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Accession No.
ig,
Author
Title
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last
marked below.
INTERMEDIATE
ALGEBRA
FOR COLLEGES
BY WILLIAM
L.
HART
D. G.
Copyright 1948, by D. C.
No
part of the material covered by this copyright may be reproduced in any form
PREFA Cf
HIS
BOOK
offers
school algebra. The study it either (1) as a preliminary to taking college algebra, or (2) as terminal work hi algebra which is intended as a prerequisite for ele
collegiate substitute for third semester high text was designed for a college student who will
in various fields of natural or social science, or in suitable selection of content from the business administration.
mentary courses
satisfactory algebraic foundation for a first In course in trigonometry or in the mathematics of investment.
the case of a student of the assumed preparation, the text provides sufficient material for a substantial course utilizing from 40 to 60
class hours.
was based on the assumption that the typical student involved is of a mature age but studied his elementary algebra so long ago that practically all fundamentals must be taught
of the text
The plan
they were relatively new material for him. Hence, the early chapters of the book present a mature but frankly elementary treatment of the foundations of algebraic technique with a generous amount
as
if
of discussion
work on arithmetic is provided incidentally hi the algebraic problems and explicitly in an early optional chapter devoted to computation.
The tempo
in the later chapters, distinctly collegiate speed is attained so that the student will find it easy to make the transition into a substantial
to present material which custom dictates as primarily within the sphere of college algebra, although such material frequently may
enter the most substantial courses in third semester algebra at the secondary level. However, in the interest of efficiency and math
ematical simplicity, the terminology and general viewpoint of the text is distinctly collegiate. Emphasis is laid on the logical sequence
of topics, accuracy of definitions,
of proofs.
vi
PREFACE
SPECIAL FEATURES
Adult nature of the presentation. The discussion in the text is couched at a level suitable to the maturity of college students. Hence, the available space and assumed class time are utilized mainly to explain and illustrate the mathematical principles involved and only the necessary minimum attention is devoted to artificial motivation of the type which might properly be expanded for younger
students.
given to the language concerning variables, functions, equations, and the most elementary aspects of analytic geometry because of the importance of this vocabulary in fields of application which the students will enter in
Terminology.
Particular emphasis
is
college.
by
technical vocabulary of the algebraic content excluding terms which are of small or doubtful utility.
The
is
limited
Illustrative material.
Extensive use
is
made
of illustrative ex
amples to introduce new theory, to recall previous knowledge, and to furnish models for the student's solutions of problems.
Emphasis on development of
is
skill in
computation.
The viewpoint
appreciation of various features of computation. Hence, work with fractions and decimals is introduced quickly, and substantial early sections are devoted to a disof arithmetic, as well
new mature
cussion of approximate computation. Also, the exercises and applications continue to demand computing skill throughout the text, and
is
made very
complete.
Supplementary content.
A small
amount
in the typical course is segregated into obviously independent sections labeled with a black star, *. Also, the teacher will understand
that several of the later chapters are optional and that their omission in whole or in part will not interfere with the continuity of other
The
is
The problem
material
so abundant that, in
many
oddnumbered or
the evennumbered examples alone will be found sufficient for the student's outside assignments, and the balance may be reserved for
work
in the classroom.
PREFACE
vii
approximately in order of increasing difficulty. Examples stated in words are emphasized at the appropriate places to avoid the develop
ment
of
an inarticulate form
skills
of algebraic skill. However, the text valuable time in specialized training to develop
problem solving
problems.
devoted to
artificial
or unimportant types of
Answers.
The answers
to oddnumbered problems are provided answers for evennumbered problems are furnished
arrangement
of the exercises, various features in the of theoretical discussions, and the location of certain
The grading
chapters are designed to aid the teacher in adapting the text to the specific needs of his class.
Composition and appearance. The absence of excessively small type, the generous spacing on the pages, and the special care taken in the arrangement of the content into pages create a favorable setting for the use of the book by both the teacher and the student.
University of Minnesota
WILLIAM
L.
HART
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
1. 2.
22
46 48 58
3. 4. 5.
6.
'
7.
8. 9.
10.
DECIMALS AND ELEMENTS OF COMPUTATION LINEAR EQUATIONS IN ONE UNKNOWN SPECIAL PRODUCTS AND FACTORING ADVANCED TOPICS IN FRACTIONS Review of Chapters 4, 5> and 6 RECTANGULAR COORDINATES AND GRAPHS SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS EXPONENTS AND RADICALS ELEMENTS OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
82
104 118
119
131
142 170
186
ADVANCED TOPICS IN QUADRATIC EQUATIONS I2. THE BINOMIAL THEOREM ^. RATIO, PROPORTION, AND VARIATION
11.
14.
15.
1 6.
204 210
221
PROGRESSIONS*
~~"
"~~~
240
262
277
APPENDIX TABLES
I
283
II
284
287
M)
~*
88
289
ANSWERS TO
INDEX
EXERCISES
315
CHAPTER
Explicit
and
literal
numbers
In algebra, not only do we employ explicit numbers like 2, 5, 0, etc., but, as a characteristic feature of the subject, we also use letters or other symbols to represent numbers with variable or undesignated values. For contrast with explicit numbers, we agree that number symbols such as a, b, x, and y will be called literal numbers. In this book, as a rule, any single letter introduced without a qualifying description will represent a number.
2.
Signed Numbers
The numbers used in the elementary stages of algebra are called real numbers. They are classed as positive, negative, or zero, 0, which The word real is used is considered neither positive nor negative.
with reference to these numbers in order to permit contrast with a type of number called imaginary, which will be introduced at a later
stage.
ILLUSTRATION
1.
17,
f and
,
In arithmetic, the numbers employed consist of zero, the integers and other unsigned numbers which we or whole numbers 1, 2, 3, express by means of fractions or the decimal notation. These numbers, except for zero, will hereafter be called positive numbers. When we choose, we shall think of each positive number as having a plus sign, +, attached at the left.
,
ILLUSTRATION
*
2.
may be written
f 7 for emphasis.
For a logical foundation for algebra, see pages 178 H. B. FINE; GINN AND COMPANY, publishers.
in College Algebra,
by
In a later section, we shall formally define the negative numbers, which will be described as the "negatives" of the positive numbers.
ILLUSTRATION
3.
Corresponding to
+ 6 we shall introduce
the negative
number
6.
Positive
hi
known to be of one or other of two opposite types. In such a case, we conveniently think of any P as positive number P and the corresponding negative number being opposiies. With this hi mind, we frequently refer to the signs "+" and " "as being opposite signs.
assigning values to quantities which are
ILLUSTRATION 4. In bookkeeping, if a gain of $5000 is assigned the value  $3000. $6000, a loss of $3000 could be given the value
We
which we
ILLUSTRATION 5. Let t indicate an increase of temperature when t is Let time be considered positive positive and a decrease when t is negative.
in the future
and
decrease of 20
and then a
rise of
creates
or,
( 20)
+8 = 
12.
decrease of 10 per hour in temperature for the next 3 hours decrease of 30 ; or,
mil
create
(+
3)
( 10) =
30.
// the temperature has decreased 10 per hour for the preceding 4 hours, the temperature 4 hours ago was 40 higher than now; or,
(
4)
( 10) =
+ 40.
EXERCISE
Under
the specified condition,
the
For
5 miles,
if
if
2. 3.
For
+ $10, For + 8,
if
3
latitude.
For For
14 latitude,
if
+7

