represents a positive integer. Any special case of the results can be

We

have
*

checked
I.

by long
n

division.
n

For every value of

n, (a

b n ) has (a

b)
b).

as a factor; in other

words, (a

b n ) is exactly divisible by (a
1.

ILLUSTRATION

a3
a*

a4
II.

16

+ ah -f - b = (a - 6)(a + o 6 + a - 2 = (a - 2)(a + 2a + 4a + 8).


b3
4

(a

6) (a

//

is even, (a
2.

b n ) has (a -{-b) as a factor.


62

ILLUSTRATION

a2
4

54

= =

(o
(

6) (a
s

+ b).
2& 4.

+ 5)( _

a&2

_
is

convenient method for giving a general proof of the results


section of algebra.

met

in

more advanced

J02
III.

SPECIAL PRODUCTS

AND FACTORING
6)
2

Ifnis

odd, (a
3.

+ bn

has (a -f
(a
6

as a factor.

ILLUSTRATION a7

a8

s -f 6

+& 7

(a

+ 6)(a

+ 6) (a ab -f - a 6 + o ^ - a 6 + a'6 4

IV. If n is even, (an 4- 6n ) does not have either (0 as a factor.


2 fe ILLUSTRATION 4. (a2 ) and prime but it does not have either (o 6

6) or (a

+ 6)
not

(a*

6 are prime, (a H6) or (a 6) as a factor: )

+o

6*)

is

+6

a2

+ &)(a4 _

2&2 _|_ J|) f

where each factor

is

prime.

Special cases of the following general properties were exhibited by the second factors in Illustrations 1, 2, and 3.

A.

When

(a*

b n ) is divided by (a

6), all coefficients

in the quo-

tient are -f 1.

B.

When

(a

+ bn

or (an

bn ) is divided by (a
1

+ 6),

the coefficients

in the quotient are alternately -f

and

1.

Factors obtained

by
,

reference to

(I), (II),

and

(III) are

not always

prime. Also, as seen in Illustration 4 and Section 81, an expression n n with n even, may be factorable although (IV) of the type a 4- & In finding the prime factors of an is true. b n first use the methods
,

of Section 81

if

possible, before
5.

employing

(I), (II),
2

and
2

(III).
16).

ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION

z6

+ 64 =
y
9

(x

2 8 )

+4 =
3

(z

+ 4)(x* - 4s +
8 6

6.

x9

= =

(z

8 8 )

(y

8 8 )

= =

(z

- ^(x + xV -f
# )(x
2
2/

(x
(x (*

ILLUSTRATION
use of

7.

x4

= (x

2 2

(y

2 2 )

(x

+y

y)(*
8

+ y)(* +
2

).

(1)

By

(I),

x4

-^-

2/)(x

+ x*y + xy + y
2

).

(2)

Equation 1 shows that the second factor in could be factoredJ>y grouping:

(2) is

not prime; this factor


2

= &(x
Thus, we
finally arrive at the factors

-f y)

j/

(x

+ y)
by a much
less

obtained in (1) but

desirable process.

SPECIAL PRODUCTS

AND FACTORING

f03

*EXERCISE 37
Find the quotient by long division, and the remainder if the division
s
eocft reswft

+y

+ 2y

x4 z

is inexact.

+ 16 +2
and

without using long division t by use of properties

o/ Section 82, and cAeefc 6y multiplication.

~
13.
(

u*

16

y>)
8)

(a

+y
2).

).

14. (i6x*

a4)
1)

-*-

(2a?

+ a).
1).

15. (a8
8

(a

16. (243* 6

(3x

J?.

"
-

19 19.

sr

^
26 '

oo s"
"

a;*

2a

166*

Factor eacA expression which is not prime.


28.

a5
32
t>

c6 .
6
.

29.

a4

32.

+x

33. 1
.

- w4 - ^. 41.

30.

u7

v7.
8
.

31. u* 35.

+ t^
-

34. a*
1.

256s/
l

36. 40.

32u8

37. 32a6

38. xn

+ y\

39. 128

x6

243j/*.

a8

27z.

42.
4
.

43. 4x*
46.
49.

+ 1. 32xw + y*.
x9
.

44. lutx4 47.


50.

+ 810

45.

+ 16x + w + y
4 3*
ffi

x16 z

512

+ y". + 512a'.

48.

51.

CHAPTER

6
IN FRACTIONS

ADVANCED TOPICS

83. Reduction of fractions to lowest terms

Whenever we make a
assumed

reference to factoring in a fraction, it will be that the numerator and denominator are integral rational
coefficients.

polynomials with integral


operation on fractions,

In the

final result of

any

we

agree to leave any expression in a factored

form

if it

arises naturally.

SUMMARY.
1.

To reduce a fraction

to lowest

terms:

Factor the numerator and denominator.

2.

Divide both numerator and denominator by

all

their

common

factors.

ILLUSTRATION 1. In the following fraction, we divide both numerator and denominator by 3z 4y and indicate this by cancellation.
3x2

+ 2xy 2.

Sy

&xr=^Sy)(x

+ 2y)

+ 2y

In reducing the following fraction to lowest terms, we first notice that one factor in the numerator is merely the negative of a factor of the denominator.

ILLUSTRATION

x2 12 2x

-9
2x
2

(x-3)(x
2(3

z)(2

+ x)
x

_.

3)

In the preceding
(3

line,

we obtained
it

x)

by

1,

and hence

denominator by multiplying was necessary to change the sign before the


(x 3) in the

fraction to keep its value unaltered.

ADVANCED TOPICS

IN FRACTIONS

105

EXERCISE 38
Reduce
1
,

to lowest terms.

irv

wy
n

a*b(x
ni A/

2y)
r\

3
c*

6c -f 6d

3c
c2d(o 4- 36)

+ 3d
26y 6s

4at/

cz(z

+
y
2

y)

cd*(a

+ 36)
ex
2

2ac

z2

~
t1 ' 11.

ax a2

A
2

1ft 10.

^
cx
2 2

+ cy
:

^.

-c 4o - 96
14-A

^ 2ax

36x

^*
a2

12. *

4ax
15

26x

13 '
_

m -m-42 m - 3m - 28

+ 2a a + a 2

lo.

13a;

10

3x2
3a:
2

7ax 4- 4a2 8a2 4" 2ac

17.

12a2

-A
'

a2 - 4aa; 2a2 - 9ax


;

IW

4#2/ 4"

ty ax
22.

x* 4"

bxy

-\-

+ ay

2a

26

rt ,

Reduce to lowest terms with as few minus signs as possible remaining in the numerator and denominator.

-3
a
27.
y)
2

OK

-2z-2y
o 4- 6
ax 5
a;

Ofl

2a

+ 2d

5a

3v

3w
3x

-z 2 Ox 418 - 2z
.

9
(y

2z)

9
*

94*
2

15z 4-

4a;

- 15

2a:

15ca;

27

+ 20dx 9c 10x + 29x - 21 8a + 276


2

39.

26x 2

263

x3 4-

6^

x*

?0<$

ADVANCED TOPICS
common
of

IN

WACT/ONS

84. Lowest

multiple of polynomials
integral rational polynomials is defined
all

The

LCM

two or more

as the polynomial of lowest degree in

numbers, with smallest integral coefficients, which has each given polynomial as a Two results for a LCM which differ only in sign will be factor. considered essentially identical because usually the sign of a LCM is
the
literal

of

no importance.
\

To
The

find

LCM,

first

factor the polynomials.

ILLUSTRATION
2(3
is

1.

LCM of
4(z
1).

z)(3

+ a),

3)(s

1),

and

3(z

x)

3)'

4-3(x

3) (z

+ 3)(z -

We
x

did not consider (3


(x
3).

and

(x

3)

as distinct factors because 3

The
tors.

LCD of two or more fractions is the LCM of their denominaWe shall deal with the notion of a LCM only where it is a LCD.
1.

Note

The highest common


is

factor

(HCF)

of

two or more

integral

rational expressions
coefficients,

which

is

the expression of highest degree, with largest integral a factor of each of the given expressions. Thus, the
is

HCF of 6sV and HCF terminology.

4xy*

2xy

8
.

We

shall

not find

it

essential to use the

85. Addition of fractions with polynomial denominators

SUMMARY.
1.

To

express a
that

sum
is,

of fractions as

single fraction:

Find

the

LCD;

factor each denominator

and form

the

product of all different prime factors, giving to each factor the highest exponent with which it appears in any denominator.

by the denominator and then multiply both numerator and denominator by the resulting quotient, to express the fraction as an equal one having the LCD.
2.

For each

fraction, divide the

LCD

3.

Combine

the

new numerators

just obtained, with each numerator


its fraction,

placed in parentheses preceded by the sign of

and

divide

by the
Note

LCD.
To check
the addition of fractions, substitute explicit values numbers in the given sum and the final result.

1.

for the literal

EXAMPLE

1.

Express as a single fraction:

4x

-9

x*

+ x-6

ADVANCED TOP/CS
SOLUTION.
1.

IN FRACT/ONS

107

Factor the denominators:


(*

*2
Hence,
2.
3.

3)(x

+ 3);

z2

+x 9) 6)

(x

+ 3)(* - 2).
2. 3.

LCD

(a

3) (a; -f 3) (a?

In the 1st fraction, In the 2d fraction,

- 2). LCD * (x2 LCD (x2 + x -*-

= =

x *

4.

We multiply numerator and denominator by x


3 in the 2d fraction:

2 in the 1st fraction,

and by x

x*

z2

+x (as

6
3z(a;

- 2) (* 3)(* + 3)(x - 2) - 3a(:c - 3) 4sQc - 3)(* -f 3) - 2) = (* (a?

2)

(a;

+ 3)(* - 2) x* + x - 3)(x + 3)(a; - 2)


3)(x

3)

(2)

(3)

CHECK.
In
(1)
:

When x -

4,

we

obtain:

16

-12
16

16
7

6
7

10

16-9
:

+ 4-6
, ,
,

For

the result in (3)

j-.

(4

ow ow - 3)(4 + 3)(4

^r
2)

-TT

which checks.

Comment.
such as

With practice, the student should be those on the right in (2).

able to omit details

ILLUSTRATION 1. In the following addition of fractions, we change signs in the second denominator in order to exhibit the identical nature of two
factors in the denominators:

5
X
g\
1
I

7
A

f*

..

3(3c-2d)
(5-2)

5757
6c

4d

3(3c

2d)

2(3c

(7-3)

11

3-2(3c-2c*)

6(3c-2d)'

EXERCISE 39
Change
the fraction
1.

to

an equal one with

the

specified denominator.
2).

3x/(x

2); 4);
3)

new denominator,

(x (y

+ $)(x
4)(3y

2.
3.

2y/(y

new denominator,
;

1).

3z/(2z
2/(a -f 2)

new denominator, 4x2


-f

9.

f
6.

4.

new denominator, 2o2


a);

5. (3

a)/(2

new denominator, 2a

4.

708

ADVANCED TOPICS
into

IN FRACTIONS

Combine

single fraction in lowest terms.

Where

letters

are involved,

check by substitution

when

directed by the instructor.

_Z.

10

"

nf

12
30
5*

4-+

7 5?
v

_
46*

2a

3(a
11.

-i\

^p

6)

5(a

iv

XU. _

6)

7x

32
.

8 ?
3

3a 4- 2 x - 5

'

4-

- v--s-3x 5x 3y 5y

12.

4- 6

3
15.

3s

2c

FJ 6d

+ 3d ^j c
'

16.

2a

46

66

3a

- 1 ^ 6x - 3
6x 4- 6
s
*

2 2

3x
20.

2x

9a2
a

d2

6a
K

21.

2x

23.

3a-+l. 3
a:

24.

!5
10

OK 26.

-f
2fl

2y

+
' i

-; 2

26.

4c

'

3a;

48
'

07

2a 00 29.

~n - 2n

"*"

3a 6n

- 4n - 6a* 1

a - 4 2a - 4

2
"*"

- llo 2 - a
x

4- 2x

x 4- 4

x 4- x
~~

2x4-1
x 4- 4x
32>
2

12

60

"

3n
2c

n2
I

4-

3n

4*

o2

16

a2 4- 8a 4- 16
3
I
'

33 ***** no

~ -

3
10 18
I '

3C

> 2

i 1 ^

lie 4- 6

34 *"

+ 5x2 &-^
^
^ .2

i^

2x

2y

27
"

4x

12x 4- 9

x*

+8
2s*

x2

2* 4- 4
s 4- 3

37
:c

3s*
4

-4""2x

"

5s2
4

4-x

-6

2^4-3^-2

x6

ADVANCED TOPICS
39
2z

IN FRACTIONS

J09

3x-2
2

x 2

+x
< **

+ 5 ~r 3s + 6* + 3 3s + 5 2a; 2s
2

2z
3

4*2

8s2

'

18

2x*

- toe +
a 3o2

2z2

3z

9 a

49 ** & _o 6a2

06

_r

fe

ro 2

' i

+ 36 + 7a6 + 26
-a - 9a
q
2

26

2a2

r2

6ar

___ +
9a2

2r

r2

86. Factoring

in multiplication or division of fractions

multiply or divide fractions involving polynomials, factor the numerators and denominators and divide out all common factors

To

from the numerator and denominator


ILLUSTRATION
(2x
(2x

of the final result.


2

1.

2x - 19z + 42 -^ _ ^ u ^ _ 12
7x
15

+ 5) 7)(x + 2)
3) (a;

'

(2s -'7) (a

3)

4(2z

6)

(x

+ 6)(s 4(x + 2)

6)
'

where we divided both numerator and denominator by (2x


xy*
T

3)(2z
2 2t/ **

7).

y
z

ILLUSTRATION

x*

2.

-5 x*

+xy = ^ 75 2xy + y
z

xy*

-f-j x*

^ + x*y

w3 x*
-5 2 x

xy

xy

2
(a?

y)

(a;
'

(x

(^

+ y)
2(g
a;

y)

a:

(x

(x

where we divided both numerator and denominator by


T

y)(x

ILLUSTRATION

4
=-

3.

-T 2

(x v
1

ON 2)

2a;

-^ 2
a;

4
=

-.

x -2 -:

=
where we divided out
(re

- 2) -5

'x

x2

5*

2).

expression is involved in the numerator or denominator of a fraction, or as a factor in a product, it is advisable

Whenever a mixed

to change the

mixed expression to a

single fraction as the first step

hi simplification.

710

ADVANCED 7OP/CS
1.

IN FRACTIONS
At

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

Reduce to a simple

fraction:

Express the numerator and denominator of the complex fraction as simple fractions and divide:

u2

25
9

9u-25
5

3u

3u

5)

(3t<

5)

somewhat shorter solution is obtained if, as the first step, we multiply both numerator and denominator by the LCD, 9, of the fractions
Comment.
involved in them.

ILLUSTRATION

4.

~ -f (1
Zx 2
(2

2
*
J

(2

+ 3s
2
1

4 *"^

*""'

9s*

=-)

2
-f-

3z)(2

3z)

3s

EXERCISE 40
Perform the indicated operation and reduce to a simple fraction in lowest terms. Check by substituting values for the letters, where directed by the instructor.

3a

36 a

+ 26
4

a-&'
hx-hy cw-bw, ab-ac 3x-Zy
K -= 5. 2
a;

2c-4da6-3a 6-3 *6c-26c


tfch
=

""

r-

2 ^2 (a;

IA\ . lo).

A o. .

4a;

5w
2s

aw

^ 5k
.

ex

ok

-1 - 16
A 9.
/K

.
'

6y
2
/

2
*

2y

(a?

(5x v

o *N 2 3x ) '

4-

-+
x

r-=-

IA = 10.
62

3s

=3y

--

4a*

a*

+ 06

96

ADVANCED TOPICS
14.

IN FRACTIONS

IU
a

3x-l

ox-f 6x

17.

20.

23.

26.

29 .
-I-

32.

(l \

o2

133.

2s*

+ 5z -

34.

12

nx
35.

on

at;

ex

ac). y

36.

*~

2?

37.

on-

_i-1

112
41
/
2

ADVANCED TOPICS
a4

IN FRACTIONS
_._
*

8164

U c - 3o6c + 96^
c4
2

__
'

+ 36 \ - 6a6 + 96 /
a
2
.

a2

+ 606 + a + 276
3

42

~ 2c3d + 4c <P T ac + 6W - 2ad - 36c

(c*d 2 \c

- c* - 4cP

'

c*'+ 8d \ a8 - 2763 /

44
3o H- 46
5oc H-

a
16o
z
2

t~

"""

~~~*

5o

__
o2
47.
4- 7^2

Find

<Ae reciprocal of the expression

and reduce

the result to

a simple fraction

in lowest terms.

/3a:+l

l2^^2
Reduce
a*
6*
to

g 5

\ + JTT/'
.

a simple fraction in

lowest terms.

x4
-..

+ 4x + 8
2

51.

_L_

x* *

62.

a4
..

+2
3

A-2
V

2_V_? + 3/U + 2
66.

L_\ -a/

64.

r-7

A 4o

2a
1

+ 2a

66.

4o

_ - _.
T
1

67.

4o

a-

ADVANCED TOPICS
87. Equations involving fractions

IN FRACTIONS

773

To
1.

an equation involving fractions, we proceed as follows. Factor all denominators and form the LCD in factored form.
solve

2.

Enclose each numerator in parentheses and multiply both sides of

the equation by the


3.

LCD to clear the equation


solve.

of fractions.

Remove parentheses and


i

G, EXAMPLE

1.

Solve:

~
3

2x

2^3

2x

+ 28
9),

(1)

SOLUTION.
2.

1.

The

LCD
-

is

(2z

+ 3)(2z - 3), or
+ 3) =
Or
3)

(4z

Multiply both sides by the


2x(2x
3)

LCD:
2x(2x

2x

+ 28,

(2)
etc.

because
3.

(2x
in (2)

+ 3)(2z Gx

2x(2x

+ 3);

Expand
4x*

and

collect terms:

Qx

4x2

2x

+ 28;

- 28 =

14x;
(1).

= -

2.

The student should check by

substituting x

2 in

88. Operations leading to extraneous roots

A. // both members of an equation are divided by an expression


involving the unknowns, the
the original equation.

new equation may have fewer

roots than

ILLUSTRATION 1. By substitution, we verify that x 3x H- 2 = 0. On dividing both sides by roots of xz


x*

x
3x
.

and x
2)
-

=
A 0.

2 are

^ 2

+2=

A 0.

or

(x -

^^ 2

1.

(x

we obtain

A
0,

or

The

final

equation has just one root, x

The

root x

2 was

lost

by

the division.

In solving algebraic equations, we usually avoid operations of Type A in order that roots may not be lost.*
B. // both members of an equation are multiplied by an expression involving the unknowns, the new equation thus obtained may have more solutions than the original equation.
See Note 4 in the Appendix for a "proof" that 2 = 1, in which the fallacy involves an operation of Type A which conceals a division by zero.
*

114

ADVANCED TOPICS
The equation x

IN FRACTIONS 3

ILLUSTRATION 2. 3 both sides of x


(x

has just one root, x are multiplied by (x -f 2) we obtain

3.

If

+ 2)(x - 3)

0,

or

x*

0.

By
x

substitution,
2.

we

verify that this equation has two roots,

3 and

The

root

2 was introduced by the multiplication.


*

A value
satisfies
is

of the

unknown, such as x

2 in

Illustratioij 2,

which

a derived equation but does not satisfy the original equation, called an extraneous root. Whenever an operation of Type B is employed, test att values

obtained to reject extraneous roots, if any.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

1.

Solve:

S)*Z

-5
v

=
MMB
I A

1l**
*C/

=
^"
I X

O*
C/

^M
|^

17 =
I

0.

JL

The
s

LCD is x - 1 + 2(x 2

1;
1)

2 multiply both sides by x

1:

0;
1

3z

3;

qr

a:

1.

in the denominators of the given equation, 1 cannot be accepted as a root because division by zero is not admissible. Hence, 1 is an extraneous root and therefore the given equation

TEST.

Since x

makes z2

has no

root.

EXAMPLE

2.

On

a river whose current flows at the rate of 3 miles per

hour, a motorboat takes as long to travel 12 miles downstream as to travel 8 miles upstream. At what rate could the boat travel hi still water?

Let x miles per hour be the rate of the boat in still water. Then the rate of the boat in miles per hour going upstream is (x 3) and
SOLUTION.
1.

downstream
2.
t

is (x

+ 3).
we
obtain

From

d/v.

the standard equation d = vt of uniform motion, Hence, the time in hours for traveling

8 miles upstream

g
is

X
12
is

u
r-x

=;

12 miles downstream

3.

Hence,
Multiply both, sides of
S(x

j- = --.
(1)

(1)

4.

by

(x

3)(s

+ 3):
=
I2x

+ 3) =

12(x

-3);

8x

+ 24
15.
still

36;
(2)

4x

60;

Thus, the boat travels 15 miles per hour in

water.

ADVANCED TOPICS

IN FRACTIONS

115

EXERCISE 41

Each equation
This reduction

will reduce to

may

linear equation if cleared of fractions properly. be prevented and extraneous roots may be introduced i]

unnecessary factors are employed in the


*

*"

61 ~
2

LCD.

Solve each equation

^
'*

x~=3
I7
7: J9 mm&

"
1
4mr

3 2

.75

and

check.

7 A 4.
If*

3
!SS
<7*

A 4.

K 6.

mLf

ml/

2*

+
2 *

3<

+4
5

.a
14

10.

+2
a;

2x

+2

2h
1

+1
1

12.

3x
14<

3
**

-3 3* - 6
x
t*

-*

_
x
2

*-3 m "I - 1

+ 20+ t-2 -* +

14

17.

j^j

g^'
2

W.

. 2^"

O j
-

^
""

6*2 -h6
.. ^^ A^r2 \JJb

/r
J(/

^^

mi

3 ~ 3:C 4.2. IT ^^ 9 mm IJvU


1

\ }

.3

+
*

x *
'

02

4x2 8x
3

+ +
3*

3
1

=
2x

ft

2* 3 * 5
3

*2

*2

6*

5*

2
4* 2*

+ 3*

9* 2

'

*
26.

+3
3 2x 2

- 2*2 - 7x +

-7
ii

14

w 27

6
:

5 ^
TT

5-4to _ T"3 ?r^*

^
*

_3 ^

2
yi

2s-l
c
**"

+4
i_

^. JC

176
29. In

ADVANCED TOPICS

IN FRACTIONS

a certain fraction, the denominator exceeds the numerator by 5. If the numerator and denominator are both increased by 3, the fraction Find the original fraction. equals f
.

30.

On

six quizzes in

average score.

How
up

mathematics, a student has obtained 70% as his many scores of 86% each must be obtained to bring

his average score

to

80%?
and Smith both

31. In one hour, Jones can plow J of a field. If Jones work, they can plow the field in 2 hours and 24 minutes.

How many hours

would
32.

it

take Smith alone to plow the field?


it

takes a certain airplane as long to travel 320 miles against the wind as 480 miles with it. How fast can the airplane travel in still air?
33.

When the wind velocity is 40 miles per hour,

plane to return to the starting place against the wind.


travel in
34.
still

When the wind velocity is 20 miles per hour, it takes a certain air90% as long to travel with the wind to any destination as it would

How

fast

can the airplane

air?

tank has one intake pipe which fills it hi 8 hours. A second intake pipe is installed and it is found that, when both are in use, they hours. How long would it take the second pipe alone to fill the tank hi 2 fill the tank?
fuel

a river whose current flows at the rate of 3 miles per hour, a motorboat takes as long to travel 12 miles downstream as to travel 8 miles upstream. At what rate could the boat travel in still water?
35.

On

and 4 miles per hour, reIt takes a man as long to row 13 miles downstream on the spectively. slower river as to row 15 miles downstream on the faster river. At what rate can he row in still water?
36.
rivers flow at the rates of 3 miles

Two

89. Solution of

literal

equations involving factoring

In solving a linear equation in a single unknown x, when other literal numbers occur in the equation, it may be necessary to factor
either in clearing of fractions or in simplifying the final result.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2. 3.

1.

Solve for x:
1.

b(b
fc

Expand:

+ x) = + bx =

o2

ax. ox.

o2
o2
(o

Add

2 ox; subtract 6 :

o& -f 6x
x(o

Factor:

+ 6)
x

4.

Divide by (a

+ 6)

= = =

62 .

6) (a
b.

+ 6).

Comment.

To

check, substitute x

6 in the original equation.

ADVANCED TOPICS
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.

IN FRACTIONS

117

Solve for *:

62
a) (6

a2

= + aL+* 6
first

!L. a 6
+

The

LCD

is (6

+ a). We
6)

to change the sign in the

denominator (a
:

and
a

rewrite the equation then clear of fractions

by multiplying by the

LCD
aw
6
2

+ 6* w
a
2

-\-

w+
a

+6

Multiply by

(6

a2 )

010

+6 2

(w

+ 6) (6 + a) and

(w

+ a)(6 - a).
w=
o.

(1)

The student should expand

in (1)

solve, to obtain

EXERCISE 42
otoe for
1.

x or # or

is,

whichever appears.
2.

ex

3o

= =

2/i.

7x
36x

3ox

5.

3.

3o*
4a3

bz

9a2
4z

62 .
1.

4.
6.

962

2ax

4o2

6.

a2

=
= =

mnx

a
x)

anx

m.
ax. ax.

7.

x2

3n2
a2

(3n
62 a*x

z)

2
.

8. 6(6

a2

+
=

9.

a6x

o6x.
2

10. bx
12. hz 14.
2

bd

ad

11. 6(6*
13.

+6 2bx + 6a = 3ac + 4a6. 15. acx + adz + d


a)
.

A2
ab

kz

k*.

ax
6cx

a2

b(x

26).

c2

6ax.

b'

x(a

a2

46)

62

+6
18

-6

~^a-

x b*~*a

+a +b
x

17 '*

2x

=
d
2x

26

2a
26

4A

19.

+h

4x2
21.

-W
x
262

2x

a2

h
2
6

2oc

x x
x

+ 06 for 6.

26s

+ 2a + 4a6 + 2a
S - r

22. Solve

C=

r6

23. Solve

^ 1

for

r.

24. Solve s

=
c

r for 6. b

118

ADVANCED TOPICS

IN FRACTIONS

EXERCISE 43
Review of Chapters
4, 5,

and 6

Perform
1.

the indicated operation 5j/)(3x


2
.

and

collect terms.

(3x

+ 5y).
4. (x

2.

(4x
5.

3yz)(4x*
2

+ 82/2).
6.

3. (2*
7. (a

+ 3)

2*)*.

V-

3w>)

(2a

+ 56)

2
.

4)(a

+ 4a 4-

16).

8. (2x

3s)(4x

+ 6x
11.
14.

s -f 92 ).

Factor.
9.
2
j/

25s*.
4 4 Slj/ *
2
.

10. 4z* 13. o*

12. 15. 17.

M % +
2
8

- 9W. - 276.
16.
18.
2
2/

*
8w

122/2

+ 4z*.

19. 2

+ 42 - 21. - 12x + 5x.


2

20. 22. 24.


.

21. S*2
23.

30;

-h 45u>*.

2a8 -h 4a2
a2
to

2o

25. x*

6a6

- 4. - 96
2

26.

+ y - 12. 6x + x - 15. 4A - 28/wo + 49t^. 06 + 26c + 3ad H- 6cd. -f 4m + 4w; (m + x + 4x -h 4 - 9a


2 2 2

w?)

-f-

4.

Reduce
3 -.

a simple fraction in

lowest terms.

4j-

5 .
Q O _

2 l-~
1 j^

5 _ x
3x

*
(j

T
* -~
9

29 -

ox
.

-f-

2x

+3

2a

56

3y-2
or x

2y-5
and
2

3c

36

3x

+x
3
2
2

.
'

12

H-

2x

3+lx
1

+ 4x

"
7

2x

4x2

~+
16x
.

2 A 3X

2x -h 9

+ 2x

CHAPTER

RECTANGULAR COORDINATES AND GRAPHS

90. Rectangular coordinates

On
off

each of the perpendicular axes OX and OF in Figure 4, we lay a scale with as the zero point on both scales. In the plane of

OX and Y we shall measure vertical distances in terms of the unit on OF


and horizontal distances in terms of We agree that the unit on OX. horizontal distances will be considered positive if measured to the right and negative if to the left; vertical distances will be considered positive
if

Y
4

--3
II
- -

2
1

~
I

123456
I
I I

I.

-6-5-4-3-2-1
1

+
IV

measured upward and negative if downward. Let P be any point in the


plane.
horizontal coordinate, or the abscissa of P, is the perpendicular
to P; distance, x, from rected distance is positive if is to the left of OF.

III
3

The

-4..

OY

this di-

Fig.

P is to the right of OF and negative if P

The

vertical coordinate, or

to distance, y, from and negative if above

OX

OX

the ordinate of P, is the perpendicular P; this directed distance is positive if P is P is below OX.

Each
abscissa

of the lines

OX

and

OF

is

called

a coordinate

axis,

and the

and ordinate

of

The point ordinates of P. the origin of the coordinate system. When the axes are labeled as in Figure 4, we sometimes refer to the abscissa as the and

together are called the rectangular coat which the axes intersect is called

OX

OF

z-coordinate and to the ordinate as the y-coordinate.

720

RECTANGULAR COORDINATES AND GRAPHS


is

Notice that there


for the scales

on

OX

no necessity and OF.

for using the

same unit

of length

In Figure 4, the coordinates of P are x == 5J and = 2. The coordinates of a point are usually written together within pay rentheses with the abscissa first. Thus, we say that P is the point (5J, 2). In Figure 4, R is the point ( 3, 4).

ILLUSTRATION

1.

Note

1.

The

coordinate axes divide the plane into four parts called


I, II, III,

quadrants, which we number

and IV,

counterclockwise.

a point, whose coordinates are given, means to locate the point and to mark it with a dot or a cross.
plot

To

EXAMPLE

1.

Plot the point

3, 4).

3 on OX, erect a perpendicular to OX. Go up FIRST SOLUTION. At 4 vertical units on this perpendicular to reach the point R in quadrant II which is ( 3, 4).

SECOND SOLUTION. At + 4 on OF, erect a perpendicular the left 3 units on this perpendicular to reach ( 3, 4).
Note
2.

to

OF.

Go

to

The word

line in this

book

will refer to

straight line unless

otherwise specified.

EXERCISE 44
Plot the following points on a coordinate system on cross-section paper.
1.
(3, 4).

2.

(3, 0).

3.

(1,

2).

4.

(-

3,

5).

6.

(0,

2,

2).

6.

((-

5, 0).

7.

(0, 7).

8.

((-

3, 4).

9.

(-

3).

10.

3, 5).

11. (4,

4).

12.

2, 1).

Three corners of a rectangle are (3, 4), ( 5, 4), and (3, the coordinates of the 4th corner and the area of the rectangle.
13.

1).

Find

Find

the area of
(4, 7);

a triangk with

the given vertices.

14. (4, 3); 16.

(-

2, 3).
(5, 5).

15. (0,

4);

(3,

4);

(3, 2).

(-

2, 1);

(3, 1);

17. (0, 0);

(5, 3);

(5, 7).

square, with its sides parallel to the coordinate axes, has one If the units corner at ( 3, 2). 3, 2) and lies above and to the left of (
18.

of length on the axes are the same and if each side of the square long, find the coordinates of the other corners.

is

4 units

RECTANGULAR COORDINATES AND GRAPHS


In which quadrant does a point lie under 19. Both coordinates are negative.
20.
21. 22.
the specified condition?

The
The

abscissa
abscissa

is

negative and the ordinate


positive

is positive.
is

is

and the ordinate

negative.

A A

line is parallel to

OX and passes through the point where y =


on the given
line?
2.

on OF.
23.

What

is

true about the ordinates of points

at the point where x perpendicular to can be stated about the abscissas of points on the given line?
line is

OX

What

24.

How

far apart are the lines

on which the abscissas of

all

points are

3 and
25.

4, respectively?

How

far apart are the lines


3,

on which the ordinates of

all

points are

7 and

respectively?

91

The function concept


that, in a given problem,

We recall

a constant

is

a number symbol

whose value is not subject to change during the course of the discussion, and a variable is a number symbol which may take on
different values.

When

desirable,

we may think

of a constant as a

variable which can assume only one value.

a first variable, x, and a second variable, y, are so related that, whenever a value is assigned to x, a corresponding value (or corresponding values) of y can be determined, we say that y is a function of x. Then x is called the independent variable and the second variable, To say y, which is a function of x, is called the dependent variable. that y is a function of x means that the value of y depends on the
If

value of

x.

is

ILLUSTRATION 1. a variable then A

In the formula
is

A = Trr2 for the area variable and A is a function of r.

of a circle,

if

formula in a variable x represents a function of x; the values of the function can be computed from its formula.

Any

ILLUSTRATION
of the function
is

2.

2 (3z H- 7x

-f-

5) is

a function of

x.

If

2,

the value

(12

+14 +

5) or 31.

Note

1.

If just one value of

y corresponds to each value of

x,

we say that

y is a single-valued function of a;; if just two values of y correspond to each value of x, then y is a two-valued function of x; etc.

722

RECTANGULAR COORDINATES AND GRAPHS

92. Graph of a (unction

Let y represent any function of x. Then, each pair of corresponding values of x and y can be taken as the coordinates of a point in an This leads us to adopt the following (x, y) coordinate system.
terminology.

DEFINITION
values of x

I.

The graph of a function,


y.

y, of

is the set of all points

(or the locus of points)

whose coordinates form pairs of corresponding

and

In graphing a function, we usually plot the values of the independent variable on the horizontal axis of the coordinate system. A linear function of x is a polynomial of the first degree in x and hence has the form ax 4- 6, where a and 6 are constants. In Illustra-

To graph a function

will

mean

to

draw

its

graph.

tion 1 below

we meet a
x
is

special case of the fact that the graph of

linear function of

a straight 'line.

This

fact,

whose proof we

shall omit, is the basis for the

name

linear function of x.

ILLUSTRATION
function
If
is (J:c

5,

the independent variable, in order to graph the 3. \x 3), we introduce y to represent it. That is, we let y 6. 3 = then y = f( 5) Hence,, one point on the graph
1.

If

is

(5,
2,

6).

corresponding
following
(

Similarly, values of y

we

let

x
in

0,

2,

etc.,

and compute the

given

the
6),

table.

We

plot
is

(-

5,

4J), etc., in Figure

by a

straight line, which

5 and join them the graph of the

the graph, we read that the value of the function is zero (the graph The funccrosses the z-axis) when x = 5.
function.

From

tion equals

2 when x

= 1, approximately.

Fig.

y is a linear function of x, we need only two pairs of values of x and y to obtain the graph, because a straight line is definitely located if we know two points on it. However, in graphing any linear funcIf

tion,

we

shall

compute
is

three values of the function hi order to


If

check
lie

the arithmetic involved.

the corresponding three points do not

on a

line,

an error

indicated.

RECTANGULAR COORDINATES AND GRAPHS


Note
1.

123

In graphing, do not choose the position of the origin or the scales on the coordinate axes until after a reasonably complete table of values has been prepared. Then, make the appropriate selections of origin and scales
so that as large a graph as possible
If

may

be placed on the available paper.

a function of x is defined by a formula, in general its graph is a smooth curve* To graph such a function, we introduce some letter, such as y, to represent the function, compute a table of corresponding values of x and y, and draw a smooth curve through the corresponding points on a coordinate system.
ILLUSTRATION
let
2.

To graph x2
x*

4x -f

6,

we

y represent the function,


y

4x

+ 6,
values,
6,

compute the following table of

the points. The graph, in Figure called a parabola.

and plot is a curve

Fig.

93. Functions not defined by formulas

Functions not defined by formulas arise frequently. Sometimes the only information concerning a function consists of a table of corresponding values of the function and the independent variable, where the table may be obtainable by experimental means or obser-

In drawing the graph of such a function, sketch a smooth curve through the points obtained from the given values, unless otherwise directed. Instead of drawing a smooth curve through the
vation.

sometimes desirable to connect them by segments of straight lines and thus to obtain a broken-line graph.
points,
it is

Note

The intersection of

the'coordinate axes

may be

selected to repre-

sent any convenient value, not necessarily zero, on either scale.

ILLUSTRATION

wholesale price for the critical depression months from June, 1930, to June, 1931. value To graph the index like 86.8 means 86.8% of the average level in 1926.

The second row of the following table gives the general index number of the United States Department of Labor
1.

Or,

m some cases,

two or more

disconnected

smooth curves.

124

RECTANGULAR COORDINATES AND GRAPHS


the time, in

number as a function of

Figure 7, we choose coordinate axes, with time plotted horizontally and index number vertically. We take 1 month to be the unit of tune. We let the intersection (origin) of the axes represent

June, 1930, on the axis of abscissas and 60 on the vertical axis, and assign units on the axes to suit the size of the figure. Then, for December, 1930, we plot the point (6, 78.4), etc. We join the plotted points by a reasonably
the graph of the function. From the graph, extended as a guess to July, 1930, we estimate that the index number then was 68.6.

smooth curve, which

is

f=0is
1 is

June, 1930
July, 1930

10 11

12

13

EXERCISE 45

The
1.

letter

x represents

the independent variable in all problems

where

it

appears.

Clearly indicate the scale on each coordinate axis employed.

Graph the function (2x -\- 3). From the graph, (a) read the values of the function when x = 2J and x = 3J; (6) read the values of x corresponding to which the values of the function are 2, 0, and 3.
Graph
2.
6.

the function of

x and, from

the graph, read the value of

x for which

the function equals zero.

3x

+ 5.
2x.

3.
7.

4z.
3*.

4.
8.

2x.

5x.

5.
9.

-2
-4.
10.

2x.

10. 7.

11.

12. 0.

13. x.

HINT

for

Problem
x,

Any

constant can be considered as a function of


is

any variable

with just one value for the function. The graph

horizontal.

RECTANGULAR COORD/NATES AND GRAPHS


14.

125

and

(3y with z used as a label for the function.

Graph the function of y defined by


6z

4),

with the y-axis horizontal

15.

Graph

(x*

+ 7) by computing its values for the following values


7.

of x:

1, 0, 2, 3, 4, 6,

function

when x =
or 10.
(

and 5 and x

From
(6)

1;

the graph, (a) read the values of the read the values of x for which the func-

tion equals
16.

Graph

x2
6,
5,

4x

+ 6)
4,

by computing
3, 2,

its

values of x:

1, 0, 1,

values for the following and 2. From the graph,


(6)

read the values of x for which the function (a) equals 0;


17.

equals

3.

table gives the total mileage of hard-surfaced roads forming parts of state highway systems in the United States at the ends of various years. Graph the mileage as a function of the time.

The

table gives the time it takes money to double itself if invested at certain rates of interest, compounded semiannually. Graph the time
18.

The

as a function of the rate.

From

the graph, find the time for

money

to

double at 3i%.

TIME, YEARS

46J

34f

28

23J

14

ill

RATE
19.

1%

4%

By

velocity of sound in air depends on the temperature of the air. use of the following data, graph the velocity as a function of the

The

temperature.

From

the graph, read the velocity

if

the temperature

is

35; 8.5; 120.

HINT.
20.

Let the origin represent 1000

feet

on the

vertical axis.

table gives the number of divorces per 1000 marriages in various years in continental United States. Graph the number of divorces as a function of the time.

The

726
21.

RECTANGULAR COORDINATES AND GRAPHS


The weight
of a cubic foot of dry air at

an atmospheric pressure
is

of

29.92 inches of mercury, under various temperatures,

given in the follow-

ing table, where weight is in pounds, and temperature is hi degrees Fahrenheit. Graph the weight of air as a function of the temperature.

following table gives the "thinking distance" t, and the "braking distance" b involved when a motorist, traveling at s miles per hour, decides to stop his car. The value of t is the distance traveled by the car in } second,
22.

The

the interval which elapses between the instant an average driver sees danger t b is the total and the instant he applies his brakes. The sum d

distance the car will travel before stopping after danger is seen. On one coordinate system, draw graphs of t as a function of s and d! as a function of 8.

94. Functional notation

Sometimes we represent functions by symbols like /(#), H(x), K(s), etc. The letter in parentheses tells what the independent variable is.

The

letter to the left is


1.

merely a convenient name for the function.


"

read "f(x)" as the /-function of x," or for short 2 5 by f(x) and write f(x) = Zx2 5; we "/ of x." We may represent 3s 5." H(y) would represent a function of y. For read this "/ of x is 3x2
instance,

ILLUSTRATION

We

we may

let

H(y)

7y*

+ 6.
is

If F(x) is

any function

of

x and a

any value

of x, then
a.

F(d) represents the value of F(x)


ILLTTSTRATION
2.

when x =

"F(a)

F(3)
-

3)

s ;- 6 )

[F(~

2)]

5F(2)

= -

F of a." If F(x) - 3s2 - 5 3-32 - 5 - 3 - 19; 3(- 3) 2 - 5 + 3 = 25; 3(- 2) 2 - 5 - (- 62) - 364 - 5 -f 6*; - 5 + 2) = 81; (12 - 5 - 2) - 25. 5(12
"
is

read

x,

fc

RECTANGULAR COORDINATES AND GRAPHS

127
in
of

variable z

is

case a value of z

be a function of two variables x and y can be determined corresponding to each pair


said to

values of x and
variables, or of

y.

any

Similarly, we may speak of a function of three number of variables. The functional notation

just introduced for functions of

single variable is extended to func-

tions of

more than one

variable.

ILLUSTRATION 3. F(x, y) would be read "F of x and y" and would represent a function of the independent variables x and y. Thus, we may let
2.

Then, F(2,

1)

+3+2-

7.

EXERCISE 46

Vf(x) = 2z

+ 3, find the value of each symbol.


6.

/(it.

f).

// G(z)
1.

2z

2
,

find the valve of the symbol or an expression for


9. 0(J).

0(-

3).

8. 0(6).

10. 0(o).

11. 0(2c).
2

12. 0(3z).
2).

13. If F(x)

= = -

*'

+ 3, find F(- 2);


,

F(6); F(c

);

F(*

14. If 0(ii

find 0(2); 30(1); [0(3)?;

15. If

KM
F(x

find K(2); 2K(4); [JC(3)? ;

16. If F(x, y)

x*

ac
x2

17. If

y)

+ 2y, find F(2, - 3); F(- 4); F(o, 6). + 3xt/, find F(- 2); F(- 3, - 2); F(c, 26).
1, 1,

18. If F(x)

ar, find

F:
graph
/(a?)

19. If /(x)

=x*-4x +
=^12x

5,

by use

of

/(-

1), /(O), /(I), /(2),

20. If /(x)

+ 3,

graph /(x) by use of /(-

4),

/(-

3),

/(-

2),

/(-

1), /(O), /(I), /(2), /(3),


t

and /(4).

95. Functions defined by equations

solution of an equation in

two

variables x

and y

is

& pair of corUsually,

responding values of x and y which satisfy the equation. an equation in two variables has infinitely many solutions.

728

RECTANGULAR COORDINATES AND GRAPHS


1.

ILLUSTRATION
or y
If

Consider 3z

5y

15.

If

3,

then 9

5y

=
0,

Hence, (x 3, y = 15 or x then 3x 5;
.

15,

a solution of the given equation. hence (x = 5, y, = 0) is another solution.

f) is

Thus, by substituting values for either variable and computing values of the
other variable,

we

could find as

many

solutions as

we might

desire.

In case x and y are related by an equation, then usually we may as a function of y. think of y as a function of x and, likewise, of
true because, in general, for each value of either variable we can find corresponding values of the other variable by use of the

This

is

equation. In particular, a linear equation in x and y defines either variable as a linear function of the other variable.

ILLUSTRATION

2.

From 3z
x

5y

=
5

15,

on solving

for

x we obtain

+ fe/;
3.

on solving

for

y we obtain
y

&-

Hence

a;

is

a linear function of y and, equally

well,

is

a linear function of x.

96. Graphical representation of an equation

graph, or the locus, of an equation in two variables x and y is the locus of all points whose coordinates (x, y) form solutions of the equation. If we think of a: as an independent variable, the graph of the equation is identical with the graph of the function, y, of x, defined

The

by the equation. In particular, if a, 6, and c are constants, the graph of the linear equation ax by = c ISQ. straight line. For, the graph of this equation is the graph of the linear function of x, or of the

linear function of y, defined

by the

equation.

ILLUSTRATION 1. From Zx 5y = of the is the 15 of 3x graph 5y found in Figure 5, page 122.

15,

we obtain y =
fx

far

3.

The graph
graph
is

linear function

3;

this

any point where a graph on an (#, y) coordinate system meets the a>axis is called an x-intercept of the graph. The ordinate of any. point where the graph meets the 2/-axis is called a
abscissa of

The

y-intercept of the graph.

To

the graph of an equation hi x solve for x; to find the yintercept (or intercepts), place x
solve for y.

find the x-intercept (or intercepts) of and y, place y - in the equation and
=

and

RECTANGULAR COORDINATES AND GRAPHS


SUMMARY.
1.

129

Place x

To graph a linear equation in x and y: and compute y, to find the y-intercept.

2. 3.

Place y

and compute

x, to

find the x-intercept.

Find any

other solution of the equation

and draw

the line through

the points determined

on plotting

the solutions obtained.

ILLUSTRATION
5y

2.

To graph 3x
3;

%=
(0,

15, first let

and obtain

15, or

hence,
or

3) is

= point on the graph. If y or x 5; the x-intercept is


on the graph. page 122.

then 3x
5,
(5, 0) is

15,

The graph

is

a point shown in Figure 5,

ILLUSTRATION
x
5

3.

The graph

consists of all

coordinate plane for which x = 5, and the value of y is of no importance because it does not

of the equation points (x, y) in the

-Ho

44

44

occur hi the equation. Hence, the graph of is the line perpendicular to the x-axis x 5 = at the point where x = 5, as shown in Figure 8.

Fig.

97. Equation of a line


equation of a curve on an (x, y) coordinate plane is an equation in the variables x and y whose graph is the given curve. ILtwo equations have the same graph, in general the equations differ only in

An

nonessential features.
infinitely

many

Hence, although a given curve may have different equations, we shall refer to any one of these

as the equation of the curve.

ILLUSTRATION
This

1.

3x

+ 2y =

is

line also is the

graph of 6x

the equation of a certain straight line. 4y = 14 because these two equations

have the same

solutions.

Frequently we refer to a function of a variable x, or to an equation in x and y, by giving the function or equation the name of its graph.
ILLUSTRATION = x2 parabola y
2.

Thus, we may refer to the line 3x 6 (see Figure 6, page 123). 4x

+ 2y =

7,

or to the

assume without proof the fact that the equation of any =c straight line on an (x, y) coordinate plane is of the form ax 4 by where a, 6, and c are constants. The equation of a line is a linear
shall

We

130
relation
(x,

RECTANGULAR COORDINATES AND GRAPHS


is

between x and y which y) is on the line.

true

when and only when the point F


3.

ILLUSTRATION 3. The equation of the line 3 units to the left of the y-axis is x

vertical

Let P, with coordinates ILLUSTRATION 4. line through (0, 0) (x, y), be any point on the and (1, 2). Then, from similar right triangles
hi Figure 9,

V x

%
I

or

this is the equation of the line.

EXERCISE 47

Graph each equation. 1. 3x + 2y - 6.


4.

2.
6.

3y 3x

4s
y

12

0.

3.
6.

&c
3x

5y
15

0.

2x
4x

+ 7y 5w

0.

9.

+6
10.
4.

7.

20.
11. 15.

Q O* <6C

O/M __

9. 5j/ 4-

10.
14.

s-7. y - 0.
The The The

5.

12.

a;

= -

3.

13.
0.

- -

16.

&c -f 9

17.

3y

+ 4 - 0.
OX.
left

Give fte equation of the line satisfying the given condition.


18. 19.

horizontal line (a) 6 units above OX"; (6) 4 units below


vertical line (a) 5 units to the right of

OF;

(6)

4 units to the

of

OF.
20.
line

on which the ordinate of each point


its abscissa.

is (a)

the same as

its

abscissa;

(6)

the negative of

Without graphing, find the coordinates of the points where


equation cuts the axes.
21.

the

graph of

the

Zx

+ 5y =

15.

22.

2x

5y

10.

23.

3x

+ 2y - 5 =

0.

24.

2x

+
25.

Find an expression 7y = 9.
Find an expression 5w - 11.

for the linear function of

y defined by the equation x defined by the equation

for the linear function of

3a?

CHAPTER

SYSTEMS OF UNEAR EQUATIONS

98. Graphical solution of a system of two equations

A
2/,

solution of a system of two equations in two unknowns, x and is a pair of corresponding values of x and y which satisfy both
If

equations.

a system has a solution, the equations are called


x 1 x
/

simultaneous.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

1.

Solve graphically:
1.

-y=

5,

(1)

+ 2y

2.

(2)

In Figure

10,

AB
all

is

the

graph of

(1)

and

CD

AB

consists of all
(1)

the graph of (2). points whose coordinates


is

satisfy

and

CD

consists
(2).

of

whose coordinates

satisfy

points Hence, the

B
O

and CD is the point of intersection, E, of only point whose coordinates satisfy both
equations.
2.
(4,

AB

We
1).

observe that

E
4,

has the coordinates


1) is the only y = These values check

Hence, (x

solution of the system. when substituted in (1)

and

Fi 9 .

10

(2).

SUMMARY.
graphically:
1.

To

solve

a system of two equations in two unknowns

Draw

the

graphs of the equations on one coordinate system.


the coordinates of

2.

Measure

any point of intersection of

the graphs;

these coordinates

form a

solution of the system.

Usually a system of two linear equations in two unknowns has just one solution, as was the case in Example 1, but the following
special cases

may

occur.

132

SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS


lines, the

A. // the graphs of the equations are parallel

system has

no solution and

the equations are called inconsistent equations.

B. // the graphs of the equations are the same line, each solution of either equation is also a solution of the other and hence the system has
infinitely

many

solutions.

In

this case the equations are said to be

dependent equations.
Usually a graphical solution gives only approximate results, because in obtaining them we estimate certain coordinates visually.
1.

Note

EXERCISE 48
Solve graphically.
state this fact

If there

is

no

solution, or if there are infinitely

many,

with the appropriate reason.

\ y
f

+ 2x
-

= -

2
3.

\ 2y
f

x
8

= -

5.

\3y
f

+ 4z

23.

2y \ 4y
/ 2y
\

+
-

Zx 3z 5x
2a;

= 0, = = =
10,
3.

18.

+ \ 6x +
3x

= 0, 7y = 5.
3y

5y

\
f

- 3 = 0, Wy + 3z = 4.

2z

2y

\ to

+ 7y
4x

= =
=

0,

0.

3z 2x

+ 5y =
3y

2,
5.

'

2a;

n
\ 2y
\

6.

5.

\ 4x

+ 2y =

7.

6*

%=

3.

10y

2a;

+4 =

0.

Graph x + 3y = 5. (6) Multiply both sides of the equation by 2 and graph the new equation, (c) By inference, state how two linear equations are related if they have the same graph.
16. (a)

99. Elimination by addition or subtraction


T,

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.
3.

1.

a i r Solve for

a;

j and

4*

+ 5y =
,

y:

<

/ 4.
18.

6,

(1)

1.

Multiply

(1)

by

3:

12x

Multiply

(2)

by

5:
(4):
5,

+ 10z +
2;

15^

I5y

= =

(3) (4)
(5)

20.
1.

Subtract, (3)

2x

= -

= =

In obtaining equation
4. 5.

we have

eliminated y

by
y

subtraction.

On
The

substituting x

1 in (2)

we obtain
1,

3y

4 -f 2

or

2.

solution of the system is (x = check this solution by substitution in (1)

2).

The student should

and

(2).

SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

133

SUMMABY.

To

solve

a system of two

linear equations by elimination

by addition or subtraction:

In each equation, multiply both members, if necessary, by a properly chosen number to obtain two equations in which the coefficients of one unknown have the same absolute value.
1.

2.

Add, or
I

subtract, corresponding sides of the two equations obtained

in Step
3.

so as to eliminate one

unknown.
the

Solve the equation

found in Step 2 for

unknown in
to

it,

and sub-

stitute the result

in one of the given equations

find the other un-

known.

x and y are inconsistent or dependent, then, in eliminating one unknown, the other will also be eliminated. = results from this If the equations are dependent, an identity
If

two

linear equations in

elimination.

the equations are inconsistent, a contradictory = 36 is obtained. We shall omit proving these equation such as
If

facts

but
1.

shall exhibit special cases of

them.

Hereafter, to solve a system of equations will algebraically, unless otherwise stated.


If

Note

mean

to solve

the given equations involve fractions, clear of fractions before applying the preceding method.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

2.

Solve for x and y:


\.

3x

+ 2y =
+
4y

6,

(6)

24.

(7)

1.

Multiply 6z

(6)

by

2:
(8)

D Y

+ 4t/ =
(8)
:

12.

2.

Subtract, (7)

12.

(9)

Hence, the given equations are inconsistent because a contradictory statement, 12 = 0, results from the assumption that a pair of
values of x and y exists which satisfies
(6)

and

(7).

COMMENT. In Figure 11, AB is the graph of (6) and CD is the graph of (7). It is observed that these lines are parallel and hence do not
intersect,

Fig.

11
(6)

which agrees with the preceding algebraic proof that

and

(7)

have no

solution.

134

SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS


EXERCISE 49

Solve by elimination by addition or subtraction


1.

and

check.

Zx 2x

-y=

7,

+ 3w
-f

= =

2.

12.

-3 =
2x

7:

- 2* =
4.

0,

5.

3y

+ 12,
8

2y

0.

6.

10,

0.

=
-I-

6z 4-

14.

3s

- 2y = - 3z =
_

2, 2.

8.

9,

H-

Jy

9.

2x -f 2s
2z

- - 3, - -f

10.

322'
/3z

x
11.

12.

7 3

2"
10 ' 13

+ 5y = 9,

14.

\102,-7*=-8.

11*

= - 3, - 15. 5y =

15.

-y=
7x

8,

+ 4y

43.

Proceed with the solution until you recognize that the equations are inconsistent or dependent.

Then check by graphing


2*

the equations.
*

10.

19.

<

2y

-3=
6.

0,

00. Elimination

by

substitution

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

1.

Solve for x and y:


1.

4x

6,
4.

(1) (2)

Solve (2) for x:


(3)

2. Substitute

J(4

3y) in (1):

4(4

6.

(4)

In obtaining equation 4, we have eliminated x by substituting for x from one given equation into the other.
3.

Solve (4) for y:

4. Substitute^/

2 in

(3):

1(4

6)

- 1,

1.

Hence, the solution of the system

is (x

2).

SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

135

SUMMARY.
1.

To

solve

a system of two linear equations by elimination and sub-

by substitution:
Solve one equation for one unknown in terms of the other stitute the result in the other equation.
2. Solve the

equation obtained in Step 1 for the second unknown.


of the second unknown in any equation inand find the value of the first unknown.

3. Substitute the value

volving both

unknowns

EXERCISE 50
Solve by elimination by substitution

and
y y

check.

x
1.

= 3y - 1, - 3 = 4. w
f
2w>

2x

+
-

= - 3, - 15. =
0, 0.

fw =
\ 100
6.

2t;

+ 4,
0.
1.

2u

I L i

+
-

1,

-f 3x

5.
4.y

+4=

0,

I
f

0.

+ 2y
y

\ 3z

+ 5y =

8.
0.

= -3, 5x-2y = 21.


by

9.

14.

10-15. Solve Problems 1-6 of Exercise 49

substitution.

Clear of fractions if necessary and solve by any method. your choice to just one of the two available methods.
<^Js i^wv
m^"

Do
"*T^

not restrict

tJ 1/
\J

"

^\ ^^

2x

^ ^y

^^
*

\JJb ^*~*r

mm^m

9J u
ij

m**^

7y

= =

3.

4y

^J ^^ * f

^
*

^f "

^*.

is i

JL^Xo

^*!^^t j

9x

=
-

5.

\ 6r

+ 21s = ~.6a;

7.

4y

.5,

=
~~"~

3.45,
"~

== .O.

1.5.

OI
2I

22.

04

Q ^7

25.

26

* H- Jy
2x

= AIZ

27.

2y 4- 3

5y

0,
'

+ ^2
3

-? =

3a?

o.

+y+4
10
y

_ _

"^5
te

*-2
29.

2-f y
'

3x

-2 -3

136

SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS


literal coefficients

101. Systems involving


If

a system involves other letters than the unknowns, it is usually best to solve by finding each unknown in turn by elimination through
addition or subtraction.
T>

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.

I.

Solve for x and y:


d:

(
<

ax

+
'

by

\cx-\-dy
I.

= =

et
,

(I)

;;

f.

(2) (3) (4)


bf.

Multiply

(I)

by

adx

Multiply

(2)

by

b:
(4)
v

+ My = bcx + bdy =
be)

de.
of.

3. 4.

Subtract, (3)

x(ad
7*

=
_

de de

(5)

be Suppose that ad be in (5). divide by ad


5.

and

ad

bf be
ce

By similar steps [multiplying (I)


and
(2)

of

by
1

by a] we

find y.

ad

be

02. Systems linear

in

the reciprocals of the


-

unknowns
17,
(1)

- = + x

EXAMPLE

1.

Solve:

+-=
y
10

2.

(2)

SOLUTION.

1.

Multiply

(2)

by

5:

x
7;

^ +-=

10.

(3)

2. Subtract, (3)

(1):

X
:

= -

= -

7x;

= y

1.

3.

Substitute x

= -

1 in (1)
is (x

1,

+-=

17;

The

solution of the system

i).

Equation 1 is said to be linear in l/x and l/y because, if we let u = l/x and v = l/y, equation 1 becomes 3u -j- 50 = 17. Similarly, In place of the preceding solution, we 2. equation 2 becomes 2u Hcould first solve for u and v; then their reciprocals would give x and y.

Comment.

t>

EXERCISE 51
Solve for the literal numbers without first clearing of fractions.

x
1.

17 '
3.

2 4 _ ^4-

5w
3

+ 2i u
4-

SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

137

y
6.

M-H,
6.

10 J_ 9 -h - =

-4.
(x
y
and y,orforw and
z.

Solve for x

ax
7.

2y

= =

2
2

+ 6,
26.
-j-

2cz
8.

dy y

c2

+d

2
,

-f
610

2c.

= a
*'

1 2abx

6,

as

aby

=
*

a?

62 .

10.
aw; 4- bz

= 0, bw = a2
6s
f

11.

/ ??*

+?
22:

ax
12.

by
oi/

= =

3, 3.

2aw

*""

wa2

+
bz
s

62

06,

3a6
, .

+ 26.

2aw
14.

= =
2a

4a2

\ w>

+6
6 a*

2
,

aw
15.
6w>

+ bz =
a

6.

a2

+6 +6

= 2a_
26
16.
_

a
1.

17.

2a

103. Solution of a system of three linear equations

system of three linear equations in three unknowns usually has one and only one solution. In special cases, however, such a system may have no solution, in which case the equations are called inconsistent, or infinitely many solutions, in which case the equations are called dependent. Such cases will not be considered in this book.*

EXAMPLE

1.

Solve for x,

y,

and

z:

+y-z= x + 3y - z = x + y - 82 =
3z 2x

11, 13,

(1) (2)
(3)

11.

SOLUTION.
Multiply
(2)

1.

Subtract, (1)
3:
(3)
:

(2):

by

+
(6) for
:

9t/

2y
82

Subtract, (5)
2.

2x -f 8y

= - 2. = 39. = 28.
3.
2.

(4)
(5)

(6)

Solve (4) and

x and

y:

Subtract, (6)

(4)

Substitute y
3.

3 in

(4):

2x y

2,

6 6

= 30; = - 2;

= =
11;

Substitute (x

2,

3) in (1)
is

+3=
3, z

The
*

solution of the given system

(x

?/

= =

= -

2.

2).

For a more complete treatment, see College Algebra, Third Edition, by WILLIAM L. HART; D. C. HEATH AND COMPANY.

738

SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

SUMMARY.
knowns:
1.

To

solve

a system of

three linear equations in three

un-

pair of the equations, eliminate one of the unknowns; eliminate this unknown from another pair of the original equations.
2.

From one

Solve the resulting equations for the two

unknowns in them.
the

3. Substitute the values of the

simplest of the given


irNote 1.
first

unknowns found in Step 2 in equations and solve for the third unknown.

we

solve a system of four linear equations in four unknowns, would obtain three equations in three of the unknowns by eliminating

To

the other

Then, we

three different pairs of the original equations. would solve the new system of three equations and, later, obtain

unknown from

the value of the fourth unknown.

would apply to systems is presented in advanced college algebra.

A similar but more complicated method in five or more unknowns. A more elegant method

EXERCISE 52
Solve.
'

Do

not commence by clearing of fractions.

3y
1.
3a?

5x

+
y
2

= 1, - 1,
3,

2x
[

2.

2y Qx

= 2, - 5z = 7, + 2z = 1.

+y

7
3.

+
#>

= =

3, 2.

'

12x

22

=
0.

'

1,

5.

4c

+ 6c = 14, - 6 = 2 + 3a,
lOa

14c
7,
*

96

10.

6.
|

+ + 0, = ^ + + 92 3. 2s - y + 2 = 2,
22/
'

x - y + fa = 2x 62 3y

7.

- 2C + 1 = .A+ 3B + 2C= 1.
2A

3J5

0,

3e
9.
,

8.

<

12x -f y 6x - y

+ 62

= 3, = 12.

- 6z - 62 + 3 = - y - x - 2.
y
2

3,

0,

x
10.

11.

-H
L*

60
l

y y

5+1--;

*
in all equations.

o &
z

5.

HINT

for

Problem

10.

Let x

M,

v,

and z

~w

SYSTEMS OF UNEAR EQUATIONS

139
4,

*12.

4s

= 6, 4y + * = 10, = 62 3w 3. -f - y = - 2.
5x y

x
*13.

+ 2y + w =
2 x

3u = 6, 6 = - 2, - = - 2.

104. Applications of systems of linear equations

EXAMPLE
If

1.

The sum

of the digits of a certain two-digit

number

is 9.

the digits are reversed, the new number. Find the given number.

number

is

less

than 3 times the original

SOLUTION. 1. Let t be the tens' digit and u be the units' digit of the number. Then, the number is 10J -j- u.
2. If

the digits are reversed,


is

u becomes the tens' digit and t the units' w


\
I

digit.

The new number


3.

IQu -f

t.

From

the problem,
t

1n lOtt

~ =

'

3(10<
is

+ u) - 9.

We obtain =
EXAMPLE
2.

2 and u

7.

The

original

number

27.

Workmen
if

works 3 days, or

and B complete a job if A works 2 days and both work 2f days. How long would it take each to

do the job alone?


Let x be the number of days alone, and y the number of days for B alone.

SOLUTION.

1.

it

takes

to do the job

2.

The
is

fractional part of the

for

B,

1/y.

does in one day is l/x and, Since they do the whole job, under each set of given data,

work which
12
-=
1

2,3 +x y

1,

and

12
-5

solving the system consisting of the preceding equations of Section 102, we find x = 4 and y = 6.

On

by the method

on an (x, y) coordinate plane which is not parallel to the mx + 6, where m and 6 are y-axis has an equation of the form y constants. We can use this fact to obtain the equation of a line through two given points.

Any

line

ILLUSTRATION 1. To find the equation of the line through we substitute each pair of coordinates for (x, y) in y = mx

(4, 3)

and

(6, 9),

+ 6:
(1) (2)

(when x (when x

4 and y 6 and y

3) 9)

= 4m = 6m

+ 6,
-f b.

solution of [(1), (2)] is (m = 3, b = 9). Hence, the equation of the desired line is y - 3x 9. It can be verified by graphing or by substitution

The

that the given points

lie

on the graph of

this equation.

140

SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS


EXERCISE 53

Solve by introducing two or more unknowns.


1.

One angle

of a triangle

is

30

and a second angle


triangle.

is

four times the

third angle.
2.

Find the unknown angles of the


25

The width

of a rectangle exceeds its length


is

by 5

feet

and the per-

imeter of the rectangle


3.

feet.

Find the dimensions.

Two

angles are complementary

and one exceeds the other by 7.

Find the angles.


contractor has a daily payroll of $73 when he employs some men at $6 per day and the rest of his workers at $5 per day. If he should double the number receiving $5 and halve the number receiving $6 per day, his
4.

daily payroll would be $74.


5.

How many employees


solution of alcohol
of a

does he have?
of

How much
How much

of a

20%

and how much


solution?

50%

solution should be mixed to give 8 gallons


6.

30%

ing

6%
7. If