latitude
170' altitude,
if
if
f 20' altitude
6.
7.
5', if
Introduce your
A gain of $3000 followed by a loss of $9000 creates a loss of $6000. A fall of 40 in temperature followed by a rise of 23 creates a fall of 17.
backward and then 15 steps forward bring a person
you have been walking forward at a rate of 25 steps per minute, then 6 minutes ago you were 150 steps back from your present position.
11. If
water level of a river is rising 4 inches per hour, then (a) the level will be 24 inches higher at the end of 6 hours; (6) the level was 36 niches lower 9 hours ago.
12. If the
3. Extension of the
number system
this point, let us start with the understanding that we have at our disposal only the positive numbers and zero. Then, we shall
At
extend this number system to include negative numbers, properly defined, and shall introduce the operations of algebra for the whole
Hereafter,
when we
refer to
any number, or
it
number without limiting its value, we shall mean that any number of the final number system we plan to develop.
literal
4. Algebraic operations
operations of algebra are addition, subtraction, Whenever these operations are intromultiplication, and division. duced, the results in applying them will be the same as in arithmetic
The fundamental
when only
positive
5. Multiplication
two or more numbers is called their product and each of the given numbers is called a factor of their product. To indicate multiplication, we use a cross X or a high dot between the numbers, or, in the case of literal numbers, merely write them side by side without any algebraic sign between them.
The
result of multiplying
We
separate the factors by parentheses if the dot or cross is omitted between factors which are explicit numbers, or when a factor not at the left end of a product has a plus or a minus sign attached.
ILLUSTRATION
1.
63
6X3
6(3)
18.
We
is
read
6X3,
a,
63,
and
read "four
b"
If
40.
is
# = N;
NX
0.
(1)
6.
Negative numbers
be a new number symbol, called "minus immediately assign the following property:
Let
1
1," to
which we
(1)
1,
(41) x
If
(1) = 1.
we introduce
(
(2)
is
any
positive number,
P
X
P.
as a
new number
is,
1)
That
 P = (
1)
P.
(3)
We
call
Pa negative number.
1.
(
consists of
defined as
may
think of multiplication by
as having
number
Absolute value
The absolute value of a positive number or zero is defined as the number itself. The absolute value of a negative number is the given number with its sign changed from minus to plus. The absolute value of a number N is frequently represented by the symbol N

.
ILLUSTRATION 1. The absolute value of + 5 is 5. The absolute value of 5 is also 5. We read  3 as "the absolute value of  3." We = 0. have  3 = 3 and
numbers
we
insert a plus or a
a number,
1
this is understood to
be equivalent to multiplying
by
+
1)
or
1,
respectively.
ILLUSTEATION
1.
f 5
= (+
1)
+
Hereafter,
= (+
1)
a
if
a.
= 5.  a = (
16
1)
= (
16.
a.
we
shall act as
literal
number
expression has a sign attached, at the left. If no sign is visible, it can be assumed to be a plus sign because, for every number N, we
have
N = H N.
9. Properties of multiplication
We
I.
Multiplication is commutative, or the product of two numbers is the same in whatever order they are multiplied.
1.
ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION
II.
3
1)
21.
1)
ab
=
1)
ba.
2.
(
1)
X (+
= (+
X (
= 
1.
Multiplication is associative, or the product of three or more numbers is the same in whatever order they are grouped in multiplying.
3.
ILLUSTRATION
5X7X6
abc
210.
We
read this
"
o, b, c, equals
equals b times
a, c, etc."
is
ILLUSTRATION 4. The .product of three or more numbers in whatever order they are multiplied:
abc
=
the
same
a(bc)
(bc)a
bca
(ac)b
acb, etc.
a product of two numbers, find the product of their absolute values, and then
I.
To compute
a plus sign
if the
numbers have
like signs;
signs.
defi
a minus sign
if the
is
specified to
The preceding facts about a product are arrived at naturally in any 1. Stateexample by recalling the multiplication properties of
ments
I
and
ILLUSTRATION
5)(
7)
4
35
because
1)(36).
(
1)
ILLUSTRATION
 3(1)
2)(
5)
(4
6)(
5)
* 
30.
ILLUSTRATION
3.
 [(
 (+
!)(+
1)
1.
To
divide a
by
bx.
6,
where
call
b is not zero,
means to
find the
such that a
quotient.
We
6,
or r> or a/6.
The fraction
a/6
is
read
divided by 6," or "a over 6." In a/6, we call a the 6 the denominator; also, a and 6 are sometimes called
fraction.
The
6.
fraction a/6, or a
s
6, is
frequently
ILLUSTRATION
1.
36
because
36.
absolute value and sign of any quotient are a consequence of the absolute value and sign of a corresponding product.
quotient of two numbers, first find the quotient of their absolute values, and then apply the laws of signs as stated for products.
The
To compute a
ILLUSTRATION
2.
40 = ~ XTo *"
i"
because
9
10
4)
40.
__
40 o
=45
because
X (
8)
40.
Note 1. Division is referred to as the inverse of multiplication. Thus, if 7 is first multiplied by 5 and if the result, 35, is then divided by 5, we obtain 7 unchanged. Or, division by 5 undoes the effect of multiplication by 5.
Equally
quotient
2.
and
3) 9)
8.
((
4.
7.
8 4
X (X 0.
3).
5.
X (X (
5).
3,
6.
9.
(((
2)
3)
X
X
(6).
5.
4).
3).
8.
6).
5).
(+
5)
(8).
2)
X (+ 4)
3).
10. 13.
(+ 4)(+
( 1)(
11.
( 7)(
12. 15.
18.
X ( (+  (+
14. 17.
 (
4).
4).
1).
8).
1).
16.
19.
(
7). 3).
(+
 (
20.
4)(6).
4).
 (
21.
(
9).
22.
( 7)(
( 2)( 7)(
3)(4).
2).
24.
26.
28.
 4(
5)(6)(
3).
16
.
~
31
*
16
+8
39 11. 3
3
12
+39
5).
42
38.
36
^i8'
1).
36
39.
28
'T7'
52.
3,
42.
5,
33.
4.
43.
}.
44. f 14.2.
45.
46. 47.
and
5.3,
4,
and and
+ 2.
4.
1.8, 2,
7

.
49.
+4
if
.
.
61.
31
2.
52.
1.7
3,
2, 3,
6=
y
4 and, c
10,
4,
=
5.
=
a
h
and
x
65. 56.
Compute 2abxy
Compute 5hkwz
if
b
3,
3,
5,
and y
=* 5.
if
2,
w =
and
2.
8
12. Addition
adding two or more numbers is called their sum. Usually, to indicate the sum, we take each of the numbers with its attached sign, supplying a plus sign where none is written, and then write these signed numbers in a line. Each number, with its sign, is called a term of the sum. We usually omit any plus sign at the left
The
result of
end
of
a sum.
1.
ILLUSTRATION
is
The sum
of 15
and 17
is
written 15
17;
the
sum
32, as in arithmetic.
numbers
indicates that
they are to be added, because we could write a sum by inserting a plus sign before each term and then writing the numbers in a line.
signs.
The most
line,
useful statement
that,
when numbers
are written in a
con
nected by their signs, plus or minus, this indicates that the numbers
are to be added.
12. represented by 17 Later, we will justify saying that this equals 5, the value of the expression in arithmetic. By using a needless plus sign we could have written 17 ( 12) for the sum.
2.
is
ILLUSTRATION
The sum
of 17
and
12
We
sum
1
is,
1 +
Also, for
0.
(1)
N+
= N.
The operation
I.
Addition
sum
ILLUSTRATION
3.
+3
=
1
+5=
8.
a
1.
+ 6 = 6 + o.
ILLUSTRATION
II.
4.
0=
+1=+1
sum
of three or more numbers is the same in whatever order they are grouped in adding.
Addition
is associative, or the
ILLUSTRATION
5.
+5+7=3+
(5
+ 7)  5 +
(3
+ 7) =
15.
c + (a
+ &)
+a
{
b, etc.
is
a(6
+ c) =
(8
ab
+ ac.
5)
ILLUSTRATION
%
7.
(5
+ 7) =
(8
7)
40 f 56
96.
1 3.
number
The N by
of
is defined as the result of multiplying negative of a number is N. The negative of a 1, so that the negative of
positive
number is the corresponding negative number. The negative a negative number is the corresponding positive number.
1.
ILLUSTRATION 5 because
The
negative of
5)
+ 5 is
X
(5)
5.
The negative
of
is
(
= (
1)
+ 5.
Thus, we notice that, if~one number is the negative of another, then the second number is the negative of the first.
We
observe that
2. 1) 1)
the
sum
of
its
negative is 0.
ILLUSTRATION
By
5+5= a+a=
[(
[(
X 5] + [(+ X o] + [(+
X 5] = X a] =
X ( 1 + a X ( 1 +
5
1) 1)
= =
X X
= =
0. 0.
14. Subtraction
To
subtract b
from a
a.
will
mean" to find the number x which when This also is the definition used for subtrac
Hence, the result of subtracting a positive number from one which is no larger f will be the same in algebra as in
arithmetic.
c." read a(b c) as "a times the quantity b of subtraction which occurs in arithmetic because is the case only t This 25) has no meaning negative numbers are not used in that field. Thus, (15

We
until negative
?0
%
ILLUSTRATION 12 + 5  17.
If
The
result of subtracting 5
from 17
is
12 because
is
a,
then by definition
(1)
+ x.
On recalling arithmetic, we would immediately like to write x = a b, b. To prove that x = a b, we add which means the sum of a and
b to a, as given in equation 1
T,
_&=6 + a = &+(& + z)
In
(2),
= (6 +
6)
+ z = z.
is
(2)
we proved
b to
a.
obtained
by adding
Thus,
to subtract
a number, add
its
negative.
(3)
two numbers a and b as the result of subtracting the second number from the first. If x is this difference,
define the difference of
We
we proved
in (2) that
b.
(4)
Thus, we can say that the minus sign in (4) indicates subtraction, However, it is equally important to realize just as in arithmetic. b. that (a b) means the sum of its two terms a and
ILLUSTRATION
(17
5)
2.
The
difference of 17
and 5
5.
is 12.
is
(17
5).
The
5)
difference
represents the sum of 17 and the result of subtracting 5 from 17, which
Also, (17
represents
Note
1.
In a difference a
6,
the
number
b which
is
subtracted
is
is
called
called
the subtrahend, and the number a, from which b is subtracted, the minuend. These names will not be mentioned very often.
1 5.
Computation of a sum
of
a sum of two signed numbers or, as a special case, the subtraction of one number from another, always will lead to the use of one of the following rules.
The computation
I.
like signs,
add
and
attach their
II.
common
sign.
To add two numbers with unlike signs, subtract the smaller absolute value from the larger and prefix the sign of the number having
the larger absolute value.
11
15
22,
17.
just as in arithmetic.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.
Add
5 and
To
verify this,
17)
= 
22 by Rule
I.
17
= [(2.
5]
+ [(of 6
is
1)
17]
= (is
1)
(5417)
 