milk containing 2% butterfat and how much containbutterfat should be mixed to form 100 gallons of milk containing

3% butterfat?
each dimension of a rectangle were increased by 5 feet, the area would be increased by 95 square feet and one dimension would become twice the other. Find the original dimensions.
8. If If

a two-digit number

is

divided

by

its units' digit,

the result
is

is 16.

the digits of the given number are reversed, the than the original one. Find this number.
9.

new number

18 less

weight of 5 pounds is 6 feet from the fulcrum on the right-hand side of a lever. It is balanced if we place a first weight 4 feet from the fulcrum on the right and a second weight 7 feet from the fulcrum on the
place the first weight 8 feet to the right and the second weight 9 feet to the left of the fulcrum. Find the unknown weights.
left,

or

if

we

10. If

we

seat a

boy at 5

feet

and a

girl

at 8 feet from the fulcrum on

one side of a teeterboard, they balance a man weighing 160 pounds who is seated 6 feet from the fulcrum on the other side. Balance is maintained if the boy moves to 8J fe6t and the girl to 4 feet from the fulcrum o'n their side. Find their weights.
11.

When we
is

result

13.

divide a certain two-digit number by its tens' digit, the If we reverse digits in the number and then divide by the
result is 31/13.

original
12.

number, the

Find the original number.

The sum

of the reciprocals of
is

two numbers

is

1/2 and the difference

of the reciprocals

1/6,

Find the numbers.

SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS


and lead should be added to 100 pounds of a mixture containing 15% silver and 30% lead to obtain an alloy containing 25% silver and 50% lead?
13.
silver

How much

and nickel should be added to 100 pounds of an alloy containing 5% chromium and 40% nickel to give an alloy containing 15% chromium and 50% nickel?
14.

How much chromium

15.

A man
income

divides $10,000

among

6%

per annum, respectively. vestments is $80 less than his income from the third investment and his
total
is

three investments, at 3%, 4%, and His annual income from the first two in-

$460 per year.

Find the amount invested at each

rate.

complete a certain job if they work together for 6 days or if A alone works for 3 days and B alone works for 10 days. How long does it take each man to complete the job alone?
16.

Workmen A and B

In a three-digit number which is 31 times the sum of the digits, the units' digit is one half the sum of the other digits. If the digits are reversed, the new number obtained is 99 greater than the original number. Find its digits.
17.

Find

the equation of the line through the given points

on an

(x, y)

coordinate

system by solving a pair of equations for two unknowns, or by inspection.


18. (2,

20. (3,

3);
2);

(4, 3).

19.

((-

3, 1); 4, 5);

((8, (9,

2,

4). 2).

3).

((-

3, 3,

22. 24.

(-

3, 5);

- 12). - 2).

21.

23. (4,

2);

An

run and Find the velocity of the wind and the speed of the airplane in calm
25.

airplane, flying with the wind, took 2.5 hours for a 625-mile took 4 hours and 10 minutes to return against the same wind.
air.

messenger will travel at a speed of 60 miles per hour on land and in a motorboat whose speed is 20 miles per hour in still water. In delivering a message he will go by land to a dock on a river and then on the river against a current of 4 miles per hour. If he reaches his destination in 4J hours and then returns to his starting point in 3J hours, how far did he travel by land and how far by water?

An army

CHAPTER

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS

105. Proofs of the index laws

We have already employed the following results, called index


which govern the use
1.

laws,

of positive integral exponents.

Law

of exponents for multiplication:


1.

a m an
a;
a.

am+n .
(ra factors)

Proof.

By

definition,

am an

a- a

=a a a

(n factors)

2.

Hence,

ama n

(a-o

a)(a*a-a

a)

= am+n

\_(m 4- n) factors a]

Law for finding a power of a power: m n = am -am am (a ) Proof. 1. +m = am+m+ (By Law I)
II.
' *

(a
;

m ) n = amn

m (n factors a )
(n terms
(a

m)
.

2.

Since (m

+ m 4-

+ m)

to

n terms equals mn,

m
)

= amn

III.

Laws

of exponents for division:

"(ffm>n);
1.

= _
15 Or

ILLUSTRATION

-5 d

a6

"

~V a
,

Proof, for the case

>
am
o"

m.
**

By
a -a-

the definition of am and an

(m
-a-fil'ji1

factors)

$'

(n factors)

1 _____

m)

factors a]

a*a

a n-OT

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS

143
n

Law for finding a power of a product: n = ab-ab (ab) afc; Proof.


IV.
(n factors a,

(ab)

a n b".
(n factors ab)

and

b)

(a a

a) (b b

b)

~ an b n

Law IV

extends to products of any number of factors.


n

Thus,

(abc)

a nb nc n

ILLUSTRATION

2.

2 4 3 (4a 6 )

43 (a2 ) 3 (64 ) 3

Q4a*V*.
n

h) (a\
T

an

M*
a4

ILLUSTRATION

/a\ 4
3.

a4
.

/a2

(a

2 2 ) -

Proo/.

a /^ n a a ^) ^6T"6

(
;

a\

(n factors^
__

(n factors a) (n factors 6)

_ a-a
6 6

a
6

a^
bn
is

Note

1.

The determination

of powers of

numbers

called involution.

EXERCISE 54
Find each power by use of
1.

the definition of

an exponent.
4

26

2.

(-

5)

3.

(-

3)*.

4.

(.I)

6.

(j)

6.

(-

).

7.

What

is

the sign' of an odd power of a negative number?

Perform
8.

the operations
9.

by use of the index laws.


10.
'

a6a8

zV.

232.

11. (x3 ) 5. 15. (5afy) 4 .


4
'

12. (3z) 4 .
16.

13. (2a2 ) 6 . 17.

14. (46) 8 . 18.

ddW.

(- 2zJ).

(-

fy
.

)'.

19.

(- 2a) 4

20. (b*)\
24.

21. (a*) 2 . 26. (cd)*.

22. (c*) 3 26.

23. (d2)**.
.

(o62).

(-

.2a26) 3

27.

(-

er-

144

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS

('
'.

_
64.

62.

(^'?. \yz
if

63.

Prove that part of

Law
4

III which applies

m>

n.

66. (a)

positive

Compute ( integer n will

2)
(

and
n

24
n

(6)

Under what condition on the

3)

3 ?

106. Imaginary numbers

We
it

have

called

a square
roots,

root of

has exactly two square


=t

A. If A is positive, one positive and one negative, denoted


if
2

by

VA.
1.

ILLUSTRATION
If

The square

roots of 4 are db

Vi or

=t 2.

2 P. square root, then z But, if R is either positive or negative then R is positive and thus P has no positive or negative square root. P. Hence, cannot equal P may have square roots, we define the Therefore, in order that

a negative number

P has R as a

P as a new variety of number, called an imaginary numsymbol ber, with the property that
(V^P)* - - P
Thus,
that,
if

and

(-

V^)
V

=-

P.

P has the two imaginary numbers

P as square roots.
we

As an immediate extension

is

and

(M

of the preceding terminology, real number, each of the expressions (M


will

+V

agree

P)

P)

be called an imaginary number.

5 are the ILLUSTRATION 2. The square roots of the negative number 5. (7 18) is an imaginary number. imaginary numbers =fc

+V

number in this book will represent a real number. Imaginary numbers will not enter actively into our discussions until we meet them in the solution of equations
Unless otherwise stated, any
literal

in

later chapter.

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS

145

Note 1. The somewhat unfortunate name imaginary number is inherited from a time when mathematicians actually considered such a number to be imaginary in the colloquial sense. In a similar fashion, our common
negative numbers, at their called illusory or fictitious.
first

The

introduction into mathematics, were also student will soon appreciate that imaginary

numbers deserve consideration on an equal footing with real numbers. Imaginary numbers are indispensable not only in pure mathematics but also in important fields where mathematics is applied. Imaginary numbers will be studied in more detail in a later chapter.
107. Roots

We
z

call
.

R
If

a square
is

R =A

= A and a any positive integer we say that R is an nth root of A if R" = A.


root of

if

cube root of

if

(1)

ILLUSTRATION
25

1.

32.

The only nth

root of
27.

is 0.

is

a 5th root of 32 because

is

a cube root of

following facts are proved in college algebra numbers are treated in a complete fashion.

The
1.

when imaginary
roots,

Every number A, not zero, has just n distinct nth of which may be imaginary numbers.
2.

some or

all

If n is even, every positive number A has just two real nth roots , one positive and one negative, with equal absolute values.

Ifn is odd, every real number A has just one real nth root, which is positive when A is positive and negative when A is negative.
3.

// n is even and numbers.


4.

is negative, all

nth

roots of

are imaginary

If

A
.

is positive, its positive

of
its

If

A is negative and n
2.

called the principal nth root is called is odd, the negative nth root of
is

nth root

principal nth root.

ILLUSTRATION
4th root.

The real 4th roots of 81

are
is

=fc

3 and

+ 3 is the principal
of

125 principal cube root of All 4th roots of 16 are imaginary numbers.

The

+5

and

125

is

5.

it

ILLUSTRATION 3. The real cube root of 8 is 2. Also, by advanced methods 1 + can be shown that 8 has the two imaginary cube roots ( 3) and

146

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS

108. Radicals

A, which we read the nth root of A , is used to denote the principal nth root of A when it has a real nth root, and to denote * any convenient nth root of A if all nth roots are imaginary. In

The radical

v^L, the positive integer n

is

called the index or order of the radical,

and A is and use


I.

called its radicand.

When n

VA instead of \^A for the square root of A.


A
is positive if is negative if is

2,

we omit

writing the index

is positive. is negative

II.

^A
v~A

A
if

and n

is odd. is even.

III.

imaginary
1.

is negative

and n
2.

ILLUSTRATION

^'sl

= =

3.

^32 =
because

v/

is

imaginary.

ILLUSTRATION

2.

y^y

^)

=
3*

=
gj'

By

the definition of an nth root,

(VA)
ILLUSTRATION
3.

A.
7

(1)

(V3)*
(v'c
2

3.

(169)

169.

8 (^ctf) -

2cd*.

+ cd + d

2 4 )

c2

+ cd + #.

avoid ambiguous signs and imaginary numbers in elementary problems, the following agreement will hold in this book unless otherwise specified. If the index of a radical is an even integer, all literal numbers in the radicand not used as exponents represent positive numbers, and are such

Note

1.

To

that the radicand

is positive.

By

the definition of

as a principal nth root,


1,

it

follows that,

under the agreement f of Note

=
ILLUSTRATION
*

a.

(2)

4.

^5 = x.

v'S4

5.

This matter of convenience is discussed in more advanced treatments of imaginary numbers. If all nth roots of A are imaginary, it is not usual to call any particular one of them the principal nth root. n f If a is negative and n is even, then a is positive and the positive nth root
of an
is

a,

or "^a*
2.

a.

This case
if

is
is

ruled out
negative,

come under formula

For instance,

by Note Vo* =

and does not

a.

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS


EXERCISE 55
State the two square roots of each number.
1. 64.

747

2. 49.

3. 81.

4.

121.

5. J.

6.

&.

7. .01.

State the principal square root of each number.


8. 16. 9. 144.

10. 100.

11.

&.

12.

&.
216.

13.

State the principal cube root of each number.


14. 8.

16.

27.

16. 27.

17. 125.

18.

1.

19.

20.

State the two real fourth roots of each number.


21. 81. 22. 16.
the specified

23. 625.

24. 10,000.

26.

A.

26. .0001.

Find

power of

the radical, or the indicated root.

27. Vtf.
31. 35. 39.

V&.

(v^)
v^=~8.

6
.

43. 47.
51.

^64.

v^~T.
V400.

65. v'J. 59.

VX)1.

60.

109. Rational and

irrational

numbers

number which can be expressed as a fraction m/n, where the numerator and denominator are integers, is called a rational number. All integers are included among the rational numbers because, if m is any integer, then m can be expressed as the fraction m/1. A real number which is not a rational number is called an irrational
real

number. f are rational numbers. Any terminating decimal fraction is a rational number. Thus, 3.017, or 3017/1000, is a rational number. IT and V% are irrational numbers. A proof of the irrationality of V2 is given in the Appendix, Note 1. Any irrational number can be = 3.14159 expressed as an endless but not a repeating decimal. Thus, v are endless but not repeating decimals. and V% - 1.414
ILLUSTRATION
1.

7, 0,

and

148
If

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS

is

then

VA

not the nth power of a rational number, and v^A is irrational and is called a surd of the nth order.
2.

is real,

ILLUSTRATION

V3 is a surd.
is

surd of the second order


third order a cubic surd.

not a surd because v'd? 2. A sometimes called a quadratic surd and one of the

v^64

is

are given to a limited

The values of various quadratic and number of decimal places hi Table I.

cubic surds

110. Rational and

irrational expressions

algebraic expression is said to be rational in certain letters if it can be expressed as a fraction whose numerator and denominator

An

are integral rational polynomials in the letters. An algebraic expression which is not rational in the letters is said to be irrational in them.
T
.

ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION

1.

-=

,.

oa

is

rational in

a and
x and

x.

2.

V3x

-h y is not rational in
/r

y.

ILLUSTRATION
polynomial in
is

3.

x.

The expression x\ 2 3x 2 \/5 is an integral rational The presence of irrational explicit numbers, A/2 and V5,

of

no concern.

Hereafter, unless otherwise stated, in any integral rational polynomial we shall assume that the numerical coefficients are rational

numbers.
111. Perfect powers of rational functions
rational expression is called a perfect nth power if it is the nth power of some rational expression. Also, we say that a rational

number

is

a perfect nth power

if it is

the nth power of some rational

number. If an integral rational term is a perfect nth power, the numerical coefficient separately is a perfect nth power. Also, each exponent in the term has n as a factor, because in obtaining the nth power of a term each exponent is multiplied by n. In verifying that a term is a perfect nth power, first factor the coefficient.
ILLUSTRATION
ILLUSTRATION
1.

32y

15

is

a perfect 5th power:

32y

15

= 2V5 =
\3o /
^ 3

3 6

(2I/ )

2.

X* is ^r* e

a perfect square: ^

X2
9o6

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS


112. Elementary properties of radicals

149

following Properties I and II have already been met in Section 108 as direct consequences of the definition of an nth root.

The

II.

Va n =
Vob =
1.

a.

(If a is positive

when n

is even)

III.

vWb.
3z, because
(3x)
2

ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION

V&x? = VsVtf =
\fab

9z2

2.

^fc^fb

because

(vWfc) 3 = (^a) 3
"

^)

06.

IV 1V

o T ILLUSTRATION 3.

^
4/81
4

= =

81

3
-,

because

/3\ 4

34

(- j

81

, T ILLUSTRATION 4.

-r->

u because
n

-=
/
*

=
an

.' =

a _
6

V. //

m/n

is

an
5.

integer,

vam =
=
a
1 1 *

ILLUSTRATION
i
.

v^o^

a4

because

(o

4 s

* au .

The
all

cause then

following proofs are complete if a and 6 are positive, beprincipal roots involved are positive. The interested student

may

consider the possibility of negative values for a and 6. To complete the proofs, it should be demonstrated that in all cases the two sides of each

formula in

(III), (IV),

and (V) are

either both positive or both negative

and

hence are equal.

Proof of

(III).

Raise

(v)

to the nth power:


ab.

n n n a ^b) = (^a) (^6) = (V~

Hence, by the definition of an nth

root,

^a^fb is an nth

root of ab, or

n/- n/r = n/ r v ab. Vav 6

Proof of (V).
in

By Law
of
,

II,

page 142, (a
Va"*.

n n
)

a"'

- am

Hence,

a"

is

an nth root

a m or a"

150

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS


special case of Property V, with dignify Property II by special attention be-

We observe that Property

II is

m = n.
cause,
if

However, we

we

are able to express

gives

VA by mere inspection.
6.

as a perfect nth power, Property II

ILLUSTRATION
Or,

V&xfiy

- ^(2xV) 8 = 2zV

(Property II)

by

Properties III and V,

EXERCISE 56

Each radicand
1.

is

perfect power.
3.

Find
Vol.

the specified root.


4. 9.

VP.

2.
7.

3d*.
.

Va*.
.

5.

6.

Vy.
<&.
V*2.
tff.

8.

**.

10. 16.

11.

12. v^io. 17.

13. 18. 23.


.

^x5

14. 19.

Vy*.
\/A.

16. 21.

-^.
^Jf.
.27.

-^7?.

20. 25.
29.

22.

^3fc.
28.

24.

^p.

26.
30.
34.

Vm*.

V/8E5
tfrV.

^^.
\/9^.

V^.
v/*.

31. 36.
.

32. 36. 40.

33.
5
.

38.

^SE

"
1

39.

42.

^I6a.

43.

^- .001. ^- 32 VSS5
10
.

37. 41.
46.

^0625.

44.

^06.

113. Fractional powers

We have previously defined a? only when p is a positive integer. We shall now introduce other types of powers in such a way that all
the types, together, will obey laws of the same forms as those for
positive integral exponents. If fractional exponents are to
plication, then, for example,
akcfr

obey the law of exponents for multi-

o^

a,

or

(afy

a;

thus, a&

must be a square root

of a*

Similarly,

we
a6
,

should have

- a6

or

(a$)

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS


so that a$ should be a square root of a5 .

151
if

Accordingly,

m and n are
:

any positive integers, we

define

a n to be the principal nth root of am

m
a"
i

=
=

-v/a1";

(1)

[when
Thus,
of

m=

in (1)]

an

v^a.

(2)

we may

use fractional exponents instead of radicals to denote

principal roots.

The defining equation


1.

1 is

consistent with Property

page 149, which was proved for the case where


ILLUSTRATION
8*

= v^ =
x

2.

(8*

8)*

m/n was an integer. = v^"8 = - 2.


te

ILLUSTRATION

2.

v.
/

=
8)

\& =
2

4.

ILLUSTRATION

3.

(m

8)*

= v (-

vlJ4

4.

In

(1),

we

defined a n to be the nth root of am


also,

It is

prove the theorem that,

m an

very useful to
or

is

the

mth power of the nth root of a,

m
a"

(v^)".

(3)

To prove

(3)

we must show

that the right

members
.

of (1)

and

(3)

are

identical, or that
(4)

ILLUSTRATION 4. To show that \/aJ = ('^a) 4 raise the right member to the 3d power and use the laws for integral exponents
,
:

[(>^)4]3

= (^)i2 = [t^) 3] =
4
.

(a)

a4

Hence, (^a) cube root is


represented

is

a cube root of a4

If
is

we assume that a

is positive,

then this

positive
.

and hence

identical with the principal cube root

4 by v^o

In accordance with Note 1 on page 146, we agree not to deal with m the symbol a" if n is evenjand a < 0. With this case eliminated, we
prove
that
(4)

by
:

raising the right-hand side to the


,

we

obtain am

and thus demonstrating

nth power, showing m is an nth that


(\^a)

root of am

~~

a*.

152

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS


5.

ILLUSTRATION

From

(3), since

\/64
6

=
26

2,

64$

(^64)

32.
(1)

Notice the relative inconvenience of the following evaluation by use of 64*


if Note

= ^oT6 =
met

&(* = v^ = 2
if

32.

The

difficulties^

an

is

used when a
"

is

are illustrated below where a contradiction


less

negative and n "


1

is

eve

results

from reel

use of the symbol

V^I =

(-

l)i

= (-

1)*

2 = = v'Pl)' V

114. Zero as an exponent


If operations

tion,

with a are to obey the law of exponents for multiplies then we should define a so that

aan = a+n =
Hence,
if

an

, '

or

aa n =

an

, '

or

=
1.

an

an

1.

0,

we

define a by the equation a


definition,

=
=

ILLUSTRATION

1.

By

1.

(17z)

1.

115. Negative exponents


If

a negative exponent
if

is

to obey the law of exponents for

mul

tiplication, then, for instance,

we should have a3cr3 = a

3"3

Hence,
duced,

we

positive exponent of the types previously intro define or* by the equation apa~p = 1, or
is

any

ILLUSTEATION

1.

--

Br

- I _ 1.

In a fraction, any power which is a factor of one term (numerate or denominator) may be removed if the factor, with the sign of it exponent changed, is written as a factor of the other term. That is
a

_ ~
=

bx
Proof. '

ax~n b
ax""
r b

a
7 n bx

a T
b

==

xn

a _^ r ar*
b

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS

153

We may

use negative exponents in avoiding fractions.


2.

ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION
ponents,

-rj-

17o

TJ

17o6~ 2

we may

express the following fraction wityi positive exuse (2) mechanically:


3.
3 3a"26"

To

IF3^4

_ =

3c*b3
~oJoJ
(3)
/
/
j

_ =

Sc3^3

fQ
(

~HT'

'

In more detailed fashion we obtain

as follows:
1
-*-

Pw

Q/7~ 27)3 C/ Otv

/I
^

\
i
I

JL

\ 1

O7)3 OC/

^3 O

2J)3/^ O Ot/

x *v

"r*-*')-'-^-?)--*-;?--*-act as hi (3) but should also appreciate (4).

(4)

The student should

EXERCISE 57 Find
the value of the

symbol by changing from a fractional exponent

to

radical or

from a

negative to

positive exponent if necessary.


6.

4-1

10. 81*. 16. (i)*.

20. 16-*.
25. (.36)*.
'.

30. 35.

(-

S)-

4
.

31. 36.

((-

2)~

6
.

32.

(-

5)-

3
.

33.

(-

1)*.

34.

(-

8)*.

(-

8)-*.

27)-*.

37.

(-

125)*.

38. (.0081)*.
3,

39. (.0001)-*.

Find
40. 8*.

the value of the

symbol by use of formula


42. 4*. 47. (^)*.

page 151.
44. 81*.

41. 25*. 46. ft)t.

43. 36*.
48.

45. 125*.

(-

27)*.

49.

(-

64)'*.

Express with positive exponents.

754

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS


6a~8

75.^-

76.

^ri-

77.

^br
x*

78.

Write without a denominator by use of negative exponents.


80.

iy*

81.

&

82.

83.

4
y
4
-.i

84.

^
a*

4a

M OO.
"*

2a
oft

Ov

&c*

ftft

90.

(L03)"

/- rvo\K* 8

8L
(1.04)"

(1.05)

Rewrite, expressing each fractional power as a radical


fractional power.
94. x*.
99. 5c*.

and each

radical as

95. z*.

96. a*.

97.

&i
v/^3
.

98.

3ai

100. ax*.

101. fcci

102.

103. v/6.

104. (56)*.

105. (6c)*.
110. (2a^)t.
116.

106. Vy>*.

107. (2^)*.

108. (4C3)

9
,

109. (7a')i 114.


118.

111. <Q>.
2

112. ^fe11.

113. >/5?. 117.


121.

-C^HM.

Va2 -f

62 .

119.

Vo ^a8 -

36.
fe

116.
120.
;

#(a

4- 6)
3
.

2
.

^(c

3d)

3
.

8
.

^ST^

vT^ll

122.

8 Compute (- i)~

(- J)-; (-

.04)~.

116. Extension of the index laws

We have defined ap if p is any


discussion,

rational

number but we have proved

the index laws only for positive integral exponents.

detailed

Appendix, Note 2), shows that the formulas of Laws I to V of pages 142 and 143 apply if the exponents are any rational numbers.
shall

which we

omit

(see

Hereafter, unless otherwise specified, to simplify an expression involving exponents will mean to perform indicated operations as far as possible by use of Laws I to V, and to express the result without

Moreover, unless specifically requested, we shall not introduce radicals for powers having fractional exponents. In operations involving exponents, it is frequently convenient to express the numerical coefficients of terms as products of powers of
zero or negative exponents.

prime

factors.

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS


ILLUSTRATION
1.

755

(x*)$

- aH =
125
i
/

x4

/21te\*
\125arV
/
1

/8-27afa\*
V

8 = /238x\* "

2*3*3*

""

5*
1

25
1

Y"

"1

(-125)
EXAMPLE
1.

-Lrs/

17

iV

!"*

Simplify:

.-a
^f

FIRST SOLUTION.

Change

to positive exponents:

J_
a*

J_
1

q*y*
2
1/

V
(<rV*)(oV)

Multiply both numerator and denominator by to eliminate negative exponents


:

SECOND SOLUTION.

(a-

+ if*)
1

+ ay
We may

2
t/

+a

use the special products of Chapter 5 in multiplying or factoring polynomials involving negative or fractional exponents.
ILLUSTRATION
2.

(ar

y$)(x~*

+ y$)

(Type

II,

page 85)

ILLUSTRATION

3.

(z*

2?/-

2 )

(Type IV, page 85)

ILLUSTRATION

4.

2x-2

+ z" 1

(2s;-

3)(xr

+ 2).

EXERCISE 58
Simplify and, if no
1. 6.
letters

are involved, evaluate.


3. aAr
4
.

a&e2
4

2. a&c*.
7.
8
.

4.

asa.

5. (a*) 4 .

(3 )t.

(2)1

8. (x*)

4
.

9. (4z2)*.

10. (3x~^. 16. (o*)*.

11. (5a~2 )
16. (ax1

12. (cr 1*2 ) 8 . 17. (a*)-1 .

13.

(5)i
.

14. (*t)t. 19. (&)-*.

18. (a2 )"2

20. (a")-.

21. (2X-

2 8 ) .

22. (5a-) 2.

23. (oV)-*.

24.

?56
26. 29.

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS


(3x-y)
2
.

26.
80. 34.

(5arV3 ) 2
271
4 2
!/

27. (Gar 1!/-3 )-2 .


31. 125*.

28. 32.

32i

216i

33. (4-V)t.

(a:-

)*.

35. (27a-8a*)i

36. (25ar2 )-*.

VT of.

2-5

r*

Qfl oo.

a\l
TT:
-

w
QQ
44.

n q1
rr
1

^
;j~

^49.

46.

-^.
60.

46.

47.^.
5L
-^f-s-

48.^.
62.

^S.

i~

63.

67.

PT-r

68.

69.

(27w)i
to
l
.

60. (32a666)*.

61. (125x 6)^.

62. (216ar6 )i

Simplify
63.

single fraction in lowest terms without negative exponents.

a- 1

+ b~
'

64.

3a~2

6.

66.

a^ !r

Zr3
2

66. 5a~ l

+ &-'

A7 67

~ a lb
'

a-l
rt

71.

+ A-l "-l J_ + La-2

Aft **

^-^
/,-2

J.A*

< AQ 69' x^J_,r-2*

S-2 -4-2 7n 70-

72.

5-2

_ T^ 4-2 _
4-1

afl

_.. -2

73.

" a 8

_ 6--

"

74.

3-2
1
.

+ ^-2"
&)->.

76. (Sat)-1 .

76. (c

+ M)'
1

1
-

77. (cr1

+ b^}~
6'

78. (4a~8

Expand and
79. (ar1

simplify, without eliminating negative exponents.

j/-

)^-1

2/" ).

80. (3a

81. (4x
83. (xi

y)(4a;

+ y).

82.

(jg

86. 87.
90.

93.

+ y*)(a:* - y*). - 2)(3ai + 4). (5a* (<r + 6) (2a* + 36ty. (a- + 6) + 4).
2
.

84. (2xi 86. (a* 88. (or1


91. 94.

+ 1). - 26*)(a* + 36*).


3)(3x*
89. (a*

+ 3) (a' + y (2 + ar
1

2
.

+
-

Z>*j

2
.

2 2

92. (x 4

2?/-

2 )
.

2 3 ) .

96. (3

y~

97. (3

- 6arH2

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS


98. (z 3 V*)i
/

157
101. (4a~*6 n ) m
.

99. (3a;*) n
*

100. (3*a*6 n )*.


/

102

to
-

a6 * \*

4z 4 * \*

103 -

455=
106. (c*

l04-

-(*
/.125;r /.

\3

106. (a

6*) (a

a6*

+ 6).

<*)(<

<*d

+
When

if Factor

into two factors involving fractional or negative exponents.

possible, factor as the difference of two squares or as

perfect square.

ILLUSTRATION
Or,
107.
110.
a;

1.

x
(a*)
3

x
2

(yty

(x*

64
.

y*)(x*

+ zfyi +
109. Oar2
112. 9a*

jf.
x*.

108. a~2 111. 4x^

96.

^-

jft.

113. 9x* 116. x*

25^.
1

114. 16a*
2
.

49y*.
2

116. 4o

118. 4a~2 120. 4ot 122. a:-2


124.

+ tr - 4a~ 6~ + b~\
Zxy1 1

117.

Gzor 1

+ 9x~

2
.

119. 9o~2
121.

tor*-* -f

b~*.

20ai6V

+ 256*.
5.

4X- 1
.

123.

tyf

125. Sa

+ 276.
129

126.

By.

127. 216

if Find the

quotient by use of factoring.


.

128

- r> -

uc!.

130

117. Simplification of a radicand


possible to express a radical as a power with a fractional exponent, in some operations it is convenient to retain the This remark applies in particular to the following radical form.

Although

it is

operation.

SUMMARY.
order n:
1.

To remove

factors

from

the

radicand in a radical of

Separate the radicand into factors of which as

many

as possible are

perfect
2.

nth powers.
the

Find

nth

root of each perfect

nth power and express

the final

result

by use of the property 'Vab

= v^v^S.

158
ILLUSTRATION
1.

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS


A/147

A/49-3

A/49A/3

7A/3;

A/147

7(1.732)

12.124.

(Table

I)

T o 2. ILLUSTRATION

\/3a

/o

5 = + -7 x
,

3/3az \;

Hereafter, unless otherwise specified, if a radicand involves fractions, reduce it to a single fraction. If a radical is of order n, simplify

the radicand

power.

form where

a perfect nth Also, in a radical of odd order, change the radicand to a " "
it

by removing from
signs are
3.

any

factor which

is

all

if

possible.
1

ILLUSTRATION

v/^"2 = v/^~Iv/2 = (a

v'-

fl

26

= v'-

+ 26) =

v'^Tv'a

+ 26 = -

v'a

+ 26.

In a sum, two or more terms involving the same radical as a factor may be combined by factoring.
ILLUSTRATION

+ 26\/3 = (5 + 26)\/3. V20 -f 2\/45 = V5\/5 + 2V9A/5 = 2\/5 + 6^5 = 8>/5. V7 + 3V^5) cannot be simplified in form. (\/3
4.

5V/3

ILLUSTRATION
(Using

5.

7\/5

- 3V5 +
I)

6\/5

V5 =

2.236 from Table

= V5(7 - 3 + 6) = = 10(2.236) = 22.36.

10\/5.

EXERCISE 59
Simplify the radical and then compute by use of Table
1.

I.

A/18.

2. 7.

A/75.

3.

V20.

4. 9.

A/24. A/72.

6.

A/200.

6.

A/500.

A/27.

8. A/108.

10.
16.

11. 16.

A/5.
AV3T3.

12. 17.

A24.
xVZTs.

13.

A6.
A^~l6.

14.
19.

A54.

v108.

13.

A^^54

20.

Simplify by removing perfect powers from the radicand.


21.

Vx\

22.

Vo*.
28.

23. \Vy*.

24. \V5. 29.

26. v^io. 30. 34.

2 6.

27. A/9o*.

A/8^.

v^.

32.

A20o*.

33.

V2.

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS


36.

?59
38.

36.

V75?.

37.
8
.

V375J5

39.

40.
<>

V- 27a
VsiaV
VxJla5
.

41.
46.

42. 46.
60.

^-

128x.
.

43. 47.

44.

1
'

V/320V5

v^

48.

49.

61.

62.

63.

64.

* ^V12V
69. 62.
66.

662
.

V- |i60.
63.

--S4o2
.

68.

V9 + 92/

V4 -

61.
64.
67.

+ 5a 6.
2

66.

68.

2d
'

^a ab
**
,
*

d
2

Simplify and then


71. 5A/2
74.

collect terms, exhibiting

+ 3A/2. Vl2 + V75.


^Sa
4

72. 3\/3
76.

any common radical factor. a\/3. 73. 2\/l8 V50.

Vl47

- VS.

76.

^24

-h 2V/8I.

77. 80.

aV2 - 56V2.

78. 81.

VS + V25a.
^48^ V48i/.

79.
82.

+ *VVa.

118. Products and quotients of radicals


or the quotient of two radicals of the same order can be expressed as a single radical by use of the following properties of radicals.

The product

Also,

we

recall that,
1.

by the

definition of

a root, (\^J)

A.

ILLUSTRATION

(2V3)(5V6)

= loV3\/6 = 10Vl8 - 30V2.


125(3)

ILLUSTRATION
.

2.

(5^3)

- 5(^3) 8 ^J/oS

375.

ILLUSTRATION^

- S
Vg'

^p

/^6

"

V^

/a

"

b\b'

760
ILLUSTRATION
4.

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

1.

Multiply

(2\/3
is

+ 3V2x)(3V3 -

\/2z).

The product
6(V3)
2

2\/3\/2z -f

=
Comment.

18

- 2Vfo -f

9\/6i

3(2x)

18

The student may

prefer

an expanded solution:

2V3

+ 3\/2z
- V2s
4(multiply)

18
If

+ 7\/3\/2x P

3(2z)

18

Qx

+ 7\/6x.
\^A we

we remove a

must multiply by

positive factor multiplying a radical n under the radical sign because

ILLUSTRATION

5.

3\/6

EXERCISE 60
Express by means of a single radical, and then compute by use of Table I
if necessary.
2.
6.

V2\/3.

3.
7.

\/5vTo.

4.

\/3Vl5.

vWl2.
3V3(2\/6).

6. (-^2) 8 .

(2^6).
11.
14.
17.

8. (3>/5) 2 .

9.

10.

5V6(2V2l).
(3^2)
3
.

V30>/35.

12.

(2V3V5) 2
/
/

13.
16.

16. 3>?

36(v

45).

^^l^ls.

v^
22.

VT/s
18.

-^-

VT4
19.

-^

20.

^?-

v'To

21.

4^-

\/QQ

Express as a single radical and then simplify.


23.

-j^/rfc

24.

^V4C

26.

-^^^
^

26.

-^=a/^^r

27.

Multiply, simplify, and


28.

collect terms.

V3aVl5a.

29.

ZVxVSx*.

30.

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS


31. 34.

76?
33.

zxfa*.
(3VS).
(5i~+i;) 2
.

'

32. 36.

VfoV25xy.
36.
2
.

5\/3a~'3.

2v/4^

4
.

37.
40.

38.

39.

(6V?~+~1)

(-

41. (2

+ 3V6)(3 \/2)(\/3

V5).

42. (2\/2 44. 46. 48.


60.
(3

43. (\/3 46.


47.

49.
61.
64.

56.
68.

+ V5). (3\/2 + V3)(V2 + 4V). (2V3 - V7)(2V3 + V?). (2\/3 + V5)(V2 + 4). 62. (v^ + 5) (V - 2Vi)(Vx + 2V2). (2#x - 3)(5v^ + 2).
2
.

- 3)(5\/2 + 2). - V5)(3V3 -f V5). (2\/3 (Vg - \/5)(V6 + Vg). - 3\/3)(5V2 -f 3\/3). (5\/2
(3^2

+ V3)(\/2 + V6).
63. (\/2

+ 5\/2)2.
65. 67.

2\/3)

2
.

(Vx -

5V^)2.

69.

(Va

+ 6v^)
62.

2
.

60.

(aVy

61.

\^^^- xcoefficient

v^-

Replace the
63.

by an equivalent factor under the radical sign.

3V2a.

64.
68.

sVfo.

65.

aVbx.

66. 70.

67.

S^P.

2^a.

69. 2V/36.

119. Rationalization of denominators

denominator in a radical of order n, after the radicand has been expressed as a simple fraction, multiply both numerator and denominator of the radicand by the simplest expression which will make the denominator a perfect nth power. In particular, if the radical is a square root, we make the denominator a perfect square; if a cube root, we make the denominator a perfect cube.
T

To

rationalize a

ILLUSTRATION

1.

/3

1/7

/S

7?

\~7T

= VSI ~
~~T~~

4.583 7

A,K -655.

frr

,
,

(Table

T,
I)

Notice the inconvenience of the following attempt at computation of without rationalization of the denominator; a long division is required.
1<732
'

(Table

ILLUSTRATION

2.

762

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS


3.

ILLUSTRATION
3

/64ar4

__ ""

3/64~

_ ~

8/43.32?

"*

"^43 -3a;2

\9x*

\9z

-3z

^oO

_ = 4^33* 2
3a;

a6

oW
EXERCISE 61

+ <*

Compute by use of Table I


1.

a/ter rationalizing the denominator.


3.

V}.
VJV.

2. 7.

V|.
^}.
12. 16.

Vf

4.
9.

V|.

5.

Vf.

6.

8.

^J.
13.

^S.
14. 18.

10.

^5.
.128.
col'

^~dW
15.

^pj.
Vl)07.

V^.
\/^12.

^.
^-

^T03.

17.

Eliminate any negative exponents, rationalize the denominators, and lect terms involving a common radical factor.
19.

\K-

22.

\ F?>

24.

26. i/T-

26.

27.

28.

29.

S^-

31

"V5S?"

32-

33.

8/6 9o4

34.

s=s-

36.

37.

41.

42.

c3

tf-1
44. v/ 46.
46.

V^Tft'
47.

VF

5
.

48.

VF.

49.

60. v^a~76~2 .

61.

66.

V J + ar'.

67.
61.

68. v^|

+ or*.
62.

69.

v'a -f

60.
63.

^^

5VJ

-h -h

V45.

10V|

$4.

<^.

66.

^F

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS


120. Additional devices
for rationalizing

163

denominators

of the following illustration is frequently equivalent to the procedure of the preceding section.

The method

ILLUSTRATION
to

1.

The denominator below


perfect cube:

is

multiplied

by

^2

in order

make

the

new radicand a

ILLUSTRATION

2.

V3 = V3 Vl5 = = = = \/5 7= 5 V5 \/5 V5


aV&
2

If

a denominator has the form


c

c V5,

we can

rationalize it

by multiplying by aVb +

Vd

because
(a\/6)

(aVb - cVd)(aVb
ILLUSTRATION
2

+ cVd) -

(c\/5)

a'6

3.

3V^ p 2V2 -

\/3
7=

=
2

\/3

6(\/2)

(3

2)

V5 (V3)

(V3)

~ V3 2V2 + \/3 7= 7= 7= 2\/2 - \/3 2>/2 + \/3 9 + V6 9 + 2.449 _ ~ 8 3 5


3\/2

- -

In finding the quotient of two radicals, it may be desirable to write the expression as a single radical before rationalizing.
ILLUSTRATION
4.

EXERCISE 62
Rationalize the denominator and, if no letters are involved, compute by use of Table I. Collect terms in any polynomial.

2>/2

+ V3

V2 + V3

164

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS

2V3 - V5
y

V2)

7="

4v

V2 + 3V3 2V3

34.

+ 3 V2

V2 + V5 3V5 - V2
2 V?

-+
\/3
(1

22.

23.

2\/3
25. (3

3\/7
-7-

2V6
(2

+ V7
26. (\/3

24.

27- :

S
X

+ V2).
-|L
33.

+ VTI) +

VII).

28.

29.-,^=.

30.

-^=.

31.

32.

~^>
-^^.
K
Ol O

-^:.
l
.

36.

37.

*/

*-v

r"

38.
-

40.
"v

41.

^ y
o/

16a3 62

42.

=
2\fc

v27xy*
44.

43.

3
46.

-^p=. + +
SVa;
3

^gVo + - V2o
1 6

46.

8 -

+
=

^
m

\^2a

V3-V2 + V5
vS.

-=

-=

2
7='

47.

p: V3-V6 + V5

=:

>.

V^-VJ

=.<

fc

49.

50.

61.

hfW

21

Changing from

fractional

exponents to radicals

a product of powers involving fractional exponents to radical form, first change the fractional parts of the exponents to fractions with their lowest common denominator.
ILLUSTRATION
1
1.

To change

22. Radical operations performed

by

using fractional exponents

In this section the results


I.

will

be desired in radical form. a


radical:

To find a power
to the

or a root of

1.

Express each radical operation by use of a fractional exponent


radicand.

applied
2.

Simplify the indicated power of the radicand and express the result as a radical.

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS


ILLUSTRATION
ILLUSTRATION
1.

165

2.

(2v 5x)

4[(5z)*]

be unnecessary to introduce fractional exponents in an operation of Type I. Also, with experience, one observes simple rules such as
recognize that, in simple cases,
it

We

may

"the

wth

root of the

nth
3

root of

is the

mnth

root of

A."

(1)

ILLUSTRATION

3.

v^ =

3.

A^Va =

v'a.

II.

T'o

^/ki the product or the quotient of two radicals of different

orders:
1.

Express each radical as a fractional power of


to their

its

radicand, and

change the resulting fractional exponents


2.

LCD.

Rewrite in radical form and combine into a single radical.


4.

ILLUSTRATION

V^3\/2

3*2*

ILLUSTRATION

5.

(3a6)t

27a3
III.
1.

3a

To reduce
to

the order of

a radical, when possible:

Change

fractional exponents in lowest possible terms with

common
2.

denominator.

Rewrite finally in radical form.


6.

ILLUSTRATION

^625 =

In reducing the order of a radical, it is convenient to commence by expressing the radicand as a power of some expression.
ILLUSTRATION
7.

\/16z2

v"(4z)

166
1

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS

23. Simplest radical form

far as problems in this text are concerned, we agree that an expression is in its simplest radical form if all possible operations of the following varieties have been performed, with any negative ex-

As

ponents eliminated.

SUMMARY.
1.

To reduce a

radical expression to simplest form:

.Express any power or root of a radical, or product of radicals, as a

single radical.
2.

Reduce each radicand

to

a simple fraction in lowest terms.

3. Rationalize all
4.

denominators.

Remove from each radicand all factors which are perfect nth powers, where n is the order of the radical.
5.

Reduce each radical

to the lowest possible order.

6.

Combine any terms with a common radical factor.

inferred that the preceding operations need be performed in the specified order. To simplify a radical expression will mean to reduce it to simplest
It

must not be

radical form.

ILLUSTRATION 1. To simplify the following radical we rationalize the denominator, and finally notice that the order of the radical can be reduced.

ef^~ =
\16c
l

6/q2.4c2

= v
2c2 2c2

\16-4c12

2c2

EXERCISE 63
Change
1. atb*.

to simplest radical
2.

form.
3.

x*y*.

5ai

4. 2z*.

6.

6. a$bt.

7. a$b%.
to

8. xly$.

9. xty$.

10.

Reduce
11. 16.

a radical of lower
12.
2 ^wT
.

order.

\^.
v^.
^27.
^8l.

13. 18.

v^.
Vtf.

14.

Vy\
#9.
^49.

15.

17. 1??.

19.

20. 25.

21.

22. 27.

4T25.

23.
28.

^36.
2 v/iF
.

24.

26.

J/W.

29. V%a*.

30.

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS


Change
31.
to

167

simplest radical form.


32.

(V&.

VS.
.
i
>

33.

V5.

34.

35. 40.

36. (v'a)'.

37. (\/3) 4

38. (V2)'.

39. (v"5) 4 .

41.

(V5).

42. (\/6) 4 .

43.
4
.

44.

45.
50.

4 IBV* fAj/0^4 \ V ^t/y


61.

47.
52. 67.

(2v 3)

48.
63.

(v^

49.
54.

V^.
.

V\/5.

A/V1.

66.
60.

66. -V^a;.

59.
62. 66. 63.

61.
66. 69.
72. 75. 78.

^yv

64.
68. 71. 74.

^2^2.
70. 73.

67.

v^

-5-

Va.
-^2.

v^-r-

V2 v^

-5-

^3

-i-

4- \/2.

76. 79.

77.
80.

V6~
%Vy
-.

^
>^S.
82.

v
84.

~
81. 86.
90.

83.
87.
91.

85.

vx^.

3
(v^x2 ) 6
.

88.
92.

89.
93.
97.

94.

95.

Vx~*
102.

99.

100.

101.

464

103.

(v^)

7
.

104. (2v 5) 4 . 108.


112.

105.
109.

106.

107.

Wjty

2
.

(av^)

6
.

110. (6V/3) 6
114.

111. (cv/4) 3 .

113.

V3a

+a
4
120. -j

118.

119.

Va +
123.

\/3a

122.

+ 9y~

2
.

;+

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS


EXERCISE 64
Chapter Review

Find

the value of each symbol, using Table I if necessary.

16.

21.

26.

V3 + V2

2\/2

Write without fractions by use of negative exponents.


06'
Ovr
OJL*
'

26

Express without radicals, or negative signs or zero in the exponents, and simplify by use of the laws of exponents.
33.

&?.
v^p.

34. <Vf.

35.
40.

V9.
ty&o}.

36. 41.

Vi^.

37. 42.
47.

38.
43.

39. 44.

v^.
W~
5
.

^C^.
K1 51.

&r

8
.

46. (16z)*.

46. (a6-)*.

62. (2o

+ 6- )2

1
.

63.

S^-1

+ 2y)~

l
.

64. 5(a~2

+ 36- )'
1

2
.

65. State the principal 4th root of

256 and principal cube root of

27.

Change
66.

to simplest radical

form.
68. 62. 66.
70.

V96V.

67.
61.

^32^.

^iaF3

69.

v'Vj.

60.
64.

#&.
(V2a).

63. \/J 467. 71. 76. 79.

aW.
(2V3X)
3
.

65.

68.
72. 76.

-C^^.

73.

74. v/49.

V5V5.

77.

\/2lfyr\

78.

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS

169

82
84. 86.

3\/

+ &V8.
87.

86.

5VI2 -

(V2Va - Va -b
.

88.
90.

(Vo

+
36.

89.

2763

-i-

91.

92.

6
93.

3
94.
96.
-J-

v2
62

x
.

x^a2

96.

V(a
97.

-f-

V6- 1

a~2

^-

(V a -

CHAPTER

10

ELEMENTS OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

24. Terminology and foundation (or imaginary numbers

But, if R is either positive or negative, R is positive and hence cannot equal is not a square root of 1. 1. Obviously R = Hence, no real 1. number is a square root of Similarly, if P is positive, any square P would satisfy the equation root R of the negative number Rz = P. But, 1 is positive or zero for all real values of R and P has no real number R as a square root. Therefore, in hence order that negative numbers may have square roots, we proceed to define numbers of a new type, to be called imaginary numbers. 1 be introduced as a new variety of number, Let the symbol * called an imaginary number, with the property that

By

definition,

is

a square

root of
2

1 in

case

# =
2

1.

For convenience, we
or
i
8

V-

1
1.

= -

1.

let i

Then, by definition

i*i

that the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication will be applied to combinations of i and real numbers as if i were an ordinary real literal number, with i2 Then,
1.

We agree f

=A1
Any

in particular,

(so that
integral
i,

,')

= ,-=_!,
a square root of
1.

(2)

as well as -h
i

i,

is

power of

can be easily computed by


<

positive 2 1 recalling that i

and hence
-(*)(*)

-(-1)(-1)-1.

(3)

Refer to the introduction of negative numbers in Section 6 and observe the similarity of the present discussion, t This procedure can be arrived at logically by a more advanced discussion.

ELEMENTS OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


ILLUSTRATION
1.
t
3

171

i(i

t(

1)

i.

t 13

=
(3

W2

ILLUSTRATION

'

2.

+ 5i)(4 + t) = 12 + 23t 4- 5t - 12 + 23i - 5 = 7 4- 23t.


we
verify that

If

P is any positive number,

- - P;
Hence, the negative number
Hereafter,
db

(-

VP) =

t^P

= -

P.
t'

P has

agree that the symbol particular square root t'VP. Then,

we

This agreement about the meaning of P is equivalent to saying that we should proceed as follows in dealing with the square root of a negative number:

P=

the two square roots db P or ( P)^ represents the P has the two square roots

iVP.

(4)

ILLUSTRATION

3.

The square

roots of

5 are

ILLUSTRATION
]Vofe /.

4.

V- 4V- 9
We

(iV4)(i\/9)

6i 2

= -

6.

The formula VaVfe = Vo6 was proved only


real.

Va

and VJU are

where can verify that the formula does not hold if a


for the case
,

and 6 are negative.

Thus, by the formula,

V^I\A=~9 = V(which
If
is

4)(is

9)

= V36 =

6,

wrong, because the correct result

6 (in Illustration 4).

a and b are real numbers, we call (a + bi) a complex number, whose real part is a and imaginary part is bi. If b 7* 0, we call (a 4- W) an imaginary number. A pure imaginary number is one whose real = and 6^0. part is zero; that is, (a -f bi) is a pure imaginary if a Any real number a is thought of as a complex number in which the - a -f Oi. In coefficient of the imaginary part is zero; that is, a
particular,

means

(0 4- Oi).

772

ELEMENTS OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


(2 (6

ILLUSTRATION 5. can be thought of as


Note
2.

3i) is

an imaginary number.

The

real

number 6

+ Oi).
all literal

In this book, unless otherwise stated,

numbers

sent real numbers, except that hereafter i will always represent Any literal number in a radical of even order will be supposed positive,
this is possible

repre1.
if

and adds to our convenience.


seen that

itNote 8.

The student has

we

introduce imaginary numbers in

order to provide square roots for negative numbers. It might then be inferred, incorrectly, that still other varieties of numbers would have to be

introduced to provide cube roots, fourth roots,

etc., of positive

and negative

also roots of all orders of imaginary numbers. An extremely interesting theorem is that the real numbers and the imaginary numbers,

numbers and

as just introduced, provide all the numbers we need in order to have at our disposal roots of all orders of any one of these numbers. Explicitly, in more

advanced algebra,* it is proved that, if k is any positive integer, then any has just k distinct kih roots, which are also complex complex number numbers (including real and imaginary numbers as special cases).

irNote 4- In the theory of electricity, it is customary to use j for because the letter i is reserved for a different purpose.

EXERCISE 65
Express by use of the imaginary unit
1. 6.
i

and simplify

the

remaining radical.

V^~9.

V^
\
17.

11.

16. 21.

v^^OO.
V-27.

V-^36.

22.

V^
v
32. 36.

29.

30.

34.

V- Ifo*. V- 12t0.
o2^

31.
36.

V
/

V V- 4ay.

33.

V- a V-

2 2
**
.

37.

V-27F.

38.^
42.
*

A89

cW
'

V-

26

4L

V- 546.

State the two square roots of each number.

81.

43.

- M.

44.

46.

-63.

-f

See

De

Moivre's Theorem and related topics in any college algebra.

ELEMENTS OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


Perform
47.
i
6
.

173
1 until i

the indicated operation

and simplify by use


60. t8 .

1 of i

does not occur with

an exponent

greater than 1.

48. i7 .

49. %.

61. t 18 .
66. (3 68.

62.

i.

63. (3

t)(3
2
.

t).

64. (3i

66. (2i
69. (5 62. 64. 66.
69.

+ 3)

67.

+ 5) (4 - 3i). - 2)(5i + 7). (3i


(3i

- 2i) 60. - 3t -f 5) (ft - 3). (2i - 7)(ft -f 5i ). (4t


2
.

4)*.

61.

+ 2i)(3 - ft). (4t + 3)(- ft + 5). (4t + 5)


2
.

63. (i3 66. (ft

2i2

+ 4i

+ 3)(3i - 5). - t )(2 + 3t).


2
2

V^~2V^~8.

67.
70.

V^VV^~3(5
2
(a;

75.

68.

V- 27\^ ~3.
:

V^2(3 - 5V^1).
x
2

- V^27).

71. (5

- V^~8)

2
.

72. Substitute
73. If /(*) 74. If /(x)

=*

+ 6i in
-

60;

+ 34).
/(3i); /(2

= =

3a:

+ 2x a?

7, find /(ft);

5i).

a*

3, find /(ft); /(I

+ i).

Obtain an expression of the form a

+ bifor the fraction.