22.
ILLUSTRATION
The sum
from 6
and
result of subtracting 6
zero:
6
8,
0.
which
is
The sum
of
20 and 8
(20
is,
by Rule
12.
II,
To
verify this,
20
+8= 20
12
8)
 8.
we
recall that
Hence,
+ 8 cancels
2.
8 of
20 and leaves
6.
12.
EXAMPLE
Subtract
15 from
of
FIRST SOLUTION.
15 and add:
15
9.
difference of
6 and
15:
9.
= 
CHECK. Add
15 and 9:
 ( 15) =  6 + 15 =  15 + 9 =  6.
An
is
expression like
c
5a
+ 76
an
algebraic
(1)
that minus signs appear. Expression 1 is 5a and 76. In connection with any term whose sign is c, 3, minus, we could describe the effect of the term in the language of
subtraction instead of addition, but frequently this is not desirable. To compute a sum of explicit numbers, first eliminate parentheses
by performing any
time^,
it is
operations indicated by the signs. Then, somedesirable to add all positive and all negative numbers
12
Since
12)
12)
12 and
16
 (
7)
+ (
+ 14 = 
16
+7
12
+ 14
14
+ 7, =  28 + 21 = 7)
is
7.
Or,
left
to right:
7.
Thus, in place
(
3)
+
1.
(+
8)
we
write
(5z
3 + 8.
3o6)
if
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
Compute
5x
3,
= = 
4,
and 6
7.
3ab
= [5(
3)]
[3(
4) (7)]
15
+ 84 =
69.
Comment. Notice the convenience of brackets to show that the multiplications above should be done before computing the sum.
1 7.
Summary concerning
the
number zero
have mentioned that the operation a * 6 is not defined when That is, division by zero is not allowed. However, no exb = 0. ception has arisen in multiplying by zero, adding or subtracting 0, is any number, or in dividing zero by some other number. Thus, if
We
AT
+ = AT;
=
NQ = N;
because
#X
X
N.
r
0.
If
is
ILLUSTRATION
Note
1.
+ = 0.
3X0
=
is
0.
0.
Contradictions arise
when an attempt
by
zero.
Thus,
if
we were
multiplied
by
Qx, or
5=
0,
which
is
contradictory.
EXERCISE 3
20
7.
2. 6.
28
6
28
15.
9.
3.
6.
12
13
17.
5.
4.
7.
364.
13
16.
8.
25. 42.
9.
19.
10. 13.
35 + 6.  6 + 6.
12.
15.
25.
16. 16.8
15.2.
18.
13 + 0.  5 + 3.4.
13
number?
4.
20.
21.
(a)
13.
22. 0.
(b) sub
Without writing the numbers in a line, tract the lower one from the upper one.
23.
add
the
two numbers;
45
16
24.
36
26.
19
13
26.
12 18
27.
53
17
4 17
Find
33.
form.
(
34.
 (
8).
35.
 (+
8).
7).
36.
(
6).
 ( (
3)
+ 7.
(9).
3.
38. 4 (4 4)
 (6).
39. 42.
4) 4
41. 16
 (44.
+
6.
(
4).
15
(4 12).
43. 12
46. 47.
5 4
16
25
+58
7 4
10 4 17
8 4
14.
8.
46. 43
48. 3
6 4 8 4 12.
16 4 14 4 36 449.
16 4 17
9.
3 4
(
60. 5
7 4
Find
51. 16 64.
(a) the
sum and
and
12.
62. 15
and
3.
63.
33 arid
7.
14 and
5.
66. 6
and
38.
66. 15
and
67.
Compute
the expression
when
the literal
numbers have
7. 5.
67. 16 4 Bab]
68.
when a = when a =
4 and b
2, c
5,
2a
3cd;
=
b
4,
3,
and d
7,
69. 26
60.
7 4 4oc;
2yz
3;
when a =
when x =
=
y
and
2,
=
z
6.
3.
7.
and
61.
2a 4 56
16.3;
when a = 5 and
= 
of the numbers; (b) their difference; (d) the quotient of the first divided by the second.
62.
Find
(a) the
sum
(c)
their product;
60 and
15.
63.
and
14.
64.
13.
12 and 4.
23.
66. 6
and
3.
66.
52 and
67.
and
14
1 8.
the horizontal line in Figure 1, we select a point 0, called the origin, and we decide to let this point represent the number 0. We select a unit of length for measuring distances on the line. Then,
if
On
is
a positive number, we
let it
ixj 54321
i
56
i
ix
Fig. 1
is
at
points at whole units of distance The other from represent the positive and negative integers. points on the line represent the numbers which are not integers. Thus, all real numbers are identified with points on the real number
to the
left.
P units of distance from to the right. The P is represented by the point which is at P units
The
M when the direction from OM considered to M right and negative when the direction from
is
is any real number, it can be thought of as Figure 1. If to on the scale, where a measure of the directed distance from
scale hi
positive
to
is
is
to the
to the
left.
order from
left to
scale in Figure
We
right
is less
is greater than M, in case second number N, or that is to the on the number scale. We use the inequality signs < and > left of to represent less than and greater than, respectively. This definition includes as a special case the similar notion used in arithmetic for
on the than a
positive numbers.
The
all real
7* 6,f
then either a
<
numbers, b or a > b.
In each of the following inequalities, we verify the result by placing the numbers on the scale in Figure 1. Thus, 7 < 3 3 in Figure 1. We read this inequality 7 is situated to the left of because " 3." as 7 is less than
ILLUSTRATION
1.
4<6;
To
0<8;
<
0;
<
5.
is equivalent to saying that P is positive, besay that P > in Figure 1 are positive. To say cause the numbers to the right of is a negative number. that < is equivalent to saying that * Until otherwise indicated, the word number will refer to any real number.
We read
7* as
"not equal."
15
bis
less
c.
To
distinguish this relation from ordinary inequality, we sometimes place the word algebraically before greater than or less than when they are
ILLUSTRATION
is
1.
is
<
1.
It
ILLUSTRATION 2. We see that 3  3 = 3 and  7 = 7, and 3 < 3 is algebraically greater than Thus,

 

is
7.
7 because 7 <  3.
7.
7 but numerically
less
than
if
In Illustration
2,
we observe a
one
negative number b is algebraically less than a second negative ber c, then b is numerically greater than c.
num
EXERCISE 4
Construct a real number scale 10 inches long, and mark the locations of the 10 to 10, inclusive. Then, read each positive and negative integers from
inequality
1.
and
verify it by
marking
2.
the two
numbers on your
scale.
<
3
9. 8.
9.
<
7.
3.
2.
<0.
4.
7.
5.
8.
< > 5
6.
3.
9.
< > 
4.
10.
Mark
scale
and
<
13.
or
>
10. 7
and
2 and
5.
12. 15.
18.
and
8.
6 and 0.
3 and
5.
3.
2 and
3.
7.
16.
19.
9 and 6 and
10.
17. 7
3.
and
8 and
8 and
20.
7 and
9.
21.
10.
Read
22. 24.
the inequalities
and
7
7 <8and 
<
8.
23.
26.
4
<

9 and 4
3 >
1
but
 3 < 0.