3i-4
HINT
for

Problem

75.

Multiply numerator and denominator by 5

4i.

125. Equations of the second degree


quadratic equation, or an equation of the second degree, is an integral rational equation in which, after like terms are collected,

the terms of highest degree in the variables are of the second degree. A quadratic equation in a variable x can be reduced to the standard

form
axa

bx

+c

0,

(1)

where

a, b,

and
is

c are constants
7*

equation in x

one for which 6

and a 7* 0. A complete quadratic 0, and a pure quadratic equation is

one for which &


ILLUSTRATION and 5x2 7 =
1

=
1.
is

0.

3z2

5x

+7=

is

a complete quadratic equation

a pure quadratic in

x.

26. Pure quadratic equations

To
and

2 solve a pure quadratic equation hi x, solve the equation for x extract square roots.

174

ELEMENTS OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


1. 1.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2. 3.

Solve:

ly

= 18 + - 3y* - 18;
7y*

3y

2
.

4y

Divide by 4:

y*

= =

18.

Hence, j/ must be a square root of and using Table I, we obtain

j.

On

extracting square roots

EXAMPLE
2.

2.121.

Solve:

2j/

+ 35 = 2
2/

5y*.

SOLUTION.

7y

35;

5.

Hence, y

=b

V
2
.

iV5.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.

3.
1.

Solve for x:

a*x*

ft

o2^2
(a
2

a&c2
ab)x*

Factor:

= = =

o&c2

+a
ft .

a2
a2

62 .

3.

Divide by (a2

06)

and reduce to lowest terms:


(a

X2

. a?-& = tf-ab
.

b)(a

a(a

+ 6)
'*

6)

or.

a^

+6
!

4.

Extract square roots and rationalize the denominator:

K
1.

a quadratic equation are explicit numbers and if a radical occurs in any solution which is a real number, always compute the decimal value of the solution by use of Table I. If it is desired to check such a solution, substitute the radical form instead of the decimal
If the coefficients in

value, unless otherwise directed by the instructor. The approximate decimal value, as a rule, could not lead to an absolute check.

EXERCISE 66
Solve for x, or otherwise for the letter in the problem.
1.

5x2

125.
25.

2.
6.

3x2

12.
3.
Jt /

3. 7.

x2

= "

9.

4.
8.
JLm%

4x2
3x2

- -

9.

6.

9x2
t

- == / - G.

2x2

5x2

7.
fii%

11.
1 ft 1Q.

7*2 9 AJU

in QT^ XV* 7*

11 OCftv ^/vr2 XX*

19 &WU 9hr%
2

13. 15
16.

1622

4.
0.

14.

7* *

6.

15.
.

Jx

9x2

+ 49 -

17.

7X2

3s2

18.

- 1 Jx2 2 2 Jx } * fcc

ELEMENTS OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


19. l&r2

175

+ 64 c

0.

20.

22. 25. 27.

4oz2
4z 2 4x2

rf.

23.

+ 4 = a*. 4a + 2cz - 4d.


fz*
2

21. fcc

24.

-|9ac* - 46

25a

4&r*.

26. 9az*
2

46

+ 9cz*.
c*

+ 25a =
=

25

+ 4a z*.

28. 2cx*

+ 4d S

for

4<fc*.

29. Solve /r
31. Solve

rov2 for v.
?rr
2

30. Solve 32. Solve

J#*
Jir

A =

for r.

A for

or x.

07 33.

^2

-g-

+ 2 _5 g.

34.

04^.5 j
4

35.

x j

-49

0.

2*

+3

as

+6

127. Solution of an equation by factoring

We know that a product of two or more numbers equals zero when


and only when
at least one of the factors is

zero*

This fact

is

the

basis for the following method, tions of any degree.

which applies to integral rational equa-

SUMMARY.
1.

To

solve

an equation in x by use

of factoring:

Clear the equation of fractions if necessary by multiplying both

sides by the
2.

LCD

of all fractions involved.


the other

Transpose all terms to one member and thus obtain zero as member. Factor the first member if possible.
3.

Place each factor equal


1.

to zero

and
6

solve for x.

EXAMPLE

Solve:

5z

1,

6x2

0.

SOLUTION. 1. Multiply both sides by 2 factoring with a positive coefficient for #


.

to obtain convenience in

2. 3.

Factor:

(3z

+ 5x - 6 = - 2) (2* + 3) 6*2
or
2;
if

0.

0.

The equation

is satisfied if

3x
4. If
5. If

2x
is

+3
f
is

0.

3x

2x 4- 3

= =

0, 0,

then 3x

x
3;

=
x

one solution.
a second solution.

then 2x

This fact holds for a product of complex numbers.

776

ELEMENTS OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


2.

EXAMPLE

Solve:
1.

4x*

+ 20s -f 25
or
(2z
.

0.

SOLUTION.

Factor:

(2*
2. If

+ 5) 2

0;

+ 5)(2* + 5) -

0.

2z -f 5

for x,

we

Since each factor gives the agree to say that the equation has two equal roots.
0,

then x

same value

In solving an equation, if both sides are divided by an expression involving the unknowns, solutions may be lost.

EXAMPLE

3.

Solve:
1.

5z2

&t.

SOLUTION.

Transpose 8z:
5z2

Sx 8

= =

0;

x(5x

8)

=
=

0.

2.

Hence, x

or 5x

0; the solutions are

and f

INCORRECT SOLUTION.

Divide both sides of 5z2


5x

&c by x:

8.

Then,

incorrectly,

we obtain x = f

as the only solution. In this incorrect


x.

solution, the root x

was

lost

on dividing by

Some

literal
4.
1.

quadratic equations can be solved by factoring.


Solve for x:
Factor:
b
2a?x*

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2. If

(2ax

+ 3a6x - 26 = 0. = 0. (ax + 26)


2
ft)

2ax

=
=

0,

then

2ax
ax

6;

x
x

H--

3. If

ax -f 26

0,

then

= 2a

26;

= --a

4.

has the two The equation ^

solutions 5-

and

--a

EXERCISE 67
Solve 6y factoring.
1.

x2

3z

=
-

10.

2.

5y

=
.

14.

3.

s2 -f *

=
144

12.

4.

z2 -f 3z
3x2 x2

28.
0.

6.

21x
6s2

= =

14z2
Ifo.

6.

W5z2 x2

0.

7.

7x

8.

9.

9z
15

0.

10.

+8-

6x.
3.

11. 4x2
14.

25
2z

= -

0.

12.
15.

8x.

13.

2s3

+ 5z -

3z2

5.

8z2 -f 3

ELEMENTS OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


16. 16z2
19. 4y*

177

24x

9.
1.

17.

25y

20y

4.

18.

z2

22. 24.

26.
28.

30.
32.

+ 40 = lOz + 3 -f &c - 0. 6z - 19* + 15 = 0. 8 - 22z + 15z = 0. 8z + 2x - 15 = 0. 49x + 28x = - 4.


2 2

20.

3z2

+2

= -

7*.

21.

+ 6* - - 9. 2z + 7x - - 6.
2

23. 12

5z 2

17z

0. 0.

25. 16z 2

+ 40z + 25 =

27. 15 29.
31. 33.

- 7w - 4w2 = 0. 7z2 + 9z - 10 = 0.
4

2x

x2

0.

+ 5x - 9x = 0. 6 + 5x - 6x = 0.
2 2

Solve for x or
34. 3fo2

+ ex

w or z. = 0.
2

35. 2or2

3dx

0.

36. 38. 40. 42.

x2

+ or - 6a = 0. 2z + bx - 36 = 0. 46 z -h 4a6x + a =
2 2 2
2 2

37. x2

56x

+
-

662

0.
0.
0.
2

39. 3w;2
0.

bw

46 2

=
=

41. 662z2 43.

7bx

2aV -

abx

362

0.

9aV +

12a6x

+ 46 =

0.

62. (x

2w

w
1
0.

2x

+8
ar

*
2

+ 3)(2z -

5)(3z

7)

63. 6z8 -f

15*

0.

64. (2x

3)(3x -f 5)

2x

+ 7.

65. (3z

l)(2x

+ 5)

3z

19.

128. Completing a square

A binomial x* + pa: becomes a perfect square if we add


one half of the
coefficient of x.
:

the square of
if

That

is,

we complete a square

we

add

or

g)'

178

ELEMENTS OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


1.

ILLUSTRATION
ofi(6), or 3:

x2

fa becomes a perfect square

if

we add

the square

x2
ILLUSTRATION
2.

Ox

+9-

(x

3)

2
.

To make z2
a*

7x a perfect square, we add

(J)

or

7z

+^-

(x

I)

SUMMARY.
1.

To

sofoe

o quadratic equation in x by computing a square:


to the left side

Transpose

all

terms involving x

and

all other

terms

to the right

member and

collect terms.

2.

Divide both members by the

coefficient of
left

x2

3.

Complete a square on the

by adding the square of one half


to both sides.

of the absolute value of the coefficient of x


4. 5.

Rewrite the

left

member as

the square of

a binomial.

Extract square rootst using the double sign on the right.


1.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.

Solve:
1.

a;

+ 4x + 1 =
x2

0.

(1)
1.

Subtract

1:

+ 4x

(2)
left:

Since 4

-*-

2,

add

2? or 4, to

complete a square on the


2

*2

3.

Extract square roots:

+ 4z + 4 = 4- 1; - 3. (x + 2) x + 2 = V3
x

(3)
(4)

or

- -

db

V3.

(5)

Thus, the roots are irrational numbers. To compute approximate values for the roots to three decimal places, we obtain V3 from Table I
:

* 2.

2
%

1.732

= -

.268

x
3x*

= -

1.732

= -

3.732.

EXAMPLE

Solve:
1.

&e

+2
&c

*
**

0.

SOLUTION.
2.

3x*

2.

Divide by 3:
Since
*

sa

8 53 =

2
~-

3.

J,

add
8

(|)*
I

or

^ to complete a square.
16
-

/4\* I

.. .

2 _

\3/
tr

9
10

39
.

16 ^ ^ 6
..

Hence,

ELEMENTS OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


4.

179

Extract square roots:

From Table

I,

VIo =
o

3.162.
SB

Hence,
2.387,

3.162

OOQ>y

.,

and

-=

4-3.162
o
x* -f

.279.

O .n

EXAMPLE

3.

Solve by completing a square:


1.

4s

+7

0.

SOLUTION.
2.

x2 4- 4x

7.

Since (4 4- 2)

2,

we add

2* or

4 to both

sides:

3.

Hence,

& + 4* + 4 4 - 7; or (x + 2)' - - 3. x + 2 - =t V^IJ - * fx/3;


x

- -

*V3.
ox* -f bx

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.

4.

Solve for x:
1.

Subtract

c:

+c ax* +
fez

0.
c.

Divide by a:

x1
6*
1
rr*

-f-

6 -

c ---

3.

AJJ/^V Add (TT-)


\2a/
...

, '

or

4a2

-:-=:

-x + +a
,
,

&

/&\*
(^-) \2a/
,

&*

4o
6

^-r a

C ---

o
4ac

Simplify:
4.

+ ^j (x
6

6 \8

-TT"'

Extract square roots:

2o
_ 5.
,
,

6
JT-:
a;

Subtract

=
2

2a

=2a
1

fe

Vfe2
=b

4oc

2a

fe

=fc

V6*
s

4oc

2a

Note

An

equality

A =B -A -A -

is satisfied if

5, that

is,

if

A=B
J?

arif

A = -B.
is,

(7)

Equally

well,

A2 = B

if

5, that
or t/

t/ If

-A * -

B.

(8)

both sides of each equation hi (8) are multiplied by 1, we obtain equations (7). Therefore, on extracting the square roots of both sides of A* = B1
,

we obtain

all

possible information

by writing
"

A =
."

B, instead of writing
is, it is

B, where use the double sign

A =

we read

d= as

+
if

or

That

necessary to

on just one side


it.

the square roots of both sides of an

equation are extracted in solving

780

ELEMENTS OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


EXERCISE 68

Find what must


1. x*

be added to the expression to

make

it

a perfect square, and


4.

then write this square.

Sx.

2. x* 6.

6.

*2

J*.

x2

+ 10*. + f*.
10. 13. 16. 19.
a:

3.

*2 *2

2cx.

*a

+ 4dx.
J*.

7.

+ j*.
0.

8. x*

Sofoe
9.
a;

fo/

completing a square.
2

12.

a;

+ Ox = 7. + 9 = 6*.
4y
2

4- 10s -f

24

*2

15. 2y* 418. 21. 24.

=
=

5.

6x2 4*2

4z.

+ 4* + 4 = 0. x + 13 = 6*. 9x + 1 = 12*.
2 2

+ 4* = 21. 14. 2w^ + 3 = 8w;. 17. x + 5 = 4z. 20. 9s + 6* =


11.

*2

1.

+ 13 16x + 9 =
2

12*.

22.

4z2 4- 4z

=
21.

0.

23. 26.

3z2 -h 8z 4*2

1.

24*.

26. 9*2

12*

12*

5.

Verify the statement by substitution.


27. 28.

= (* = (2
* *2

+ V2)

and *

= (-

2 \/2) satisfy *

+ 4* + 2

0.

3i) are solutions of

*2

4*

+
*2

13

0.

Solve for
29.

x by completing a 2o* - 15a2


.

square.

30.

+ bx =
4*

662 .
c

31. 2*2

56*

362
b

32. 6*2
0.

0.

33. 3*2 -f 2o*

34. .3*2

.06*

.144

0.

36. o*2
37.

+ 4* - c = 0. Hx* + Kx + P - 0.

36. 2*2
38.

+ bx + c = 0. A* + 2B* + C =
2

0.

29. The quadratic formula

In Example 4 on page 179, the quadratic equation

axa 4- bx

+c=

(1)

was solved by the method found to be


x

of completing a square; the solutions were

-n.
In
(2), it is

We
and

call (2)

the quadratic formula.

permissible for a,

6,

c to

have any values, with a

j* 0.

ELEMENTS OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

181

SUMMARY.
formula:
1.

To

solve

a quadratic equation in x by use of the quadratic

Clear the equation of fractions and reduce

it to

the standard

form

ax*
2.

bx

0.
b,

List the values of the coefficients a,

and

c.

3. Substitute the values of a, b,

and
62

c in the formula.

ILLUSTRATION 1. = = 6 6, and c

To
2.

solve 3z2

=
6

0,

we observe that a =

3,

Hence, from the quadratic formula,


6)
2

- (_ ~
x

6)

V(6
'

4-3-

(-

2)

_
3

2VT5 ~ _
6

3.873

+ 3 873 =
o

2.291,

and

"

3 873 o
'

= -

.291.

fe

4x ILLUSTRATION 2. To solve 2z2 5 = 0, we notice that = 5. Hence, from the quadratic formula, = 4, and c

2,

db

Vl6 4

40

~4~4~2
4

V- 24
x*

2t>/6

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.

1.

Solve for x:
1.

3ex -f 5dx

I5de

0.

Group terms

in

a::

z2 4- x(

3e -f 5d)

15de

0.

In the standard notation, a From the formula,

l,

6=

3e

5rf,

and

- (The radicand becomes

3e

/ox (3)

9e 2

+ 60efe =

25(^4- 30de

+ 9e*

Hence, from

(3),

x
o*
o*?

(.1
i

3e
.
i i

..

+ &0
2

............... 3e)

3e

5d 4- 5d 2

+ 3e

-(5d

'

3e

5d

5d

**

"

The

solutions are 3e
.

and

In deriving the quadratic formula, we showed that an integral rational equation of the 2d degree in x has just two roots (which sometimes are identical). This result is a special case of a general theorem that, if
the degree of the equation is n, the equation has just n roots (with repetitions of values possible among them).

782

ELEMENTS OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


EXERCISE 69

Solve by use of the quadratic formula.*


1.

Check
5

if directed
0.

by the instructor.
2

6za

+x8y_

12.

0.

2.
6.

3y
2
j/

+ 2y -

3. 6. 9.

6y

7y

=* 0.

4. 7j/2
7.

2y 4- 10

0.

z2

+
-

13

4z.
0.

4*2

10.

9*2

13. 9z2

+ 9 - 12*. + &c + 1 - 0. + te - 1.
2s

8. 16z2

25 49

=
6z2

0. 0.

4z2

&c
18

+1Ify
8
.

11. 14.

36z2

12. 15. 18.

By
2z2
9s2

+ 4x 3

16.
19.

2*2 9s2

7.

17. 4z* 4-

2z.

+ 3 - 8z. + 6z = 7.
=
4z

22.

+ 16 - 0. 4s* + 5 - 82.
=
4x.
&c.

20. 4z* 23. 26.

+ 13 - 40. a* + .15 = .8z.


=
=
9.

21. 3s2
24. x*

8.

25. 4x2 -f 53

3x2 -f 2x

27. 30.

28. 9z 2
31.

27

29. 4x2 -f 13 32. 21x2


36.

12x.

25z2 -f 4

20c.
15.

19a;

12.

33. 36.

34. 24y2

+ 2y =

4r2 -h 29

= -

8x.

+ 6 = 6z. 4x + Sx = - 9. 18z + 33x = 40. 9y + 23 = 3(ty. 16a; + 34x = 15.


2

Solve for x or y by use of the quadratic formula.


37.

&c2
2

39. 41.

- 5dx - 6tf - 0. ox - dx + 3c - 0. - 3Jty + 6 - 0. 5&2/


2

38. 2z2

+ hx 2

16A2

0.

40. 2oc2 -f 36x 42.


44.

43. y2
45.
47. 49.

+ 2cy + dy -f 2crf * 0. 5fcc* - 6 + lOfcc - 3a: - 0.


2

46. 48.

6% -

4hy -f 10

15y

0.

- c = 0. 2/uc -f 3x - 5A = 0. - 46y + Say - 12o& = 0. y* 8% 4- 12y - 15 - 10% = 0. 2x - 3hx + A* - x = 1.


2
2

3z2 -f 3&c2

6x

+ 5/uc (

10

+ 5x =
6

0.

50.

Check the

solutions

V6
2

4oc)

-i-

2a by substitution in

the equation ax*


51. Solve for

+ 6x -f c = 0.
a;

y in terms of a: x in terms of y:
a;

2y
2

52. Solve for

2y

15z2

+ xy + + 5y = 0. - 2 - x + 3y IZxy =
2
a;

0.

63. Solve for


64. Solve for
*

hi

terms of y in Problem 51.


in

y in terms of

Problem

52.

Table I

is

useful in detecting perfect square numbers.


I

Thus,

if

we meet

V1764, by reference to Table

we observe that 1764 *

(42)*.

ELEMENTS OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


130. Outline
for solution of quadratic equations

183

pure quadratic equation should be solved by merely extracting square roots, as in Section 126. Any other quadratic equation should be solved by factoring if factors can be easily recognized. In all other cases, solve by use of the quadratic formula, unless otherwise
specified.

The method

of completing the square

is

not recommended
in-

any problem unless specifically requested; this method was troduced mainly as a means for deriving the quadratic formula.
1

in

31

Applications of quadratic equations

From geometry, we recall the Pythagorean theorem, which we associate with the triangle
in Figure 12.
.

R9

// a and b are the lengths of the perpendicular sides and c is the 2 2 2 length of the hypotenuse of a right angled triangle, then a -f fc * c
.

Applications of the preceding theorem frequently introduce quadratic equations.

Find the length of a side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude is 3 feet shorter than a side.
1.

EXAMPLE

SOLUTION.
the triangle.

In Figure 13, let ABC represent Let x feet be the length of a side of
1.

Then, the lengths of spectively, \x and (x 3).


2.

AABC.

AD

and

DC

are, re-

From

the Pythagorean theorem,

AC = Iff +
or
(X

~
fa

(1)

3.

Simplify in (1)

x*

-f

z2

+ 9;
(2)

x2
4.

24*

+ 36 -

0.

Solve

(2)

by the quadratic formula:


X
24

rf

171 * 8

- 12*6^8;
(Using Table
I)

=
The
is

22.39 and 1.61.

smallest root has no significance in the problem because (1.61 negative. Hence, the side of the specified triangle is 22.39 feet long.

3)

184

ELEMENTS OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

EXAMPLE 2. An airplane flies 560 miles against a head wind of 40 miles per hour. The plane took 28 minutes longer for this flight than would have
been the case in
still air.

How
1.

fast could the airplane travel in still air?


air-

INCOMPLETE SOLUTION.

Let x miles per hour be the speed of the

plane in still air. In flying against the wind, the speed is (x 40) miles = per hour. From the equation distance (rate) (time), the flight times for a distance of 560 miles against the wind and in still air are, respectively,

560

x
2.

40

and

560 x

From

the statement of the problem

560

560
"

28
"

40

/JA '60

The student should

clear of fractions

and

solve for x.

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISE

70

Solve each equation by three methods, (a) by factoring, (b) by completing a square, and (c) by use of the quadratic formula.
1.

2*2

+ 5* =
33

3.

2.

3* 2

+5
4x
6

= =
2

16*.

3.

12* 2

11*

15.

Solve for x or y or z by the most convenient method.


4.
2
2/

ty.
3.

6. x*

45.
2*.

6.

7.

14*2

8.

9.

10. 4y*

17

I2y.

11. 1

+ 25* =
5* 2

10*.
0.
0.

12.

+9= 49* + 4 = 6* + 5* =
16</
2
2

24p.
14*.
56.

13. 25*2
16.

20*

1.

14. 16
17.

=
-

16. 6* 2 18.

= =

7*.

6*2

19. 5y2

+ 5 = 0. + 36 - 0.
*

II*2

4*2

49*.

20. 16y2

+1=
.

&y.

21.

20*2

13*

21.

23*
*
X

=3.

3 o

x
7

+x

"" -

2
2

OB
5 2
29.

4
1

~*
*

4
28. 30.

2*T~I

6T=

3-2* "
2*

\g&
&*2

+ a*
2fcc

3S.

4*2 -f 26*

32.

a*2

26*

+ 2 - *. = 2* + 3.

31. 3*2
33. c*2

+ b - 1. 4- hx + 3fc* -f W? + 2hx = 5 + 4kx.

0.

ELEMENTS OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


34. Solve for 35. Solve for

185

x by completing a square: hx* x by completing a square: dx*

+ 2fcc
3cx

0.

+h=

0.

eocA problem by introducing only one


36.

unknown number.
is

Divide 45 into two parts whose product

434.
is

area of a rectangle is 221 square feet and one side longer than the other. Find the dimensions.
37.

The

feet

38.
39.

Find two consecutive integers whose product Find a number which


is

is

306.

^^ less than its reciprocal.


is

40.

Find the length of a side of a square where a diagonal


side.

6 feet longer

than a
41.

is

Find the length of a side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude 2 feet shorter than a side.
42. After plowing

a uniform border inside a rectangular field 50 rods long by 40 rods wide, a farmer finds that he has plowed 60% of the field. Find the width of the border.
43.

The diameter

of a circular field

is

40 yards.
yards.

What
(Use
IT

increase in the

diameter
44.

will increase the area

by 440 square

3^.)

A
An

circular field is
is

20 feet and area


46.

surrounded by a cinder track whose width is J of the area of the field. Find the radius of the field.

airplane flew 660 miles in the direction of a wind and then took 40 minutes longer than on the outward trip to fly back against the same

wind.
fast

If the plane flies at the rate of

200 miles per hour in

still air,

how

was the wind blowing?

46. Jones travels 4 miles per hour faster than Smith and covers 224 fast does each man travel? miles in one hour less time than Smith.

How

motorboat takes 2 hours to travel 8 miles downstream and 4 miles back on a river which flows at the rate of 2 miles per hour. Find the rate at which the motorboat would travel in still water.
47. 48.
If-

is

tive area

Solve

E for E in terms of A
an object
is

the measured cross-section area of a chimney, 2AE is the smallest root of the equation E*

its

so-called effec-

+ A*

.36A

0.

and, from the result, find

E if A =20 square feet.

shot vertically from the surface of the earth with an initial velocity of v feet per second, and if air resistance and other dis= vt %g&, turbing factors are neglected, it is proved hi physics that $
49. If

where

s feet is

seconds and g v = 200 feet, use Part a to find

the height of the object above the surface at the end of t (6) If (a) Solve for t in terms of s. 32, approximately,

when

500 feet and

feet.

CHAPTER

ADVANCED TOPICS
EQUATIONS
1

IN QUADRATIC

32. Graph of a quadratic function

quadratic function of x and hence has the form

is

a polynomial of the second degree in

ax* -f bx

+ c,
^
0.
3.

where

a, b,

and
1.

c are constants

and a
z2

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

Graph the function


Let y

2x

xz

2x

3.

We

select values for

x and compute

the corresponding values for y. In Figure 14, we plot the points (- 3, 12), (- 2, 5),
etc.

In the table of values, we arrange

the values of x in their natural order as

they appear on the z-axis, because then the corresponding points on the graph are met hi their natural order as we draw the curve. The curve through the plotted points is the graph of the function and is called a

Fig.

14

parabola.

The

value of the function, and we call V the minimum point of the graph. The vertical line through V is called the axis of the parabola. The part of the curve to the right of this axis has exactly the same shape as the part to the left. That is, the parabola is symmetrical with respect to its axis. The equation of the axis of the parab1. ola y = x2 2x 3 shown in Figure 14 is x

parabola. or 4, is the smallest or

point V at the rounded end is called the vertex of the Since V is the lowest point of the graph, the ordinate of V,

minimum

ADVANCED TOPICS
If

IN QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

187

a parabola is concave downward (open downward), instead of concave upward as shown in Figure 14, then the vertex of the parabola
is its

highest point

and

is

called the

maximum

point of the curve.

At a more advanced
I.

stage,

we meet

proofs of the following facts:

The graph of ax*


this

+ bx -f c is a parabola with its axis perpendicular


parabola is concave upward
if if

to the x-axis;

is positive

and

concave downward
II.

is negative.

The abscissa of

the vertex of the parabola is

5-; when x
value

has this value, the function has its minimum or according as a is positive or negative.
ILLUSTRATION
1.

its

maximum

In Figure

14, at V,

2
7:-^A- \

1.

SUMMARY.
tion f(x):
1.

To form a

table of values in

graphing a quadratic func-

Find

the coordinates of the vertex of the graph.

Choose pairs of values of x where, in each pair, the values are equidistant from the vertex, one value on each side; the values off(x) cor2.

responding

to

each pair will be equal.


2.

ILLUSTRATION selected z = 1 db
etc.

In Example 1, the abscissa of V is x 1. Then, we = 2 and z = 0; x I 3, or z = 4 and x = 1, orz 2; The corresponding pairs of values of y are equal.
2.

*EXAMPLE a maximum.
SOLUTION.
2. 3.

Divide 50 into two parts such that their product

will

be

1.

Let x be one part; (50

x) is the other part.


x), or f(x)

Let/Or) represent the product #(50

50z

x2

of f(x) is attained at the vertex of the parabola which is = 25. Hence, the product the graph off(x), or when x = 2)] [50 * ( of the parts of 50 will be greatest when they are equal, each being 25. The

The maximum

corresponding largest product

is

625.

After having formed a table of values for graphing a quadratic function of x, select the scales on the coordinate axes with care. Choose

Note

1.

the unit for distance on the z-axis large enough to spread out the parabola in order to make it generously open. Choose the vertical unit independently
of the previous choice of the z-unit in order to be able to plot all points from the table of values on the available part of the cross-section sheet.

188

ADVANCED TOPICS

IN QUADRATIC

EQUATIONS

EXERCISE 71
For each function,
(a) find the coordinates of the vertex of the

graph and

the

equation of its axis; (b) graph the function, with values of x extending at least 4 units on each side of the vertex; (c) state the maximum or minimum value
of each function.
1. x*.

2.

4z 2

3.
7. a*

x\

4.

6z2

5.

*2

+ 5.

6. x*

4.

9.

2z2 3s2

12.

+ 4* + 3. + 6z - 5.

10.

+ 6z + 5- 3z + I2x.
2

8.

z2

11.

2z2

13.

4z 2

12*.

14. 2z 2

+ 7. -f 8z + 3. - 20z + 4.
4x

State whether the function has


this value without

maximum
3z 2

or a

minimum

value,

and obtain

graphing by finding the coordinates of the


16.
is

vertex.

16.

4z2

IQx

+ 3.

+ 24z -

7.

17.

6z 2

+ 8.

shot vertically upward from the earth's surface with an initial velocity of 96 feet per second, (a) draw a graph of the distance s as a function of t\ (b) from the graph, find when the object commences
18. If

an object

to

fall,

the

maximum
is

height which

it

reaches,

and when

it

hits the sur-

face.

(Recall the formula of Problem 49, page 185.)

shot vertically upward from the earth 's surface with an initial velocity of 80 feet per second, find when the object reaches its
19. If

an object

maximum
20.

elevation, without graphing.

(See Problem 18.)

3 Graph the function z

I2x

+3

by use

of the integral values of

x from

4 to 4 inclusive.
to

ifGraph each of the following functions, with enough computed points


obtain a graceful curve.
21.

x3

22. x4

23.

x*.

24.

z3

26.

xs

+ 2x* -

4*

+ 3.

26.

3x*

4z3

12* 2

+ 6.

each problem by introducing just one unknown x and then finding the maximum of a quadratic function of x, without graphing.
if Solve

27. Divide 60 into


28.

two parts whose product

is

a maximum.
of largest area which

Find the dimensions of the rectangular can be inclosed with 600 feet of wire fence.

field

29. In forming a trough with a rectangular cross section and open top, long sheet of tin is bent upward on each long side. If the sheet is 30

inches wide, find the dimensions of the cross section with the largest possible
area.
30. Divide

H into two parts whose product

is

a maximum.

ADVANCED TOPICS
1

IN QUADRATIC

EQUATIONS

789

33. Graphical solution of an equation


If

x has a value for which the graph of f(x) meets the x-axis, then with this value of x we have/(x) = 0. Hence we are led to the following procedure.

SUMMARY.
tion in
1.

To find approximate values of


all

the real roots of

an equa-

x graphically: Simplify and transpose

terms

to

one member

to

obtain

tion of the
2.

form f(x) =

an equa-

0.

Graph

the function f(x)

and measure

where the graph meets the x-axis;


equation f(x)

the abscissas of the points each of these abscissas satisfies the

0.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
page 186.
2.
2

1.

Solve z 2
1.

2x

graphically.
14,

Let y = x* 2x 3 and consider its graph in Figure The graph crosses the x-axis at x = 3 and x = 1.

Since y

which z - 2x

when x = 3 and when x 3 = 0. That is, 3 and

=
1

1,

these are values of x for

are roots of the equation.

are imaginary) this would be indicated the fact that the graph of f(x) would not meet the x-axis.
If the roots of f(x)
1

by

34. Graphical solution of a quadratic equation

In order to solve the equation ax 2


graphically,

+
2

bx

+c=
+
c.

(1)

we

construct the graph of the quadratic function


ajc

bx

(2)

The
I.

parabola, which

is

the graph of this function,

cuts the x-axis in two points unequal real roots;


II. touches the x-axis in just

when and only when equation


to the x-axis,

has

one pointy or is tangent

when

and only when


III. does not

the roots are equal;

meet the x-axis when and only when the roots are

imaginary.
parabola can be defined geometrically as the curve of intersection when a right circular cone is cut by a plane which is parallel to a straight line on the cone through its apex.

Note

1.

790

ADVANCED TOP/CS

IN QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

I,

ILLUSTRATION 1. In Figure 15, parabolas the graphs of II, and III are, respectively,
left

the functions in the

members

of the fol-

lowing equations.
(I)

z2 z2

(II)

(III)

+1= *'-2z + 5 =
2x

2x

0; 0;
0.

From
roots,

the graphs,

we

roots x

- 4 and x - - 2; (II) has equal = 1; (III) has imaginary roots.

see that (I) has the

In graphing a specified quadratic func-

we have no license to simplify its form by multiplication or by division.


tion,

Fig.

15

But, before solving a quadratic equation graphically, we may (1) clear the equation of fractions; (2) divide out any common constant factor from all terms; (3) make the coefficient of z 2 positive. Operation 3

would cause the corresponding graph to open upward.


EXERCISE 72

Find
1.

the real roots of the equation graphically.

2x

0.

2. x*

4.
7.

+ 4x + 7
13

0.

5.

+ 2x - 8 = x* - 2x + 3 =
=
2z 2

0.

3.

x2

+ 6# + 9
=
2

0.

0.

6.

fz

z2 .

9.

8.

4c
2z2

5.

10.

12x

11.

4x

+ 3.
t

12.

3z 2

6x

5.

grrap/&

o/

x2

4- 4z -f

4 and then in Problems 13 and

14, find

specified results by use of the graph.

13.

Find the values of x


re*

for

which the value of the function

is 1.

14. Solve 15.


ically:

+ 4x -f 4

= 6

by

inspection of the graph.

By

use of a single graph, solve each of the following equations graph2z2 - 5x - 7 = 0. 2s2 - 6x 3 = 0; 2s2 5x = 0;

35. Character of the roots

Let r and

2 represent the roots of ax

-f-

foe

+c

0.

Then, from

the quadratic formula,

ADVANCED TOPICS

IN QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
b
;

197

- b + V62 2a

4ac
8

- Vb 2

4oc
(1)

2a

numbers and that a j^ 2 4oc Then, the roots are imaginary when and only when b
a,
6,

We

assume that
if

and

c are real

0.
is

negative;
If
ft

one root is imaginary, the other is also. = s = 6/2a. Moreover, 4oc 0, then r

if

on sub-

tracting the expressions in (1)

we

obtain

2 2Vb s =

4oc
S

2a

0;

V6 -4oc - 0.
2

Hence,

if

then

fc

4ac

0.

the preceding remarks and Section 134, we see that the items in any row of the following summary hold simultaneously.

From

THE ROOTS OF
ax
2

THE VALUE OP
62 6s
62

THE GRAPH OF
axz

+ bx + c =
4ac 4oc
4ac

+ bx + c

real

and unequal real and equal


imaginary

>
= <

cuts x-axis in two points

tangent to x-axis does not touch x-axis


is

numbers, the roots are rational when 4oc is real and is a rational number. That is, and only when V& 2 4oc is a perfect the roots are rational numbers when and only when fe
If a, 6,

and

c are rational
2

square.

We
ax*

call

62

4oc

the

discriminant
2

of

the
2

quadratic
c,

equation

+ bx + c = 0,

or of the quadratic function ax -f bx 4-

as soon as

we know

the value of 6

4oc,

we can

tell

because, the general

character of the roots of the equation without solving it, and the general nature of the graph of the function without graphing it.

ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE USE OF THE DISCRIMINANT

192

ADVANCED TOPICS

/N QUADRATIC

EQUATIONS
it

Before computing the discriminant in any equation,


simplified

should be

by
1.
2

clearing of fractions

and combining terms.

EXAMPLE
function

State what you can learn about the graph of the quadratic 6 without graphing. 3a -\- 5x
1.

SOLUTION.
2.

The

discriminant of the function

is

25

72

47.
coefficient
lie

Hence, the graph would not touch the z-axis. Since the of z2 is r- 3, the graph is concave downward and therefore must
below the a>axis.

wholly

136. Conjugate imaginarics

only in the signs of the coefficients of fyeir imaginary parts, then either of the given numbers is called the conjugate of the other.
If differ

two imaginary numbers

ILLUSTRATION
of (a

1.

The conjugate
bi).

of (3

+ 5i)

is (3

5i).

The conjugate

+ bi)

is

(a

the roots of a quadratic equation are imaginary, these roots are conjugate imaginary numbers, because the imaginary parts come

When

from

V6

4oc in the quadratic formula.


2.

ILLUSTRATION

The
=t

roots of x*

-f-

4z

+5
.

=
.

are
,
.
.

v 16 ~

20

i,

conjugate imaginanes.

EXERCISE 73

Compute
1. y*

the discriminant
0.

and

tell

the character of the roots, without solving.

4.

3s2

+ 10 = - 5z + 7 =
1y

2. y* 6.

4i/

21

0. 0.

3.

z2

2z

0.

0.

9z2 3z 5x2

+
-

12z

+4
5z2
.

6.

7.

30
2x

%
3
7
2

= 2%.
fo2
0.
0.
.

8.

9.

10.

11.

13. 8a?

14. 5z2
17.

+ 1 - 2z. - 3x = 0.
=
ftc
2

12.

+ 4z = 25 + 4z = 25z + 1
4x*
2 2

3.

20z.

15. 1 18.

2x

4- .3

16.

+ 5z =

Qx

+ 4.

z2 -f

.4a;

0.

check the graph by computing the discriminant and thus determining the character of the roots.
Solve graphically;
19.

x2

4x

6.

20.

z2

+7-

4x.

21. 4z2

+ 4z =

1.

ADVANCED TOPICS
Compute

IN QUADRATIC

EQUATIONS

193

the discriminant of the function and, without graphing, state all facts which you can learn about its graph. 22. 4x* 25.

I2x

9.

23.
7.

2z 2

3z
5x

5.

24. 3**

4x.

3z2

5z

26. 4z 2

+ 7.
30.

27.

3s2

2x

+ 4.

Specify the conjugate number for the imaginary number.


28.

+ 7t.
Sum and
use of
r

29.

W.

+ V^~9.

31.

6\^"T.

37.

By

-- 6 + V6 2

product of the roots

4oc

o 2a

and

-6
a'
2

Vfe2

4oc

2a

'

we

obtain

26

2a
2
'

rs

+ Vb - 4oc - 6 - Vb - 4oc
2a
2a
2

(b

6x

4oc)

4a
2 Hence, for the equation ox

4oc

4a

+ c = 0, swm o/ the roots eqvals --f


:

r-fs= -rs

(1)

c product of the roots equals -:

=
=

c
(2)

ILLUSTRATION

1.

For 3z2

5x

+7

0,

we

find r

+s

and

rs

J.

38. Factored form of a quadratic function

THEOREM

I.

2 If r and s are the roots of ax

+ bx + c = 0,
5).

ax*
Proof.
1.

frt

+c=

a(x

r)(x

(1)

We can write
ox2

+ bx + c =
(Z

at x2 4- -a? 4\

-1
a/
c d

2.

From

Section 137,
4-

=
(r

(r

+ s)

and
=

rs.

Hence,
s).

bx

+c=

a[x

+ s)x 4- rs]

a(x

r)(x

194

ADVANCED TOPICS
1.

IN QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
equation whose roots are 5 and

ILLUSTRATION
(x

A quadratic
5)

is

+ 3)(z 2.

0,

or

s2

2x

15

0.

[a

1 in (1)]

ILLUSTRATION

A quadratic equation whose roots are J(2 > - i(2 - 30] - 0.

=b 3t) is

To

eliminate fractions

theses to exhibit the

we use a = 4 = 2-2, and then group within sum and difference of two quantities, as an

parenaid in

multiplying:
0;

[(2z

2)
1,

- 3t][(2s - 2) + 3t] we have

0,

or

(2s

- 2) - 9i 13

0.

Since

4z2

&c

+ 4 -h 9 - 0,

or

4s

- &c +

0.

certain circumstances, we have seen how to solve the equa2 c = bx 4- c. tion ax2 -f bx by first factoring the function ax

Under

Formula

permits us to reverse this process and

to /actor the

funo

tion by first solving the equation (of course, not using factoring in

the solution).

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

1. 1.

Factor 6x2
Solve 6z2

23a?

-f-

20 by

first

solving an equation.

23z

+ 20
V49 -

0,

by the quadratic formula:


db 7
;

"
a?

23

23

12

l24
O

jr

5 A

A ana

a;

2.

From formula
62*

23*

+ 20 =

6(z

$)(*

j)

(2*

5)(3*

4).

that any quadratic function of x can be expressed as a product of factors which are linear in x. However, these factors involve rational, irrational, or imaginary coefficients depending on
1 states

Formula

the nature of the roots r and


rational roots,

s.

on page 191, we

In particular, from the facts about draw the following conclusion:

c can be expressed // a, b, and c are rational numbers, ax* 4- bx as a product of real linear factors with rational coefficients when and 2 4ac is a perfect square. only when the discriminant ft

ADVANCED TOPICS

IN QUADRATIC

EQUATIONS

795

EXERCISE 74
Find
the

sum and

the product of the roots of each equation, in the

unknown

x,

without solving for x.


1.

x2
7
18

+ 5x - 3
&c

=
.

0.

2.

2x
7

5x*

+ 7.
4z*.
0.

3. 4z*
6.

3z
17

6.

4.

2z2

5.

3x

5s2

0.

7.

5x2 .

8.

12z 2

+3=
7z2

9.

9z*

7s.

10.

2z2

5z.

11. 5

4x.
6.
2

12.

4z2

12s

9.

13. ax* 16.

2z2
2z2

18.

14. + dx = h. + 3z + as + c - 0. + + 2a + d = 0.
3a;

cz2

3z

15. 4z*

ox

c.

17. 5z* 10.

+ <w + 3x + d = 0. & + ex* - 2x + ex - d - 5.


J)(*

Compute
20. 4(* 22.
(a;

the indicated product.

f)(x

+ f).
3i).

21. 6(x 23. (x

+
+ 1 + 2\/2).

+ 3i)(x - 2 -

+1-

2V2)(z

Form a
as
roots.

quadratic equation with integral coefficients having the given numbers

24. 3;
28. 32.

7.

26.

2;

3.

26. J;
30. 34.

f;
2i.

27. J; 2.

-f; -f.
}V3.

29. 2;
33.

-.
3V2.

31. 35.

\/2.
t.

36. 1 db

V2.
j}V3.

37.

=t
=fc

V5.
JV2.

38. 3
41.
44.

2\/2.
5t.

39.
42.
45.

40.
43. 46.

4
i

3i.

2i.

Ji.

2iV5.

f tV3.

47.

Jt V2.

Factor, after first solving

related quadratic equation

by use of the quadratic

formula.
48. 12z'
51.

+
-

llz
13*

36.
60.

49. 27z*
62.

24x2

48x2

+ 2Lc - 40. + 50s - 75.


+
-

50. 27x2
53.

fay
12z

16j/

27x2

32.

Without factoring or solving any equation, determine whether or not the expression has real linear factors with rational coefficients.
64. 8z*

+ 7* -

2.

56. llz2

12*

5.

56. 6z*

+ 25xy + 26j/
2x

J
.

ifFactor,

perhaps by use of imaginary or irrational numbers.


10.

57. a?

+ Ox +

58. 4s*

12x

+ 7.

59. 2z*

+ 6.

796
1

ADVANCED TOPICS
in

IN QUADRATIC

EQUATIONS

39. Equations

quadratic form
x* (z
2

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2. If

1.

Solve:
1.

5z 2
2

+6
2
2)

0. 0.

(1)

Factor:

if

3)(z

=
0,

x*

0,

then x

\/3;

z2

then x

V2.

The given equation has


SECOND SOLUTION.
2.

four solutions,

Vjji

and

=t

V2.
(1),

1.

Let y
2
2/

x2

then

2
i/

z 4 and, from

%+6=
2)

0.

Solve for y:
(y

3)(y

0;

hence, y
3. If 4. If

=
=

3 and
2, 3,

?/

2.

y y

then z2

= =

2 and z
3 and x

= =
is

A/2.
\/3. said to be in the quadratic
x*.

then x2

Comment.

The given equation

form

in

z2

because we obtain a quadratic in y on substituting y

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.

2.
1.

Solve:

2ar4
y

z~ 2

3
2
2/

= =

0.

Let

or2

then
(2y

ar4

and
1)

2#

0.

Solve for y:

3)ft/

+
rr

0;

hence, y

=
o
"~

and y

Tf

11

- thpn r~2
2

^1^9
=
a:

r2 *= 3*

1
-4-

2'

-Vfi
3

2'

4. If

2/

= -

1,

then or2

= t

1;

= v

1; x*

= -

1;

t.

5.

The

solutions are
3.

=fc

and

EXAMPLE

Solve:

(x*

+ 3z) - 3x - ftc - 4 =
2

0.

INCOMPLETE SOLUTION.
1.

Group terms:
Let y

(z

+ 3z) - 3(x + 3x) - 4


2
2

=
4,

0.

2.

x*

+ 3z;
z2

then y2

3y

4 x2

0; hence,

y
1.

and y

1.

We

should then solve

3x

and

+ 3z

= -

In solving an equation of the form x k = A where A; is a positive integer greater than 2, we agree for the present that we desire only real k solutions unless otherwise specified. The real solutions, if any, of x = A are
1
.

the real

A?th

roots of A.

4 Thus, x

has the real solutions x

= 'v/ci =

8 has no
2.

real solutions while

z6

64

ADVANCED 7OP/CS
EXAMPLE
4.
1.

IN

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
of factoring:

197

Obtain

all

roots

by use
2

8z 3

125

0.

SOLUTION.
2. 3.

Factor: (2x

+ 5)(4z or

lOx

Hence,

2x

+5=
and

0,

4z2

+ 25) = 0. lOz + 25 = 0.
400)

The

solutions are

= 5.

i(10

VlOO -

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.

Find the four 4th roots of 625.


1.

If

is

any 4th root

of 625, then x*

625.

Solve for x:
2

x4
25)(z
2

625

0;
0;

(z

+ 25) =

z2

25

or

x*

= -

25.'

Hence, x
Note
2.

5 and x

5i are the desired 4th roots of 625.

In this section the student has met further illustrations of the truth of the theorem that an integral rational equation of degree n in a single
variable

x has exactly n

roots

(we admit the possibility that some of the roots

be equal). Also, we have seen illustrations of the related fact that, if n is a positive integer, every number has exactly n distinct nth roots, some or all of which may be imaginary.

may

EXERCISE 75
Solve by the method of page 196, without first clearing of fractions they occur. Results may be left in simplest radical form.
1.

when

x*

5z2

+4
=

=
.

0.

2.

&4z 4
x4

10z2

+9
=
0.

0.

3. x*
4

8x*

16

0.

4.

9z 4

+4
8

13z2
18.

5.

+
9

15z2

4.

6. 9.

?/

=
16
3

2.

7.

4 z y 4- 7y

8.

=
1

Sly

0.

10.
13. 16. 17.

x6

7r*.

11.

27z

28X3

12.

8/

+ 39y =
=

5.

4ar4

liar2

-3 =

0.
i

14.

36X"4

13ar2

+ 1=0.
0.

250T4
8z6

26x~2
3

+1=
0.

0.

16. 2

+
-

17ar2

9Z-4

+ 35z + 27 =

18. 1

2ar2

=
0.

3or4
0.

0.

19. (x 2

z)

(&c

&c)

+
-

12

20. (x 2

+ 3z) x)
2
2

3z2

9z

=
9

21. 2(2z2 22.

6z2
17z2

+ 3z 60

0.

z2

+ 4z -

68z

0.

798

ADVANCED TOPICS

IN QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

26 25 '
x*

+ 3*

29.

a;

30. 4x*
31.

zw

30z5

64.

+ - (14z + 14z) + 24 = - 4s + * + 4z - 2x - 15 = 0. 32. 6x + 7s = 20.


2x*
a;

0.

35
2

T
+ 3a x =
3

HINT
36. 2x*
if

for

Problem

33.

Let y

(2

x)/x

2
.

llax 2

+
0.

12a2

0.

36. (2z2

- 3az) 2

2o2a;2

2a4

Find

all roots

by first using factoring.


38. z8
0.

37. 27z* 41. 81

+8

=
3

0.

39. x3

27

0.

40. 16z 4

81.
0.

27.

625z4

42.

Sy

125

0.

43. 125z

+ 27 =

ifFind the three

cube roots of each number.


46. 1.

44.

46. 64.

47.

1.

48. 8.

49. J.

60. ^y.

ifFind the

four 4th roots of each number.


63. 81.
64. 625.

61. 1.

62. 16.

66. 16.

66. 256.

67.

Jf

40.

An

operation sometimes leading to extraneous solutions


sides,

we M N represent any equation. On squaring both if3f = ATorifM = N. Hence, obtain M = N which N* consist of solutions of M = N together the solutions of M N. with those of M =
Let
2 2
,

is satisfied

2 =*

all

ILLUSTRATION

1.

is

the only root of


(x

x
x

3
3)
a *

2. 4.

(1)

On On

squaring both sides,


solving (2) for x

we obtain
find

(2)

we

3
1

2;

hence,

5
(1).

or

1.

Therefore, (2) has the root x


If

besides the root x

5 of

an operation on an equation in x produces a new equation which is satisfied by values of x which are not roots of the given equation, we have agreed to call such values extraneous roots. From

ADVANCED TOPICS

IN QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

199

the preceding discussion, we observe that, if both members of an equation are squared* extraneous roots may be introduced.
ILLUSTRATION
2.

In Illustration

1,

1 is

an extraneous

root.

141.

Irrational

equations

irrational equation is one hi which the variables occur radical signs or hi expressions with fractional exponents.

An

under

EXAMPLE
(a),

1.

Solve for x in the

folio whig

equations (a) and

(6).

2*

-2 =
1.

4.

(6)

2x

= -

2z*

+ 4.

SOLUTION.
2. 3.

Square both
4.

sides:

SOLUTION.
2.

1.

4x*

4.

2z x =

8x .+ 4 = 2x* + Sx = 0; 2z(z and # = 4.

4z2 2z
2

4)

0.

3. 4.

Sx &c

+
=

Square both sides: 4 = 2x2 4.

+
-

0; 2z(z

4)

0.

and

4.

TEST.

Substitute x

=
No.
(a)
:

in (a) :

TEST.

Substitute x

in (6):

Does

= V4? -2 = 2?
2
4 in

Or, does

Does

= - VI?
*=

Yes.
:

Substitute x

4 in
6?

(6)

Substitute x

Does 8
is

2 6

= - V36?

Does 8
x

is

= V36? = not, and


2

Yes.

Or, does
is

No.

a root.

is not,

and x

a root.

met the extraneous roots x = in solving (a) and x = 4 hi solving (6). The test of the values obtained in Step 4 in either solution was necessary in order to reject these extraneous roots. The necessity for the test is also shown by the fact that, although (a) and (b) are different equations, all distinction between them is lost after squaring.
Comment.

We

SUMMARY.
1.

To

solve

an equation

involving radicals:
to

Transpose

the

most complicated radical

one member and

all

other terms to the other side.

// the most complicated radical is a square bers; if a cube root, cube both members; etc.
2.

root,

square both

mem-

Repeat Steps 1 and 2 with the effort to eliminate all radicals inThen, solve the resulting equation. volving the unknowns.
3.
4.

Test each value obtained in Step 3 by substitution in the given equation to determine which values are roots.
* Also true
if

both sides are raised to any positive integral power.

200
Note
1.

ADVANCED 7OP/CS

IN

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

Recall that, if square root of A and that

is

positive,

VA

or A$, represents the positive represents only the principal nth root of A.

VA,

Also, in testing for extraneous roots, remember that m represent only the principal nth root of a
.

we

are using a

to

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.

2.
1.

Solve:

(x

Square:

3. Simplify:

- v2* + 5 = 3. Vx - 2 = 3 -f V2z + 5. * - 2 = 9 + 6v2*45 + - * - 16 = 6V2* 4 5. 2)*

2x

+ 5.

4.

Square:

+ 32* + 256 x*- 40* + 76 = 0;


*2

36(2*

+ 5)

(x

38)(*

2)

Possible roots of the given equation are x

38 and x

= 0. = 2.

TEST.

Substitute x

2 and * 2

38 in the original equation:

* *

= =

2: does

38: does

- vT+5 = 3, or does -3 = 3? No. V38 -2 - V76 + 5 = 3, or does 6-9 = 3? No.


V2 =
2 nor *

Hence, neither x

38

is

root.

Therefore there are no solutions

for the given equation.

EXERCISE 76
Solve for x or y or
1.
z.

Va+2

3.

2.

V3 -z =
v'J+l = 3* = 5\/2.
2V3
5s

5.

3. 6.

V2 - 7z = v"6* - 2 = 4.
=
4.

4.

8.

1.

9. (2 -f z)*

10. (3
13.

+z = (2* + 3)*

11.
5.

12. (2

2)*

= -

2.

14.

= =

0.

15.

Vy =
4*2

y. 0.

= 3-2*. - 2* -2 =

17.
0.

3V* +

2*.

18.
0.

+ zV3 =
3j/\/5

20.

v/*?^"24*

-3 =
V2*

21. 2i/2

0.

4- 1
26.

Vi.
1.

4 4 4- V^ =

28.
30,

V2*4-3 = 2. V3 -2* + V242* = 3.

^2 -

27. 29.

V? -2* - V3 - * = 1. V2 - 4* + 2\/l - 3* = 2.

g*4

2*

2.

31.

2*45-

2.

ADVANCED 7OP/CS
32.

IN QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
33.

201

V3 +

(3

x)*

x*.

34. Solve for x: 35. Solve for z: 36.

+x-2-x = V3x + a - 3Vx + Va = 0. Vz - a + V2z + 3a = V5a.


2Vx2
2

x2

2.

V3-f

3x

= 2V3x Vx"

\/3

x.

37. Solve for x: 38. Solve v

V3x

+ 46 =

2V2x

-h b.

=
=

V20s,

(a) for s;

(6) for 0.

39. Solve

7r\/-> (a) for

Z;

(6) for g.

*40
SOLUTION.
2.
1.

Solve: 4x*

7x

=
2

0.

Let
(4y
2,

xi;

then

y
0;

=
y

x$

and
2

4g/

+
y