8 >
3 but
< 9.  8 < 3.
26. 27.
5 <"7but
5>
6
7.
< ]
but
>  9.
76
Stale which
(6) is
nu
8; 6.
29.
5;
3.
30. 7; 4. 33.
31. 0; 34.
3;
3.
32. 5; 0.
7.
36. 2;
6.
36.
2; 7. 8;
3.
21 . Signs of grouping
Parentheses, ( ), brackets, [ ], braces, { }, and the vinculum, are symbols of grouping used to indicate terms whose sum is to be treated as a single number expression. Any general remark about
,
parentheses which follows will be understood to apply as well to other symbol of grouping.
any
Parentheses are useful for enclosing and separating algebraic expressions written side by side as an indication that they are to be
multiplied.
ILLUSTRATION
1.
3(
5)
means
3 times
5,
or f 15.
In reading algebraic expressions, the student may use the words as he comes to the left marker for any symbol of "the quantity grouping enclosing more than one term.
1'
(3
If
5o)(2
+ 6a)
20) (2
is
5a times
=
(3
4,
(3
5o)(2 f 60)
24)
= (
17) (26)
= 
442.
Parentheses can be employed to avoid ambiguity hi regard to the order of application of the fundamental operations.
ILLUSTRATION
it
is
3.
s
Doubt
3,
arises as to the
meaning
of (9
f
3).
Does
mean
(9
(9
2)
which equals 1, or does it mean 9 (6 5 3), which or 7? The two possible meanings were written without ambiguity.
6)
4.
ILLUSTRATION
If
2,
3,
and
5,
then
53o& +
2oc
20
43.
factor multiplying a sum within parentheses should be used to multiply each term of the sum.
ILLUSTRATION
5.
3(2a)
= (
3) (2) (a)
= 
6a.
17
2fe)
4(a
26
+ 7)   4a  4(  4a + 86 = =
4(7)
(1) (2)
28.
+ 3z
y)
('
1)( 5
+ 3x
any
1
y)
Zx
+ y.
algebraic
1,
The presence
or
re
Multiplication
multiplication
by
would leave a sum unchanged, and would change the signs of all its terms. These
by
rules.
To remove
unchanged.
To remove
minus
sign, re
ILLUSTRATION
8.
+
7y)
(3r
7 f
%) =
&c
7 f
( 2
5x
9.
= (
1)( 2
+ 5x 
7y)
5x
+ 7y.
enclose
all
ILLUSTRATION
terms after the
In the
sum on
8
we
first in
5a
+ 3d 
5o
(2c
M+
8).
if
The
the parentheses
In performing an operation which removes parentheses, if only explicit numbers are involved, it is best to compute each sum within
parentheses before they are removed.
ILLUSTRATION
10.
3(2
+ 7)
= 
3(4)
= 
12.
EXERCISE 5
f
Compute
1.
the expression.
5).
( 2)((0)(3).
2.
5.
7(
3).
3.
6.
(
6)(4).
4. 7.
2(
10.
(
+ 9). 8 + 6)(5
8.
+
2).
(
4).
9.
 4(
6).
5 f 12).
3) (16
J8
12.
13. 14.
Compute
(36
4oc
7) if 6
if
2,
3,
and
5.
Compute
16. c
2d)(4d
3c) 16. c
w#A
and
d.
4;
3.
= 
2;
5.
17. c
= 
2;
= 
3.
Rewrite, by performing
theses.
Evaluate, if no
letters
18.
(17
3).
21. 24.
+ c).  ( 3  5z + 4y).
(2a
56
22.
+ 16). + ( 3 + 7a  b).
(2
26.
2(4c).
(80
36
c).
5y
9).
28.
3).
29.
3(
5o).
30.
5(a
3x).
6c).
32.
2(x
2( 5
+ 7a  46c).
36. 3(6
+ 8).  4a + 56).
y
33. 36.
5(3
 4(
+ 66).
a
minus
37. 40. 42.
sign.
+ 7a _ 46. 2a  3 + 56  13 + 5  c f 06.
_
5
c.
38.
60 f 46
41. 16
43. 2ac
c.
39.
3x
4y.
4a
3
6 f 3c.
f
5a
4
+ 4c.
3).
44.
Compute
(5
17)
5
3;
(17
terms such as 5a6cand 7o6c, where the literal parts are the same, are called similar terms or like terms. In a term such as 5a6c, the explicit number which is a factor is called the numerical coefficient
of the term, or, for short, the coefficient.
Two
ILLUSTRATION
7;
1.
The numerical
coefficient of 5o6c is 5;
of
7o6c
is
of abc is
1.
We
when
it is 1.
Thus, we
To collect a sum of similar terms, add their numerical and multiply the result by the common literal part.
19
12o6.
is
5ab
+ lab
ab(5
f
7)
as a concrete object, the result here the objects plus 7 of them equals 12 of them.
of
we think
"06"
obvious: 5 of
ILLUSTRATION
3.
9o6
+ 4o6 =
ab(
+ 4) =
o6(
5)
606.
In finding a
of algebraic expressions, we collect similar terms. direction to collect terms means to collect similar terms.
1.
sum
EXAMPLE
8
is
and
3y
2a
5y
6.
FIRST SOLUTION.
1.
The sum
(3a
8)
+
2y
(3y
2o
6)
=
The
(3a
3a
2a
5y
+ 3y 
14.
difference
5y
8)
(3y
2a
5y
6)
=
8
3a
f
=
like
3a
+ 2a To
3y
5y 6 = 60
Sy
3y f 2o f 6
2.
SECOND SOLUTION.
find the
terms in separate columns, and add. To find the difference, change 2a the signs in (3y 6), or take its negative, and add similarly.
A
1 1
^Lrta:
3a wv <  2a \ =a
i
_
.
5y
vi/
..
+ 3y2y
8 6
<*
^oa: AflW<
Difference
"""
*^2/
*""
i
14.
\ ^<z
ot/
o + o
2.
5a
Sy
2o In finding the difference, we could have changed the signs of ( 6) 3y mentally without rewriting at the right. Thus, from the columns for the 2a from 3a gives 5a; etc. sum: subtracting
EXAMPLE
2.
collect terms:
3(4a
3xy
56
2)
 2(6
+ 3o
60
f
56
fay).
(1)
SOLUTION.
The sum
12o
equals 156
9xy
10
256
4.
106
6a f 3xy
12*y
(2)
can obtain a relatively certain check on the work by substituting values for the letters in (1) and (2). The results should be equal. In checking by this method, avoid substituting 1 for any letter.
Comment.
We
CHECK. Substitute a
In In
(1):
(2):
2,
4,
3,
and y
4:
3(8
36
12 f 36
72)
= 
48.
This checks.
20
a symbol of grouping encloses one or more other symbols of grouping, remove them by removing the innermost symbol first, and so on until the last one is removed. Usually, we enclose parentheses within brackets, and brackets within braces.
If
.
ILLUSTRATION
1.
[3t/
(2x
5 4 2)]
z]
= ILLUSTRATION
2.
[3^
2x f 5
[16
5)
(2
= 7)
3y
+ 2x  5 +
z.
= 
[16
 (
(2)]
 ( 3 + 5)] =  [16 + 5  2] = 
19.
EXERCISE 6
Collect similar terms.
1.
3o
+ 80.
19o6 f 5o6.
2. 6.
4.
7.
3.
6.
13z
5x.
5xy
5xy.
3x
9.
11.
6z
3a
10.
12.
Qh
lower one from the upper one. After each operation, check by substituting convenient values for the letters in
(a)
Add
and
13.
4a 2a
+

76
14.
96
+7
c
16.
3a 9a
56
+5
7
46
46c
16.
3x
5a6
6a6
17.
3c
2a 5a
2d 66c f d
3m  6m +
J/ie
5k
4fc
h 5h
18.
7r f 3*
8r
5s f 9
First arrange
Find
19.
sum
3x
2y
5;
6c;
fix
20. 21.
+o56
26c
+ 7y  8;  12z  8y h  3a + 5; 4a  56c  9.
3ac h 56; 76
13.
2oc
5xz/
86; 4cy
6xy
4ac.
22.
7ad
4a; 6a
3ad
56;
3o h
5arf
96.
21
similar terms.
36)
5(6
24. 5(x
3y
+ 5)
k)
26. 6(2a
By
then
3a
26 and 2a
+ 56 from 56)
a
(3a
56.
HINT.
The
result equals
( a
26)
(2a
+ 56).
27. Subtract
2a
3y
5 from 5a
+ 7y  8.
sum
of 2o
3a 3o
7h and 5A
5y
6a from the
2,
3h and 5a f
3 by
and
5o f 7y
5 by
3,
and then
add the
results.
all signs
Remove
30.
32.
34.
of grouping
and
collect terms.
[4o
(a
(2a
+ 3) J
[2o
31.
(a
2)
3)].
(6
2)].
36.
38. 40. 42.
2i/
39. 3
41.
[2x
2[>
(36
(2x
5)]).
[a
3y)
(2a
7)]}.
{26
[6
8).
4)]}.
3(2z
A;
+ 2[2 3[A
(5x
y)] 3)]
(*
+ 7y 
43. 2(3/i
5)
2(*
4(A
2k h
2).
CHAPTER
24. Fractions
in
lowest terms
basic properties of fractions as met in arithmetic are primarily consequences of the definition of division. These properties extend
The
new
We
the introdmction of negative numbers hi the fractions. shall recall and use the properties of fractions without rehearsing
feature
is
the sequence of definitions and proofs which, logically, would be necessary hi building a foundation for the use of fractions hi algebra.
FUNDAMENTAL
both numerator
PRINCIPLE.
zero.
is not altered if
ILLUSTRATION
below,
2.
On
we obtain
4
We
To
tor
( 1)(( 1)(
3)
4)
say that a fraction is in lowest terms if its numerator and denominator have no common factor except + 1 and 1.
reduce a fraction to lowest terms, divide numerator and denomina
by
all their
common factors.
=
7acy
ILLUSTRATION
3.
=7y
23
210 135
14
In the preceding line we divided out the factor 5 and one 3 from numerator and denominator. 25. Change
If the
in sign for a fraction
numerator or denominator of a fraction is multiplied by 1, the sign before the fraction must be changed. These actions are 1, whose equivalent to multiplying the fraction by two factors
product
is H 1.
T ILLUSTRATION 1.
03 =
(
l)(o
3)
3Q =
To multiply one fraction by another, multiply the numerators for a new numerator and multiply the denominators for a new denominator.
3
ILLUSTRATION
1.
^ X
6 =
7
18
oo
^=
c ac ** i* j cr
o a
oa
divide one fraction by another, invert the divisor dividend by this inverted divisor.
2. ILLUSTRATION o
To
and multiply
the
4 7 F^JT^K'Q O o i 4
.)
28
7c' ID
a
b
c
_._
'
_b
c
a d
ad
be
be
d
It is frequently useful to recall that
is 1.
By
we
verify
To multiply a
number.
To
divide
the
denominator by
7
the
number.
ILLUSTRATION^
_/5\ 7(g )
75 rg
=*
35
7
20*
4
1
5*4
24
T
=
7
= 5 T
1
6 ^
/
7 o
7 1
35 o
ILLUSTRATION
5.
c (r)
/a\
\o/
a T I
c
16
b
'
= ac T" o
'
f? _i.
~ ?^_
I
? I
6
c
be
EXERCISE 7
Express the result as a fraction in lowest terms without a minus sign in numerator or denominator.
32
33. 21
34.
36.
.5().
37.
(?).
g).
eg).
36. 5(4).
(6).
38.
1+
*
2.
39.
6.
40.
y+
15.
41.
y
6.
42.
2a.
43.
 3o 56
2c
...
y * d.
x 2c 3d
'
.,325
l_
..
8

12a
60.