7y
J.

0.

Solve for y:

l)(y

+ 2)
=
J
or

=
2

= -

and
2;

3. If

y y

= =
J,

then

xi

or
-Six

'v'x

hence,

x
3

4. If

then

x^

J;

hence,
variable.

(J)

= =

8.

irSolve by reducing to

a quadratic in some new


42. 2x* 45. 48.

41. 52 44.

+ 3Vz = 2. 3x + 7xi = 6.
=
8xi

47. 3xi
60.

4.
2

+ 9xi = 5. 2x* = 6 + a. 4x^ = 7x* + 2.


12.

x2

+ 2x - Vz + 2x - 6 =
all real roots.

61.

+5= 46. 2x-1 + x~* = 6. 49. 4x~ + 3x~* = 2x + 3V2x + 3 = 7.


43.

3X"1

1.

if

Find

62. #* 66. y*

= =

8.

53.

x*

= =

32.
9.

64. 2$

16.

65.

x*
x*

= -

8.

4.

67. x*

68.

&
=

= 27.

243.

69. 62. (2

= -

27.

60. (2x
63.

1)*

4.

61. (5
0.

3x)*

2x~3

15x-*

-8 =

64.

3X3

+ 3x)* = 8. + 26x* -9 = 0.

*1 42. Miscellaneous problems about the roots

EXAMPLE

1.

If c is

a constant and 2
3x 2

is

one root of the equation


0,

7x

+c=
s,

find the other root.

SOLUTION.

Let the roots be r and


r

with r

2.

Then, from page 193,

+8=

or,

+s

*;

202

ADVANCED TOPICS
2.

IN QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
if

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2. 3. 4.
5.

Find the constant h

exceeds the other by 5:


1.

one root of the following equation x2 x Zh = 0.


r
r
s

Given condition:

5.
1.

(1) (2)

Sum
Solve

of the roots:

+s
rs
8

Product of the roots:


(1)

2h.

(3) (4)

and

(2) for r

and

s:

Substitute (4) in (3):


3.

= 3; -6= -

= h

2.

2A;

3.

(5)

EXAMPLE

Find the values of k


kx*

for

which the following equation in


fc

x has equal roots:

+ 2s 2 2

3kx

+ =
fc

0.

SOLUTION.

1.

Group the terms


(k

in standard form:

+ 2)z -

3kx

Hence, the standard coefficients are a


2. If

+ = 0. = k + 2, 6 =
4oc
or

3k,
is

and

=
=

&.

the roots are equal, the discriminant 62

zero:

discriminant
3.

= (8)

3&)

4(&
or

+ 2)(fc)
k

=0;
and
k

5k*

Sk

0.

Hence,

k(5k
I.

0;

THEOREM

2 // one root of ox

+ bx + c =
=

is 2fte negative

of the

other root, then 6

0. s

Proof.
2.

1.

If r

and

are the roots, then r

s,

or r

+ s = 0.
6

Hence,

'

+s=

=
a
0,

0, '

or

0.

Therefore

0.

THEOREM

II.

7/6 =

then one root of ax 2

bx

+c
=

is the

negative of the other root.

Proof.

Since 6

0,

then

=0 = r + s.

Hence, r

s.

Note 1. Theorem II is the converse of Theorem I. Theorem II could have been abbreviated by adding the words and conversely at the end of Theorem I. Or, both theorems are included in the following statement:
.

"

One

root of ax*

+ bx + c =

is the negative of the other root

when and only

when

=
I,

0."

Theorem

In this statement we justify the phrase only when by and the word when by Theorem II.
4.

EXAMPLE

+ 9A
2.

a?

Find the values of the constant h so that the equation 3 -\- x will have one root the negative of the other.
1.

SOLUTION.

Write in standard form:


II:

From Theorem

W-

hx* -f
1

x(W
h

1)

3
.

0.

0;

d=

ADVANCED TOPICS

IN

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

203

*EXERCISE 77
use of the discriminant, find the values of the constant k for which the equation will have equal roots for the unknown x.

By

1.

4x*
fcc
2

4
6.

+1+ 3fo + 5 =
Zkx

0.

2.

4z 2

+ 5kx + 4
5.

=
fcr

0.
2

3. 2fer2

+93. 4.

\2x.

0.
0.

x2

a;

5s2

2fcc

a;

=
k

7. 0.

&2:t2

fcc
2

x
2x

=
=

8.

x2

kx

9. fee

+x +
the

Axe

Find
5z 2

<Ae values of the constant

k for which

graph of the function of x


12.

will be tangent to the x-axis.

10.

2kx

+ k.
3fc

11. 2kx*

3fcc

+ 5.
2x2

s2

3x

fcc.

13. 2z 2

+ 2z -

2A;x.

14.

2Jb 2

5kx

+ 5.
=
0.

In

all

probkms, x
is 3, is
is

is the

unknown and

all other letters

are constants.

15. If 16. If

one root
one root

find the other root:


2, find

2z2

5x + d

the other root:

3x2 -f dx

+5=

0.

17. If
18. If

one root one root

5, find

the other^oot:

2z2
3z2

is J,

find the other root:

+ bx 3 = 0. + 7x + h = 0.
4x
5hx

Find
19.

the value of the constant

h under
5:
*

the given condition.

The sum

of the roots
of
tl|e

is
is 7:

20. 21.
22.
23.

The sum

roots

The product The product One


One

of the roots of the roots

is

9:

is

by
by

6: 2:

root exceeds the other root exceeds the other root


is

24. 26.

3:

One

four times the other:

+ 6 = 0. 5x - hx* -f Mhx + 4 = 0. 2x 3/u: - 6z + 4/i = 0. 3/w; + 5x + h - 1 = 0. 2x 4A + 5x = 0. 6 = 0. 3z 5x + 3h 2x + 20z + A = 13.


3hx 2
2

One

root is the negative of the other; find h.

27. 2to - ihx - 5h?x + 6 = 0. + Zhx - 5 = 0. 29. h*x* +^h*x + 5hx - 4 = 0. 28. x + 12z - 3A x + h = 0. 31. x - 3A z = A - 2x. 30. hx* + Wx = 3 + x. 33. x - hx 32. 3z + 5h?x = 2 + x. + 2x = 0. ox + bx + c = 34. Prove that, has one root zero, then c = 0,
26. hx*
2

Ox

/i a;

if

and

conversely.

CHAPTER
THE BINOMIAL THEOREM

143. Expansion of a positive

integral

power

of a binomial

By

multiplication,
1

we

obtain the following results:

(x

+ y) = x + y\
4
2

(re

+ yY = & + 3x*y 4= x* + 4x*y 4- 6z 4- 4XI/ 4(x + y) 2| = z 5z 4- y) 4+ lO^y + lOz


(x
3

i/

*/

4-.5Z2/

+ y*.

We
I.

see that,

if

n=
the

1, 2, 3, 4,

or

5, the

expansion of (x

+ y) n conx

tains (n 4- 1)

terms with

the following properties:

In any term

sum of the
,

exponents of x and y i& n.


other term the exponent of

II.

The first term. is x n and in each


than in the preceding term.

less

is I

r
the ex-

~ The second term is nx n l y, and in each succeeding term ponent of y is 1 more than in the preceding term.
III.

IV. // the coefficient of any term is multiplied by the exponent of x in that term and if the product is divided by the number of that term, the
quotient obtained is the coefficient of the next term.
*

ILLUSTRATION

1.

In

we obtain

(at^ y}

4
,

the third term

is

6zV* By Property IV,


In (x
-s-

Or 4, of the fourth term. amhe'^pefficient the fourth term is lQx*y*; m^rqjperty IV, we obtain (10-2) the coefficient of the fifth term.* s
(6-2)
-5-

3,

+ y)

B
,

4, or 5, as

V. The

coefficients of
2.

terms equidistant from the ends are the same.


coefficient of the

ILLUSTRATION

The

second term equals that of the

next to the last term, etc.

THE BINOMIAL THEOREM

205
if

We shall assume that Properties I to V are true


integer, although

we have merely verified their truth The theorem which justifies this assumption 4, and 5. binomial theorem, which we shall accept without proof

any positive when n - 1, 2, 3,


is

is

called the

in this text.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
(c

1.

Expand
1.

(c

-f w)

7
.

By

use of Properties
c5
2

I, II,

and

III,

we obtain
c2

+ w) =
7

c7

+ 7cfiw +
left for

-f

cV +

eW +

^6

cufl

+w

7
,

where spaces are


2.

the

unknown

coefficients.
is

By

Property IV, the coefficient of the third term


is

(7-6) 4- 2, or 21;

that of the fourth term


3.
(c

(21 -5)

-5-

3, or 35.

By
7

Property V, we obtain the other

coefficients; hence,

+ w>)

c7

+ 7c*w + 21cV + 35cV -f

(w\
2a
-r

SOLUTION.

1.

(2a

=
|)
[(2a)

(- |) ]'

2.

We use

Properties I to

V with x

2a and y

and keep the terms ^ o

of the binomial within parentheses in finding the coefficients:

'

(2a)

80
.

or

160

...

20

following array of numbers is called Pascal's Triangk. The successive rows give the coefficients in the successive positive integral powers of x -f y. To form any row after
ATote 1.

The

the second, we first place 1 at the left; the 2d number is the sum of
the 1st

and 2d numbers in the preceding row; the 3d number in the new row is the sum of the 2d and 1 10 10 5 5 3d numbers in the preceding row; etc. This triangle was known to Chinese mathematicians in the early fourteenth century, and it appeared in print in Europe for the first time
in 1527.

14641

121 1331
1 1

206

THE BINOMIAL THEOREM


exhibits the fact that the largest coefficient the coefficient of the central term oMerms.

The preceding diagram


hi

any power

of

+y

is

observe that the signs are alternately plus and minus hi the expansion of a power of a binomial where one term bears a plus sign

We

and the other term bears a minus


144. The
factorial

sign.

symbol
is

The symbol
ILLUSTRATION

n\

read

"n factorial," and


I

product of all integers from


1.

ton inclusive,

an abbreviation for the where n is a positive integer.


is

5!

1-2-3-4-5

120.

31

=
1

1-2-3

6.

1L =
10!

1-2-3-4-5-6-7 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10

J_
720*

8-9-10

EXERCISE 78

Expand each power by use


1.

of Properties
d)
6
.

ItoV.
(x

6.

9.

+ 6) (2 + a) (a + 6
(a

6
.

2.

(c

3.
7
.

y)

9
.

4.

4
.

6.

(x

2o)

7.

(36

y).
6 2 ).

8.

+ 3) (2c + 3d)
6

(c

8
.

2 8

) 6
.

10. (c8

3d}
a)
9
.

4
.

11. (a2

12. (c

x3 ) 6

13. (x

i)

14. (1
2 4

16.

(Vz - v^).
5
.

16. (z*
19. (z*

+ a)

6
.

17.

(- a

+ JT
.

18. (2T8

x)

2a~ 1 ) 4

20.

21
,

1.(?-36>V \a /
26. (a2
.

Find only
23. (a

the first three terms of the expansion.


16
.

+
-

12)
.I)

24. (c 28. (1

3)

25
.

+6

3 20
)
.

26. (1
.

+ 2a)
2

10
.

27. (1

22
.

12

.2)

29. (1

- V2) -

12

30. (1

3s3 ) 18

31. (2x
36. (*

a2) 80,
n.

32. (z*

y)

36.

+ &)". (a + z)*.
expression.

33. (a" 1

+ 3) M
y)

34. (x 38.

a"2) 11
)*.

37. (z2

(w; .-h

Compute each factorial


39. 6! 40. 8!

71

ot

41. 11!

42.

3!

43.

5! 4!

^fVi

45. General term of the binomial expansion

By

use of Properties I to

IV

of Section 143,

we

obtain

THE BINOMIAL THEOREM


,

207

(z

T y)
,

v.

%n

+
,
,

nx n~ ly
i

n(n

~-jr

1) ^ (1)

n(nas

In

(1)

in y, y* t

" we read the dots " and y8 we observe special


,

"and

so forth."

In the terms

cases of the following facts, which

we

shall accept

without proof.
,

SUMMARY.

r Description of the term involving y in (x

+ y) n

A. The exponent of x
B. The denominator
that is,

is

r.

product of all integers from the denominator is rl


the coefficient

is the

tor inclusive;

C.

The numerator of
r
f-

has r factors, the first being

n and

each other being

1 less

than the preceding factor.

The

last factor is

1.

When
.

(A), (B),
.

and (C) are combined, they


t
.

state that
r 4* 1)

the

term involving yr

is

n(n

1) -

(n

p
write

xn

. r

r r
.

/\
(2)

By

use of formula
(x

2,

we may

-*"
*

+ y) n =
n(n

+
-? r!

1)

nx~*y

n(n

xn ~*y* -f
(3)

(n

1) vn _ r, ir r AC" -

y
ir

J_

l*n i-y-

We
write

refer to (3) as the binomial formula.

By

use of

(2),

of (3) without writing the other terms. n refer to (2) as the general term of the expansion of (x y)

any term

we can Hence, we
.

ILLUSTRATION

1.

The term
jj

4 involving y in the expansion of (x

+ y)

is

7.5.5.4
x*y*

or

35zV.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

1.

Find the 8th term of (3o*

11

6)

The 8th term


Hence, use
is

will involve the

the binomial.

8th term

''
(2)

with r

7th power of the 2d term of


3a*,

7,

and y

b:

<3*ty<-

W-

26,730a'&'.

208
Note
1.

THE BINOMIAL THEOREM

derive a formula for the rth term in (3), we notice that this term will contain y*" 1 as a factor. Hence, we substitute (r 1) for r in
(2)

To

and

find that
tte rth term is
*i

~*u

n(n

1) '

(n
^.

4 2)

ixn-r+i^r-i.

(4)

We may call
solved

(4),

as well as

(2),

the general term.

by use

of (4) with r

Example

could have been

8.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

2.

Find the term involving


Since 2"

zlz in the

expansion of

(v

z3 ) 7 .
4,

=
is

(z

3 4

we use formula 2 with n


t;3

=
.

7, r

v,

and y

z3 : the

term

T~o~q~l
6

(~~

2;3 )

4
>

or

35V3 ;?12

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

3.

Compute
(1.01)
6

(1.01)
(1

correct to 3 decimal places.


6

2 = I 6 + 6(1) (.01) (.01) 4 = 14 6(.01) + 15(.01) 2 -f 20(.01) 4 = 1 -f .06 + .0015 + .000020 H (negligible = 1.06152 = 1.062, approximately.
6 4 3

4 .Ol) 4 15(1)

terms)

EXERCISE 79

Find only
1.

the specified term.

Term
Term Term

6 involving y in the expansion of (a 6 involving x

2.

4 y) in the expansion of (z + x)
y)

9
.

10
.

3. 4.

involving y* in the expansion of (x


6 involving z in the expansion of (x

7
.

Term

4 3y)

8
.

5.
7.

4th term of (a 6th term of (a 2

x)

9
.

6.

3d term of (w
10th term of (x 2

11

z)

4 x)
-

7
.

8.

4y
.

3 10

) 7
.

9.

4th term of (x

5y)
.I)

10. 5th 12.

term of

(1

.02)

11. 6th

term of
13.

(1

8
.

4th term of (Jx

Term
Term

s involving 2 in the expansion of (x

22 ) 6

14.

involving

w10 in

the expansion of (w*

4
y)

8 8
I/ )
.

15.

Term

8 involving y in the expansion of (x

n.

THE BINOMIAL THEOREM


16.
17. 18.

209
a

Term
Term

3 involving z in the expansion of (o

involving x% in the expansion of (y


(x*

+
2 8 ) .

Middle term of

y)

19.
.

20.

Middle terms of (a*


22.

7
2/)

21.

+ 3* Middle terms of (2s* + j/*).


Middle term of (a
(

Term

involving -j in the expansion of

23.

Term

involving -g in the expansion of

(sp

-\

(y
Find
power.
25. (a
the term or terms with the largest coefficient in the

x\* o)

'

expansion of the
28. (c

+ x)*.
-

26. (c

10

w>)

27. (a2

+ 6)

9
.

rf

)".

of the binomial theorem. In any problem involving decimals t use only enough terms to obtain the result correct to three decimal places.

Compute by use
a)
4
.

29. (10 33. 51 3


.

30. (100

2)

3
.

31.

99 4

32. 394

34. (1.01) 7 .

35. (1.01) 12 . 39. (.98) 6 . 43. (.49) 9


.

36. (1.02).

37. (1.03) 7 . 41. C1.02) 11


.

38. (.99) 6 .
42. (.52) 8 .

40. (1.04) 10.


.

44. 101 B

45. 62*.

CHAPTER

13
AND VARIATION

RATIO, PROPORTION,

146. Ratio

The ratio of one number a to a second number a/6. The ratio of a to 6 is sometimes written a:b.
tion,

is

the quotient ratio is a frac-

and any

fraction can be described as

ratio:

a:b

=
|if

(1)

The
of the

ratio of

two concrete quantities has meaning only


Their ratio
is

same

kind.

they are the quotient of their measures in

terms of the same unit.


ILLUSTRATION
1.

The

ratio of 3 feet to 5 inches is

^.

147. Proportion

proportion
is

proportion proportion

a statement that two ratios are equal. That is, a merely a statement that two fractions are equal. The
is
*

a:b = c:d

means
read

that

-r

3a
is

(1)

The proportion

a: 6

c:d

is

"a

is

to 6 as c

to d."

We say

that the four numbers 'In a proportion a: 6


are called

and d form a proportion. = c:d, the first and fourth numbers, a and d, the extremes, and the second and third, b and c, are called
a, 6, c,

the

means
it

of the proportion.
1.

ILLUSTRATION
change

solve the proportion a;: (25 x) 3:7, to fractional form, and then solve the resulting equation:

To

we

first

x
*"~

Z X

3
*'*

Jx =

75

3z;

ICte

75;

hence, *

7.5.

RAT/0, PROPORTION,

AND VARIATION

211

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2. Also,
3.

1.

Divide 36 into two parts with the ratio 3:7.


1.

x\y

Let x and y be the parts; then x - =* 3 = 3:7, or Hence,

+ y " 36.
7x
3y.

(2)

(3)

On

solving the system [(2), (3)]


If

we obtain

(x

10.8,

25.2).

ATote

Jf .

two

triangles (or polygons of

any number

of sides) are similar,

then

(a) the ratio of

any two

sides of one triangle equals the ratio of the corre(6) the

sponding sides of the other triangle, and

area of one triangle is


is to the

to the

area of the other as the square of any side of the first triangle
the corresponding side of the other triangle.

square of

EXAMPLE

2.

similar triangle,

a triangle are 12, 8, and 15 inches long. In a the longest side is 40 inches long. Find the other sides.
sides of

The

Let x and y be the lengths in inches of the sides of the similar triangle corresponding to those sides which are 8 and 12 inches long in the first triangle. Then, SOLUTION.
1.

y:12

= =

40:15 40:15

or

r | o

(4)

z:8
2.

or

~
4ft
JLO

(5)

Solving (4) and (5)

we

find y

32

feet

and x

21J

feet.

EXERCISE 80
Express each ratio as a fraction and simplify.
2.

J:.

3.

5:7.
7. 9.

4.

x:-

6.

Find
6. 8.

the ratio of the given quantities.

75 pounds to 160 ounces.


51 pints to 17 quarts.
10.

27 days to 156 hours.

25 miles to 3175 yards.

72 cubic feet to 1320 cubic inches.

Change
11. 3:(20 13. x:(x
15.

to fractional

form and

solve.

2x)

5:2.

12. (2 14.
16.

25)
3z)

6. 2.

2*:(5

+ 5y) = 3:2. - x):(3 + x) - (4 - *):(2 -f x). (2 - - 2:5*. (4 + x):(3 + x}


3y):(4

17.

line

the ratio 5: 4.

18 niches long is divided into two parts whose lengths have Find the lengths.

272

RATIO, PROPORTION,

AND VARIATION

Solve by introducing one or more unknowns.


18. Divide
19.

45 into two parts whose ratio

is

4: 11.

Divide 90 into two parts such that the ratio of one part decreased

by 5

to the other part decreased

by 10

is

1:4.
is

20. 21.

Find two numbers whose difference

18 and whose ratio

is

4:3.

The

triangle,

a triangle are 12, 8, and 18 inches long. In a similar the shortest side is 40 inches long. Find the other sides.
sides of sides of

22.

The
is

a polygon are

10, 7, 4,

and 8 inches

long.

If

the long-

est side

lengthened by 2 feet, by how lengthened to obtain a similar polygon?


23.

much

should the other sides bo

niches.
24.

whose base is 15 inches long has an area of 220 square Find the area of a similar triangle whose base is 6J feet long.
triangle

of a quadrilateral is 49 square feet and its longest side is 12 feet long. Find the area of a similar quadrilateral whose longest side is 15 feet long.
25.

The area

The area
feet.

of a triangle

is

150 square feet and

its

shortest side

is

12 feet long.

Find the shortest side of a similar triangle whose area


6 feet

is

30 square
26.

A man

tall

stands at the foot of a tower and casts a shadow


is

10 feet long.
27.

How

high

the tower

if its

shadow

is

69 feet long?

9J

A man 5J feet tall stands 40 feet from a street light and casts a shadow feet long. How high is the light?
3: a;

28. Solve the proportion 29. Solve the proportion,

z:27

for #.
x.

a:x
called

=
a

x:b for

If a:x If a:x

x: 6, then

is

x:b, then x*

ab or x

proportional between a and b. =t Vo&; or, if neither a nor b is zero,


b.

mean

there are two

mean proportionals between a and


4.

Find the mean proportionals


32. 2

between each of the following pairs of numbers.


30. 33. 36.

64 and

31.

4 and
2 and

8.

J.

and

8.

25 and 25. 2o3 and 4o.

34.

36. 38.

3 and 27.

37. y*

and x~4

-4
y

,.-,,-12. 2-t/

'

zy and * + 2z + 4 2-2
to

*// a:b = c:x, then x is called the fourth proportional Find the fourth proportional to each set of numbers:
41. 2,

a,

b,

and

c.

5,

and

14.

42. 5, 4,

and

7.

43. 3, 6,

and

a'6.

RAT/O, PROPORTION,

AND VARIATION
a and
b.

213
Find
the

*// a

6 x, then x is called the third proportional to


:

third proportional to each pair of numbers:

44. 18; 50.

45. 2J;

46. 2xy, y.

47. 5m*n;

3m3

*// a:b
48.

c:d and

if

no denominator involved

is zero, prove the following

properties of the proportion.

PROPERTY

I.

ad

6c; or, in

any proportion,

the product of the

means

equals the product of the extremes.


49.

PROPERTY

II.

==
-?;
tt

or, the

means may

be interchanged without deis

stroying the proportion.

(The resulting proportion

said to be obtained

from a:b
50.

c:d

by

alternation.)

PROPERTY

III.

(The resulting proportion

is

said to be ob-

tained from a:b

c:d

by
T

inversion.)

51.
tion.

PROPERTY IV.

-7

(Said to be obtained

by composi-

To

prove, add 1 to both sides of a: b


r

c:d.)

52.

PROPERTY V.

-7

(Said to be obtained

by

division.)

148. Direct variation

Let x and y be related variables.

Then, we say that


to x,

is

proportional

or

y varies
y

directly as x, or

is directly

proportional
}

to

x or
y

y varies as x

in case there exists a constant k such that, for every value of x, there
is

a corresponding value of y given by

y =

kx.

(1)

We call k the constant of proportionality or the constant of variation.


ILLUSTRATION
radius r

The circumference C of a circle varies directly because C = 2irr. The constant of proportionality is 2ir.
1.

as the

From y =

kx,

we

obtain k

= 11
X

Hence,

if

is
is

proportional to x,

the ratio of corresponding values of y and z

a constant.

Con-

RATIO, PROPORTION,
versely,
is
if

AND VARIATION
y
*

the ratio of corresponding values of two variables y and x


is

a constant, then y

proportional to x, because the equation X


a function of x and

leads to y

kx.
2.

ILLUSTRATION
then y
If

If
is

is

if it is

known

that -

4,

4x,

and y

proportional to x.

y is proportional to x, then x is proportional to y. In other words, the proportionality relationship is a reciprocal property. This is true
because,
if

kx, then

*- T

y.

(2)

Hence, if y varies as x, with fc as the constant of proportionality, tnen x varies as y, with l/k as the constant of
proportionality. If y varies directly as x, so that equation 1 is true, then the graph of the relationship
is

a straight
y.

line,

because

(1) is linear

in

x and
of k,
of (1).

observe that, for any value the graph of (1) passes through the

We

origin,

because (x

0,

0) is

a solution

ILLUSTRATION 3. If y is proportional to x, with 3 as the constant of proportionality, then The graph of this equation is given y = 3x.
in Figure 16.
1

49. Inverse variation

Fis.

16

We say that
y y
in case there exists
is

is inversely proportional to x,

or

varies inversely as x,
x, there

a constant k such that, for every value of a corresponding value of y given by

y *

k x

(i)

From
of

this equation, k
is

xy, or the product of corresponding values

x and y

a constant.

RATIO, PROPORTION,
ILLUSTRATION
1.

AND VARIATION

215

necessary for a train to go a given distance d varies inversely as the speed s of the train because t =* d/8. The constant of proportionality here is d.

The time

with k as the constant of proportionality, then likewise x varies inversely as y, because the equation A; xy, which comes from (1), leads to both of the equations
If

y varies inversely as

x,

and
2.

=y
If

(2)

ILLUSTRATION

y varies

in-

versely as x, with 4 as the conthen of stant proportionality, y = 4/x or xy = 4. The graph of

y as a function of x is the graph of the equation xy = 4. This graph

has
or

no
y

points

for

which x
j* 4.

=
0,

because in such

cases

xy

and hence xy

We
Fis.

make up the following table of values by substituting the values of x in y = 4/z. The graph, in Figure

17

extends beyond all limits upward and downward, approaching the y-axis as shown. Similarly, as x grows numerically large without bound, either through positive or through negative
17,

values, y approaches zero


in Figure 17
is

and the curve approaches the


a hyperbola.*

z-axis.

The curve

an

illustration of

50. Joint variation

We say that
z varies jointly as

x and

y,

or

z is directly proportional to z is proportional to

x and
or

y,

or

x and

d)

y,

z varies as

x and

y,

in case z is proportional to the product xy, or

z'= hxy,
*

(2)

Graphs of hyperbolas are considered

in detail in

Chapter

16.

216

RATIO, PROPORTION,

AND VARIATION
Notice that the significance is that x and y are multiplied

where k is a constant of proportionality. of the word and hi each statement hi (1)


in (2).

Any

of the various types of variation


1.

may be

combined.
inversely

ILLUSTRATION

To

say that z varies

directly as

x and y and

as uP means that z

kxy/vP.
If

ILLUSTRATION 2. and inversely as z3


.

P=

lOafy/s

3
,

then

P varies

directly as

#2 and

y,

51

Applications of variation equations

Suppose it is known that certain variables are related by a variation equation, with an unknown constant of proportionality, k. Then, if one set of corresponding values of the variables is given, we can
find
A;

by

substituting the values in the variation equation.


1.

EXAMPLE
and

If

is

proportional to x and

w2

and

if

36 when x

w~

3, find

y when x

3 and

w=

4.

SOLUTION.
constant.
2.

1.

We

are given that y

ku?x, where k

is

an unknown

To

find k, substitute (y

36,

36
3.

&(3 )(2);

From

(1),
(a?

4. Substitute

3,

w-

4) in

= 2, w = 3) in y = 36 = 18fc or k = 2. = 2w*x. (2): y - 2- 16-3 =


x

kw*x:
(1) (2)

96.

Notice that the following steps were taken hi Example


1.

1.

The variation statement was


*

translated into

an equation

involving

an unknown
2.

constant of proportionality.

The unknown constant was found by substituting given data. 3. The value of the constant of proportionality was substituted in the equation of variation, and this equation was used to obtain the value
of one variable by use of given values of the other variables.

Useful information can be obtained


tion

by use

of

an equation

of varia-

on many occasions when the data are not

sufficient to enable

us

to find the value of the constant of proportionality.

EXAMPLE
square of

2.

The

kinetic energy of a

moving body

is

proportional to the

Find the ratio of fye kinetic energy of an automobile traveling at 50 miles per hour to the kinetic energy of the same automobile traveling at 20 miles per hour.
its velocity.

RATIO, PROPORTION,
SOLUTION.
2

AND VARIATION

217

1.
,

Then, E = kv permit us to find the value of &.) 2. Let EI be the energy at 20 miles per hour, and E2 the energy at 50 miles per hour. Then, #1 - *(20) 2 or Et - 400fc; (3)

Let E be the energy, and v the velocity in miles per hour. Where A; is a constant of proportionality. (The data do not

# =
2

&(50)

or

# =
2

2500&.

(4)

3.

From

(3)

and

(4),

E1 _ ~
Ei
Thus,

2500fe

_ ~

26

"

400&

^ **'

2 is

6J times as large as EI.

In applications of an equation of variation, the constant of proportionality will depend on the units in terms of which the variables in the problem are measured. Hence, if the constant is determined for one set of units, care must be exercised to employ the same units whenever this value
Note
1.

of the constant

is

used.

EXERCISE 81
Introduce Utters if necessary and express the relation by ing an unknoum constant of proportionality.
1.

an equation

involv-

H varies directly as x and inversely as wP.


B is proportional to x
Z is proportional
to
2

2. 3. 4.
6. 6.

and inversely proportional to


varies inversely as y*.
2

z.

\ x and
/r

K is proportional to z and w and inversely proportional to xy. (x + 2) is inversely proportional to (y + 3).


The
area of a triangle
of
is

proportional to
is

its altitude.
its radius.

7.

The volume The volume The weight The power

a sphere

proportional to the cube of

8.

of a specified quantity of gas varies inversely as the


it, if

pressure applied to
9.

the temperature remains unchanged.


inversely

as the square of
10.

body above the surface of the earth varies the distance of the body from the earth's center.
of a

available in a jet of water varies jointly as the weight of the water per cubic foot, the cube of the water's velocity, and the crosssection area of the jet.
11.

The maximum horsepower

of the boiler which can be served


is

by a

chimney of given cross-section area


the height of the chimney.

proportional to the square root of

218

RATIO, PROPORTION,
give

AND VARIATION
the variable

For each formula,


language of variation.
12.

a statement about
letters

on

the left side in the

All

except the constant


14. z

k represent

variables.

7w.

13. z
4-

3x\
r2

5xy*.

16.

16. w y

4*

-T-

17. 10

18.

<>

u =
z

19.

rt

w-

By
20.

employing

all data, obtain

21.

P is directly R is inversely
=
2

an equation relating the variables. 18 if x = 4. proportional to x* and P


proportional to x and directly proportional to
5.
2
;

y,

while

R=
y

4 when x

3 and y

22.

U varies directly as 3 and y, and inversely as z


and
2
3.

C7

15

when

a;

5,

2,

23.

# varies jointly as x and y and inversely as Vz; H =


3,

when z =

2,

and

9.
if

24. If

w
y

is

- -

proportional to z and

w=

5 when x

7, find

w when
y

6.
is

25. If

inversely proportional to

x and

if

5 when x

20, find

when x
26. If

15.

is

=
27.

3 when

proportional to x and inversely proportional to when y = 9 and x = 5. 2 and y = 4, find

y,

and

if

The distance fallen by a body, starting from a position of rest in a vacuum near the earth's surface, is proportional to the square of the number of seconds occupied in falling. how far will it fall in 7 seconds?
28.
v, is

If

a body

falls

256 feet in 4 seconds,

kinetic energy E, of a mass of pounds 1 = 2500 foot-pounds proportional to mv . If

The

moving with a velocity when a body weighing

64 pounds is moving at a velocity of 50 feet per second, find the kinetic energy of a body weighing 30 pounds whose velocity is 2400 feet per minute.

one body is sliding on another, the force of sliding friction is proportional to the normal pressure between the bodies (if this pressure is moderate). If the sliding friction between two cast-iron plates is 60 pounds when the normal pressure is 270 pounds, find the normal pressure when the
29. If
sliding friction is

600 pounds.
safe load of

a horizontal beam supported at its ends varies directly as its breadth and the square of its depth and inversely as the distance between the supports. If the maximum is 2400 pounds for a beam 4 inches wide and 10 inches deep, with supports 15 feet apart, find the maximum load for a beam of the same material which is 3 inches wide and 5 inches deep, with supports 25 feet apart.
30.

The maximum

RAT/0, PROPORTION,
31.

AND VARIATION

219

the supports be placed if a beam 5 inches wide and 8 inches deep, like those in Problem 30, supports 6000 pounds?
far apart

How

may

32.

A beam like those in Problem 30 is 6 inches wide and


How deep must the beam be
of

the supports are

12 feet apart.
33.

to support 3500 pounds?

steam per second which will flow through a hole varies jointly as the steam pressure and the area of a cross section of the hole. If 40 pounds of steam per second at a pressure of 200 pounds per square inch flows through a hole whose area is 14 square niches, (a) how much steam at a pressure of 260 pounds per square inch will flow through a hole whose area is 20 square inches; (6) what is the area of a hole which allows 30 pounds of steam to flow through it when the pressure is 300 pounds
per square inch?
34.

The approximate amount

The

electrical resistance of .a wire varies as its length

and inversely as

the square of its diameter. If a wire 350 feet long and 3 millimeters in diameter has a resistance of 1.08 ohms, find the length of a wire of the same material whose resistance is .81 ohm and diameter is 2 millimeters.

y is proportional to x and if y = 16 when x = 4, graph the relation between x and y. Make a statement about the change in the value of y (a) if x varies from any given value to a value three times as large; (6) if
36. If
t

x increases by
36.

25%

from a given value.


is

Repeat (a) and (b) of Problem 35 in case y to x and y = 16 when x = J.


37.

inversely proportional

The approximate
is

round object,
ject's
is

velocity of a stream of water, necessary to move a proportional to the product of the square roots of the obits specific

diameter and

gravity.

If

a velocity of 11.34 feet per second

needed to move a stone whose diameter is 1 foot and specific gravity is 4, how large a stone with specific gravity 3 can be moved by a stream whose velocity is 22.68 feet per second?
38.

Read Example 2

in Section 151.
is

of a skater
is

whose speed

Find the ratio of the kinetic energy 20 miles per hour to his energy when his speed

15 miles per hour.


39.

safely transmitted by a solid circular steel shaft varies jointly as the cube of its diameter and the number of revolutions it makes per minute. If a shaft 1.5* in diameter rotating at 1520 revolutions per

The horsepower that can be

minute can' transmit 135 horsepower, find the speed at which the

shaft could transmit 162 horsepower.

illumination received from a source of light varies inversely as the square of the distance from the source, and directly as its candle power. At what distance from a 50 candle power light would the illumination be
40.

The

one half that received at 30

feet

from a 40 candle power light?

220
41.

RATIO, PROPORTION,

AND VARIATION

Newton's Law of Gravitation states that the force with which each of two masses of m pounds and pounds attracts the other varies directly as the product of the masses and inversely as the square of the distance between the masses. Find the ratio of the force of attraction when two masses are 8000 miles apart to the force when they are 2000 miles apart.

approximation, it is found that the wind pressure on a surface at right angles to the direction of the wind varies jointly as the area of the surface and the square of the wind velocity. What wind velocity
42.
first

As a

would be necessary to cause the pressure on 40 square feet of surface to be double the pressure exerted on 10 square feet by a wind velocity of 30 miles per hour?
current in an electric circuit varies directly as the electromotive force and inversely as the resistance. In a certain circuit, the electromotive
43.
force
is

The

volts, -the resistance is b


is

ohms, and the current

the resistance

increased

by 20 %,
;

amperes. If what per cent of increase must occur

is c

in the voltage to increase the current

by 30%?

Note

1.

The statement x
r, s,

is to
t is

are proportional to that there exists a


if Find x, y,

and

number k
z

9*

y is to z as r is to s is to t, or x, y, and z abbreviated by x: y:z = r:s:t, and means such that x =? AT, y = ks, and z kt.

and
4:

under
2:5,

the given conditions.

44. x:y:z

and
2&;

x
z

+ %y + z =
=
5k.

40.

HINT,

4k;

Substitute in the given equation

and

find the value of k.

46. x:y:z
46. x:y:z 47. x:y:z

= = =

5:

3:2,

and
x*

2:5:1,
3:

and

1:2,

and

= 12. + y2 + 2 = 120. x2 + y2 + *> = 56.


x
y
z
:

48. Divide 2800 into four parts proportional to 5 3


49.

2.

Divide 1250 into four parts proportional to 3:5:11:6.

CHAPTER

14

PROGRESSIONS

52. Arithmetic progressions

A seqwnce

of things is a set of things arranged in


is

a definite order.

An arithmetic progression

(abbreviated A.P.) called terms, each of which, after the first,

a sequence of numbers

ceding one by adding to it a fixed number ence. The common difference can be found by subtracting any term from the one following it.
ILLUSTRATION
1.

derived from the precalled the common differis

common

difference

is

In the arithmetic progression 3. The 6th term would be

9, 6, 3, 0,

3,

the

6.

153. The nth term

in

an arithmetic progression

Let a be the first term and d be the common difference. Then, the second term is a + d; the third term is a -f 2d; the fourth term is a -f 3d. In each of these terms, the coefficient of d is 1 less than the number of the term. Similarly, the tenth term is a + 9d. The nth term is the (n l)th after the first term, and is obtained after d has been added (n 1) times, in succession. Hence, if I represents the nth term, - l)d. / = a (1) (n

ILLUSTRATION
1

1.

If

3 and d

4,

the 18th term

is

-f-

17(4)

71.

54.

Sum

of an arithmetic progression

S be the sum of the first n terms of an A.P. The first term is a; the common difference is d', the last term is I; the next to the last On writing the sum of the n terms, forward and term is I d, etc. backward, we obtain
Let

222

PROGRESS/ONS
l;

(1)

S~l +
On

(l

-d)

(l

-2d)

+ --- +
(1)

(a

+ 2d) +
(2)

(a

+ d) + a.

(2)

adding corresponding sides of

and

we

obtain

where there are n terms (a

1).

Hence, 2S

= n(a +

0, or
(3)

S = 5 (a
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1. 1.

+
a

I).

Find the sum of the A.P.


First obtain
I

+
(n

5 4- 2 4l}d.

to twelve terms.

from

+
I

2.

- - 3, and n = 12: From (3), S = 6(8 - 25) = a


8,

We have = 8 + 11(- 3) = -

25.

102.

If

we

rewrite (3) in the form

S =
we
observe that the

np-J)>
of

(4)

sum
*

of

an A.P.

n terms equals n times

the

average of the first

and
I

last terms.

On

substituting

(n

l)dm
4- (n

(3),

we

obtain

S = % [2a &
The quantities a,
d,
I,

l)d].

(5)

n,

and S are called the elements of the general

arithmetic progression. When three of the elements are given, we may obtain the other two by use of I = a 4- (n l)d and formulas

3 and

5. 2.

EXAMPLE
I

Find the remaining elements


26.

in

an A.P.

for

which a

2,

402,

and

n =
1.
I

SOLUTION.
2.'

We
a

wish to find d and S.


(n

From

(3),

S =

13(404)
rf

5252.

From

l)d,

402

+ 25d;

hence,

16.

If

a sequence of three numbers a, 6, and c forms an A.P., then a c 6, because each side of this equation is equal to the
difference.
3.

common

EXAMPLE

Find the value of k


k

if

(17, k, 29)

form an A.P.
hence,

SOLUTION,

17

29

k',

2k

46;

23.

PROGRESSIONS
t

223
12 H
171.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.

4.
1.

Find the sum of the A.P.

+9+
I

h 171.

We have given a - 6, d 3, and = To find n, use = a + (n - l)d: 171 = 6 + 3(n- 1); 171 = 6 + 3n-3;
Z

n =

56.

3.

To

find 5, use (3)

8 =

+ 171) - 4956. ^ &


(6
is

KA

EXAMPLE

5.

Find the 3&th term in an A.P. where the 4th term


is 5.

and the common difference

SOLUTION. 1. Think of a new A.P. where 8 is the 39th term is the 36th term of the new progression.
2.

1st term; the former

Use

(n

l)d with a

desired 39th term

= - 8, d = 5, and n = = - 8 + 35(5) - 167.

36:

EXERCISE 82
Write the first six terms of an A.P. from
1.

the given data.

a a

= =

15; d
18;

=
d

3.

2. 2. 4.

a o

= =

17;
&;

d d

= A.

3.

3.

Which

sequences do not form arithmetic progressions?


6.

6. 3, 7, 11, 15.

15, 17, 20, 22.

7. 23, 20, 17.

8. 35, 32, 30, 28.

Find

the value of b for

which

the sequence

forms an A.P.
* 12. b, 17, 23.

9. 3, 8, b.

10. 25, 21, b.

11. 15, b, 13.

Find
13.
14. 15.

the specified term of the


4, 7, 10;
5,

A.P. by use of a formula.

Given terms:
Given terms: Given terms: Given terms: Given terms:

find the 50th term.


8,

11; find the 29th term.

4, 2, 0; 3, 3J,

find the 41st term.

16.

3J; find the 83d term.

17.
18.

2.4, 2.6, 2.8; find


3, 2.95, 2.9; find

the 39th term. the 201st term.

Given terms:

Find

the last term

and

the

sum

of the A.P. by use of formulas.


20. 3, 5, 7, 22. 13, 8, 3,

19. 8, 13, 18,

to 15 terms.
to 28 terms. to 33 terms.

to 41 terms. to 17 terms.
t

21. 9, 6, 3,

28. 2.06, 2.02, 1.98,

24. 5, 4i, 4,

to 81 terms.

224
In each problem,
the

PROGRESSIONS
certain of the elements a, d,
I,

n,

and

are given.

Find

missing elements.

25. 27. 29.


31.

10, 17,

= -

410, 381,
3,

n d

26.
4.

26. 28.

a
i

= =

4,

72,
4,

n =
n

18.

a
I

53, 27,

d
Z

= =

19.
J.

87,
60,

d
Z

- =
0,

n -

18.
f. J.

30. a
32.

11,

= 52,

= d

S =
n

26,

2496,

n =

=
16.

3.

33.

S =

2337,

n -

38,

34.

S =

5278, d

Ftnd

the value of

k for which

the sequence of three terms

forms an A.P.

36. (3 37.

2*);

(2

*);

(4

+ 3*).

36. (2

+ *);
t

(2
is

+ 4fc);

(6fc

1).

Find the 45th term in an A.P. where the 3d term


is J.

7 and the

common

difference
38.

Find the 59th term in an A.P. where the 4th term


.4.

is

9 and the

common

difference is

39. In the A.P. .97, 1.00, 1.03,

-,

which term
is

is

5.02?

40. In the A.P. 16, 13.5, 11,

which term

129?
is

Find the 37th term is 54.


41.

common

difference of

an A.P. whose 6th term

9 and

155. Arithmetic means


term, 'a, and the last term, l in an arithmetic progression are called the extremes of the progression. The other terms are called
first
}

The

means between a and /. To insert k arithmetic means between two numbers, a and J, means to find a sequence of k numbers which, when placed between a and Z, give rise to an A.P. with a and /
arithmetic

as

its

extremes.
1.

EXAMPLE

Insert five arithmetic

means between 13 and

11.

SOLUTION. 1. After the means are inserted, they will complete an A.P. of seven terms, with a = 13 and I = 11. We shall find d for the progression and then form the terms.
2.

From

(n

11

l)d,

3.

13

+ 6d;

d
4),

- or 9;

4.

Hence, the missing terms are (13 The A.P. is (13, 9, 5, 1, 11). 3, 7,
are
(9, 5, 1,

or 5; etc. Therefore the arithmetic means


(9
4),

3,

7).

PROGRESSIONS

225

mean is inserted between two numbers, it is called the arithmetic mean of the numbers. Thus, if (6, A, c) form an A.P., then A is called the arithmetic mean of 6 and c. Then, A - b = c - A or 2 A = c + 6. Hence,

When

a single arithmetic

x _ A

or the arithmetic

the arithmetic

mean of two numbers is one half of their sum. Thus, mean of b and c is the number which is frequently
and
c.

called the average of 6

ILLUSTRATION
Note
1.

1.

The

arithmetic

mean

of 7

and 15

is

J(7

15)

11.

average of k numbers is denned as their sum divided by k. As a generalization of equation 1, the average of k numbers is frequently called the arithmetic mean of the numbers. Unless we are dealing with just

The

two numbers, so that k 2, the arithmetic mean of k numbers has no connection with the notion of arithmetic means as they occur in arithmetic progressions.
1

56. Applications of arithmetic progressions

In a problem dealing with an A.P., write down the first few terms of the progression and describe them in the language of the problem. Then, decide which elements are known and which you wish to find.

EXAMPLE

1.

A man invests $1000 at the end of each year for 30 years at


if

6%

simple interest.

end of 30 years, SOLUTION.

Find the accumulated value of his investments at the no interest is withdrawn until then.
first

1.

The

$1000 invested

29 years, or a total of $1740 interest; 30 years is $2740.


2.

draw interest at 6% for the resulting amount at the end of


will

The second $1000


is

sulting interest
3.

invested will draw interest for 28 years; the re$1680 and the amount at the end of 30 years is $2680.

Etc.; the $1000 invested at the end of 29 years will

draw
is

interest for

just

one year; the resulting amount is $1060. the end of 30 years and receives no interest.
4.

The

last

$1000

invested at

The

total

amount at the end


274Q

of 30 years

is

+ 2680 + 2620 +
=
S
2740, n

+
=

1060
30,

1000.

We

wish

for

an A.P. in which a

and d

= -

60.

5.

From S - 5 (a

!),

=.^(2740

1000)

$56,100.

226

PROGRESSIONS
2.

contractor has agreed to pay a penalty if he uses more than a speckled length of time to finish a certain job. The penalties for excess time are $25 for the 1st day and, thereafter, $5 more for each day

EXAMPLE

than for the preceding day. If he pays a total penalty of $4050, excess days did he need to finish the work?
,

how many

which form an A.P. SOLUTION. 1. The penalties are $25, $30, $35, = 5, and S = 4050. We wish to find the number of terms, n. where a 25, d
2.

From

S = Jn[2a

(n

1)<T|,

4050
3.

-[50 *

+ 5(w by
2:
2

1)

(1)

To

solve (1), multiply both sides

8100

50n

+ 5n 1620

5n;
0.

w2

+ 9n -

(2)

On
n

solving (2)
45.

by factoring, or the quadratic formula, we find n = 36 and The negative root has no application in the problem. Hence,

there are 36 excess days.

CHECK. The student should compute the sum


25

of

+ 30 + 35 H

to

36 terms.

EXERCISE 83
1. Insert

four arithmetic

means between 2 and means between

17.

2. Insert five 3. Insert five


4. Insert
6.

arithmetic arithmetic

2 and 40.
17.

means between 7 and

four arithmetic

means between 19 and

12. 16.5.
7.

Insert six arithmetic

means between 15 and

6. Insert

seven arithmetic means between f and


arithmetic

7. Insert five

means between
/

f m and

6.

Find
8. 6;

the arithmetic

mean

of the numbers.
10.

38.

9.

15; 37.
all all

13; 27.

11.

15;

23.

12. x; y.

13.
14. 15. 16.

Find the sum of

even integers from 10 to 380

inclusive.

Find the sum of

odd integers from 15 to 361


first

inclusive.
3.

Find the sum of the


Find the sum of
all

38 positive integral multiples of

positive integral multiples of 5 which are less

than 498,

PKOGKESS/ONS
17.

227

There are 16 rows of billiard balls in a symmetrical triangular arrangement on a table, with 46 balls in the first row and 3 less balls in each other row than hi the one preceding it. How many balls are on the
table?

Find the sum of between 55 and 357.


18. 19.

all positive

and negative

integral multiples of 6

horizontal base of a right triangle is 15 feet long and the side perpendicular to this base is 45 feet long. At intervals of 1 foot on the
base, a perpendicular is drawn to the base and reaches to the hypotenuse. Find the sum of the lengths of all perpendiculars, including the vertical leg of the triangle.
20.

The

A man

invests $1000 at the


is

simple interest. What the end of 12 years?

end of each year the accumulated value of

for 12 years at

6%

his investments at

Find
21.
for

the total

sum

of

money paid by

the debtor in discharging his debt.

Debtor borrows $10,000. Agrees to pay: at the end of each year 10 years, $1000 principal and simple interest at 3% on all principal

outstanding during the year.


22.
for

Debtor borrows $20,000. Agrees to pay: at the end of each year 20 years, $1000 principal and simple interest at 5% on all principal

outstanding during the year.


invests $1000 at the beginning of each year for 20 years at simple interest. Find the accumulated value of his investments at the end of 20 years.