48.
49.
5c
15
25
Ml
We
H)H)H)H)and a8
for
a.
(SXSX8a a' a.
We
=
call
a2 the
ILLUSTRATION
If
1.
52
55
25.
53
5* 5' 5
125.
a m = aaa
a.
(m
factors a)
(1)
am the mth power of the base a and call m the exponent of this power. The exponent tells how many times the base is used as a factor.
We
call
ILLUSTRATION
2.
34
3333
4)
81.
(
4)
= ( 4)(
4)'=
16.
(_
4)3
= (
4)( 4)(
= 
64. (?)'
f.f
.
by the laws of signs, an even power number is positive and an odd power is negative. By definition, b 1 = b. Hence, when the exponent is omit it. Thus, 5 means 5 and y means y l
notice that,
1
.
We
of a negative
1
we
usually
The following laws for the use of exponents are called index laws. At present we will illustrate them, and verify their truth in special cases. The proofs of the laws will be given later.
Until otherwise specified, any represent a positive integer.
*
literal
number used
in
an exponent
will
26
I.
base,
add
the exponents
ILLUSTRATION
1.
a3o2
a3+2
a6
because
a3o2
a5
II.
the exponents:
(<z
ILLUSTBATION
2
2.
(a
3 2
)
a (3X2)
a6
because
(a*)
a3 a3
(aaa)(aaa)
aaaaaa
a6
III.
To
to the specified
an 6 n c n
ILLUSTRATION
3.
3
(o6)
o3^3
because
(a0'o)(666)
(oft)
ab'ab'ab
and
n
divide:
W
fa\
T
_ "
a? &"'
/^\ (1 \yi
4
ILLUSTRATION
4.
fa\*
() \yl
=7
y*
X4
u because
X X X X = 
X4
~i* 4
y y y y
ILLUSTRATION
5.
/2\
(^)
= 24 ^=
16
o7*
/T
(Law IV
(!)'[<(!)]'= "(1)'If
I=
fiwe ma;
that an odd power of a negative number is negative, abbreviate the preceding line by omitting the first two steps.
we
recall
ILLUSTRATION
6.
(2o 6)
2 3 (a2) 3 63
8a663
ILLUSTRATION
7.
(A')
A"
A 12
<IAWS
,,
27
Compute by
1.
the definition of
2.
an exponent.
3.
24
53
102
4.
3
10s
5.
4
104
6.
10 5
7.
3
.
(
I)
8.
((()
4
I)
3
9.
(62
.
I)
10. 15.
((
5)*.
11.
(
3)
12. 17.
((
2)
6
.
13.
3
.
5)
.
14.
3)*.
16. 10*.
10)
4
.
18.
19. (f) 3 .
.
20. ($).
.
21.
(
)
22.
27.
to)
23.
24
24.
33
25. 30.
(
6s
26. 2(3 4 ).
2 3( 5 ).
28. 6(10*).
29. 5(43 ).
will
 2(
5).
31.
l)
be positive
and when
32. 33. 34.
be negative?
if
2 Compute 3a 6
= 
2 and b
4. 2.
Compute
Compute
If
5xy*
if
=
if
3 and y
4W
= is
3 and k
2.
35. If
tive?
x x
is
is
positive or negative,
what
is
negative,
what
Perform
68. 72.
(xV)
4