23.

A man

5%

24.

The 4th term

of *an A.P.

is

215 and the 44th term

is

55.

Find the

sum

of the first 20 terms.

25. If

5x

-j-

8, find

the

sum

the successive integral values x


26.

1,

of the values of y corresponding to 30. , 2, 3,

28 inches long and each other rung is one half inch shorter than the rung below it. If the ladder has 18 rungs, how many feet of wood were used in making the rungs?

The bottom rung

of a ladder

is

*.

157. Geometric progressions


geometric progression (abbreviated G.P.) is a sequence of numbers called terms, each of which, after the first, is obtained by multi-

plying the preceding term


it.

by a fixed number

called the

common ratio.

The common ratio equals the ratio of any


preceding

term, after ihe first, to the one

223

PROGRESSIONS
8, -f 4,

ILLUSTRATION 1. In the G.P. 16, - J; the 5th term would be (- J)(-

2,
1.

the

common ratio is

2)

= +

determine whether or not a sequence of numbers forms a geometric progression, we divide each number by the one which precedes it. All of these ratios are equal if the terms form a G.P.
ILLUSTRATION
If the
2.

To

If 3, 8,

and x form a G.P., then


reversed,

8
O

=x
O

or

64
-=-

terms of a G.P. are


ratio
is

common

the terms will form a G.P. whose the reciprocal of the ratio for the given G.P.
(4, 8, 16, 32),

ILLUSTRATION 3. In the G.P. the terms are reversed, we have

the

common ratio is 2. When


is

(32, 16, 8, 4),

where the ratio

ILLUSTRATION 4. The G.P. (a, ar, ar2 ar3 ) has the common the G.P. (ar8 ar2 ar, a) has the common ratio arVar8 or 1/r.
,

ratio r

whereas

58. The nth term of a geometric progression

Let a be the first term and r be the common ratio. Then, the second term is ar; the third term is ar 2 In each of these terms the
.

exponent of r is 1 less than the number of the term. Similarly, the 7 The nth term is the (n l)th after the 1st and eighth term is or n-1 hence is found by multiplying a by (n 1) factors r, or by r Hence, if I represents the nth term,
.

(1)

ILLUSTRATION
1

1.

If

3 and r

2,

the 7th term

is

3(2

192.

59.

Sum
ar

of a geometric progression

Let
(a,

S be
2
,

the
*,

sum

of the first
,

n terms

of

a G.P.
is

The terms

are

ar,

" arn 2

ar"-

),

where ar

n "2

the (n
,

l)th term.
(1) (2)

Hence,

S
Sr

=*

+ ar

2 4- ar

+
-f

and
in (2)

ar -f ar2

+ ar

-f-

+ arn~* -f arn-1 arn-1 + arn


;

multiplied both sides of (1) of (2) from the corresponding side of

we

by r. On subtracting each side


(1),

we

obtain
(3)

S - Sr = a ,

arn ,

because each term, except arn on the right in (2) cancels a correspond- a arn or r) ing term in (1). From (3), S(l
,

PROGRESSIONS

229

Since

ar n

~l
y

then

rl

arn

Hence, from

(4),

In using

(4), it is

sometimes convenient to rewrite


1 S = ai

it

as

r L.

(6)

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

1.

Find the sum of the G.P.

2, 6, 18,
(4),

to six terms.

n =

6;

=
2

2; r

3.

From
2

S==

2-3

1-3

1458

-2
Z is

79R 728

'

Formula 5
EXAMPLE
2.

is

convenient when

explicitly given.

Find the sum of the geometric progression


(1.05)
2

+
2

(1.05)
2
;

+
8

(1.05)
3
;

+
I

+
2

(1.05)
35
.

86
.

SOLUTION,

a
o = 6

(1.05)

(1.05)

(1.05)

From formula
88
3

5,

(1.05)

- (1.05) (1.05) 1 - (1.05)


3

36

(L05)
1

(1.05)

(1.05)
r,

Note

L When a sufficient number


by use
of
I

of the elements (a,


,

n,

Z,

S) are given,

we

find the others


3.

ar n-1
2,
rl

(4),
Z

and

(5).

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

If

S =

750, r

and

400, find

n and

a.

1.

From S
t-rrr\

a
l

750

<

-=
J.

=~; ~~ &

hence,

50.

K/%

2.

From

arn~\
2n-i

400
23;

=
n

50(2*-');
1

2r~ l
or

=
n T4.

8;

hence,

3,

If three

numbers

(a, 6, c)

form a G.P.. then - =


a
10

ILLUSTRATION

1.

If (a, 10, 50)

form a G.P. then

50 Tn

or

230
1

PROGRESSIONS

60. Geometric means

term, a, and the last term, I, in a G.P. are called the extremes of the progression. The other terms are called geometric
first

The

means between a and I. To insert k geometric means between two numbers, a and I, means to find a sequence of k numbers which, when placed between a and Z, give rise to a G.P. with a and I as its
In asking for geometric means, valued means.
extremes.

we

shall desire only real

EXAMPLE

1.

Insert

two geometric means between 6 and ^.

SOLUTION. After the means are inserted, they will complete a G.P. of four terms with a = 6 and I = *-. We shall find the common ratio of the = arn~lt with n = 4, progression, and then its two middle terms. From I

we

obtain

i? 9

firor;

rsA.
27

'OE..? ^27 3'


are 4

The G.P.

is (6, 4,

f *).
,

The geometric means

and f

EXERCISE 84
Write the first four terms of a G.P. for the given data.
1.

= =

5; r

3.

2. 2.

= =

16; r

J.
J.

3.

4; r

4.

27; r

= -

In case the numbers form a G.P., more terms of the G.P.


6. 4,

state its

common

ratio

and

write two

12, 36, 108.

6.

10, 5, J,

7. 8,

f f ft.
, ,
\

8. 4, 2, 1, 0.

9. a, ax,

ax 2 , ax8

10. (1.02) 4 , (1.02), (1.02) 8 .

11. (1.01)-5 , (1.01)-8 , (1.01)-*.

Find

the value of

so that the three

numbers form a G.P.


14. 4, x, 16.

12. 5, 20, x. 16. If the

13. x, 12, 36.


9, 3) is reversed,

15. x,

4,

ia

G.P. (81, 27,

what

fact

do you observe?

use of I = ar"""1 , find the specified term of the given G.P. without finding the intermediate terms.

By

17. 3, 9, 27; find the 6th term. 19. 12, 6, 3; find the 8th term.

18. 4,

12, 36; find the


3,

9th term.

20. 6,

find the 9th term.

PROGRESSIONS
Find
the last term

237

and

the

sum

of the G.P.
22. 12, 6, 3,

21. 4, 12, 36, 23. 5,


25. 3,

to 7 terms. to 6 terms. to 7 terms.

to 6 terms.

15, 45,
6, 12,

24. 25, 2.5, .25,


26.
jfc,

to 7 termu.
to 6 terms.

}, 1,

27. 3, 66, 1262 ,

to 8 terms.
to

28. 4,

8z2 16s4

to 7 terms.

Employ formula 5 on page 229


29.

find the

sum

of the G.P.

+2+
tfie

4- ife.

30. 5

15

+
=
I

+ 3645.
3;
Z

Find
31.

missing elements of the G.P.

5; r

2;

640.
I

32.

2; r

486.

33. r 35.

10;

.001;
2;
2

100.

34. 36. 38.

5 S =
a

2186;

1458; a

2.

S =

275; r 256; r

= i;

=
J.

400.

*#*; a
1458; r

- =
J;

135.

37. a

Find Me
39. 40.
41.

specified term without finding the first term of the


if

G.P.

The 10th term,


The 12th term,

the 6th term


the 8th term

is

5 and

common

ratio is 2. ratio is
.1.

if

is

25 and

common

The 4th term,

if

the 8th term


the 9th term

is

40 and 80 and

common common

ratio

is 2.

42.

The 5th

term,

if

is

ratio is J.
*

number of geometric means. 44. Five, between 128 and 43. Five, between 2 and 128.
Insert the specified
45. Three, 47. Six,

2.

between 4 and 324.


.1

46. Four,

between J and 81.


j

between

and

1,000,000.

48. Three,

between 16 and

.0001.

// x and y are of the same sign, and if a single geometric mean G of the same sign is inserted between x and y, then G is called the geometric mean
of x and y;
49. J;
53.
16.
(x,

G, y) form a G.P.
60. i; 36.

Find

the geometric

mean

of the numbers

51. 4; 25.
y.

52.

9;

Find the geometric mean of x and

S*wte the result in words

Find an expression for the sum and simplify by use of the laws of er but do not compute. Use formula 5 on page 229 when convenient.
54. 1 55.

56.

+ 1 + (LOS) (1.05) (1.02)* + (1.02) + (1.02)< +

(1.03)

-I-

+ +

(1.03)

+ +

(1.03).
(1.05)

(1.02)".

232
67. (1.06) 4
58. 1
-I-

PROGRESSIONS
(1.06)
3 6

(1.06)

(1.06);

(1.02)
16

(1.02)

H---- to 21 terms.
18

69. (1.02)60. 61.

+ (1.02)-" + (1.02)- + (1.03)-" + (1.03)-" + (1.03)~ + 1 + (1.02)* + (1-02) + (1.02)* +


12

+ +
-

(1.02)-*.

(1.03)(

4
.

-f

62. If the 7th

term of a G.P.

is

5 and the llth term

is

3^, find the inter-

mediate terms.

For what values of and (20k + 5) form a G.P.?


63.

k.

do the three quantities


.

(k

+ 3),

(6k -f 3),

64.
-66.

Find the sum of a G.P. of 7 terms whose 3d term

is

j and 6th

is -fo.

How many
if

ancestors have
in

ations
5.

no ancestor appears

you had in the twelve preceding genermore than one line of descent?

An

much
the

investment paid a man, in each year after the first, twice as as in the preceding year. If his investment paid him $13,500 in
four years,

first

how much

did

it

pay the investor

in the first

and the

fourth years?

agreed that the first ticket drawn will pay its owner $.10 and each succeeding ticket twice as much as the preceding one. Find the total amount paid on the first 10 tickets drawn.
67. In a lottery, it
is

68.

Find the sum of the


10

first

19 positive integral powers of 1.03, given

that (1.03)

1.344.

61

Applications of geor #r. progressions .1;


>..
,

..

./,.'.'

*W^\en a proHe*^ is met where a sequence of terms is suspected of ^ A.P., generally it is an advantage to compute the explicit forming values of the first few terms in simplest form in order to verify the
'istence of
%

a common difference between the terms. On the other d, if a sequence of terms is suspected of forming a G.P., it is best 4te the first few terms, without actually computing them, in a hich will exhibit clearly any constant factor which appears to
r

e powers.
*

1.
i,
*,

rubber ball is dropped from a height of 100 feet. On the ball rises one half of the height from which it last fell. has the ball traveled up to the instant it hits the ground for

PKOGRESS/ONS
SOLUTION.
ball:
1.

233

We
= =

list

the

first

few distances traveled by the bouncing

1st fall 1st rise

100ft. i(100)ft.
\

=100
4(100)
ft.

ft.

=i(100)ft.

= 3d fall = 3d me =
2d
rise

i(i)(100)

ft.

i(100)ft.
i(i)(100)
ft.

)-m-100)ft.
efc.

10

ft.

2.

The

1st fall brings in

an unsymmetrical term.

On
up

porarily, the total distance, in feet, traveled otherwise 12th fall is the sum of

neglecting it temto the time of the

100, i(100), J(100),

to eleven terms.

(1)

In

(1)

we have a G.P. with a =

100, r

J,

and n

11.

The sum S

is

obtained from

rn

ion

"

11

(i)

_ ininsik! ~" ~ ~ _ ~

100(2047).

1024

'

_
3.

25(2047)

256
adding the 1st fall to S, we find that the total distance traveled by the ball is 299|fJ feet.

On

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISE
Solve by methods involving progressions.
1.

85

If

$500

is

to be divided between 10

and each succeeding man preceding man, how much will the 10th man receive?
ceives $5
2.

one reobtains a fixed amount more than the


so that the
first

men

At a bazaar, tickets are marked with the consecutive even integers and are drawn at random by those entering. If each person 2, 4, 6, pays as many cents as the number on his ticket, how much money is received
if

1000 tickets are sold?


3.

of each swing, after the first, of a pendulum bob long as the preceding swing. If the first swing is 40 inches long, does the pendulum travel on the first 8 swings?

The path

is .9

as
far

how

152 logs in layers so that the top layer contains 2 logs and each lower layer has one more log than the layer above. How many
4.

A man

piles

logs will be in the lowest layer?

234
6.

PROGRESSIONS

In a professional golf tournament, the total prize money of $5187 is divided among the six players with lowest scores, so that each man above as much as the man below him. How much does the the lowest receives

man

with the lowest score receive?

dropped from a position of rest in a vacuum near the earth's surface, will fall approximately 32 feet farther in each second, after the first, than in the preceding second. If a body -falls 10,000 feet in 25 seconds, how far does it fall in the first second?
6.

A body,

7.

Find an expression for the sum of the

first

n
n

positive integers.
positive

8.
9.

Find an expression

for the

sum

of the first

even integers.

the beginning of each year, a man invests $300 at simple interest at the rate 7%. At the end of 15 years, what is the total value of his in-

At

vestments
is

if

none of them have been disturbed, and

if all

required interest

paid on that date?


10.

motor truck contains 10 gallons of water. We draw off 1 gallon and replace it with alcohol; then, we draw off 1 gallon of the mixture and replace it by alcohol; etc., until 9 drawings and replacements have been made. How much alcohol is in the final mixture?

The

radiator of a

11. 12.

Find the sum of the

first

40 positive integral powers of

x.

In creating a vacuum in a container, a pump draws out J of the remaining air at each stroke. What part of the original- air has been removed by the end of the 7th stroke?
-

pendulum bob moves over a path 15 inches long on its first swing. fifths of the distance of the In each succeeding swing the bob travels fo^ur preceding swing. How far does the bob travel during the first six swings?
13.

In a potato race, tw^njiy potatoes are placed at intervals of 5 feet in a line from the starting poih^with the nearest potato 25 feet away. A runner is required to bring the potatoes back to the starting place one at a time. How far would he run in bringing in all the potatoes?
14.

15.

speculator will

make $1200 during


less

the

first

month and,

there-

after, in

each month, $100

than in the preceding month.

If his original

capital is $2700,
16.

when

will

he become bankrupt?

Two men

start in a distance run.

One man proceeds at a uniform


travels 435 yards hi the

speed of 300 yards per minute.


first

The second man

minute, but, thereafter, in each minute he goes 30 yards less than in the preceding minute. When will the first man overtake the second?
17.

Prove that the squares of the terms of a G.P. also form a G.P. Then state a more general theorem of this nature.
18.

Prove that the reciprocals of the terms of a G.P. also form a G.P.

PROGRESSIONS
19.

235

rubber ball

bound, the ball rises tance has the ball traveled up to the instant the ball hits the ground the 7th tune?

dropped from a height of 300 feet. On each reone third of the height from which it last fell. What disis

for

20. In a certain positive integral number of three digits, the digits form an A.P. and their sum is 15. If the digits are reversed, the new number is

594

less

than the original number.


1.

Find the original number.

the value of a certain quantity now, and if its value increases at the rate i (expressed as a decimal) per year, then the new value

Note

If

is

at the end of one year

is

(P

-f Pi), or

P(l 4-

i).

That

is,

the value at the

end of any year is (1 -f t) times the value at the end of the last year. values at the ends of the years form a G.P. whose common ratio is (1 If A represents the value at the end of n years, then

The

+ i).

This formula
principal

is

referred to as the

compound
t,

P is invested now at

the rate
i)

interest law because, if a compounded annually, the amount

A at the end of n years will be P(l +


interest will be treated later.

In

all

Applications involving compound of the following problems, it will be


>

assumed that any

rate is constant.

21. If 300 units of a

commodity are consumed


is

in

first

year,

and

if

the annual rate of increase of consumption for the amount consumed in the 7th year;
12 in the first 12 years, given that (1.06)

6%,

(a) give

an expression

(6) find

the total consumption

2.012.

$1,000,000 worth of its products this year and the sales will increase at the rate of 5% per year. Find the total sales
22.

corporation will
first

sell

during the
23.

25 years, given that

(1.05)

26

3.38635494.

Find
24.

of a city increased from 131,220 to 200,000 in 4 years. the rate of increase per year.

The population

piece of property
is

value
25.

now

$15,360.

was purchased 4 years ago for $4860 and its Find the annual rate at which the value increased.

as a

end
for

of a certain quantity decreases at the rate w (expressed is the value at the decimal) per year. If // is the value now, and n of n years, prove that H(l w} (This formula is the basis

The value

K=

computing depreciation charges in business under the so-called constant-

percentage .nethod.)
26.
is

n-.otor

$1024.
27.

truck was purchased for $2500, and its value 4 years later .Find the rate, per year at which the value has depreciated.

Find

3 years ago for $512,000, is sold for $343,000. tytel, purchased te per year at which its value has depreciated. the

236

PROGRESSIONS

*162. Harmonic progressions

A sequence of
their reciprocals

numbers is said to form a harmonic form an arithmetic progression.


The sequence
(1, J,
,

progression

if

ILLUSTRATION

1.

^, J) is

a harmonic progression

because the reciprocals

(1, 3, 5, 7, 9)

form an A.P.

k harmonic means between two numbers, we first insert k arithmetic means between the reciprocals of the numbers. The reciprocals of the arithmetic means are the harmonic means.

To

insert

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.

1.

Insert five harmonic


1. First,

means between 4 and

16.

we

insert 5 arithmetic

means between J and


-j^,

$.

From

= a -f

(n

l)d,

with a

J,

and n

7,

we

find

3. 4.

Hence, the A.P.

is (J,

A=4 &
progression
is (4,

The corresponding harmonic

3ft -^, 3?, 8,

^,

16).

Hence, the harmonic means are

(3ft

^,

8,

*EXERCISE 86
Insert the specified
1.

Four, between
Four, between

number of harmonic means. and ^. 2. Five, between J and


.

3.

& and
J.

4.
6.

Four, between 4 and 24.

5. Five,

between f and
d)

Four, between

J and

3.

//

(c, .ff,

mean
7. 4;

of c
J.

is called the harmonic /orw a harmonic progression, then and d. Find the harmonic mean of the numbers. 8. 9; 6.

9. 4;

8.

10. 12; 36.

11.

x and

y.

*163. Geometric progressions with


Let

infinitely

many

terms
,

Sn

represent the
(4),

sum

of the progression o, ar, ar2,

ar"" 1

Then, by

page 229,

a + ar + ar2 H---Suppose that a set of strings of the same diameter and substance are stretched to uniform tension. If the lengths of the strings form a harmonic progression, a harmonious sound results if two or more strings are caused to vibrate at one time. This fact accounts for the name harmonic prop ession.
*

PROGRESSIONS
ILLUSTRATION
1,
1.

237

Consider the endless geometric progression


,

- ->

=jj^j

to infinitely

many

terms.

(2)

In

(2),

-;

the nth term


1

is

^;

-r=
^;

ar"

^(3)

By(l),
If

+ l + 1 + + ...+^ ^2--^.
without
if

n grows

larger,

limit,

to zero as

we

please,

is sufficiently large.
JL

J_ n-i
2

64

__
the term
^

grows smaller, and


if

is

as near

Thus,

65,

18,446,744,073,709,551,616*

0) as we practically zero. Hence, in (3), 8n will be as near to (2 please for all values of n which are sufficiently large. To summarize this statement we say that as n becomes infinite Sn approaches the limit 2, and

which

is

2 the sum of the progression 1, 4, 4, We sometimes use "n >oo " to abbreviate our conclusion can be briefly written limit Sn
call

we

4,

to infinitely

many

terms.

"n

becomes infinite."

Then,

2.

Now,

consider
is

(a, ar,

ar2 ,

to infinitely

many

terms),

under the
,

> oo 1 and -f 1. Then, as n a number between the absolute value of the numerator arn in (1) grows smaller, and is as near to zero as we please for all values of n sufficiently large. Hence, from (1) we see that, as n grows large without limit, the value

condition that r

of

Sn

approaches
/

\r=r
That
is,

0_\ r^7/'
limit
n
too

or

a r^"r"
(4)

Sn =

=-2
1
r

This limit of the sum of n terms, as n becomes infinite, is callejd the sum of the geometric progression with infinitely many terms. If S represents this sum, then

Thus,
if
|

(5)

<
or

1,

(a

<n*

to infinitely

many

terms)

(6)

238
Note
1.

PROGRESSIONS

Recognize that S in (5) is not a sum in the ordinary sense of the word, but is the limit of the sum of n terms as n grows large without bound.

ILLUSTRATION
4-

2.

By
T

use of

(6),

with a

5 and r
terms]

},

4-

to infinitely

many

7-377

10.

Practically, this

means

that,

if

we should add a

relatively large

number

of

we would obtain approximately 10, and that by adding enough terms we can obtain as close to 10 as we may desire. Thus, Su =
terms,

The
a

indicated

series.

An

a sequence expression of the form


of

sum

of

numbers

is

frequently called

+ u% + u* +
is

to infinitely

many terms

(7)
left in

called

an

infinite series.

Accordingly, the expression on the

(6) is referred

to as the infinite geometric series.

EXAMPLE
.5818181

1.

Find a rational number equal to the endless repeating decimal

SOLUTION.
.5818181

Because of the meaning of the decimal notation,


-

.5

.081 4- .00081 H---- to infinitely

many
is

terms,

where we notice that (.081 = .01. with a .081, and r

+
-

.00081
(6),

+
the
.081
.99

) is

an

infinite

geometric series

By
.081

sum

of this series

=
.5

9
110*

.01

Hence,

.5818181

----

+ rf^

& + rf* - f?
1,

use of the method of Example endless repeating decimal is a rational number.

Comment.

By

we can show that any

represent the sum of the first n terms. Then we say that the series has a sum S, and call the series a convergent infinite series which converges to S in case the

In any

infinite series

such as

(7), let

Sn

Sn is S as n becomes infinite. If Sn has no limit as n becomes infinite, we say that the infinite series is divergent, or diverges.
limit of

In this section we have proved that the infinite geometric series in parentheses in (6) has a sum, or converges, when r < 1. When r ^ 1, the series is divergent, or does not have a sum, because in this case Sn in (1) does not approach a limit as n > oo Thus, for the G.P. (1, 2, 4, ) where Note
2.
| \
|

2,

we

find that

Sn

increases

beyond

all

bounds as n -

oo

PROGRESSIONS
*EXERCISE 87

239

of each of the followng infinite geometric series by use of the established formula.
the
I-

Find
7

sum

3. 6.
7.

+J+I+ 15 + 5 -f f + 1 - J + t 1 - .01 + .0001


' .

'

2.

4.
6.

8.
to the

+3+J+ 10 - 5 + f + 1 - J + J .8 + .08 -f .008 H


12
-

-.

Find a
9. .333

rational

number equal

given endless repeating decimal, where

repeating parts are written three times.


.

10. .444
.

11. .666
.

12. .0999

13. .8333
.

14. .1666
.

15. .212121 18. .838383

16. .050505 19. .454545

17. .030303

20. 4.222
.

..

21. .2111

22. .345345345
-.

23. .210210210 26. 25.05050


.

24. 252.525.27.

25. 16.7167167
.

-.

-.

.153846153846153846

28. .076923076923076923

being brought to rest by air resistance. The path of each swing, after the first, of the pendulum bob is .98 as long as the path of the previous swing (from one side to the other). If the path of
29.

pendulum

is

the

first

swing

is

30 inches long, how- far does the bob travel in coming to dropped from a height of 100 inches. to f of the height from which it last fell.
ball in

a position of rest?
30.

rubber ball
ball rises

is

rebound the

each Find the

On

distance traveled
31.

by the

coming to

rest.

The side of a certain square is 10 inches long. A second square is drawn by connecting the mid-points of the sides of the 1st square; a 3d square is drawn by connecting the mid-points of the sides of the 2d square; Find the sum of the areas of all the squares. etc., without end.
Note
as
1.

If
|

<

1,

we know that
and

equal to

Sn

if

is large,

S, of (5) on page 237, is approximately our confidence in this approximation increases

n increases. When n is large, it is decidedly easier to compute S than in place of Sn /Sn, and hence it is convenient at tunes to use S
<

32. (I) Find

Sn

for the

G.P.

3,

f f
,

(II)

Find the sum of

this pro-

gression extended to infinitely


33.

many

terms.

Find

&, approximately, for the G.P,

8 -f J

+fH

CHAPTER

15

LOGARITHMS

164. Logarithms

Logarithms are auxiliary numbers which are exponents, and which permit us to simplify the operations of multiplication, division, raising to powers, and extraction of roots, applied to explicit real numbers. Previously, we have introduced exponents only under the assumption that they are rational numbers. In connection with logarithms, however, when we mention an exponent, it may be any real number, rational or irrational. A logical foundation for the use of irrational exponents is beyond the scope of this text. Hence, without discussion, we shall assume the fact that irrational powers have meaning and that the laws of exponents hold if the exponents involved are real numbers, either rational or irrational, provided that the base
is positive.

ILLUSTRATION

1.

with the symbol 10^ are obtained


as exponents.

10^ =
if

The student may


101
-

414

---.

safely use his intuition in connection Closer and closer approximations to

the successive decimal approximations to

v^ are

used

165. Logarithms to any base

In the following definition, b represents any positive number, not is any positive number. 1, and

DEFINITION

I.

exponent of the

The logarithm of a number power to which b must be raised

N
to

to the

base b is the

obtain

N.

In other words, if 6* to the then x is the logarithm of to the base b," we write base 6. To abbreviate "the logarithm of Then, by Definition I, the following equations state the "log*, i/V." same fact, the first equation in exponential form and the second in

LOGARITHMS
logarithmic form:

247

N=
ILLUSTRATION
ILLUSTRATION
1.

b*
5
,

and
then 5

x
is

log*

N.

(1)

If

- 4

the logarithm of

to the base 4. base 2":

2.

"Iog 2 64"
since

is

read "the logarithm of 64


hence
Iog 2 64

to the

64

2*,

6.

ILLUSTRATION

3.

Since v^5

5$,

hence Iog 5 \^5

.333

ILLUSTRATION

4.

To
5 o

find Iog 2

J-,

we
,

express J as a power of 2:
Aence
Iog 2

since

=
&

= = =

2~3

=
o

3.

ILLUSTRATION
ILLUSTRATION

5.

If logb 16

4,

then b 4

16; 6

v'Te

2.

6.

If log
1

J,

then cri

2.

Hence,

For any base

b,

we have
log & 1

=
0;

and

61

b.

Hence,

log b 6

1.

(2)

Note

1.

We
1 is 1

power of
the base
'x

do not use b = 1 as a base for logarithms because every and hence no number except 1 could have a logarithm to

1.

In the definition of

log&
if

N, we stated that

That

is,

in this book,

we

shall

mean a

b is positive.

we stated that the base These agreements were made to avoid meeting impositive

we speak of number N.

the

N was a positive number. logarithm of a number N


it is

Also,

aginary numbers as logarithms.

In advanced mathematics

proved that,
of

if

N and b are positive, there exists just one real logarithm


b.

N to the base
Since 27

EXERCISE 88
1.

3 s what
,

is

the logarithm of 27 to the base 3?


the logarithm of 625 to the base 5?

2.
3.

Since 625 Since J Since


1

54 what
,
,

is

3"1 what
6, what

is

the logarithm of J to the base 3?

4.

is

the logarithm of 1 to the base 6?

242
5. If

LOGARITHMS
the logarithm of

N to the base 4
2 as
its

is 3,

find

N.

6.

What number has


the

logarithm to the base 4?

Find
7. log,

number
*

10.

N - 4. - 2. logio N
= - |.

N whose logarithm is given. 8. log. N = 2. 11. Iog N = 0.


7

9. logio

1.

12. log* JV
3.

- = J.

1.

13. logw AT 16. Iog10

1.

14. Iog 2

'AT

- =
J.
2.

16. Iog4 AT 18. Iog26

3.

4.

17. Iog4 AT

N=
=

19. logs AT

20. logioo

N-

21. logioo AT

22. 23.

Find the logarithm of 125 to the base

5.

Find the logarithm of 1,000,000 to the base


the specified logarithm.

10.

Find

24. logs 25. 28. log, 27.

25. log* 16. 29. Iog4 64.

26. Iog 2 8. 30. logio 1000.

27. log? 49.

31. Iog 5 625.


35. log^ 3.

32. logu 5. 36. Iog4 J.

33. Iog 9 3.
37. loge J.

34. logioo 10.


38. Iog2 J.
letter

39. log,

&.

kFind

the value of the

unknown

in the problem.

40. Iog6 16

2.

41. log* 125


3.

J.

3.

42. log*

625

4.

43. Iog5 1000


46. loga 7 49. Iog6 2
62.

44. log, 9 47. log*

46. Iog 4
2.

= 2.

1.

- -

1.

- -

48. log

y=

J.

60. logb
63.

-fs

==

2. 3.

61. Iog6 .0001

= .

2.

logj

16

x.

log^

64. logs

N= -f

166.

Common

logarithms

Logarithms to the base 10 are called common logarithms and are the most useful variety for computational purposes. Hereafter, unless otherwise stated, when we mention a logarithm we shall mean a common logarithm. For abbreviation, we shall write log N, instead
3!

logw N, for the

logarithm of N.

and read log as the logarithm of Then, from the definition of a logarithm, the follow-

common

ing equations are equivalent:

N=

10

and

log

N.

(1)

LOGARITHMS
ILLUSTRATION
Since Since
1.

243
log 10,000

Since

10,000
log

10 4 ,

hence
.333

4.

^Io =
.01

10*,

hence

^Io

1Q-2 ,

hence

log .01

2.

have seen that log may be either positive, negative, or zero, depending on the value assigned to N. Also, we notice that log N is an integral power of 10. is an integer when and only when

We

ILLUSTRATION

2.

For future

following logarithms

by

reference, the student should verify the use of the definition of a logarithm.

167.

Some

properties of logarithms

The
base
1. 6,

following properties hold if the logarithms are taken to any but we shall write proofs only for the case where b = 10.
the

The logarithm of a product equals factors. For instance,


log

sum

of the logarithms of

its

MN =

log

M + log N.
N
,

(1)
.

= 108 then MN = 1010 = 108 = 3, log N = 5, and log MN = 8. Also, by the definition of a logarithm, log M
ILLUSTRATION
1.

If

M=
1.

103 and

Hence, log

MN

log

M + log N in this special case.


I.

Proof of Property

Let log

M = x and log N
MN 10*10*

y.

Then,

M=
2.

10*,

N-

10",

and

10*+.

Since
!T/ie

MN = 10*+", hence log MN - x + y - log Af -f log


logarithm of a quotient equals the logarithm of the dividend

II.

minus

the logarithm of the divisor. 7

That

is,

log

log

M - log N.
N * y.
Then,

(2)

Proof.

1.

Let log

M
=*

x and log

(By a law of exponents)


x

2.

Hence,

log -^

y - log Af

log AT.

244
ILLUSTRATION
log 300
2.

LOGARITHMS
If

we

are given log 3

.4771, then

log

= log 3(100) - log 3 + log 100 = .003 = log Ttffof = log 3 - log 1000 =
EXERCISE 89

.4771 .4771

+23

2.4771;

2.5229.

Express each number as a product or quotient, and find


of the given logarithms

its

logarithm by use

and

the logarithms of integral

powers of 10.

log 2
1. 6.

.3010; log 3
2. 21.

.4771; log 7

.8451; log 17

1.2304.
6. 70.

3. 34.

4. 51.

5. 30.

168. Characteristic and mantissa

Every number, and hence every logarithm, can be written as the sum of an integer and a decimal fraction which is positive or zero and
log TV is written in this way, we call the integer the characteristic and the fraction the mantissa of log N.
less

than

1.

When

N= log N =
log

(an integer) -f (a fraction,


characteristic

0,

<

1)

+ mantissa.
-f-

(1)

= 4.6832 = 4 ILLUSTRATION 1. If log tissa and 4 is the characteristic of log N.

.6832, then .6832 is the

man-

ILLUSTRATION
3.

2.

If log

N=
-f-

3.75, then log

lies

between

4 and

Hence, log
3.75

N
The

(a fraction).

To
4

.25.

Hence, log TV
3.

= -

3.75

= -

find the fraction, subtract:

.25.

ILLUSTRATION
ods.

The

following logarithms were obtained by later methstudent should verify the three columns at the right.

LOGARITHMS
1

245

69. Properties of the characteristic and mantissa

ILLUSTRATION

1.

All

numbers whose logarithms are given below have the

same significant digits (3, 8, 0, 4). To obtain the logarithms, log 3.804 was first found from a table to be discussed later; the other logarithms were then obtained by the use of Properties I and II.
log 380.4
log 38.04'

log 100(3.804)

log 10(3.804)

+ log 3.804 - log 10 + log 3.804 log 100

log 3.804
log .3804

=.5802
Q

=log~
=
log
-

804

=
=

log 3.804

log 10

+ .5802; 1 + .5802; + .5802; = - 1 + .5802;


2

log .03804
if

log 3.804

log 100

= -

+ .5802.

Similarly,

is

any number whose

significant digits are (3, 8, 0, 4), then

equals 3.804 multiplied, or else divided, by a positive integral power of 10; hence, it follows as before that .5802 is the mantissa of log N.

In Illustration
is 1, etc.

the characteristic of log 380.4 is 2, of log 38.04 These facts could have been learned as follows.
1,

ILLUSTRATION

2.

To

find the characteristic of log 380.4, notice the


lies:

two

successive integral powers of 10 between which 380.4

100

<

380.4

< >

1000.
or,

Hence,

log 100

<

log 380.4

<

log 1000;
0,

2
1);

<

log 380.4

<

3.

=2 Therefore, log 380.4 characteristic of log 380.4


In Illustration
1

(a fraction,
\

<

or,

by

definition, the

is 2.

we met

special cases of the following theorems.

The mantissa of log depends only on the sequence That is, if two numbers differ only in of significant digits in N. the position of the decimal point, their logarithms have the same
I.

THEOREM

mantissa.

N is an integer positive or zero, which is one less than the number of digits in N to the
1, the characteristic of log
,

THEOREM II. When N >


the decimal point.
III.
If

left of

THEOREM
integer;
if

N<

1, the characteristic

of log

the

first significant digit of

N is in the fcth

a negative decimal pkce,


is

then

'k is the characteristic of log N.

246
ILLUSTRATION
3.

LOGARITHMS

we find the characteristic of log N by merely inspecting N. Thus, by Theorem III, the char4 because "3" is in the 4th decimal place. acteristic of log .00039 is By Theorem II, the characteristic of log 1578.6 is 3.

By

use of Theorems II and III,

70. Standard form for a negative logarithm

Hereafter, for convenience in computation, if the characteristic of is negative, - ft, change it to the equivalent value log

[(10
ILLUSTRATION
log .000843
1.

k)

10],

or

[(20

*)

20], etc.
.9258,

Given that log .000843 4

we

write

- -

.9258

(6

10)

.9258

6.9258

10.

The characteristics of the following logarithms are obtained by use Theorem III; the mantissas are identical, by Theorem I.
IST SIGNIP. DIGIT IN
1st decimal place

of

ILLUSTRATION

Loo

AT

STANDARD FORM
9.9258

2d decimal place
6th decimal place

N= NN=

.843

.0843

.00000843

+ .9258 = 2 + .9258 6 + .9258 =


1

8.9258 4.9258

10 10 10

71

Four-place table of logarithms

Mantissas can be computed by use of advanced mathematics, and, except in special cases, are endless decimal fractions. Computed
mantissas are found in tables of logarithms, also called tables of mantissas.

ILLUSTRATION
fifteen

1.

The mantissa

for log

10705

is

.029586671630457, to

decimal places.

correct to four decimal places Table II gives the mantissa of log has at most three. significant digits; a decimal point is underif lies between 1 stood in front of each mantissa in the table. If is zero so that log is the same and 10, the characteristic of log as its mantissa. Hence, a four-place table of mantissas is also a table of the actual logarithms of all numbers with at most three sigis less than 1 10.00. In case 1.00 to nificant digits, from

or greater than 10, use of Theorems II

the characteristic of log by and III besides obtaining the mantissa of log

we must supply

by use of Table

II.

LOGARITHMS
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.

247

Find log .0316 from Table


1.

II.

To

obtain the mantissa:

N in the
"6."
2.

table;

in the
is

row

for

column headed "31," read the entry in the column headed


find

"31"

in the

The mantissa

.4997.

By Theorem

III, the characteristic of log .0316 is

2, or (8

10):

log .0316

= -

+
II

.4997

8.4997

10.

ILLUSTRATION

2.

From Table

and Theorem

II, log

31,600

4.4997.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
is

2.

Find
1.

if

log

N=

7.6064

10.

.6064;
2.

this is
locate the

the mantissa of log found in Table II as the mantissa for the digits "404."
the significant digits of

To find

N:

To

or

decimal point in
III,

N:

the characteristic of log


.00404.

N is (7

10)

3; hence,

by Theorem

ILLUSTRATION 3. If log 3.6064, the characteristic is 3 and, by has 4 figures to the left of the decimal point: the mantissa Theorem II, 4040. is the same as in Example 2. Hence,

DEFINITION I. A number is catted the antilogarithm of ~ L, and for abbreviation we write = antilog L. log

L in case

ILLUSTRATION
ILLUSTRATION

4.
5.

Since log 1000

3,

hence 1000

antilog 3.
10).

In Example 2 we found antilog (7.6064

EXERCISE 90
each number is the logarithm of some number N. the characteristic and the mantissa of log N.
1 to 8,
1.

In Probkms
2.9356.
3.5473.

State

2. 6.

15.2162.

3.

6.

7.2356

10.

7.

1.300.

4.
8.

-2+
5.1942

.3561.

5.675.

10.

Write the fottowng negative logarithms in standard form.


9.

.2562.

10. .3267

3.

11. .4932

6.

12.

3.4675.

State the characteristic of the logarithm of each number.


13. 637,500.

14. 368.
to

16. .000673.

16. .00897.

17. .000007.

Use Table II
18. 65.4.

find the four-place logarithm of the number.


20. 178. 25. 17,800. 21. .00785. 26. .00005.

19. 43.2.

22. .0346.
27. .086.

23. 9.46.

24. 6530.

28. .000358.

29. 101,000.

30. .00089.

31. 157,000.

32. .0000002.

248
Find

LOGARIJHMS
the antilogarithm of the given logarithm

by use of Table
36. 1.8785. 41. 2.4800.

II.

83. 2.3856. 38. 2.1461. 43. 7.7701 46. 4.8915


49. 9.4216

34. 3.3927.

36. 3.6684.

37. 0.1553.
42. 0.5611.

39. 1.8692.

40. 0.9727. 44. Q.8041 47. 4.9542


60. 8.7284

10.

10.
10. 10.

46. 8.9823

10.
10.

10. 10.

48. 2.9340
61.

2.3010.

72. Interpolation for a mantissa

Interpolation in a table of mantissas is based on the assumption are that, for small changes in N, the corresponding changes in log proportional to the changes in N. This principle of proportional parts is

merely an approximation to the truth but leads to results which are sufficiently accurate for our purposes.
agree that, whenever a mantissa is found by interpolation from a table, we shall express the result only to the number of decimal places given in table entries. Also, in finding by interpolation in

We

a table

of mantissas

when

log

N is given, we agree to specify just four

or just five significant digits according as we are using a four-place or a five-place table. No greater refinement in the result is justified

because the unavoidable error, which may arise, frequently will be as large as 1 unit in the last significant digit which we have agreed
to specify, although the error
is

rarely larger.
t

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

1.

Find log 13.86 by interpolation


1.

in

Table

II.

We

notice that 13.80

<

13.86

<

13.90.

Hence, by the
is

principle of proportional parts, from 13.80 to 13.90,

we assume

that, since 13.86

3% of the way

log 13.86

&

& of the way from log 13.80


log 13.80

to

log 13.90, or log 13.80).

log 13.86
2.

.6(log 13.90

Each logarithm below has


table:

1 for its characteristic,

by Theorem

II.

From
From

log 13.80 log 13.86 log 13.90

table:

= = =

1.1399"

Tabular difference

is

log 13.86

1.1399

? 31 .1430 - .1399 = .0031. = .00186, or .0019. 1.1430J .6(.0031) + .6(.0031) = 1.1399 + .0019 = 1.1418.

Comment. We found .6(31) = 18.6 by use of the table headed the column of proportional parts in Table II.

"

31

"

under

LOGARITHMS
ILLUSTRATION
~ 10
1.

249

To

find log .002914:


'

T2910:
L2914:
2920:

mantissa mantissa

is is is

-46391
?

Tabular difference
15
_
is

is

.4654

.4639
.4(15)

mantissa

.4654

.0015.
6.

Hence, the mantissa for 2914

.4639 4- .0006

.4645.

Hence, by Theorem

III, log .002914


if

= -

.4645

7.4645

10.

EXAMPLE

2.

Find
1.

log

1.6187.
is

SOLUTION.

The mantissa
of the

.6187

not in Table II but

lies

between the

consecutive entries .6180 and .6191, the mantissas for 415 and 416.
2.

Since .6187

is -fa

way from

.6180 to .6191,

we assume

that

N is

of the

way from

41.50 to 41.60.

11

[1.6180 Ll.6187

^1.6191

= = =

log 41.501
log

41.60
.10

41.50

.10

J*

A(-IO)

.064, or
.06.

log 41.60

J
41.50

approximately

N=
ILLUSTRATION
2.

41.50

+ -&C10) = N
if

-06

41.56.

To

find

log

N=

6.1053

10:

34

= .4. Hence, 10 x = .4(10) = 4. 1270 + 4 = 1274. J .1072, mantissa for 1280 = .0001274. Hence, .1053 is the mantissa for 1274 and N
15
r.1038, mantissa for 1270H ? J L.1053, mantissa for
.4

Comment. We obtain Jj = columns of proportional parts.


13.6

by

inspection of the tenths of 34 in the

We

read

.4(34)

or

.4,

and
is

^=
if

.5.

Since 15

is

nearer to 13.6 than to 17, hence J|

nearer to

.4

than to
is

.5.

Note 1

When interpolating in a table of mantissas,


digits,

there

equal reason

two successive make that choice which gives an even


for choosing either of

for uniformity

we agree

to

digit in the last significant place of

the final result of the interpolation.


4

73. Scientific notation for a number

Any

positive

number

N can be written in the form


.

(1)

250

LOGARITHMS

where P is a number greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10, and fc is an integer, either zero or positive or negative. We refer to the right-hand side of (1) as the scientific notation for N.
ILLUSTRATION
1.

5,832,900

5.8329(10*).

.00000058329

5.8329(.0000001)

5.8329(10~

7
).

notation gives a brief and easily appreciated form for writing very large or very small numbers.
scientific

The

ILLUSTRATION 2. The nucleus of an atom has a diameter which is estimated as less than 3(10~12 ) centimeters. The mean distance from the sun One to the outermost planet Pluto is approximately 3.67 X 109 miles. light-year, the distance which light will travel in one year hi interstellar 12 space, is approximately 6 X 10 miles.

In equation 1, and P have the same significant digits because the factor 10* merely alters the position of the decimal point to change P into N. Hence, the scientific notation is very useful hi writing a number N, particularly if it is very large, when we wish to show how are significant. This feature was referred to in many digits in Section 48, page 53, for the case where k of (1) is positive.

68,820,000 is the approximate value of some quantity and if just five digits are significant, this is not indicated by the usual form of the number. We write it as 6.8820(107) to show that one of the zeros

ILLUSTRATION

3. If

is significant.

ILLUSTRATION
log

4.

If

1.352(10*), then,

by Property

I,

page 243,

log 1.352

+ log

108

0.1309
is

+8=

8.1309.

Thus, 8
\

is

the characteristic and log 1.352

the mantissa of log N.

= P(10*) where k is an integer Consider any number N, where and 1 ^ P < 10. Then k is the characteristic and log P is the mantissa of log N, because
log

N - log P-f log 10* - log P + k,


1,

where

log

P<

since 1

^ P <

10.

= 9.7419, and ILLUSTRATION 5. If log we have k = 9 and log P = .7419:

if

we

use the form

=>

P(10*),

P-

5.520

and

2V

5.520(10*).

(Four digits

significant.)

LOGARITHMS
Note
1.

251

logarithms, the only other variety used appreciably is the system of natural, or Naperian logarithms, for which the base is a certain irrational number denoted by e where e = 2.71828

Besides

common

Natural logarithms are useful for theoretical purposes.

logarithms were invented by a Scotchman, JOHN NAPIER, Baron of Merchiston (1550-1617). His original logarithms were not the same as
Note
2.

Naperian logarithms, in his honor. Common logarithms, also called Briggs logarithms,' were invented by an Englishman, HENRY BRIQQS (1556-1631), who was aided by Napier.
those

now

called

EXERCISE 91
^i

Find
1.

the four-place logarithm of each


2. 25.63. 6. 1.293.

number from Table


3. 532.2. 7. .3013.

II.

1826.

4. 12.67.

5. 35.94. 9. .5627.

8. .4213.

10. .03147. 14. 203,500.


18. 1.417(10').

11. .01563.
15. .001439.
19. 3.126(103 ).

12. .001139.
16. .05626.

13. 90,090.
17. 1.233(10-4 ).

20. 2.438(10-*).
II.

Find

the antilogarithm of each four-place logarithm

from Table

21. 3.2367.
26. 3.1395. 29. 6.3350
33.-

22. 7.1247
26. 2.9276.

10.

23. 6.1640. 27. 1.6016.

24. 8.9935 28. 0.4906.

10.

10.

30. 4.1436 34. 2.1952.

10.

31. 9.6715 35. 0.0130.

10.

32. 8.0255
36. 5.5511.

10.

8.8862.
10.

37. 5.9885

38. 8.3358

20.

39. 9.6270

10.

40. 6.4228.

74. Computation of products and quotients

Unless otherwise specified,


given problem are exact.

we

shall

assume that the data

of

any

Under

this assumption, the accuracy of a

product, quotient, or power computed by use of logarithms depends on the number of places in the table being used. The result is frequently subject to an unavoidable error which usually is at most a

few units in the


usually

last significant place given

by

interpolation.

Hence,

at least five-place logarithms to obtain four-place .accuracy, and with at least four-place logarithms to obtain As a general custom, in any result we shall three-ylace accuracy.

we must compute with

give all digits obtainable by interpolation in the specified table.

252

LOGARITHMS
1.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

Compute
Let

.0631(7.208) (.5127)

by use

of Table II.

represent the product. By Property I, we obtain log by adding the logarithms of the factors. We obtain the logarithms of the factors from Table II, add to obtain log P, and then finally obtain

P from

Tkble

II.

The computing form, given


the first step in the solution.

in blackface type,

was made

up completely as
log .0631

8.8000

10

(Table II) (Table II)

log

7.208= 0.8578
9.7099
19.3677
.2332.

= log .6127 (add) log P = Hence, P r>

10

(Table 'II)

20
[
,

9.3677

10.

antilog (9.3677

10),

Table II]

EXAMPLE

2.

or.* Compute
1.

431.91

equals the logarithm of the numerator minus the logarithm of the denominator.

SOLUTION.

By

Property

II, log q

Before computing, we round off each given number to four significant For instance, 15.6873 bedigits because we are using a four-place table.
2.

comes

15.69.

log 431.9 _(-) log 15.69 log q

= =

2.6354
1.1956
1.4398.

(Table II)
(Table II)

Hence, q

27.53.

(Table II)

EXAMPLE

3.

257 Compute q = Sn^s'

SOLUTION.

We employ Property II.


= =
2.4099 3.9521
???

log 267

(-) log 8966


log q

= = =

12.4099
3.9521

10
10.

8.4578

Hence, q

.02869.

Comment.

When we
result

first tried

saw that the

would

to subtract log 8956 from log 257, we be negative because log 8956 is greater than log 257.

In order that log q should appear immediately in the standard form for a negative logarithm, we changed log 257 by adding 10 and then subtracting 10 to compensate for the first change. Actually,
log q

2.4099

3.9521

- -

1.5422

8.4578

10.

necessary to subtract a larger logarithm from a smaller one in computing a quotient, add 10 to the characteristic of the smaller logarithm and then subtract 10 to compensate for the change.
it is

Whenever

LOGARITHMS

253
'

* * A EXAMPLE^ Compute
INCOMPLETE SOLUTION.
(log

g=
First

v (4.803)

(269.9) (1.636)

(7880)(253.6)

make a computing form.


.

4.803

(+)

log 269.9
[log 1.636

*"

log
(
)

log

= numer. = denom. =
log q

= = \log 263.6 log denom. =


flog

7880

Hence, q

=
of Table II.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

5.

Compute the
Let

reciprocal of 189

by use

R =

189
log 1

= (-) log 189 log R = Hence, R =


Comment.

0.0000 2.2765
?

= = =

10.0000

10
10.

2.2765 7.7235

.005290.

In writing any approximate value, it is essential to indicate all final zeros which are significant. Hence, in writing R = .005290 in Example 5, the final zero was essential. It would have been wrong to write R .00529, because this would not show that we had reasonably accurate information concerning the next digit, zero. Note
1.

Before finding the four-pl&ce log

NUN has more than


digits.

four

significant digits,

round

off AT to

four significant

EXERCISE 92

Compute by use of four-place


1.

logarithms.

31.57

.789. .137.

2.
6.

.8475 .0179

X
X

.0937.

3.
6.

925.618 3.41379

X
X

.000217.
.0142.

4.
7.

925.6

.35641.
8.

(-

84.75) (.00368) (.02458).

(-

16.8) (136.943) (.00038).

HINT.
all factors

Only

positive

numbers have

real logarithms.

First

compute as

if

were positive; then determine the sign by inspection.


728.72

675
13.21

**

.0894 .6358

895
*

325.932
1

568.5

lv

^rfc

^ ^

1A JL4

23.14

753.166 /\rti*n o 9273.8

1K JLO

.0421

w
.53908
100,935

254
17
16.083

LOGARITHMS

256

9.32X531
.8319

JL f

47

.0158

.5685

.53819

X X

.0673

.42173
'

.3852

X .217 X .956

5.4171

X .429 18.1167 X 37
n.
(5.6)

.00073

.965

(- .29)(.038)(- .0065) (- 1006.332) (2.71)


Compute
25. 63283. 29. (a) 80. (a)
the reciprocal of the

(-

3.9078) (- .00031)

(132) (- 1.93)

number.
27. .02567. 28. .0683(.52831).

26. .00382.

Compute

652(735);
.351

(6)

compute
(6)

(log 652) (log 735). (log .351)


-5-

Compute

*
*

625;

compute

(log 625).

*175. Cologarithms

The logarithm
and
is

of the reciprocal of

N is called the cologarithm of N


=
!

written colog N.
colog

Since log

1=0,

N=
.031

log

log

N.
log 1

(1)

ILLUSTRATION

1.

n Colog
i

noi

= =

10.0000
1.5086.

10

log

-ggjl

, )log .Q*31= 8.4914-10


colog .031

can be quickly obtained by inspecpositive part of colog tion of log N: subtract each digit (except the last) in the positive part
of log
,,

The

N from 9, and subtract the last digit from 10.


,

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

1.

Compute q

16.083

47
is

256 , AICQ "7 use

r ^

.,

coioganthms.

the same as to multiply by 1/N. Hence, instead of subtracting the logarithm of each factor of the denominator, we add the cologariihm of the factor:
divide

To

by

16.083

256

47

_ "

.0158

(16 083
'

/ 1 \ /

log 16.08 log 266 log 47 log .0158

1.6721; hence,

8.1987
q

colog 47 10; hence, colog .0168 5542. < (add) log q

= 1.2063 = 2.4082 - 8.3279-10 - 1.8013 - 13.7437 - 10 .

3.7437.

The

instructor

may

wish to direct occasional use of cologarithms.

LOGARITHMS
1

255

76. Computation of powers and roots

We
III.

establish the following property of logarithms as

an aid

to

computing powers. The logarithm of


the

kth power of a number

N equals k times
(1)

the logarithm of

N:
log

N* = k

log

N.

Proof.

Let x

log

N.

N-

Then, by the definition of a logarithm,

10*.

Hence,

Nk Therefore,

(10*)*

10**.
i

(A law

of exponents)

by the
log

definition of a logarithm,

Nk

kx

k log N.

(Using x
7.

log

N)

ILLUSTRATION

1.

6 Log 7

5 log

Log N* = 3

log

N.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
'

1.

Compute

(.3156)

4
.

By

Property III,

log (.3156)*
log (.3166)*

= -

4 log (.3156) - 4(9.4991 37.9964 - 40 = 7.9964


4

10).
10.

Therefore, (.3156)

.009918.

Recall that any root of a number is expressible as a fractional power. Hence, as a special case of Property III we obtain

IV.

log

Proof.

Since

3/N = W*, we
log y/Jf

use Property III with k

T-

log JV

-T

log

N.

ILLUSTRATION

2.

Since

VJ? = Ni and
log

log

VN = ilog N\ 2
4/N

*/N = \ 3

log N.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

2.

Compute ^.08351.

By

Property IV, log

log AT.

Hence,

256

LOGARITHMS
_

8.9218
6

10
*

log v^.08361

58.9218
6

60

9.8203

10.

(2)

Therefore, \/. 08361

.6611.

Comment.
usually
it is

Before dividing a negative logarithm by a positive integer, best to write the logarithm in such a way that the negative part
will be
10.

after division,

Thus, in

(2),

we

10 to make it subtracting 50 from 60, and compensate for the subtraction; the result after division standard form for a negative logarithm.
T7

altered (8.9218 10) by by adding 50 to 8.9218 to

by 6

is

in the

EXAMPLE

3.

on*/
Compute
Let
q

05831)

~=\*
]

\65.3VT46/
SOLUTION.
2.
1.

represent the fraction.

Then

log q

log F.

Notice that log (.5831) 3


log .6831

3 log .5831; log

Vl46 - i
/
1 j

log 146.

= log 146 = 3 log .6831 = = ( -) log denom. = log F


,

9.7658 2.1644 9.2974


2.8971

10 10
\
j

log 66.3

log

= log 146 denom. = =

1.8149
1.0822
2.8971.

6.4003

10;

21ogF - 2.8006

10

42.8006

50.

log q

= 21ogF =
jp

42.8006 g

50

c Am 8.5601
,

10.

Hence, q

.03632.

EXERCISE 93

Compute by use of four-place


1.

logarithms.
4
.

(17.5)

8
.

2.

(3.1279)

3. (.837)*.

4. (.0315) 8 .
8.

6.

VT09.
(1.04)
7
.

6. -v/2795.

9.

10. (10,000)*.

12. (.0138273)*. 16.

13. (700,928)*.

17.

(-

1.03)*.

18.

(-

1796)*.
23.

20.

(-

.00831)

8
.

21. (143.54)*.

22.
24.

(-

.0057)*.

24. (157)"8 .
).

HINT

for

Problem

Recall that (1$7)~8

1/(157

26. (13.67)*.

26. (3.035)-*.

27. (.98)-*.

28. (.831447)-6

LOGARITHMS
29. (1.03)-.
1.

257
.

30. (1.05)-.

31. (1.04) 100

32. (1.04)-.

Given the seven-place log 1.04 = 0.0170333, compute Problems 31 and 32 and compare with the less accurate former answers.

Compute by use of four-place logarithms.


33. .958(12.167) 2 .

34. 10'- 66

V265.
* 38.

35. 102 W1J8147.

36.
-

37.

4 31
;
!.-

21.4V521.923

2 (25 >'. 1893.32

;I^
89-1

"" 39.

0198

(3.82616)

40

758>32
'

(46.3)

"
41

\163 X

.62*

^ \.031 X
A0
/

47.5317
.964*

10-*V?78
(.983174)'

**

10-i"v387
'

..

^- 463.19
5731.84

(57)(8.64)'

46 *

/(- 316)(.198)
.756392

'

47

/54.2VT89\
'

V .157386 )

Observe that no property of logarithms is available to simplify the computation of a sum. Use logarithms below wherever possible.
ATofe ^.

49.

62 "

+ 89.532 V57 + 2.513 +1 (1.03)* + 1


. -

'

U'

^45 2

364.1

(.9873)

R1 5L

16.3*

"453

.110173

B3

log 86

log 53.8*
66. (53.17)57.
4
.

*
67. (60.2)--.

log 567

20

log 235
58. (.065) M2 .
-

66. (2.67) 1 -*2 .

HINT
69.

for

Problem

.43 log 59.2


2
;

= -

.7621

9.2379
2
.

10.

Compute

(a) (antilog
I.

2.6731)

(ft)

[antilog

(-

1.4973)]

DEFINITION

The geometric

mean

of

root of the product of the numbers.

Thus, the

n numbers is defined as the nth geometric mean of M, N, P, Q,

and

is

^MNPQR.
the geometric

In each problem, find

mean

of the given numbers.

60. 138; 395; 426; 537; 612.

61. .00138;

.19276;

.08356; .0131.

//
that

a, 6,

and

c are the three sides of

a triangle
by
c),

it is

proved in trigonometry

A,

the area of the triangle, is given

A = VS(S Find
the area of

a)(8

b)(8

where

S =

J(a

+6+

c).

a triangle whose sides are as follows.


63. .089312;

62, 375.40;

141.37; 451.20.

.0739168; .024853.

258
The time
is
I

LOGARITHMS
t

in seconds for one oscillation of a simple pendulum whose length

centimeters, is given

byt

wv->

where g

980 and

v =

3.1416.

Find the time for one oscillation of a simple pendulum .985 meters long. (6) Find I if the time for one oscillation is 3.75 seconds.
64. (a)
65.

centi-

Let d be the diameter in inches of a short solid circular


is

steel shaft

which

horse power designed to transmit safely safe value for d is revolutions per minute.

when

revolving at

Find the number of horse power which can be safely transmitted at 1150 - 1.9834. revolutions per minute if d

pounds of steam per second, which will flow through a hole whose cross-section area is A square inches, if the steam approaches the hole under a pressure of P pounds per square inch, is approximately w .0165AP-*7 How much steam at a pressure of 83.85 pounds per square inch will flow through a hole 12.369 inches in diameter?
66.

The weight w,

in

*1 77. Exponential and logarithmic equations

A logarithmic equation is one in which there appears the logarithm


of

some expression involving the unknown quantity.


EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.

Solve for x:

log x

log

6.
-^-

By

use of Properties I and II of page 243,


log

+ log 2 -f log x
6

log 5

6.

2 log x
log x

+ log 5 - log 2
x

6.3980.

(Table II)

3.1990;

antilog 3.1990

1581.

(Table II)

An
is

equation where the

unknown quantity appears

in

an exponent

an exponential equation. Sometimes, an exponential equation can be solved by taking the logarithm of each member.
called

EXAMPLE

2.

Solve 16*

74.
sides:

SOLUTION.

Equate the logarithms of the two


1.8692
1.2041*

x log 16

log 74;

log 74 log 16

"

(-)

log 1.869 log 1.204 log

0.2716
0.0806

0.1910;

hence

1.552,

LOGARITHMS
*1 78. Logarithms to various bases

259

convenient for a system of logarithms when they are being used to simplify computation. The only base other than 10 which is used appreciably is the irrational number e = 2.71828-

The base 10

is

which is fully as important a constant hi mathematics as the familiar number IT. Logarithms to the base e are called natural, or Naperian,
logarithms.

mon

Natural logarithms have many advantages over comlogarithms for advanced theoretical purposes.

= 6* and x Recall that the equations and b are given, we can find log$ Hence, if

b* by use of common logarithms. equation the natural logarithm of can be found by solving
tial

are equivalent. by solving the exponenlog&

In particular,
e* for x.

EXAMPLE

1.

Find

log, 35.

Let x = log, 35; then, 35 = e*. logarithm of both sides we obtain x logio e = logio

SOLUTION.

On
35.

taking the

common

logio

35

logio e

1.5441. 0.4343'
log. 35.

(-)

log 1.544 log .4343


log

3.555
I.

= -

10.1886

9.6378
0.5508.

10

10

THEOREM

If a and b are any two bases, then


log

N=

(toga &) (log* N).

(1)
If.

Proof.

Let y

Hence,

= lo& N; then = logo If - y logo logo N


loga b
is

Nb

(2)

(logo 6)(log&

N).

The number

called the

with respect to the system of to the base 6, we could form a table of logarithms to the base a by multiplying each entry of the given table by logo 6.
*EXERCISE 94
Solve for x or for n, or compute the specified logarithm.
1.

modulus of the system of base a base b. Given a table of logarithms

12'
.67*

28.
8. "" 1

2. 6.

51*

569.

3.

&* -

28(2').

4.

15s*

85(3*).

6.

.093*

12.

7. (1.03)-"

.587.

8. (1.04)"

1.562.

9.

(1 ' 05 iT e

6.3282.

.UO
12. log. 1360.

10. log

W+

log

5.673.

11. log. 75.

13. log, 10.

14. logu 33.

15. log.s 23.8.

260
16.

LOGARITHMS

Find the natural logarithm of (a) 4368.1; (6) 4.3681. (Notice that the results do not differ by an integer, so that Theorem I of page 245 does
not hold for natural logarithms.)

*1 79. Graphs of logarithmic and exponential functions

We recall that y =
logo tion of x
call

loga

x and x = av are equivalent

relations.

We

x a logarithmic funcand av an exponential

function of y.

ILLUSTRATION 1. In Figure 18, we have the graph of y = log, x. For any base a > 1, the graph of This logo x would be similar.
graph
assists

us hi remembering

the following facts.


'

I.

If x is negative, Iog x is

not defined.
II.

If

<

<

1,

loga

is negative,

and loga

0.

// x increases without limit, log a x increases without limit; if x approaches zero, log a x decreases without limit.
III.

Since y

loga x

same graph.

= av these equations have the equivalent to x v Thus, in Figure 18 we have a graph of x *= e


is
,
.

*EXERCISE 95
1.
.3.

Graph y
10
-.e.

logio

x for

< =

30.

From the graph,

read the value of

io.s.

2.

Graph y

2*

from x

6 to x

4.

From

the graph, read log z

6.

*1 80. Applications to compound

interest

On page 235 we saw that,


pounded annually, the
given

$P is invested at the interest rate i comamount $A on hand at the end of n years is


if

by the formula

A = P(l
ILLUSTRATION
1.

i)

n-

$1000 is invested for 20 years at annually, the amount at the end of the time is
If

5%

compounded

A =

1000(1.05)*>

1000(2.653)

$2653.

(From Table

III)

LOGARITHMS
For unusual values
table as in Illustration
of
1,
t,

261

it is

impossible to employ an interest

but then logarithms can be used.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

1.

Compute
log 1.036

A =
=

2000(1. 036)

26
.

0.0153;

25 log 1.036 log 2000


log

Hence,

A =

$4826.

= = A =

0.3825
3.3010 (+)
3.6835.

We claim

only three significant digits in the result because accuracy is lost The 4th digit in 4826 is unreliable. in the multiplication 25 log 1.036.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.

2.
1.
1

Solve for the rate


(1

i:

2500
or
(1

=
=

2000(1
1-250.

+ i)

8
.

+ t)
=

= $$&

+ i)

Hence,

4- i

v' 1.250;

we compute

this root

by use

of Table II.
1.028.

log 1.250
3.

0.0969;
1

J log 1.250

0.0121;
or,
i

hence,

v/ L250 =

Therefore,

+i=

1.028;

1.028

.028

2.8%.

^EXERCISE 96

By
the
1.

use of Table III, find the compound amount at the end of the time if
is invested at the specified rate

money

compounded annually.
2.

$2500; at $1600; at

4%, 3%,

for 16 years. for

$1200; at
$400; at

6%,

for 13 years.

3.

35 years.

4.

5%,

for

42 years. Use
this

From
5.

A =

P(l

+ i) n

and Table IV

to solve

we obtain Problems 5 and 6.


,

P=

A(l

+ i)-*.
5%

result

principal should be invested now at compounded annually to create $2500 as the amount at the end of 15 years?

What

principal should be invested now at compounded annually to create $1000 as the amount at the end of 26 years?
6.

What

6%

At what interest rate compounded annually grow to the amount $3500 at the end of 10 years?
7. 8.

will

a $2000 principal

At what
itself

interest rate

compounded annually

will

a $3000 principal

double
9.

by

the end of 15 years?


it
if

How

at

5%
10.

take $300 to grow to the amount $750 compounded annually? (Recall Section 177.)
long will

invested

How long does it take money to double if invested at 6% compounded


How
long does it take money to double if invested at Compare with the result of Problem 10.

annually?
11.

6%

simple

interest?

CHAPTER

16

SYSTEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS

81

Graph

of a quadratic equation in

two

variables

A solution of an equation in two variables x and y is a pair of values


of the variables

which

satisfies

the equation is the set of all real-valued solutions of the equation.

the equation. The graph or locus of points whose coordinates, (z, y), form

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
equation are
2.

1.

Graph:
1.

z2
0,

2
-f- j/

=
25;

25.

When x =
and
x2
(0,

5.

Two

solutions of the

(0, 5)

5).

When

0,

solutions of the

5. 25; x equation are (5, 0)

Two
and

(-

5, 0).

3.

We plot the

four points just found, with

and OY in Figure 19, and verify an advance inference that the graph is a circle whose center is the origin and radius is 5.
the same unit on

OX

Comment. Let P, with the coordinates (x, y), be any point in the coordinate plane with origin at 0, in a system where the same
unit
is

Fig.

19

used in measuring

all lengths.

Then
(OP)
2
.

x*

+ y* P

Hence, if x with (OP) 2

+
=
2.

2
j/

25, the point

must

lie

on a

circle

about

as center

25, or with radius 5.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

Graph:
1.

9x*

4y*

36.

(1)

Solve for x in terms of y:

9z2

36

SYSTEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS


-

263

g
9

x
2.

=
=

9+
=t 2. If

2
.

(2)

We
if

assign values to y

Thus,

0,

then z

= =

and compute the corresponding values


\/9

of x.

=t
=fc

3,

then

vl8 -

2V2 =

2.8.

We

tabulate the corresponding values of x and y in the following table.

We plot

the points given by the pairs of values of x and y in the table. In Figure 20, the points listed for (a) in the table give the open curve FDE; the points for (6) give HBO. These two open curves, together, are called

a hyperbola, and it is called a branch of

is
it.

the graph of equation

1.

Each

piece of the hyperbola

2 Comment. The equation 9x2 4y = 36 defines z as a tow-valued function of y, as shown in (2), or y as a tow-valued function

of x.

The graph

of the equation consists

of the graphs of the tional functions

two single-valued

irra-

and

x
is

The graph

of the first of these

the branch

and the graph of the second is HBO. The two branches together make up the graph

FDE

of equation
rical

1.

The branches

are symmetr-

Fig.

20

with respect to the y-axis.


1.

every hyperbola there correspond two characteristic lines, called asymptotes, which are indicated by dotted lines in Figure 20. As we recede out on any branch of the hyperbola, the curve approaches the corresponding asymptote but never reaches it. By moving far enough out

Note

To

on the branch, we
is

approach the asymptote as closely as we please. It for equaproved in analytic geometry that the equations of the asymptotes

may

tion 1 are obtainable as follows:

264
1.

SYSTEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS


Replace the constant term in the equation by
0,

and factor
0.

the left

member:

9x2
2.

3x

4t/

0;

(3x

2y)(3x

+ 2y) =
0.

Equate each factor separately

to zero:

2y

and

3x

+ 2y =
=

These are the equations of the asymptotes.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

3.
1.

Graph:
Solve for y:

x 2 -f 4y2

25.

(3)

y
2.

i(25

x2 )

= =

JV25 -

x2

(4)

To obtain real values for y,


Thus,
if

the numerical value of x

may not be allowed


is

to exceed 5.
3.

8,

V25

x2

39,

which

imaginary.

Place x

in (3) to determine the t/-intercepts:

25;

Hence, two points on the graph are (0, and (0, f ), labeled A and C in Figure 21.
4.

Place y

in (3) to determine the

x-intercepts:

x2

25;

5.
(5,

Hence, two points on the graph are

0)

and (5.

5, 0), labeled

B and D in Figure 21.

Fi 9 .

21

As many more points as desired can be found by substituting values of x in (4) and computing the corresponding values of y. When the points are joined by a smooth curve we obtain the oval ABCD in Figure 21. The curve is called an ellipse. The graph of the positive valued function x2 from (4), is the half of the ellipse above the x-axis. The y = JV25
,

graph of y upper half.

JV25

The

the lower half, which whole ellipse is the graph of (3).


is

x2

is

symmetrical to the

The

facts stated in the following

summary

are proved in

more

advanced mathematics.
The graph of any quadratic equation in two variables x and y with real solutions is either an ellipse, a hyperbola, a circle, a parabola, a pair of straight lines, or a single point.
,

SUMMARY.

1.

J/fc is positive, the

a a graph of jc H- y

c is a circle whose radius is

\/c and center is the origin, provided that the same unit is used on the scales of the x-axis and y-axis.

SYSTEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS


2.

265

// a,

6,

and

c have the

same

sign, the

9 graph of ax

&y*

c is

an

with center at the origin; if a b, the ellipse is a circle, provided that the same unit is used on the scales of the x-axis and y-axis.
ellipse, 3.

// a and b have opposite signs and if c is not zero, the graph of

ax* -f by2
4.

c is

a hyperbola.

graph of xy = c is a hyperbola; ifc>Q, one branch of the hyperbola lies wholly in quadrant I, and the other in quadrant III; if c < 0, the branches are in quadrants II and IV, respectively.
If c j
0, the

The coordinate axes are


5.

the asymptotes of the hyperbola.

// a quadratic equation in
is

x and y does not

involve

2 y or xy,

the

graph of the equation


if the

a parabola whose axis is parallel to the y-axis; 2 equation does not involve x or xy, the graph is a parabola whose
to the x-axis.

axis is parallel

ILLUSTRATION
of 5x
2

1.

y
is

is

= 8 is an ellipse, of the equation 3#2 7y* a hyperbola, and of 4z 2 -f- 4y* = 25 is a circle, whose
The graph

radius

5/2.
4.

EXAMPLE

Determine the nature of the graph of


2x*

xy

3y*

0.

(5)

SOLUTION.
Hence,

1.

Factor:

(2x
(x, y) in

3y)(x 4- y)

=
0.

0.

(5) is satisfied
(a)

by values
2x

case
(6)

3y

0,

or

+y=

Therefore, the set of all points (x, y) satisfying (5) consists of those satisfying Or, in other words, the graph of (5) consists (a) and those satisfying (6). of the graph of (a) and the graph of (6).
of (a) and (6) are straight lines through the origin. the graph of (5) consists of these two straight lines.
2.

The graphs

Hence,

Another case similar to Example 4 was met in finding the asymptotes in Example 2. They were the two straight lines which are the 2 2 4y = 0. graph of the equation 9z

Comment.

EXAMPLE

5.

Determine the nature of the graph of


5x

7 y

= =

0.

SOLUTION.
2.

1. is

Solve for y:
x,
is

|z

fx

+ J.
To graph

a quadratic function of given equation is a parabola whose axis

Thus, y

and therefore the graph of the


parallel to the y-axis.

the equation, we would compute the coordinates of the vertex of the parabola and proceed as in Section 132, page 186.

266

SYSTEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS

182. Routine for graphing

be able to construct reasonably good graphs quickly. Beyond this, it is also essential to have a procedure for improving on such graphs when the necessity arises. The following
It is important to

suggestions are of aid hi constructing graphs quickly for equations of

the second degree hi x and


1.

y.

Refer to the summary of Section 181 and if possible decide on the nature of the graph before carrying out details of the work.
2.

When

the

z graph of ax

H-

by

= =

c is

circle,

find

its

radius, 17 ->

and
3.

construct the circle with compasses.


the

When

graph of ax*

4- by*

c is

an

ellipse,

find the x-intercepts

by placing y ~ and solving for x, and find the y-4ntercepts by placing x = in the given equation. Then, sketch the ellipse through the four intercept points thus obtained*
4.

When

a hyperbola: Find its asymptotes by replacing c by and constructing two straight lines which are the graph of ax 2 -f- by* - 0.
the
4-

2 graph of ax

by

c is

the

Find

the x-intercepts or the y-intercepts. (One set of intercepts witt be imaginary because the hyperbola will cut just one of the

coordinate axes.)

Sketch the hyperbola through the real intercepts thus found, with each branch of the curve approaching the asymptotes smoothly.
5.

When a

solve for it

quadratic equation in (x, y) is linear in one variable, in terms of the other variable and then graph the resulting

parabola by the method of Section 132.


2 ILLUSTRATION 1. To graph 9x2 4y = 36 quickly, we first note that the graph will be a hyperbola. We substitute y = and find that the ^-intercepts are real, x = 2; we thus obtain points B and D in Figure 20, page 263.

We obtain the asymptotes, as in Note 1, page 263. Then we sketch branches EDF and GBH through points B and D in Figure 20.
as obtained through the preceding suggestions, or when doubt arises as to the nature of a graph, solve the given equation for one variable in terms of the other and compute as many points as needed, with Example 2 of Section 181 as a model.
* Illustrated in

To improve on a graph

Example

3,

page 264.

SYSTEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS


EXERCISE 97

267

Graph each equation on


1. x*

cross-section paper.
2.
5.

4.
7.

+ y* = 9. 4z + 4y = 9.
2

36.

3.
6.

4x2

2
j/

6.

16.

4.

xy
4y
2

9z2

0.

8. 0.

0.

9.

9x2

36.

10. (Qx 12.

3/)(3s

+ 2y) 9. 0.

11.
\

a;

4x

+ 7.
4y
2

2y

4s -f 6z2

13.

3s2
(a;

+ 4xy
2y)(3z

0.

14. 36

*2

9w2

16.

2y

6)

0.

16. Rewrite statements I

and
x

II of page 187 for the graph of

ay

+ by +
is

c,

where

it is

understood that the o>axis

to be horizontal as usual.

Graph each 17. x = 4y2


.

equation, with the aid of Problem 16.


18.

2y

+ Sy - 6.

19.

0.

183. Graphical solution of systems involving quadratics

EXAMPLE

1.

Solve the following system graphically:

=
SOLUTION.
1.

(1) (2)

graph each equation, on one coordinate system. The graph of (1) is the hyperbola and the graph of (2) is the ellipse hi Figure 22. 2. Any point on the hyperbola has coordinates which satisfy (1), and any point on the ellipse has coordinates which satisfy (2). Hence, both equations
are satisfied

We

and

Z>,

the coordinates of A, B, C, which are the points of intersection

by

of the ellipse

and the hyperbola:


(x

A: B:
D:

9,

(x

y
3,
3,

=
y

2).

C: (x
(x

3,

- -

- 2). - - 2).
2).
Fig.

22

These pairs of values are the solutions of the system [(1), (2)] and can be checked by substitution in the given equations.

can be found by the preceding graphical method and, usually, solutions can be read only approximately from a graph.

Only

real solutions

268

SYSTEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS


EXERCISE 98

Solve graphically.
-

(*2

**

+ = 16, -2 = 3.
2
2/

(2*

+ y = 3, tf + f -9.
2

o *

9t/

36,

*i

/
<

25x2

+y =
2
/y.2

25,

"""

Q i/

- 2z2 = 12.
2

Sx

+ 9,

2z2
2

z?/
2

4.

6y

0,

+ +

=
2

4t/

=
9.

36,

\25z
1

4-

4y

100.

\z

2
t/

84. Solution of a simple system

system consisting of one linear and one quadratic equation in two unknowns x and y usually has either (a) two different real solutions, or (6) two real solutions which are the same, or (c) two imaginary solutions.

These

possibilities correspond, respectively, to the

the straight line, which is the graph of the linear equation, (a) may cut the graph of the quadratic in two points, or (b) may be tangent to, or (c) may not touch the graph
following geometrical possibilities:
of

the quadratic.

EXAMPLE

1 1.

Solvebolve.

4x 2 - 6^ 2* - 3y =

9t/

63,

(1) (2)

3.

SOLUTION.

1.

Solve

(2) for x:
:

3y

"
Zi

3
-

(3)

2. Substitute (3) in (1)

'

.
3 )(y

63.

2,2

3.

In

(3), if

. y =

(y
3,

+2 =
)

0;

3
2,

and
then
v

= x

2.

then

x
3,

3;

if

= x

= -

9/2.

4.

The
./.

solutions are

and

=_i

=_2

Since a solution of a pair of equations in x and y is a pair of related values of x and y, it is very essential that each solution should be
plainly indicated as a pair of values, as in

Example

1.

system of the type considered in called a simple system,


%.

Note

this section will hereafter

be

SYSTEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS

269

SUMMARY.
1.

To

solve

a system of one linear and one quadratic equation

in x and y algebraically:
Solve the linear equation for one unknown in terms of the other, say for y in terms of x, and substitute the result in the quadratic equation; this eliminates one unknown.

and, for each value of the unknown obtained, find the corresponding value of the other unknown by substitution in the given linear equation.
I

2. Solve the

quadratic equation obtained in Step

EXERCISE 99
Solve, (a) graphically
,

and

(b) algebraically.

<>

-16,

, *

\4d

+ 3c
7/

50.

\u

+ 2v -

6.

+ 2b -

4.

Solve algebraically.

(2x
\

2z

+ + 3 = 0, + y - Qy = 9.
2

(z2

\x
12.

92/

=
3y

25,

0.

\ a

-46 = + 2a -

12,

46

y,

/ y

+ 2y - 2x +

=
1

5.

0,

+ 24i/
'

t
36.

+ 2z - 4y = 23 -1 2x2/ + 3?/ + 4x = 0. \2aj + y + 3 = 2o - 1, 2x + / + 4x + y = 2a \


z2
f
z/

0,

4a;

2xy

2
2/

+ 8z =

2y

3.

+y z

2by

2a2 -f &2

185. Solution of a system of two quadratic equations

When both equations of a system are quadratic, the system usually has/owr different solutions, all or two of which may involve imaginary
numbers.

The student should


The

recall his graphical solutions of sys-

tems

of this type
1
.

where four solutions were obtained.

fact stated in the preceding paragraph is a special case of the following theorem which is proved in a later course in algebra:

Note

270

SYSTEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS

system of two integral rational equations in x and y, in which one equation is of degree m and the other is of degree n hi x and y, usually has

mn

solutions.

Thus, a system consisting of an equation of the third degree and a quadratic usually has 3 X 2 or 6 solutions. Usually, the algebraic solution of two simultaneous quadratics brings hi the solution of a fourth degree equation
hi one variable.

At

this stage in algebra, the student is able to solve only

very simple fourth degree equations. Hence he is not prepared to consider the solution of all systems of simultaneous quadratics. Therefore, in this chapter we consider only special elementary types of systems.
1

86. Systems linear

in

the squares of the variables

both equations have the form ax 2 -f 6t/2 = c, the system is 2 linear in x2 and y2 and can be solved for x and y2 by the methods applicable to systems of linear equations.

When

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.

1.

Solve:

(* *2

'

'*

\ x*
1.

+
=
2

~ ""> 2 2y = 34.
50.
db 4.

(1) (2) (3)

Multiply by 2 in

(1)

2sa -f 2y2

Subtract, (3)
Substitute x2

3.

(2):

z
16 -f
4,
2/

16;

x
y

16 in (1):

25;

9;

3.

4.

Hence, if x -f 3 and y

is

either 4*

as corresponding values 3, and there are four solutions of the system.

4 or

we obtain

-4,y

4,

= -

4,

EXERCISE 100
Solve each system, (a) graphically
*' ^
-

and

(b) algebraically.

--

2'
9.

is2

+
" 2

2
t/

36.

"
\9z

-f

W2

16.

Solve algebraically.
L /
,

z2 *

+ 4s/ =
2

S*y2

14,
'

/ ^
1

re rt

t/

Ifi. 16.

-f

= 4, v2 - 11.
2

2 / 2* A' I

32/
2

5ar

-h 2w

3,

17.

9i2 9s* 2 \ &C


f f

10'

<*
7.

- %* -

6,

ft **

ISc2 - 8 -h , / ^ <n x - r^/v A 12d 20c*. 1 15


i

V
1

- 3^

+ 5r*.
= 4.

7r*

-1- Ait2

\ llr*

= 3ft 5a* - -

7r*
2

11 '
4.

^
+ 2y

ft?/ 2

\ 9x

= =

AQ
'

12

<

13.

2 2 \ 4x -h 9y

SYSTEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS


1

271

87. Reduction to simpler systems

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2. 3.

1.

Solve:

* + * ~ 14J ( x 3xy + 2y \
2 , 2

ft

0.
0.

<J> (2) (3)

1.

Factor

(2):

(x

2y)(x

y)

Therefore, (2)

is satisfied if

either
if

2y

=
if

0,

Hence, (1) and (2) are the folio wdng systems:


(

satisfied

and only
x*

y = 0. x and y satisfy one of


or

& + yt =

14,

2
2/

14,

4.

On

solving (I)

(x

\/7,
(a?

by the method of Section 184, we obtain two solutions: V?). From (II) we obtaui V7, 2/ = y = V7) and (x =

= fVTO,

JVTO);

(a;

- - fVTO,

- -

say that the given system in Example 1 is equivalent to the systems I and II because the solutions of the given system consist of the solutions of (I) together with those of (II). The preceding method applies if, after writing each equation with one member zero, we can factor at least one of the other members.
1

We

88. Elimination of constants

system in which all terms involving the variables are of the second degree can sometimes be solved by use of the equation we obtain on eliminating the constant terms from the original system.

EXAMPLE

1.

Solve:

INCOMPLETE SOLUTION.
Multiply
(1)
(2)

1.

Eliminate the constants.

by by

2:
7:
(4):

Multiply

+ fay 7xy + 28y =


2z*
2

56.
56.

(3)
(4)

Subtract, (3)

- 28y = (2x + 7y)(x - 4y) 2z2

xy

0; or,
0.
(5)
is

2.

To solve [(1),

(2)]

we may now solve


2

[(2), (5)].

This system
2

equiva-

lent to the following simpler systems:


4t/

8,

/ xy

+ 4y =
0.

8,

(6)

Instead of using (2) in (6) we could equally well have used (1). system in (6) has two solutions and thus [(1), (2)] has four solutions.

Each

272

SYSTEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS


EXERCISE 101

Solve algebraically

and

graphically.
{% vj
j /
**'
\

1i
/

'

H" y)(x
.

""

2y)

0.

\ (x

2/)(x 4-

3y)

0.

Hereafter in this chapter, leave all surd values in radical form. Moreover, unless otherwise stated, to solve a system will mean to solve algebraicatty.
f

Solve by reducing to simpler systems.

2z2
2

+
-f

5*s/

3y
2.

0,

(3x*
\

\2s
*

Zxy

+ 5xy r + sy = 4.
=

(a;

-f 3y

7.

2z

xy

0,

2y*

8.

Solve by eliminating the constant terms.

+ 3xy = \xy + 4y* =


I
x*
'

28,
8.

'

- 5o;y + 6t/2 = \x*-xy = 4.


f

x2

10,

2c2

2cd

15.

2a:

+ 2/ =
2

5.

=
\t
22

11,

fx2
\
f

+3
6

0.

x2

a^

+ 4y =
z

40.

0,

2w2

-f
-f

3mn =
8n
2

1,

2
2/

35.

\9w
,

=
t/

9.
2

2mn

-f

n2 =

1D *

64.

\x
for

Zxy

+ 7 = 0, - If + 4 - 0.

*189. Additional devices

reducing to simpler systems

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.

1.

Solve:

+ * = 27 ( x + , I y = 3.
*
(1):

'

(2)

1.

Factor

(*
2.
3.

+ y)(x* - xy + y*)

=
x2

27.

(3)

Divide, (3)

by

(2)

xy

+ y* =

9.

(4)

Hence,

(z, #) satisfies [(1), (2)] if


f

and only
3,

if (x,

y} satisfies
(5)

+yxy

\ x*

+ y*

9.

(6)

The student should complete the method of Section 184.

solution

by

solving [(5),

(6)]

by

the

SYSTEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS


EXAMPLE
2.

273
(7) (8)

Solve:

*+
(
I

xy

=^ 5.
(8):

+*x*

20,

INCOMPLETE SOLUTION.
2.
2

1.

Add,

(7)

3.

From (9), (x + !/) = 25; hence To solve [(7), (8)], we would solve each
(x

+ 2xy + y* z + y = 5, or +y
a;

25.

(9)
5.

of the following systems:

+y=
5.

5,

1 xy

X +.V = = 5. \ xy
!

5,

*190. Determination

of tangents to curves

Find the value of the constant k so that the graphs of the equations in the following system will be tangent:
1.

EXAMPLE

+ \x + y
f

x2

?/

= k2 = l.

(1) (2)
(1),

graph of (2) is tangent to the graph of the two solutions of the system [(1), (2)] must be identical. - fc2) = 0. 2z 2 - 2x 2. Substitute y = 1 - x in (1) (1
1.
:

SOLUTION.

If the

then

(3)

notice that (3) discriminant must be zero, or


3.
1,

From Step
(2)
2

we

must have equal


2

roofa.

Hence, Us

4(2)(1
line is

fc )

0;

8fc

0;

=fc

i>/2.

Thus, the straight

tangent to the
in

circle if its radius is .707.

*191. Equations symmetrical

x and

y.

equation in x and y is said to be symmetrical in x and y in case the equation is unaltered when x and y are interchanged. A quadratic 2 equation in x and y is symmetrical in x and y if the coefficients of x and 2 y are equal and those of x and y are equal. The method of the next example applies where each equation is symmetrical in the unknowns.

An

EXAMPLE

1.

<a

Solve:

<

2xy -f x

+y
,

= -

2y

=
4.
*

8,

(1)
) rt \

(2)

INCOMPLETE SOLUTION.

1.

Substitute

+ v;

= u

v.

(3) (4) (5)

From
From
2.

(1) (2)

2w2
2w2

-f 2t^

+ 4u = 8, - W + 2u - - 4.
*

Solve the system [(4), (5)3 for


y2 , [(4)

u and
4w2

v:

Eliminate
3.

(5)]:

+ 6u - 4 =

0.

(6)
(u, v)

Solve (6) for u; then obtain v from (4). Each pair of values when placed in (3) gives a solution of [(1), (2)].

274

SYSTEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS


*EXERCISE 102
Solve by
8

any convenient method.


s

\8a
( a; 2

+6

2*
98.

( a

3*
3.

+ y) ( y(x + y)
24,

40, 20.

H-

4.

2 xy H- y

7,
*

\
}-

uv

4t^

0.

6.

4,

=
3.

9,

+v

z2
OPfl/

8.
I

+
=r ^^

3,2
ft "

13,

f4c2 -h3^-f2/2
/ \ xy

8,

^ **y

1.

=
12.

11.
2.

=
f

5.
2
2/

\ 3j/
'

icy

y*

13"
4.

*
icy

+ xy +
=
29

61,
y.

x
14.

+ 2y -f 2 =
+ ^ -f

3,

y = 6, = 14.

16.

2?/

1,

8.

Find

the values of

k for which

the graphs are tangent.

Then, if k

is real,

graph the equations of

the resulting system.

16

'

17'

'

5.

\Sy

+ 3x -

18*
1

*.

+ 2y + kx =

0.

an expression for

c in terms of the other constants in case the graphs

of the two equations in the variables (x t y) are tangent.

i.
1ft

/!/ <

- mx
.

c,

+ 4y2 ^
the
2 4x y 6 = 0.

36

^ -w.
4y
.

(y
|

= mx
.

fl2a

_ ^2 = (W>

c,

(x

- my

-f

c,

method applying

to

symmetrical equations.

22.

17,

22

/
1

^ "~ 3a^ +
2x
2

2 ==
2/

1,

xy -h

2t/

17.

24.

without

first clearing

of fractions.

25.

^
=: H- 28

11,

26.

27.

0.

7.

SYSTEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS


*

275

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISE 103


Solve graphically.

+ y = 25, '\2x + y = T.
f4*2
2
f

2 A

fa*
2

+ 42,*=
2
fi

16,
^

(a

2)(*

1)

\* -s/ = - 0,

*
1

f*
\ z*

+ y'20,
4y
2

9.

4.

- s*,
results

6-8. Solve Problems

1, 2,

and 4

algebraically

and compare the

with the solutions previously obtained.

Graph each
fc

4z

+V-

equation.
0.

10.

4z

ty*

0.

11.

4x

9y*

36.

algebraically.

-2*+ 1=0,,
Sx

4y

3y*.

4x*

xy
110

17 '*

y*
2
t>

- 4. - 9,

,
'

V*
r'

3.

rA

75.

or

a;

2o6

2
.

Solve each problem by introducing two unknowns.


22.

The sum

of

two numbers

is

28 and the

sum

of their squares

is

634.

Find the numbers.


23.

Find the dimensions of a rectangle whose area


is

is

60 square feet and

whose diagonal
24.

13 feet long.

The area
The sum
is
.

of

a rectangle

is

55 square feet and

its

perimeter

is

49

feet.

Find the lengths of the sides of the rectangle.


25.

of the reciprocals of

two numbers

is

3 and the product of the

numbers
26.

Find the numbers.


divides $500 between

two investments at simple interest, a first part at twice the interest rate obtained on the second part. The first investment grows to the amount $345 in 3 years, and the second to the amount $220 hi 4 years. Find the interest rates and the sums invested.

A man

276
27.
is

SYSTEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS

The sum of the squares of the two digits of a positive integral number 65 and the number is 9 times the sum of its digits. Find the original

number.

Some men row 15 miles downstream on a river to a mountain and then climb 12 miles to its summit. They take 9 hours for the journey and, the
28.

Find the rate at which they row in still water and their speed in ascending the mountain, if they descended 1 mile per hour faster than in ascending, and if the rate of the current of the river is
next day, 9 hours to return.
1

mile per hour.


29. 'A weight

on one

side of

a lever balances a weight of 6 pounds placed


side.
If the

feet

from the fulcrum on the other

unknown weight

is

moved

2 feet nearer the fulcrum, the weight balances 2 pounds placed 9 feet from the fulcrum on the other side. Find the unknown weight.
equal size and pays each of his workmen $4 per day. He paid a total of $42 to 2 Workmen after each, working alone, plowed one of the fields. These men took 2f days to plow the third field
30.

farmer has 3

fields of

when working
field

together.

How many

days did

it

take each

man

to plow a

alone?

31.

Two

At 6

A.M.,

towns on opposite sides of a lake are 33 miles apart by water. from each town a boat starts for the other town, traveling at uni-

pass each other at 9 A.M. One boat arrives at its destination 1 hour and 6 minutes earlier than the other. Find the time it

form speed.

The boats

takes each boat to


32.

make

the trip across.

wheel of one automobile makes 96 more revolutions per mile than a wheel of a second automobile. If 20 inches were added to the length of the
automobile, the result would be the diameter of a wheel of the second automobile. Find the diameter of a wheel of each
radius of a wheel of the
first

automobile, using 22/7 as the approximate value of

TT.

APPENDIX
NOTE
If there exists
1.

THE IRRATIONALITY OF V2
2,

a rational number which is a square root of exist two positive integers m and n, such that

then there

n
where

(l)

m
is
7T

a fraction in lowest terms.

In other words,

if

V2

is

rational

there exist
is

two

integers

true.
1.

Let us show

factor, such that (1) that this assumption leads to a contradiction.


n,
(1):

m and

without a

common

Square both sides of

=
2n2
the right member.

or >
(2)
2
;

= m

2
.

We see that 2 is a factor of the left member of 2n2 = m


Therefore 2
is

not be a factor of
2.

2
.

That
(2)
:

is,

hence 2 is a factor of a factor of because otherwise 2 could = 2k, where k is some positive integer.

Place

m=

2k in

2n2

= w2 =

(2fc)

4&2 ;
(3)
is

2k2

Consider n2
factor of n.
3.

2&2

since 2

is

a factor of the right member, hence 2

We have shown in Steps

and 2 that

contradicts our original assumption that Hence, the assumed equation 1 has led us to a contradiction, and it follows that (1) itself must be false. Therefore no rational number exists which is a

m and n have 2 as a factor. This m and n had no common factor.

square root of

2, or,

\/2

is

an

irrational number.

Comment.
(1.414)
2

We
1.4,

easily

verify

that

(1.4)

1.96;

(1.41)*

1.9881;

1.999396; etc.
1.41,

On

considering the sequence of numbers


1.4142,

1.414,

1.41421,

-,

(4)

see that the square of each number in (4) is less than 2 but that, on proceeding to the right in (4), the squares of the numbers approach 2 as a

we

limit.

in (4)

a rational number; we refer to these numbers as the successive decimal approximations to A/2.

Each number

in (4) is

278

APPENDIX

NOTE

2.

EXTENSION OF THE INDEX LAWS TO

RATIONAL EXPONENTS
complete proof that the index laws hold for any rational exponents could be constructed by showing, hi succession, that the laws hold if the
exponents are
(1)

any

positive rational

numbers and

(2) zero, or positive or

negative rational numbers. Without giving a complete discussion, we shall indicate the nature of the methods involved by proving some of the necessary theorems. For convenience in details, we shall assume tha$ the base is
positive.

In our proofs, we use the index laws for positive integral exponents
definitions of Sections 113, 114,

and the

and

115.

a n) = a n (m\p
Proof,

mp
.

(a*)*

= [(o)

W
]

= (a)

mP
;

[(3),

page 151;

(II),

page 142] page 151]

a n) (!\p

tap

[(3),

THEOREM

II.

// m, n, p, and q are positive integers t then m j> m j mq+np


2\ n fl

Proof.

[a* an)
J>\nq

= _

m \*tf/
<

(a*)

Uv

2\*m

[(IV), page 143]

am apn

(Theorem
[(I),

I)

a oJ (m
Therefore,

am *+*.
root,
\A.
;

page 142]

by the

definition of

an ngth
/
.

ao

^a

mfl+pn n

o> (m\
r/
Suggestion for proof.
!\

Compute

|_

*/

fl

In the remainder of this note we shall assume that the index laws have been completely established for all positive rational exponents.

THEOREM
Comment.

IV.

Law

I of Section 105 holds if the exponents are

any

positive

or negative rational numbers.

been established if both exponents are positive. Hence, it remains to show that, if h and k are any k = h a*~*. positive rational numbers, then a~ a~ o~*~*, and o*a~*
are assuming that
I has

We

Law

Incompkte

proof.

By

the definition of a negative power,


-; "*

-*a-*

=*.--=
a*
a*
a*"
1

or,

APPENDIX

279

NOTE
of

3.

ABRIDGED MULTIPLICATION
method for abbreviating multiplication digits when the result is desired with

^The following example illustrates a

numbers with many

significant

accuracy only to a specified number of places.

EXAMPLE
places.

1.

Compute

11.132157(893.214), accurate to two

decimal

893.214, multiply in succession by 800, 90, 3, .2, .01, and .004 and add the results (in ordinary multiplication these Since we desire accuracy in the second operations are in reverse^ order).
1.

SOLUTION.

To

multiply

by

decimal place,
2,

we carry two

extra places, or four decimal places, in all items.

In the abridged method, to multiply by 800 we multiply by 8 and move the decimal point; all digits of 11.132157 are used in order to obtain This first operation accurately locates the four significant decimal places.
decimal point for the
rest of the items.

3.

To

obtain four decimal places


of 11.132157;

when multiplying by 90 we do

not need

the

last digit

to indicate this place


'

'V"

over *'7" and

over "5" and multiply 11.1321 multiply 11.13215 by 90. Next, place " by 3; then >/" over "1" at the right and multiply 11.132 by .2; then " " >/" over "2" and multiply 11.13 by .01; then V" over "3" and multiply
II. 1

V"

by

.004.

Then add and round

off to

two decimal

places, obtaining

9943.40.

Note
point
tion.
is

1.

The advantages

As compared

of the preceding abridged method are obvious. with the ordinary method, less labor is involved, the decimal

accurately located,

and fewer mistakes

will occur in the final addi-

abridged method of division can be developed similar in princiole to the method of abridged multinlicatioiv abova.

Note

g.

An

280

APPENDIX

NOTE
The
arise
1.
if

4.

FALLACIOUS PROOF THAT

following absurd result that division by zero occurs.

2=1

illustrates the contradictions that

Suppose that
Multiply by y:
Subtract 6s :
Factor:
(y
6)
:

y
y
2

6.

2.

3.

4.
5.

Divide by (y
Since y

6. 7.

6 (Step 1),

On dividing both sides by 6, we obtain


In Step 5 we divided by
5, 6,

= by. - 6> - by - 6*. y* - 6)(y + 6) = b(y - 6). y 4- 6 = 6. 6 + 6 = 6, or 26 =* 2=1.


y
6

6.

Discussion.

zero, because

=
is

if

6.

Hence, Steps

and 7 are not

valid, because division

by

zero

not allowed.

NOTE

5.

THE SQUARE ROOT PROCESS OF ARITHMETIC

Consider finding V7569. Since the radicand has four digits to the left of the decimal point, the square root must have two digits to the left of the decimal point, because the square of any number of units is less than 100,

and the square of any number of hundreds is greater than 10,000. We observe that 80 is the largest whole number of tens whose square is kss than 7569.
Hence, we consider finding
x,

a number of units, so that

<80

z)

7569.

(1)

By

the formula for (a -f 6) 2 from (1)


,

we obtain
7569;
,(2)
2

6400

2-80- x

From

(3),

+ a* = 160* + z = 160z + z = z(160 + x) =


2

7569
1169.

6400;
(3)

1169,

1169

ieo+T
trial divisor

An

approximation to
;

(4) is

obtained

if

we use the

160 in place
/

of (160 -f x)

this gives

x
Then, we take x
167, gives

115?
160

_ ~

7+ 7

'

(5)

7 and verify that the complete divisor, (160

-f-

x) or

1169

,,

7, exactly.

Hence,

V7669 = 80

-h

87.

We verify by squaring that 87* -

7669.

APPENDIX
In the following examples, the student

28?
will observe, in brief form, steps

corresponding to those just explained in detail by reference to the formula 2 for (a &) Hereafter, the details will be carried out without making the

possible contacts with the square of a binomial. Essentially, at each stage of the following arithmetical process, we have knowledge of a in a binomial
(a -f 6)

and we obtain an approximation

to

b so that (a

+ 6)

will

be as
root is

nearly equal as convenient^ at that stage, to the


being obtained.

number whose square

EXAMPLE

1.

Find V7569.

SOLUTION. Arrange 7569 into groups of two figures each, starting at the decimal point. After each of the following steps, read the corresponding
explanation below.
Step 3

Step 4

8
75 69 64
160
11 69
Ififi A v/vr

87

75 69 64
11 69

167

The largest perfect square less than 75 64 below 75. Write V64, or 8, above 5 of 75. 2. Subtract 64 from 75. Bring down the next group, 69.
Explanation.
1.

is

64.

Write

3.
4.

Form

the trial divisor:

2X8=

16;

annex

(160).
.

Obtain the complete divisor: 1169 -f- 160 = 7 + 167 as the complete divisor. Write 7 over 9 of 1169.
5.

Add 7

to 160, forming

Find 7
87.

167,

or

1169.

Subtract.

Since the remainder


5.

is

zero,

V7569 =
written in

The complete
solution.

solution appears as Step

It alone

would be

an actual
2.
1.

EXAMPLE

Find V1866.24.
First trial divisor:

SOLUTION.
2. First

2X4

8.

Annex

0,

giving 80.

- 3+; 80 3 83, complete divisor: 266 -* 80 the complete divisor; write 3 over the right-hand 6 of 66.

43.
16

3.

Place a decimal point in the square root, above that of

18 66.24

1866.24.
4.
5.

Second

trial divisor.

43

86.

Annex

(860).

80-

Second complete

divisor.

1724

-f-

860
2

2+

83
;

266 249

860

+2-

862.

Place 2 above 4 of 24.

862

1724.

OftA 1724 ouu 862 1724

Check.

We find

that (43.2)*

1866.24, or

V1866.24

43.2.

282

APPENDIX
3.

EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
or
2*.

Find V645.16.
1.

Hence,

largest perfect square less than 2 is the first digit of the square root.
trial divisor, 40, it
.

The

is

2.

After forming the

figure

may

and
3.

this is

be 6 since 245 -*- 40 = more than 245. Therefore, we must use 5 as the

appears that the next But 6 X 46 = 276, 6+

2 5. 4 6 45.16 4

second figure of the square root.

To form

500,

we take 2
504.

25 and annex

0.

2016

-f-

500

245 225 2016 504 2016

is 4+.

Then 500

+4=

The

result is 25.4.

SUMMABY.
1.

To find

the square root of

a number, written in decimal

notation:

Separate the number into groups (or periods) of two figures each, both ways from the decimal point.
2.

Below the first group, write the largest perfect square less than Above the group, write the square root of this perfect square.
3. Subtract the perfect
first

that group.

square from the group, thus forming the first remainder.


4.

group;

bring

down

the next

by doubling the part of the root now found, and annexing zero. Divide the first remainder by this trial divisor, taking as the quotient only the whole number obtained. (Possibly reduce the number by I.)
the trial divisor
.

Form

Write
5.

this quotient above the next group.

Form

of the
6.

compkte divisor by adding square root found in Step 4.


the

to the trial divisor the

new

figure

Multiply the compkte divisor by the new figure of the square the product under the remainder. Subtract.

root.

Write

7.

Continue in

this

way, following Steps 4

to 6, until the

remainder

is zero,

or until you have as

many

places in the square root as are requested.

will not be a terminating a random number N, and carry decimal. Then, in finding VAT, we annex zeros at the right in out the square root process to as many decimal places as desired.

Note

1.

As a

rule, for

VN

EXERCISE 104

Find
3969.

the square root of each


to

number.

Obtain the result correct

to

hundredths

by carrying out the process


1.

thousandths.
3. 273,529.
7.

2. 134.56.

4. 8299.21. 8. 2.1904.

5.

105,625.

6. 936.36.

40.8321.

9. 78.354.

10. 15,765.

11. 1643.8.

12. 7.809,

ANSWERS TO
Note.

EXERCISES

Answers to odd-numbered problems are given here. Answers to even-numbered problems are furnished free in a separate pamphlet when
requested by the instructor.
'

Exercise 2.
3.

Page 7
7. 0. 9.

1. 56.

13. 5.

16.

12.
8.

5. 36.

17. 4.

19. 3.

21.
2.

26. 120.
37.

27. 120.
39. 5.

29.

360.
41. 52. 61. 31.

31.

33. 43. f. 63.

96.

8.

11. 56.

9.
4.

23.

168.

36. 2. 46. 60.

13.

47. 14.4.

49. 4.

66. 360.

Exercise 3.
1. 27.

Page 12
7.

3.

18.

6.

13.

16.

9.

11.

35.

13. 0.

16. 29.

13.

17.

18.2.

19.

21. 13. 29. 17; 37. 10. 47. 42.


66. 44; 63.

23. 61;

26.
11.9.

14;

17.

31. 3.3; 39.

33.

30; 4.
5.

27.
36.

36;
7.

32.
7.

70.

10.

41. 22.
61. 28;
4.

43. 3.
63.

46. 13.

\
32.

49. 12.
67. 100.

69. 66. 3;

14;

0;

0.

9;

18;

- 53. - 2.

61.
67. 23;

- 40; - 26. - 36.3. - 23; 0; 0.


>.

Exercise 4.
11.

Page 15
17.

<.

13.
|

<.
| |

16.

>.
3
|.

>.

19.

<.

21.
|

29. 33.

- 5 < - 3; - 5 > - 2 < 7; - 2 < 7.


|

31. 36. 2

> > -

3;
6;

> < |
|

|.

|.

Exercise 5.
1.

Page 17
7. 8.

10.

3.

11. 36.

13.

24.
2.

6. 5.

9. 44.

16. 0.

17.

8a

24.

19.
c.

30c.

13.

21.

2o -f 56

c.

23. 31
31.

5a

29. 15a.
35. 18

8a

(5

y.

26.

12.

41. 16

12a 4- 156.
(4a

37.
3c).

7a

+ 46).
43. 2ac

33. - 15 + 5a + 39. - (- 6 + 3x - (- 3 + 5a - 4c).

+ 36 +

27. 15o.

+ 4y).

Exercise 6.
1. 9-

Page 20
6. 6cd. 7.

lla.

3.

l&c.

5x
166
9fc

6a.

3a

lie.

11.

19c

IScd.

13.

2a

16. 19.

+ db
-

3y.

4c;

7x

lldb
21.

14x

+ 2c.
9ac

17.

- 3m

26 -f 4; - 60 - k - 6h; 9m
23.

10.

7xy

46.

9o

+ 4A.

206.

290
^

ANSWERS

25. 3fl

31. 2t

14A
3.

23*.
33. 2a.

27.

3a

-f 10y

35.

41.

56

10.

43.

3.
s.

29. 37. 2.

21a

Sly

+ 9.
4x.

39. 13

12*

36.

Exercise 7.

Page 24

125a
Exercise 9.
3. 3fl26.

Page 28
6.

1528

7.

9.

4s2*.

11.

6x

2x2j/2

13. 21.

2as 6
20a
2
fc

15.
15.

8o86>.

17.

24rW.
6s
2

19. 12a;
lOa?
4
.

3y.
2x*.

23. 15z

12y.

25.

27.

29. 3^

3hk.
35.

20to* 31. 15t^ l+k h+n 37. Qx

10w>.

33.

6a4 6.
39.

24m6n4
18o2 62

3^44rA;34'*.

41. 46.

14x3

10x4

+ &c 2
.

12x2

43. 3o 46 4 -f 47.

15o6

9o6.

2y

+ 4y
12.
.

4a

lOa

14.

49. 6x

24x*

12.

Exercise 10.
1. 3*

Page 30

7.

4# 2a2 6

+x9*2

3.

2z2

3x

9.

2o

+ ab
x2
.

35.
156*.

5.

20a8 a2

11. 9r

- 43o + - 25a*.

21

13.

ab

15.
J
.

15. c2

^-

17.

19.

W-

8Wfc -H

16A

21. 9a*

12o6

+ 46.

23.

+ 60 + 9. oV - 2a6x -f V

ANSWERS
25. 31.
37.

297
46*.

41. 45. 49.

- x2 - llx + 15. 33. 6 - 5x 20 - 146 - 36* + 6. 2^ - 20y - 6j/2 f 25y - 25. 25x -f 4y* + 9 + 30* - 12y - 2Qzy. 51. 6a - llo8 2x - x2 - 16x +"l5.
x
2

+ 3y* -

10.

27. 3a

+ a'6 2

- 8. - 6x2 - x8 35. 2x - 5x2 - 8x + 5. 39. 6s4 - 7x + 12x - 19x + 7. 43. 15s4 - 17x + 12x2 + 17* - 15.
29. y
.

47. a* -f 6.

17o

+ 30.

53. x*

27y*.

Exrc!$

11.

Pag* 33

41.

fa

+ 56.

43.

46.
2

45.

3a

2a2

47.

5.

+ 5a*.

49. r

2x

+ 3.

53.

+
-h

55.

+ r.A-^i 3x 15 5x*
4y

57.

66-3a.
63.

59.

2x

-+? 2
a;

61.

-'-

#-

Exercise 12.
1.

Ps

36
6. 8

+ 4.

3. c

3.

3.

7.

4.

15.

o-6-^--r2o 4- 6
x x x2

17.

+ 2.
25.

19.

3x+ll + x
3

21.

2.

23. 2x

- r-^-r2x - 3
29.

2y *

4y
81.
2

Zy

+
-

27.
33.

x2

4 H

?_^ x 3
35. 4w^

x2

+ xy + y*.

6u>

+ 9.

+ 3xy + 4y 37. a + a^ +
2
.

x2
39.

3x

+ 9.
3.

6*.

2x2

Exercise 13.

Page 39

^
15.

o
21. 36c. 23.

292
29.
-

ANSWERS

35
39. 300.

8L. Q
41. 18,900.

jt.
43.

35..
45.

37.48.
47.

24a36. Page 41

36az 4

80/W.

Exercise 14.

1.

V-

3.

i
H.
23. .

6.

&.

7. ft.

'

^'

11.^3*. 2 -3* + 21.

13.

16.

-|.

17. J|.

6
*/.

^J>.
5r-3fe

26

31.

13

106*

3a

206

._

45.

-4*
7;
3

15ay

3a

.<
'

19o -f 94

20
Art

12

47.

5x -- 9
Ox

-- 10^ +
20

._

49.
.

2y
3

4yz

6y

+9

13z

_.

27y

__

Sab 3

4a2 6*

Exercise 15.

Page 44

9.

11.

H.
5

13.

2
5

3a

3bc

+ 4a'
3
*

46c

+ 3'
'

'

5a2 fe

4x2
2

Zxy*

20x 2

156

+
2o
33.

+
!

3
35. f
.

^.
36

- 3z 37. - I
45

36x
39.

24

&.

41.

&.

43

2a-3fe
'

2a*

3o

5/i*

Exercise 16.
1.

Page 46
7.

60.

3. 0.

6.

13. 17.

15.
-}-

32;

14.

17. 42;
25. a'62

- 4. - 8.
33.

9.

1.

11. 6.

19.

<.

21.

>.

23. 26 29.
37.
9Jk

3a. 31. 15 39. ^f.

3a'6.

27.

11 A.

2o.

-f

foy 35.
43.

12zV.

&.

^.

41. 24

W.

ANSWERS
a2*)2

293

4c

3y

5x

a-5
Pase 50
5.

Exercise 17.
1.

3.25.

3.

100,000.
-f 9.

.0001.

7. .0000001.

9.

3(10

3 )

+
3.

102

+ 4(10)

11.

13. 536.437.

15. 5735.35.

17. 14.1192.

19. .0681.

21. 6.64;

23.

103.7698;

16.0762.
31. .000317.

25. 1.178.
33. 5.738.

27. 5.32.

29. 326,530.

Exercise 18.
1.

Pase 52
6.

4.914.

3.

5.993.

.51312.

7.

13.62528.

9.

.000054322.

11. 2.1435402.

Exercise 19.
1.

Pase 55
.315.
5.

15.326;

15.3.

3.

.31486;

195.64;

196.

7.

.034564;

.0346.

9.

566.5 and 567.5.


.054.

11. 567.35 17. 2738.

and 567.45.

13. 31.54;

.586.

16. 11.4034;
2

19. 2,056,000.

21. 10 (6.7538).

23. 4.5726(104). 29. 2.6(10) cu. ft

25. 4.5312(106 ); 4.53(10).

27. 7.2200(100; 7.22(10').

Exercise 20.
1.

Pase 57
7.

1.37.

3. 57.2.
6-

6.

.263.

150.

9.

.02981.

11. .286.

13.

17.

19. .625.

21. .15.

23. .4375.

Exercise 21.
1.

Pase 62

3.

3.

11.

13. 1.

21. J.

23.

3.

31. 8.
41. 3.

33. 6.
43. .36.
63.

61. f

7.

55. 2.

294

ANSWERS
Excreta 22.

Page 66
*

2a-36
2a6
'

3c
23.

o6c)

-6d

n 9
35.
k

a a

<\j
l)d:

37.

r*

(n

-- I

33.

-\-

5 1

39.

o tt

A >.

M+N P + -r
-

a 1

4t C -

^^,0,0 +
.12n
11. 40';
120'.

6.

Extrcta 23.
1.

Page 69
3. 22.5'

32.5*

and

35.5'.
7.

and

5'.

5. 3f.

15;

16;

17.

9. 8'.

13. 13 nickels;

39 dimes; 36 quarters.
19.

16.

80 bu.

17.

8f

hr.

3H da.
Excrcist 24.

21.

2$ hr.
2%.

Page 72
7.

L
21. 27.
31.

.05.

3. .0375.

6.

1.263.
17.

7%.
26.

9.

11.

135%.
50*f.

13. 8.32.

16.

37*%
29.

of 200.

175%

of 200.

19. 452.9, approximately.


Ib.

560 dimes.

23. $22,000.

75

at 70 ff; 25

Ib.

at

20

gal.

Approximately 88.9 bu. at $1.25 and 111.1 bu. at $.80.


33.

gal.

58&%.
Exercise 25.

Page 74
3.

1. 6.

21^r ft. from fulcrum on other side. 8 ft. from fulcrum on side of 40 Ib. weight.
Exercise 26.

63&

Ib. Ib.

7.

69&

Page 77
hr.
6.

1.

50 m.p.h.

3.

At end 7|
310 m.p.h. >

16$

sec.

7.

~
x

til

sec.

9.

11.

At end 10

yr.

13. 1792 mi.;

hr.

and 28 min.
hr.

16.

17.

Approximately 8.13

1306$ mi.; 7 hr. and 28 min. 19. At lOft min. after 2 P.M.

Exercise 27.

Page 80
3.

L
ft.

$180.00; $5180.00.
$159.00.
7. $2914.98.

$48.00; $3048.00.
9. $42,857.14.

ANSWERS
It
17.

295
18.

$1000.00.

18. $5000.00.

At 5%;

gains $17.86.

$4000 at

5%; $3000

at

4%.
Excreltt 28.

Past 83
db $.
7. 3.
9. 9.

1.

rfc

5.

3.

11.

5.

11. 14.

18. |.

16. i.

17. |.

19. x*.

21. a.
81.

28.
83.

a.
36.?.

25. 2a*.
37.

27. 2^.
39.

29. 7*.

8*c*.

7*A

~-

|-

41.

Extreist 29.
1.

Past 86
6. c*

15a

20t>.

3.

4a6x
16

a*6x.

7. a*

13. 19.

a4

- 96*. 4a* - 20a + 25.

+ 2ay + y*.

25. 6
81.

37.
43.

49.

+ 5x + x*. 6x* + 17 + 12. 21u* + 29u> - 10. + 19x - 20. 9 + 246x + 16Wx*.
3aj*

- y. 16. a* - 60 + 8. 2L 4z - 4u* + M* 27. x* + 4z - 45. 33. 8y - IQxy + 3a?. 39. 8x + 6xy - 9j/.
9.

11.

^ -

17. x*
23.

29.

+ lOx + 25. 4a* -f 4a6 + #. o + 5a6 + 66.


y

36. 6y -f 41.

15.

46. x*
61. 67.

66. <AP 61.

io

- 9z*. - #*.

+ 4a* + 4. - z+i a? + .3x a;*

47.
63.

.1.

69.
.15.

63. .08x*

.2&r
69.

- 12 + Ifo - 5x*. 4*V - 12xy -f 9y*> - ^ + 4. i 6 + 1.1* - .1*.

66. 16

8a*

67.

71. 76.

+ 21x + 7x*. 4s* -f 12xy + 90*. lOOc* - 300cd + 225(P.


14oz

7x

+ x.

20x*.

79. 2a*
83. 12x

- 15M. - sV - 6.
a*6*

73. 4s* - Sxy + 4y*.' 77. 12x* - x* - 6. 8L 21a + a6 - 10M. 86. 9u - 15w*e - 14.

Extrclst 30.

Past 88

L
6.

9.

11. 17.

21. 23.

26. 29.
31.

3. 9 - 12* -f 6y + 4x* - 4xy + &. + y* H- 2xy + 4 + 4x + 4y. 9x + + 25 + 6xy -f lOy + 30x. 7. 16o* -f 6* + - 806 - 8oc + 26c. 4z* - 12ox + 12M* + 9o* + 96* - 18o6*. 13. 16 - 4a* - 4o6 x* + 2xy -f y* - 9. 16. a + 2ab + 6* - x*. - 16. 19. x* - y -f 2y* 9a* - Gay + 4x* + 4xy + y* + a* - 60 + 9 + 4ax - 12x + 2ay - 6y. 4x* + 4x* + y* 8x 4y + 4 + 4xy 2yi + 4z. - 4cd + 4d* - a* - 2ax - x*. - -f 6 - 9. 4a + 4xy + 27. 4a* + 96* + 16c* + 12o6 + 16ac + 246c. + 25x* + 9a* - lOua + taw - 30ax.

x*

!/*

c*

6*.

i/*

*.

z*

j/*

c*

to*

Exttcist 31.

Past 90
6.

t
7.

x(3

+ 6).
a

3.

2x(3y

+ a).
9.

y(2c

+ <P +

1)

x(36

+ c).

(<-<#-

4a).

296
11. ay*(3ay 15.

ANSWERS

21.
27.
31. 41.

+ (w z)(w + 2). - 11). (6d + ll)(ed ($ + u>)(i - 8x). (6a6 + 8x)(6a6 (x + 6)


2
!/*).

13. 17. (8

vto*(Wx
3b).

+ 5wx
-

2 ).

xy)(8

23. (2a

+ 36)(2a I)
2
.

+ xy).

19. (2x

y)(2x

+ y).
1).

25. (16a

+ l)(16a 2

u>).

29. (5w
33. a(x

43. (a

+ cd)(5w> cd). - y)(x + y)(x + y


2

).

45. 12>;
51. (8

(w
a6)
.

6)

47. (x

9)

49. (7x

+ a)'.
65. 20acd;

2
.

53. 12x2;

(2x

57. (3x

63.
.67.

73. 77.

- 5y)*. - 26)(72 + 26). (72 - 5j/ 2 (x s s 25(x - 26 (x + 26 ). 2(3w - 5).


2 )
.

+ &)'.

(2cd

So)

59. (2x2

7)

2
.

61. (2a2

St2 ) 2.
2

65. 4w(3t; 69. x(2o


I)
2

w)(3

+ w).
5)(7w

71. 2(7u2

75. (4x2 79. 3(7x

25^) (2x

+ 5)

5t>)(2z
2

5t>).

5y^)(7x

+ Sw ^).

81. 4(100).

83. 1600.

85. 280.

Exercise 32.

Page 93

L
7.

(x

13.

+ 7)(* - 3). - W). (5 + u>)(8


- 3)(2x - 1). - 5)(x + 2). (3x - 3x). (7 + 2s) (1 \2w + 5z)(4w - 3). -x (lOa + x )(10a - 3c) (8a
2 2

+ 5)(x + 3). + Jb)(6


-

3.

(a
(x

9.

15. (6

19. (9

Jb).

25. (50
31.

27.

37.

43. 49.
63.

).

59. (3x

65. (|

+ 2y)

2
.

- 1). 29. 35. (5a2 - 7)(3a2 -f 4). 33. (4w^ + 3)(2w>' 3). 41. (3x + 2)(x + y). 39. (1 - 3x)(9x + 2). 47. (3a - 56)(2<z - 6). 46. (6u/ + u)(2w - 5u). 61. (x - 2y)(x + 2y)(x + 4y ). 67. 2x(x - y)(x + y). 66. (4 - 3x)(2x + 5). 6L (5x + 106)(5a: - 106 ). 63. r(2 - 5ft) (1 - 3ft).
X2 (4x

21. (x 4

6)(o
6)(x

2).

5.

+ 3). w) (4 + w). + 6). 12)


(a;

11. 17.

- 5)(* - 3). (w - 6)(w + 8). - y). (8 + y)(4


(x

23. (5a

3)(2x

+ 7) (a + 1). - 1). y(Zy + 5)(y

2y)(*

69. (3x2 73. (2y 77. (2x2

+ 5)(x - 4). + 2)(2y* - *). - 5)(x* + 3).


2

+ 2y)(^ + 4j/

).

67. Prime.

71. 24 (5w

75. 79.

- 2)(5to + 2)(25to - (3a - 66). 2 2 2 2 (3a 5s/ )(a + 3y ).

+ 4).

Exercise 33.
1.

Page 95
5.
(2ft

2(x
(2d

+ 2y).
5c)(r
).

3.

(c

7.

13.

19. 4(x

25.
31.

35.
39.

43.

47.

- 6)(ft - 2c). 21. - 3)(x2 + 1). 27. (x - a). (2 + x)(r - y)(22 + w + y). (22 + w - 3x)(2 + 1 + 3x). (2 + 1 - 3* - l)(2a + 32 + 1). (2o - 1 + 3x)(4a + 1 - 3x). (4o

+ (a H- 6)(3c + d).

9.

16.

- 2). - ). (c + 3d)(r - 2)(x - l)(x (x - 3)(a2 + 1). (a


(3ft

+ d)(x + y).
l)(w

3&)(m

11. 17.

+ 1).
s

23.

+ 26) (w - d). (2x + y)(c (x + 2)(x + 1).


(3a
2

- 2). - 2k).

29. (3x

2)(x -f 2).

37.

+ 8 + 3). - 3d - 2x - y)(c - 3d + 2x + y). (c 41. (y + z + 2x)(y + z - 2x). 46. (3x - y + 2)(3x + y - 2). 49. (6 + c)(x - y)(x + y)(x + y
33. (x

3)(x

).

ANSWERS
51. (z2 65. (c

297

67. (3x 61.

(2o

63. (2x

4 2 4 3d + A). - y - 5o 4 5) (3* - y 4 5a - 6). - 36 4 2x + y)(2a - 36 - 2x - y). - 3y)(2x + 3y)(4x + 9y' + 1).


h)(c
2

w)(s 2 - 3d

4w-

1).

63. (r

4 3t 59. (a

6)(r

4 3< 4 a + 6).
3x).

+ 6 + 3x)(a + 6 -

Exercise 34.
1.

Page 98
96s
.

x9

xy

7.

27a
(d
(1

4y
8
.

2
.

3. 9.

a2
1

- 3a6 + - 27x8
.

5. c

4 w>.
8x.

11. 6"

13.

17.

21.

26.

29.
33.

37. 41.
43.

46. 49.

- tO(l 4^4^). 19. 4 10)( - 10 + 100). - 3)(1 + Zx + 9a; 23. (1 - i/z)(36x + 6x2/2 + 27. (7a ). (6x 31. u* -f 9u + 27u -f 27. A - 3h?k 4- 3/iA; 36. 64z + 48z y + 12xj/2 -f &c + 12m + 6w*c + w*. 39. c - G^c + 126c - 86. a - 6a x + 12a x 2 - Sx*. 8c - 36c4z 4- 54c z - 27z - l)(x + * 4- l)(x2 - 2x + 4). (x + 2)(x - 37/)(4x + Qxy + 9y )(x + y)(x2 - xy + y 47. (a (2x - 3x) 61. (c - d - a)(c2 - 2cd + + <w - a^ + a2). (w
2
( 2

-y)(d?

+ dy + y
2

).

15. (y

3)fo

+ 3y + 9).

).

2 2

2/

A;

2 2

).

ffi

Exercise 35.
1.

Page 99
3.

6.

9.

13. 17.

21.

+ a + l)(a - a + 1). - ^z -f )(z (z + hz + - 5a6 4 26 (5a 4 5ab 4 26 )<5a - 4^z 4 8A (z 4 4Az 4 8fc )(z - 2c )(3a - 2ac - 2C (3a 4 2oc - 5y )(3x - 3xy - 5y (3x 4 3xy
(a
2

(3a
2

2 2

+ 2a +
2x

l)(3a
2 2

2a

+ 1).
2

/i

/i

).

7.

(2i0

42aw>43a )(2t0 -2au>43a2 ).

>

).

11.

(x

).

15.
19.
).

2 2

). 2

- 12xz48x (9z 4 12xz48x )(9z - y)(5a - 3y)(a 4 y). (5a 4 3y)(a


2

4 2)(x 4

2x
2

4 2).

).

Exercise 36.
1.

Page 101
5.

(2ob)
(a

3
.

3.
2

(2a6)
2

4
.

(5x y)

8
.

7.
2
).

(4

9.

13.

17.
19.

21.

26.
27. 29.
33.

36.

11. (2 4 x)(a 4 * w)(2 4 w)(4 4 t^ 15. (3 (x< 4 y )(^ 4 y*}(x -)(* + y). 2x)(3 4 Jto)(9 + 4x). - l)(w 4 l)(u 4 w 4 l)(w - u + 1). (u - 2y)(x 4 2y)(x 4 2xy 4 4y )(x - 2xy 4 4y). (x - x 4 1). 23. (x + 9)(x -W + 81). (x 4 l)(z* (4 4 o )(2 a)(2 4 a)(16 4 a<). - ab 4 6 )(a - a 6 4 6). (a 4 b)(a - y)(3x 4 3/)(9x< 4 31. (5 - 2x)(5 4- 2x)(25 -f 4x*). (3x - 26) (a 4 26) (a 4 2a6 4 46 (o - 2a6 4- 46 (a - 3x )(4a 4 6ax 4 9x). (2a

x)(a
4

).

8 8

J/ ).

).

Exercise 37.

Page 103
3. x*

L
6.

x6 a4

4 x*y 4 sV + o^ 4 aV

V 4 xy
ay
8

6
.

- 2xy 4 4xV -

8xy

4y

4
.

298
7. xi

ANSWERS
4

9. 2*

13. 15.

21. 25. 29.

88.
85.

87.

89. 41.
45.
49.

It x + z + x* + x + 1. + w + w^ + w*z + to * - xty + *V - aty 4- *V ~ *Y + *V ~ V + *y* - V*. 19. a - a*b + a6 - 6. 17. x + y a* + 2a + 4. 23. z - xV 4- *V - y x 4- xy 4- tf. 27. z + 2V + 4x*z* + tote 4- 16x. 4s> + 6x -f 9. - t0)(a + w)(o + c). 8t (a - y)(l -f y)d + y + i/)d y (1 + t*V + + v+ (w - l)(16a* + 8a + 4a + 2a + 1). (2o - 32x + 16x - 8x + 4x* - 2x (2 + *)(64 - 3a?)(a' + 3aa; + 9x<). 48. Prime. (a 47. Prime. + t>)(w -!* + - *)(4 + 2x + x)(64 + &r + x<). 5L (u* (2
4
.

(t*

)(ti*

)(ti

).

tt

(ti*

*).

Extreist 38.

Past 105
7.

1.

3. f.

5.

^4^-

9.

2
2s

~11.
a

13.

^-4-r-

15.

^-T^:23.

17.

'

2y
4- ^

!*-*a. a
31.

27.--?*
4- y
.

29.

^.
c

3x 4- 2y

x 3 r-r-r-*

^
83.

- x4-3
,

5
35.
,
.

2x
n
-rr-

26

-x
107

Excrcis* 39.

Pag

+ 3)(* - 2)
.
*

4z
^r ,.

2o

7.

4o6

15(o

6)

15(x
17.

y)

13s

4y

6rf

2c

3(4x

2x

10
*

19x

-6x

(2x'

+4 l)(3x + 3)'
'

6a 2o
* *"*

-6 -3

3xy

+8
*

2x-2y
f^ f 4

6(a-n)
*

%FflV^

3(1

+ 2n - n)(n + 4)
14
\ r \

Vv^r

6c-5c-H30 A - 2)(c* - 9) 2(3c


^^ / ^^ \ X

+ x - 12 Iftc + 36z -f 45
8

^V V

^FUi

(3

2x)(8z

- 27)

ANSWERS
12x
37.

299

43.

- 4)(2z - 3) 9or - t* - 60* -h 81o4 - 9or* -j-'3or* - 3a)(r + 3a) (r


Extrcist 40.

+ llx - 25s - 3) 3(x + l)(2z


27or

13*
2(9

-3 - 4x)(x - 3)

18x

Past 110
6.

Li
(2a -f 36) (a*

3.-9.

+ 4)

06

+ 6*)
19.
12
.

'b-a
2y

17.

23.

Z a + 36 lOsy 4 3x
1

2L

+ 3x
2

29.

+
'

3L
37.

2y(y -r ~ y

_ S3.

2x(x
* v*

36.

c(n

,v)

y
36c

+5

""^

39.

+ 4)

4L^
jiT * 7v***'

ac
i^

a8 6*
i

4a

yy

y^v

**y /

MQ

y)

-x

2a(5a

1)

-6) 3a-26 (3a - 2)(2a - 3)(3 - 3a) (5o


-

ExrcUt 41. Past 115


1.

14.

3.

11. 2.

13.

21. 31.

&.
4
hr.

23.

5.

6.

7.

11.

9. 3.

2. 5.

16. 5.

17. 4.

19.

26. 1.
33.

27. 3.

29. tf
36. 15 m.p.h.

380 m.p.h.
Paft 117
6.

Extrcist 42.

2M-Ja;
<5

3.

3a -f
K

6.

^^.
*

7. 2n.

t _1_

M
.

rf

2o6
17.
-

6
19.

13. 2a.

i
Extreii* 43.

21. 26.

23. r

Pg 5).

118
6.

1.

0s*

7.

- 2501 - 64.

3. 9.

4x* 4- 12x H- 9.
(y

+ 5*)(y

11. (i

6tcy*

4y).

300
13.

ANSWERS
(o

36) (a'

+ 3o6 + 96*).
19. (4x
1).

15. (3y

+
a

2 2

17. (2

23.
.

+ 7)(f - 3). 2(a + 2)(a + l)(a


3x
*

1)(2

to).

21. 5(i

25. (x

36) (x

+ a + 36).
6

36x-f
2y
83.
x*

6
Ol. .

2a

a2

5a6
62

56a

"

*
=
40

o3

c1

36.

-*.
9

37.

-2.

39.-^-a + 6
17. 10 sq. units.

Exercise 44.
13.

Page 120
16.
sq. units.

(5,

1);

area

sq. units.

23. All abscissas are 2.

25.

units.

Exercise 45.
1.

Pase 124 x

(a)
(6)

8 and

4;

(6)
if

i,

f,

and

0.
if

15.

Equals

4.4 or 1.6; equals 10


Exercise 46.

6.5 or

.5.

Page 1ST
f
.

7.

3.

1.

6.

7.

c
2

33.
3; 5;

9.

11. 4c

4;

12C

13. 9;

6*

15. 4;

H*;

(x

+ 2y)/(x 4.
(

+ 3;

c<

|.

y).

17.

5x

+ 9.

2 27; c

+ 66c.

Exercise 47.
19. 23.

Page 130
(5, 0);

5;

21.
f, 0);

Cuts x-axis at
(0, f).

y-axis at

(0, 3).

Cuts x-axis at

#-axis at

25. y

fx

Jgk

Exercise 48.
ATote.

Page 132

In this answer book, in any solution of a system of equations, the values of the unknowns will be arranged in their alphabetical order.
1.

((1,

If).

3.

(2, 5).

5.

(- 2,

3).

7.

(-

2J,

f).

9.

f).

if.

No

solution;

parallel lines.

13.

No

solution; parallel lines.

15. Infinitely

many

solutions.

Exercise 49.
1.

Page 134
5.
(0,

(3, 2).

3.

((i

1,

3).

4).

7. (2,2).

9.

(-

f, |).

11.

|).

13. (2, f).

15. (5, 2).

Exercise 50.
1.

Page 135
6.
(0, 0).

(5, 2). (3,

3.

(7, $).

9.

2).

17.

(-

ff,

3).

7. <0, 0).

V).

19.

(.42, .19).

21.

23. (2, 3).

25. (5,

(-

.35, .27).

27. (3, 2).

29. (5,

3).

Exercise 51.

Page 136
5.
(i,

!(-!,_ 7
/2
'

i).

3. *'

(2, 5).

|).

6\
'

la' 2 j
13. (26,

/a

6\
'

a)
6

/3M-* U UM^'
'

"
""

M
2n

'

9AT2fc/

-3o).

15. (a

+ 6,

-a).

17.

(m -

2m
n,

ANSWERS
Exercise 52.
1.
(1, 2,

301

Page 138
f, |). 6.
(f,

7.

(ft,

- 2). - A, A)-'

3.

(- i 11.

<-

2, 3, 3).

(i

i -

i).

13.

(-

1,

f, f).

1, 3,

2)

Exercise 53.
1.
5.

Page 140

30; 120. 5 gal. of 20%;


1st,

3.

gal. of

41i; 48*. 7. 50%.


16.

11'

by

3'.

9.

lb.;

2d, 6 Ib.

11. 13, or 26, or 39.

13.

40

lb. silver;

80

lb. lead.

$3000 at

17. 465.

19.
2.

= -

4x

3%; $2500

at

4%; $4500

at

11.

21.

- -

6%.

Js

+ 2.

23. ^

26.

Land, 90 mi; water, 48 mi. Page 143


7.

Exercise 54.
1.

32.

3.

243.

6.

11.

16
.

13. 32a".

16.

&. 625zV-

Minus.

9. x*+*.

17.

8z.

19.

16a.

21.

a2*.

23.

d2**.
<w 33.
4
-

25. c*cP*.

27. .09cd.

29.

Zr

1 31.

<M SO.

d3

6s

w 37.
a*

-ISa2 "
66. (a) 16;

_
64s 2

__
w*c*
7.

>

200x

16:

(6)

n odd.
Exercise 55.

Page 147
J.
=fc .1.

1.

8.

3.

9.

6.

=fc

9.

12.

11.

i
3.

13.

f
5.

16.

=fc

3.
.

17. 5.

19.

6.

21.
31. 3. 41. 2. 63. 20.

23.
33. 57. 43. 4.
66.

26.
36.
46. 2. 67.

27. d.
37. 6.

29. 3. 39. 49. 6.


61.
.1.

4zy

3
.

2.

47.
69.

.1.

1.

61. 20.

- i

63.

.2.

Exercise 56.
1. 6.

Page 150
7.
*.

3. a.
.

6. x*.
.

9.

y9

11. 21.

13.

16. 2y.

17. 2y.

19. J.

23.

&.
2a2
.

26. f. 36.

27. 3s*.
.1.

29. 39.

31. x*y*.

33.

37. 2xy*.

- 2z. - 2.
2y

41.

xz*.

43. .2rc.

46. .5x.

47.

^
2x

w . ^-^

Exercise 57.
1. 3.

Page 153
7.

3. 2.

6. J.

&.

9. 8.

11. i.

13. sV.

16.

17.

19. 1.

302

ANSWERS

109. (3ar>

6")(3ar

+ 6-).

111. (2x*

yi)(2xi -f yi).

ANSWBRS
113. (3x*

303

5y*)(3a*

+ 5y).
119- (Sa- 1

115. (2a*

36*)(2a*

36*).

117. (z

3ar)*.

6-).

121. (6x*

123. (Sar 1 127. (6

+ y). - x*)(36 + 60;* + x*).


2y)(or
l

125. (2a*

120. Sar1

+ 36*)(4a* + jr.
5.

+ yty. - 6a*6* + 96t).

Extrclst 59.
1.

Pagt 158
4.472.
8.484.

3^2;

4.242. 5.196.
2.520.
^

3. 0.

2VS;
6V2;

10V;

14.14.

7.

3V3; 2^2;
x*V&-

IL .3V6;
17.

.6708.

13. 10.

15.

3^4;

4.761.

^5;

1.710.

- 3^2; -

3.780. 27.
35.

21. tf^'x.

23. y<^P.
20. 37.

25. 33. 41.

3a.

2ayV^. - o^.
.5xV;.

ayi/lV.

2a^. Sy^^.
2d^cd.
-

31. 30. 47.


55.

43. xy*V3ij*.
51.
y*

45.
53.

40.

V^.

>^.
+ 56.
71. 8^/2?

2y*

57,

- 4; ^2T atr
67.
'

50.

3Vl

81.

aVl

63.

66. x*.

2x^2T

60.

**

^ ab
Pigt 160

73.

75.

3V.

77. (a

5fe)V2.

70. (3

x)^3x.

81. (2x

Exercist 60.
1.

Vl5;

3.873.

3.

5V2;
9^60;

7.070.

5.

6V^

8.484.
32.40.

7. 40.

0.

18\/2; 25.45.
35.24.
23.

11. 5>/42;

13. 54. 10.

15.

17.

- 2^; 25.

2.884.

V7;

2.646.

21.

^9;

2.080.

VH.

?
i

27.

^O a
375a.
45. 18

_
20.

_
31.

3xV5.

3*V2x.

33.

3a6</2a6.

35.

37. 54s.

30. 6s**
47. 5.

43. 1.
51. 50.

13V6.
14

53. + 10>/2. a + tor + 26Vax.

27

4>/6.

55.

+ 7<s/5. 40. 2>/6 + VlO + 8>/3 + a - 9fy. 57. 6x - 15y +


41.

+ 6.

61.

xyzV*.
^486.

63.

Vl8a.

65.

V^te.

67.

^27V.
Exercist 61.

60.

Pgt 162
5.

1.

^V2;

.707.

3.

i\/10; .632.
11.

iVlO;

.7905.
13.

0.

16.

i<^; .6785. - A^30; -

- ^^7; -

.2646.

J^; .630. rb"^; -05477.


7.

.3107.

17. ri^iKJ;

.1095.

304
A 21.

ANSWERS

V
23.
'

19.

a
'

25.

3z
-

29.

26
35.

26
39.

5to5

3a

2c
43.

ax
45. 47.

a
53.

49.

3)
_

5ao
61.

4V5.

63. 0.

65.

a
Page 163
5.
;

a.

Exercise 62.
1.

$;
^v^; 9 ~ 5
o

.577.

3.

fV5;
|Vl5;

2.683.
1.549.
.172.

1.155.
1.890.

7.

1.291.

9.

11.

3
;

13.

.057.

15. 3

- 2V2;

7
17.

3
e

6
;

.0694.

.689.

17
.437.

25.

5
;

-.465.

27.

2
31.

i^l8;

29.

- ^100; -

.4642.

i^5;

.342.

33.

35.

87.2o&

89.

41.

26c
45.

4.900.

2V5

+ 4V-3
14

V6
ax*
Exercise 63.
3.

Page 166
5.

7.

9.

It
19.

13.

Vs.

15. 23.
31. 39.

V^.

17.

21.

25.
33.

27.
35. 43.
51. 59.

29.
37. 9.

41.

9a.

45.
63.
61.

47.

49.
67.

^3.

56.
63.

ANSWERS
65. v^27.

305
Vtf

67.

o<

69.

73.

75. 1.

77.

81.

*
9L
93.

3*

y*

6^
26

95.

3^.

97.

101.

26
105. v'a.
113. 2vl2.
46

103. a
111.

107.

#Zy.

109.

119.

2(V

^2).

121.
123.
I

-2a

/-|

Exercise 64.
3.
1.

Page 168
5.

3>/3; 5.196.

7.

125.

9.

11.

fVH;

1.342.

13. 239.

15.

1^12;
4.242.

.572.

17. fcVg; .306.

19.
26.

v^2; 1.260.

21.

3V2;

23.
29. 35. 43.

&VI6;
3zi

.1265.

33.

31.

37.

39. 47.

41. 36.

a;

45.

61.

a
67.
59.

65. 4;

3.

61.

63.

*4

65. 71. Z</x. 73.

67.

6v 6.
83.

75. v*6.

77.

79.

yVx*y.

81.

2zJ
89.

8R
91.

(31

180)^3

87.

-f

i.

(a-

97. 6

06

306

ANSWERS
Exercise 65.

Pa 9

172
7.

L
11.

3i.

3, 6e.

5. St.

5*V2.

9.

#.
.6i.

13.

IT'-

15. it.

17. .3*.

19. ft.

at
31.

23.

itV5.
33. 5tfc\/3.

25.

&iVll.
35.

27.

2W.
37.

29. obi.

2isV2.

SisVVsty.

39. frdi.

41. 49.

~-1.

43. d=fi.
51.

46.
53. 10.

47.
57.

t.

1.

55. 13.

29 4-

11*.

59. 21
67.

20t.

61.

65. 4

19i.

+ 40*.
71.

15.

69.

3*V

10V2.
75.

- 20*V 63. Si
77. 1

40.
17.
2*.

73. (4*

19);

(- 34

6t);

(-

70t

66).

41

.-

Exercise 66.

Page 174

Note. In simplifying radicals in the solution of an equation, it will be assumed that any literal factor of a radicand is positive if this adds to our convenience in the reduction.
1.
=fc

5.

3.

3t.

5.

=fc ft*.

7.

$36;

d= 1.183.
.829.

9.

iv
30
1.826.

IL
17.

-.
6a

13.
.707.

ijl;
*

15.

i2;

19.

2(1
33. db

+ c)
db .707.

m
14.

T
iVl3;
1.803.

*V2;

35.

37.

Exercise 67.
1. 5;

Page 176
5. 0;

f.

2.

3.

4; 3.

9. 0;

11. 19.

f
i;

13.

17. f ;

25.
33.

I
J;
;

|.

f.

27. f ;
35. 0;

-i
3.

21.

f.

7. 0;

3;
2;

i
2.

15. *;
f.

29. f ;
37.

3&;

23. f ;
31.

|;
6;

4.
1.

26.

39.'

6.

-5
49.

S'

i
-

^ 'I -5' 51.

3;

53. 0;

55.

3; |.

Exercise 68.

Page 180

16;

(x
(

4).

3.

7. f|;

+ *)*

^ -

c; (x

c).

7;

1.

11. 3;

5. |;

7.

13.

- ). - 2; - 2,
(

ANSWERS
1C.

307
17. (2

-2

:t

Vl4
:

2.871;

.871.

+ t);
2

(2

t).

o
23.

-~-^=
o

4-*- \/TQ

-: -

2.786;

.120.

25. |;

1.

29. 6a;

d=

3a.

3t
oc

6;

$6.

38.

86.

V4 - +
9

37.

tf

- 4HP

Extrcisc 69.

P*gt 182
5.

1.};

dr

3. f;
.

J.

3t.

7.

f;

f.

2
v.

1<U107 1

1 Rfift l.OOO.

--

-~

41 oi x

v ^ \/2

ttll:i

2
OO.

5V2. ^

^.loo,

1.

2a

12ac

51.
53.

y
a;

x -f 2;
y
2;

y x

^(1
1

x).

2y.

Extrcist 70.

Pag

184
5. 9;

L 9. *;

3;
'

3. |;

f.

5.

7.

2
11. i; i.
.905.

13.

^ o

5
;

.847;

.047.

15. 0; f21. |;

17.

iA';
\/41:
i;

19.

=fcfc6.

1.

23. 6

12.403;
b).

.403.

25. 4;
L
fc;

f.

27. 6;

oo 29.
35.

^(1

wi

01 31.

11

JA.

oo 33.

=*

37. 13'
46.

by

17'.

39.

^; -

tf.

41. 14.928'.

'

43. 6.48 yd.

20 m.p.h.

47. 6 m.p.h.

308

ANSWERS
t

49. (a)

;
<7

(6)

500' at

3.46 sec.

and 9.04

sec.;

0'

at

sec.

and

12.5 sec.

Exercise 71.

Page 188

L
3. 5.

Vertex
Vertex

(0, (0, (0,


(

0);
0); 5);
3,

axis
axis

x x
a;

0;

min.

0;

max.

= 0. = 0.
=5.
3;

Vertex
Vertex

axis
4);

0; min.

7.
9.

axis

x max. x

min.
5.

= =
9.
8.

4.

Vertex Vertex
Vertex

(1,

5);

axis
5); 9);

x =
x

1;

=
2;

11.
13.

(2,
(f,

axis

=
f
;

min.

5.

axis

min.

=
by

15.

Min.

= -

13.

17.

Max.

19.

At end 2$

sec.

27. 30;

30.

29. 7*"

15".

Exercise 72,
1. f.

Page 190
7.

11. 2.6;

3. 3;
.6.

3.

5.

Roots imag.

1.6;

4.1.
(1, 1*);

9.

13.

Roots imag.

3;

1.

15. (0, 2|);

(3*;

1).

Exercise 73.
1. 3.

Page 192

Disc. Disc.

= =

9;

real,

unequal, and rational. unequal, and irrational.

12;

real,

5. Disc. 7. Disc.

9. Disc.

= = =

0;

real, equal,

and

rational.

1705; real, unequal,


0;
real, equal,

and

irrational.

11. Disc. a 23. Disc.

16;

and rational. imaginary and unequal.


is

19. 5.2;

1.2.

21.

1.2;

.2.

49; graph

to the 3-axis,

a parabola concave upward, with its axis perpendicular cutting z-axis in two points, and hence the vertex is below

that axis.

graph is a parabola concave downward, with its axis perpendicular to x-axis, which does not meet that axis and hence lies entirely below it. 29. - 2 + 5i. 31. - 6*. 27. Disc. = 52; etc.
26. Disc.

59;

Exercise 74.
1.

Page 195
5.

5;
|;

3.

3.

f;

9.

f.

11. f ;

f -f

f;
;

|.

7. 0;

tf.

13.

|.

15.

y
3
-

|.

17.

r-|-; 5 -h a 5 + o ^4--

19 25.

fir; fr^1-fcl+c
x2 z8

21 - te'
0.

1*

23. x* 29. 35.

2x

3z

7.

+
-f

5z -f 6 2

= =

27.
33.

3z

10
0.

0.

31. 37.

0.
1

9z2 4- 4

x8

4z

0.

39. 2a

- 7x + 2 - 0. - 18 - 0. - 2x - 13 = 0.

ANSWERS
41.

309
45. x*
51.

x9

47.
53.

57.

+ 34 0. 3z + 4a + 2 - 0. 0. 32 27x + 12x (x + 3 + i)(x + 3


Ox
a

43.

a;*

49.

- 8z + 20 - 0. - 8)(3x + 5). (ftc


56.

- 4x + 24 (8z - 15)(3z 4-

0.

4).

=.

No.

(Disc, is not

i).

59. (x

a perfect square.)

+
.

ft) (a;

-*7.

Exercise 75.
1.

Page 197
2t;
=fc

1;

2.

3.

fc2;

2.

5.

3i;

=t
1. t

9.

|;

db

i.

11.

i?
3;
1;

1.

13.

d= 2i;

=fc

17. 23.

1;

*; 3;

29. 1;
35. d=

- f. 19. - |. 25. - 2; - 4.
=b
fi.

2;

1.

iV. 21. 27. 1; 33.


;

15.
1;

5;

f;

1(1 =t

37. 43.

4;

*(- 3

=t

V5).

31. 2;
;

^2.
tV5).

3;
1;

*(3
*(1
db

V5l).
tVf).

2Va;
f;

i^ea.

J(~
;

39. 3;

*(- 3

3tV3).

41.

2;

^(3
1 =b
2t.

3iVi).

45. 4;
51.

(- 2
1;
;

VS).
.

47.
53.

1;

J(l db
3i.

iV).

49. i;
55.

i(-

*V).

=t

3;

57.

d= ft.

Exercise 76.
1. 7.

Page 200
7.

3.
sol.

No

sol.

5.

12.

13.

25.

No No

15. 4.

17. 9.

19. 4;

- 13. - 2.
31. 4; |.

9.

14.

11.

f >/2.
23. 0.

21. 0;

sol.

27. 3;

f V5.
2;

1.

29.

33. 1;
-

3.

35. o. 43. 1;
61.

37. 0; 46.

39.
7T

41.
49. 16.
is

&.
^V2.
243.

45. 8;
53. 4.

59.

^-.
65.

47. 16;

if.

=t

No
243.

57.

solution (any principal root


61.

positive).

25$.

63.

^4

(x~%

8 has no real solution).


Exercise 77.

Page 203
6. 0;
it

1.

db

1
=
1 is

3. 2.

- J.

7. 9.

H (&
10;

not a solution because


11.

2.

13.

.268;

^;

k
.

3.732.
23.

15.

does not give a quadratic equation). does not apply.


17.

21. if.

- &.
=fc

&.
=fc

19.

25.

3V5.

27.

29.

f.

31.

.816.

33. 1;

-i -f

2.

Exercise 78.
1.

Page 206
s
.

3. 5.

7. 9.

+ 5o6 + 10a6 + 10a*& + 5a& + 6 x - 8ofy + 28zV - 56x y + 70x y - 56xV + 28a;V - 8xy 16 + 32a 4- 24a -f 8a + a. 7296 - 14586 y + 12156y - 540&V + 1356V - 18^ + V*. a -f So^ + 3a6* + 6.
a6
J
8
5

-f

y.

IL o
13.

6a w 6

4-

15a6*

20a6

-f

15a6

6a'6l

<>

310
15. a* 17. a*
.

ANSWERS

- 4oir
8x*

I5xy*
H-

32x* ---

40IT

+ IT

8
.

19.

x,

+
,

24x

16

a* 25.

a*

a*

a
27. 1

Ig0ou

lg
-f-

a"

-f

20a&
30

-f

190a6.
/

81.

2x* -

+ 2.31.
-

^
29. 1

12 >/2
^^
\
-j

132.

2ox + 435
_
^

85. *n

87. a*" 41. 39,916,800.

+
48. 126.

89. 720.

Exercise 79.
8.

P3t 208
5.

35z11. .00056.

18.

7.

9.

n(n-l)...(n~5)
6!

15x*.

15.

21.

2016xy10
4000o

28.
3/

25.

27.

126o>6;
83. 132,651.

29. 10,000
36. 1.127.

+ 600a - 40a + o.
39. .904.

3t

96,059,601.
48. .002.

87. 1.230.

41. 1.243.

45. 14,776,336.

Extrcls* 80.
1.

Page 211
,

8.

5.

s/a.

7.

9.
8'.

11.

*.
32'; 21$".

18. 30.

15. f.

17. 10";

19. 20;

70.

2L

28.

5500

sq. in.

25. 5.366'.
85. db 9i.

27. 28.7'. 87.


.

29. db

v^6.

81. d= 1.

88.

25.

$
9m4
5n

39. d= (y

+ 3).

41.

35.

oe

48.

-T3

45. 77

Am

27
175

47.

Exercise 81.

Ps

217

8.Z.

V
a*

7.

9. T

18. z is proportional to x*.

15.

varies directly as
27. 784'. 87.

x9 and

y.

21.

12t/

-r^ox

28.

- (6)

25.

^.
48.

29. 2700 Ib.


ft.

4| ft. 89. 1824 r.p.m.


47. (6,

81.

88. (a) 71f Ib.;

sq. in.

5*

in diameter.

4L
(-

/i

/,

1:16.

2, 4) or

6, 2,

56%.

45. (10,

6, 4).

4).

49. (150, 250, 550, 300).

ANSWERS
Exercise 82.

3?T

Page 223
14;

L
9.

15;
13.
i

18; 21;
11.
14.

24; 27; 30.


13. 151.

3.

16.

- 18; - 16; - 76. 17. 10.


23.
I

12;

78;

10;

8.

19.

S -

645-

21.
25.

29.
33.

- - 72; S - - 882. d - 16; 8 - 5460. a - 138; S = 2025. ^ a - - *', I" 126i


.

27.
31.
'

35.

- .78; S n - 92; 5 n - 21; 5 = k - - 1.


41. |f.

46.86.

18,308.

525.

37. 21.

39. 136th.

Exercise 83.
1. 5; 5.

Page 226
3.

8;

11; 6;

14.

10.5;

1.5;

3;

7.5;

8; 10;
7.

12;
1;

13;
f
;
;

15$.

12.

i;

11.

^.
17. 376.

9. 26.

19.

13. 36,270.

15. 2223.

19. 360'.

21. $11,650.

23. $30,500.

25.

2565

Exercise 84.
1.

Page 230

5;

15; 45;
(1.01)

135.
8
.

3. 4;

8;

16;

23.

32.

7.

&;

^.
S = -

9.

or4

or*.

11. 1.01;

13. 4.

15. f.
I

17. 729.

19.

21.
25.

2916;
192;

S =
-S

4372.

= -

&.

1215;

910.

129.
81.

27. Z*>= 3846';

8 n =
8;
6;

29.
35.

W.
a
25;
36;

n -

8;
37.

1275.

33.

5 39.

111.111.
i

n -

5.

n =

11;

S = ^^i.
(4;

80.

41. f.

43. (4;

8;

46. (12; 47. 1;


63.

108) or

(.

12;

36;

16;

32; 64) or

16; 32;

64).

108). 49. 2. 66.


61. 10.
1 --

_
67. 63.

-.

10;
if

100;

1000;
0;

10,000;

100,000.

VJJ,

>

v^

if

<

0.

(1.06)>

(1.06)

:rr

59. .

eA .

.06
2.

- -1

^^-

M 05^7

(1.02)-"
.02

Ol. .

(1.02)"
( 1>02)i

- A;

66. 8190.

67. $102.30.

Exercise 85.
1.

Pase 233
6.

$95.

3.

227.8" approximately.
9. $7020.

$3125.

7.

*n(n

1).

13. 55.339" approximately. 19. 599.59' approximately.

21. (a)

23.

Approximately 11.1% per year.


Exercise 86.

x 16. At end 2 300(1.06)*; (6) 5060 units. 27. 12i%.


1

U.

yr.
.

Page 236
6.

1.

i;

t;

il

A-

3.
9.

A;
16.

i; f;

f.

1;

f;

f;

A;
y).

7. 2.

11.

2*y/(*

372

ANSWERS
Exercise 87.

Page 239
7. flft.
5 1O ** TT

1.

14.

3.

22i
33 27.
_7_
r

6.

I
33
29. 1500".

9.

iL
QQ *^
33. 12.

13.

1K *w

1T JL *

19 Q1 *IJL * 90

25.

3^.

31 200

sq. in.

Exercise 88.
1. 3.

Page 241
9.

3.

1.

6. 64.

7. 81.

10.

1L
1.

1.

13.

15.

&.

17. 2.
31. 4.

19. 2.

21. 1000. 35. $. 49. 8.

23. 6. 37.

26. 2.
39.

27. 2.
3.

29. 3.
43. 10.

33. i.

41. 5.

45. 1.

47. 2.

61. 100.

63. 64.

Exercise 89.
1.

Page 244
6.

.7781.

3.

1.5314.

1.4771.

7. 3.2304.

9.

1.6232.

11. .3680. 19.

13. .7533.

16.

17.

.5229.

2.1549.
Exercise 90.

21.

1.7696.

23.

.3853.

1.3768.

Page 247

1.

Ch.

3. 7.

Ch. Ch.

= 2; man. = .9356. = -2; man. = .700. = .325. = 6; man.

6.

Ch.
9.

=
15.

3;

man.

.5473.

9.2562

10.

11. 4.4932
19. 1.6355.

10.

13. 5.

4.

17.

-6.

21. 7.8949
10.

10.

23. 0.9759.
31. 5.1959. 41. 302.

26. 4.2504.
33. 243.

27. 8.9345
35. 4660. 45. .0960.

29. 5.0043. 37. 1.43.


39. 74.0.

43. .00589.
51. .00500.

47. .000900.

49. .264.

Exercise 91.
1.

Page 251
6.

3.2615.

3.

2.7261.

1.5556.

7.

9.4790

9.

9.7503

17. 6.0910

10.

11. 8.1939 19. 3.4950.

10.

13. 4.9546.

16. 7.1581

10. 10.

10.

21. 1725. 29. .0002162.


37. .00009738.

23. 1.459(10).
31. .4693.

25. 1379.
33. 7.695(108 ).

27. 39.95.
36. 1.030.

39. .4236.

Exercise 92.

Page 253

Note. In some classes, the teacher may desire to teach the use of 5-place logarithms. For the advantage of such classes, in the case of each computation problem in the remainder of this chapter, the result obtained by use of 5-place logarithms is given in black face type beside the result found with 4-place log-

arithms.
1.

24.91; 24.909.

3.

.2009;

.20086. 61.098.

5.

7.

.007667;

.006380; .0063797.
11. .1406;

.0076660.

9. 51.10;

.14061.

13. 24.56;

24.668.
27.609.

16. .07808;

.078096.
21. .003467;

17. 5542;

6644.4.

19. 27.61;

.0034669.

ANSWERS
23.

313
L6802(10"
(6)

2.627(10-');

2.6266(10-*).

26. 1.580(10-');
6

6
).

27. 38.96; 38.966.

29. (a) 4.792(10 ); 4.7922(10 ):

8.065; 8.0662.

Exercise 93.

Page .256
6.

5358; 6369.6.
.94986.

3.

.4107; .41082.

1.044;

1.0440.

7. .9500;

9.

1.315; L3158.

11. .6030; 17.

.60296.

13. 28.93; 19. 50.32;

28.936.
60.324.

16. .1585;

.16849.

1.010;

1.0099.

21. 41.47; 41.470. 27. 1.041;

23. .1266;
29. .8630;

.12668.

26. 2.111;
31. 50.12;

2.1111.
60.466.

1.0412.

.86268.

By

preliminary use of 7-place table, the results are .5050;


36. 215.1;

.60604.
33. 141.9;

141.82.

216.08.
.93896.

37. .4971;

.49714.

39. .001352; 46. 61.

.0013626.

41. .9388;

By

1.916;
.136;*

43. .3986;

.39882. 134.84.

1.9166.

47. 21.76; 21.768.


63. 1.118;
4

49. 134.9;

.1366.*

1.1177.

66. 4.908; 4.9086.


B

67. .1730; .17294.

69.

4-place table:

(a)

2.219(10

);

(6)

3.222(10-

).
'

61. .02323;

.023229.

63. .0007867;

.0007869.*

66. 236.1; 236.13.

Exercise 94.
1.

Page 259
6.

1.341;

1.3410.
18.02.*

3.

1.319;

1.3194.
6.634.*

5.195;

6.1923.

7. 18.1;*

9. 5.63;*

IL

13. 2.303;

2.3026.

16.

14.2;*

4.317; 4.3176.

14.20.*

Exercise 96.
1.

Page 261
7.

$4682.

3.

$4502.

6.

$1203.

5.8%.

9. 18.8 yr.

11. 16

yr.

Exercise 98.
1. 6.
(4, .5);

Page 268
3.
(5,

(-

2.8,

2.9).
1.5).

3).
9.

(2.1,

1.5);

(-

2.1,

7.

(3.2, 3.7).

No real solutions.

Exercise 99.
1.
(3,

Page 269
3.
(5,

4);

(6
,

4, 3).

t
;

/6
5.

_
1,

2*W
'1);

3);

(5,

3).

^
7.

+ _*V6\ Y
3, 3).

/6 ^

+ 2t'v
9.

/
>

(-

(-

(4, 2);

(4, 2).

11. (1, *);

(i

2).

15.

(il); (-i3).'
Exercise 100.

Page 270
3.

1. 5.

(1.837,

.790);
1);

(-

1.837, db .790).
1).

(|V2,
(db

);

(- |V^,
(

ffl.

(V5,
(^v^,

(- V5,
(

7.

V2,

V);
i^/7)',

\/2,
(

V5).

9.

iv^S);
is

|V,

iv^S).

11.

(V,

v^,

The

result

not reliable beyond the last digit given in the answer.

314

ANSWERS
Exercise 101.

Page 279

1.

(V2,

V5); (-

3.

(i, 1);

(-

6. 7.
.

13. 15.

- 4); (- 4, - 1); (- 14, 4); (4, 1). (14, - ft);- *), (- f, i); ((I, - i). (ft); (i - ft); 2, i); (2, (_- JV5); (2, 5); ((ftV2, JV5); (- ftV2, - 4); ((6, 4); (- 6,
(ft,

(- V3,

D;_ (- V2, ftV5); (V2, V3); (V3, - V); (- 2, 1);


ft,

(2,

1).

ft,

ft).

ft,

2,

5).

Exercise 102.
X

Page 274

1. 5.

(((i,

9.

2, 3); (6, 2); (- i


ft,

5);

(ft,

3).
1).

3. 7.
(1, 1);

<|Vl5, f Vl6); (- |Vl5,


(f,

2);

(-

1,

f);

(-

1,

Vl5).
1, 1).

2);

(f,

V); (-

1).

11. (2, 1);

(1, 2);

[ft(-

+ ,V6), ft(- 4 - iVe)];


Cft(-

4
5

Vg), J(- 4

+ t-s/6)].
(4, 5).

18.

(- 5
(ft,

+ *Vl4,
1);

15.

2,

(ft,

(ft,

17.

25.

23. (3, 1);

(|);

3,

25. (i,

(i

- 1); (- 2, 1); 2, 2, 1); (- 2, - 1); - 2, 1); (- 19. c V9 + 4m - 1); (1, 3); (- 1, - 3). - i). 27. (i, 1);
ft,

iVII); (- 5
(ft,

Vl4,
ft,

ft,

+ tVl4);
2,

(5, 4);

1);

(d=

ft,

2, 1).
8
.

21. c

Vo + 6m

(-

|,

1).

Exercise 103.
1.
5.
(2,

Page 275
3.
(4.1,

3);
1.8,

(ft,

4).
(2.5,

1.8);

(-

4.1,

=fc

1.8).

((-

-2.1);

-5.2).

7.

(|V65,
1,

*V35); (- f V65,
(1, 0);

ftV5).

13. (f,

2);

(4,

7).

16.

0);

17. (3, 6); 19. (10,

(V5, - 3*V2); (- *V2, 3tV^). (- 3, - 6); (- 4^3, 5^3); (4V3, - 5V). - J^V2). 5); (- 10, 5); (ftV, J^V2); (- ftV2,
1), ft(a

21. [ft(a

1)];
ft;

[ft (a

1),

ft

(a

1)].

23. 12'

by

5'.

26.

27. 81.

29. 3 Ib.

31.

6f

hr.;

5ft hr.

Exercise 104.
1.

Page 282
5.

63 (exact).

3.

523 (exact).

325 (exact).

7. 6.39 (exact).

9. 8.85.

11. 40.54.

INDEX
Numbers
Abscissa, 119. Absolute value, 4. Addition, 8. Antilogarithm, 247.
refer to pages.

Approximate values,

52.

Equivalent equations, 59. Exponential equation, 258. Exponential function, 260. Exponents, general, 150. laws of, 25, 142.

'

Arithmetic means, 224. Arithmetic progression, 221.

Extraneous

positive integral, 25. roots, 114, 198.


3.

Asymptote, 263.
Base, of a logarithm, 240. for a power, 25. Binomial, 28. Binomial formula, 207. Briggs, 251.
Characteristic, 244.
Coefficient, 18.

Factor, definition of a, Factorial symbol, 206.

Factoring, 88. Fractions, 22, 103. Function, definition of a, 121. Functional notati6n, 126. Fundamental operations of algebra, 3.

Cologarithm, 254.
logarithm, 242. Completing a square, 177.

Geometric means, 230. Geometric progression, 227.


infinite, 236.

Common

Complex Complex

fraction, 43. number, 171.

Graph, of an equation, 128. of a function, 122. of a quadratic equation in two


variables, 262.

interest, 260. Conditional equation, 58.

Compound

of a quadratic function, 186.

Conjugate imaginaries, 192.


Constant, 64. Coordinates, 119. Decimals, 48.
terminating, 49. Degree, of a polynomial, 61. of a term, 61.

Harmonic means, 236. Harmonic progression,


Highest Hyperbola, 263.

common

236. factor, 106.

Identical equation, 58.

Imaginary number, 144, 170.


pure, 171. Inconsistent equations, 132. Independent variable, 121.

Denominator,

6.

Dependent equations, 132. Dependent variable, 121.


Difference of numbers, 10. Difference of squares, 85. Discriminant, 191.

Index laws, 25, 31, 142, 154, 278. Index of a radical, 146.
Inequalities, 14, 15. Infinite series, 238. Integral rational polynomial, 28. Integral rational term, 28. Intercepts of a graph, 128.

Dividend,

6.

Division, 6. Divisor, 6.
Ellipse, 264.

Equation, 68.
of a curve, t29. of a line, 129.

Interpolation, for logarithms, 248. Irrational equation, 199. Irrational function, 148. Irrational number, 147.

376
Linear equation, 61. Linear function, 122. Logarithm, base of a, 240.
characteristic of a, 244. definition of a, 240.

INDEX
complete, 173. discriminant of a, 191. graphical solution of a, 189.
pure, 173.

Quadratic in two variables, 262.


Quotient, 6.
Radicals, 82, 146. properties of, 149. simplification of, 157, 166. Radicand, 82, 146. Radius of action, 76. Ratio, 6, 210.

mantissa of

a, 244.

Logarithmic equation, 258. Logarithmic function, 260. Logarithms, properties of, 243, 255. Lowest common denominator, 40, 106.

Lowest common multiple, 38, 106. Lowest terms, for a fraction, 22, 104.
Mantissa, 244.

Maximum value, 187. Mean proportional, 212. Minimum value, 186.


Monomial,
28.

Rational function, 148. Rational number, 147. Rationalizing a denominator, 161.

Real number,

1.

Reciprocal, 44.

Naperian logarithms, 259.


Napier, 251. Natural logarithms, 251, 259.

Remainder, in division, 34. Repeating decimal, 238. Root, of an equation, 59. of a number, 145.

Negative of a number, Negative numbers, 4. Numerator, 6. Numerical value, 4.

9.

Rounding

off

numbers, 53.

Scientific notation for

a number, 249.

Significant digits, 52.


Signs, laws of, 6.

Ordinate, 119. Origin of coordinates, 119.

Similar terms, 18.


interest, 79. Solution, defined for

Simple

an equation,

Parabola, 186.
Pascal's triangle, 205.

in one variable, 59. in two variables, 127.

Percentage, 70. Perfect nth power, 100, 148. Perfect square, 82, 90.

Solution of a system of two equations,


131, 267.

Square

root, 82, 280.

Polynomial, 28.
integral rational, 28. Power of a base, 25.

Subtraction, 9. Surd, 148.

Systems of equations involving quadratics, 262.

Prime Prime

factor, 88.

integer, 38. Principal root, 145.

Systems of
in three in

linear equations, unknowns, 137.

Progressions, arithmetic, 221. geometric, 227. harmonic, 236. Proportion, 210.

two unknowns,

131.

Terminating decimal, 49. Transposing terms, 60.


Trinomial, 28.

Proportional parts, principle of, 248. Pure quadratic equation, 173.

Uniform motion, Unknowns, 58.

75.

Quadratic Quadratic Quadratic Quadratic

form, 196. formula, 180.


function, 186. in one unknown,

Variables, 64, 121. Variation, 213.

constant

of,

213.