69. (3C2) 3
.
70. (2o264 ) 4 .
.
71. (3xu;) 4 .
( 2A2) 3
(O/7\4
73.
( 3x2 ) 4
/^2rr\'
74.
(/
5xt/
2 3 ) .
75.
(/
\*
S)
80.
(^)of x3  3x
77
78
h 4x
(^)=
3;
ro
7 when (a) x
(6)
(x * 
2.
28
At present, in any sum, the typical term will be either an explicit number or the product of an explicit number and powers of literal numbers, where the exponents are positive integers. The explicit number is called the numerical coefficient, or for short the coefficient
term of this variety, or a sum of such terms, is said * in the literal numbers. to* be integral and rational An algebraic sum is called a monomial f if there is just one term, a binomial if there are just two terms, and a trinomial if there are just three terms. Any sum with more than one term also is called a
of the term.
polynomial.
ILLUSTRATION
1.
3z
7ab
is
a binomial.
x,
8,
8, 1,
and
3, respectively.
ILLUSTRATION
3.
5z 2
is
in x.
To multiply two integral rational terms, multiply their numerical coefficients and simplify the product of the literal parts by use of the
law of exponents for multiplication.
ILLUSTRATION
4.
6a62 (3a2 64 )
2 2 4 (6)(3)(aa 6 6 )
18a366
To multiply a polynomial by a single term, multiply each term polynomial by the single term and form the sum of the results.
ILLUSTRATION
5.
of the
5(3z
2x
5)
15z2
lOz
25.
EXERCISE 9
Perform the indicated multiplications and simplify the law of exponents for multiplication.
2. 32/(22/ 5.
6
results
by use of the
).
3. ab(3a).
7.
4. 8.
5(32
).
6.
2a2 (3a9 ).
cd^cP).
x(integers.
integral refers to the fact that the force of the word rational will be pointed out later.
t
The word
exponents are
The
is
This name need not be used very often because the simple word term
just as desirable.
29
2 **( 2z ).
4fl(4).
10.
3c(
c3).
11.
2z(+
xy*).
12.
15. 18.
13.
2 ax*( 2o x).
14. 17.
5oy( 2xy
).
2a6( 4a 862 ).
16. 19.
4r z h( 6rA4 ).
Gc2
^
3cd).
20.
S(5x
2z2 ).
4y).
21.
5(3
4a).
22. 4(2a
56).
23.
25.
28. 31.
2x( 3z
5z3 ).
26.
29.
 3( 5x  a ). o(a
2
3x).
z4 ).
4a(l
2a6).
3u> 4 4i^).
3fc(fc
M).
30.
ah\a
5w(2
32.
34.
35.
 4m n(3
3m)(2mn
).
36. 4?/02 (
37.
2aj3a3x 2
38.
2a^
3a2 63
is
39.
beneath
it.
2x
41. 6
5a2 62
3x
42.
a2
2a6
6  2ab
2
43. 3
Gab
a363
Sab
48.
(12
+ f).  f* + 2  6a + 24o
2
46. 8(
iy
+ Jif).
fa
)2
47. 16(Ja2
).
J).
49.
J(
16 f 8x
60.
the product of two polynomials, multiply one of each term of the other and collect similar terms. ILLUSTRATION
1.
To form
them by
(2x
3y)(x
3
xy)
2x(x
xy)
3y(x
xy)
=
ILLUSTRATION
2.
2s
(x
x(x
5)
5(*
+ 5) =
+ 5) = (x f 5) + 5) + 5x f 5x + 25 = a? f 10x + 25.
2
(a:
Before multiplying, if many terms are involved, arrange the polynomials in ascending (or descending) powers of one letter.
30
ILLUSTRATION
(Multiply)
_
To
3x
multiply (x
x2
6s4
2x
2x2
Ox
(Add)
6x*
llx
+ +
3x
a*
4x 3x
7x
(Multiplying by 2x)
6
6
(Multiplying by 3)
product.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.
Multiply
x*
+ 2xy
CHECK.
by
+
=
Place x
2 and y
3.
x2
+
2x*y
= =
4 4
12
12
+9
=  17. = 25.
(
17)
425.
Comment. The preceding numerical check does not absolutely verify the In checking, if result, but almost any error would cause the check to fail. 1 were substituted for a letter, we could not detect an error in any of its
exponents because every power of avoid substituting 1 for any letter.
1
is
1.
EXERCISE 10
Multiply and
letters,
collect
similar terms.
the
when
1.
(x
3.
5.
(x
(x
+ 9)(x +
3) (7
10).
x).
4.
6.
(x
(5a (2h
(a
7)(4a
3).
(3y
2) (2
By).
7. 9.
ZK)(2h
+ 3k).
8.
(3w
4r)(2w
+ 3r).
5).
2
11.
+ y)(x 2)(2a
5x')(2
2
y).
13. (06
5).
15. (cd
x)(cd +'x).
18. (2x
2
.
(ay
+ 3x  2z)(2ay + 3).
).
17. (a f 3)*.
2
t/)
.
19. (h
2
.
4fc)
2
20. (4 f
24. (5
2
).
26)
22. (2x
f
+ 4/0
23. (ax
6)
x2y) 2
2)(y
5).
26. (c2
2a2)(c2
+ 3a
3?
6 2 )(3a3
2
2)(i/
3)(x
+ 46 + 2y + 4). + 2x  5).
2
).
28. (x 2
2a
+
2
4)(3a
+ 1).  2a + 1).
l)(2a
2
35. (1
).
37. (5
6) (4
26
62 ).
38.
).
2x2
+ 5x 
7)(2x
1).
3).
3).
3
a:
+ x).
3x
2y
+ 3)
2
2
.
+346. (x +
2
49.
61.
).
48. (x
(a;
y).
+ a*x + a
*).
4
T/
x?y
+ X y )(x  2xi/ 2
2
31
Exponents
in division
By
a6 a3 a
a'CL'd'd'
aa
aaa
aaa aaaaa
T"
1
= a2 =
=
aa
The preceding
power of the
6oae,
(ifm>n);
(ifm<n).
(1)
32
we note
an
that
=
=
1
(2)
ILLUSTRATION
a5
1.
x*
1.
^ 10 x
~ ^^ x ia 4
1 : 6
h? 77 h*
In dividing one integral rational term by another, and 2 to reduce the fraction to lowest terms.
we
use formulas
ILLUSTRATION 2. In the following simplification, we can think of dividing numerator and denominator by 5ox B Or, we can think of dividing numerator and denominator by 5 and, also, of applying formulas 1 to the powers of a and of x, separately: "  15ax 6 Sa3 1 3 a3 x 6 3a2 ~ 2x 4 2 a x9 2x9 5 lOax 9
.
16a3x2
16
a3 x 2
8a2
ILLUSTRATIONS.
a w6 = ^) r 4 2 w> 2/ a
1\
ILLUSTRATION
4.
/
{
=
2a3
ILLUSTRATION
5.
 6ay = f
6 ^= 15
a3

y*
~ d
32. Division
by
a single term
divide a polynomial by a single term, divide each term of the polynomial by the single term and combine the results.
To
ILLUSTRATION
6x2
1.
9x
3x4
6x2
9x
=
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.
x8
2x f
3.
2 4 (4o 6
8a26
262 )
( 2O68).
4a2 64
8a2 6
2a63
206s
33
in lowest terms by use of the fraction without a minus sign in numerator or denominator.
a fraction or sum of fractions law of exponents for division. Express each final
"a2
x8
h9
x2
3x
5a7
^21.5 ^^
26.
/
*'*'
on
To
36m 18mn
~
32.
35. (8x3?/)
*
9A3t
*
Trs4).
( 24X3?/).
(24a6
2
36.
( 49rV)
s
(
37. 39.
.
(
80)
+
^
).
2
38. (4ac)
40.
3 2 (72a c ).
(48xV)
(
8x2/ ).
5/i
( 36a62 )
i
(.
4a6).
41.
6a H 206
 7x 2
25A;
4a
42.
166
5x
._ 45.
3a3
4
2a4
a2
 15o _ 3a2
60. (8a3 62. (x4
54.
6a2
4a)
+ (~
H2
2).
61. (6x
63. (y*
3x 2
5y
9) 43 )
5
((
3).
y).
3x 3
5x2 )
x2
)
(_ 36
66. (32a2 64
66. (x 4
).
3x2
+ 5x)
67. (21a262
34
_ DO.
02?
Sax 4 5o ox
7a62c3
RA 7x*
4x*
2x
3x
+2
+ 6c*
276"
M 62
'
c. * 61
a&d3 co 63 '

a2 6d
a3
15 (Quotient)
(Divisor) 17
259 (Dividend)
89
85 4 (Remainder)
259
In Section
(17
15)
+ 4;
5
= 15^.
(2)
when we met the notation a 6, we called its complete value the quotient of a divided by 6. In (1), the complete value of
11,
the quotient
in (2)
15^. Hence, if there were danger of lack of clearness, we would call 15 the partial quotient. Frequently, the word
is
quotient refers to a partial quotient. When appropriate, the qualifying word partial to prevent ambiguity.
we
shall use
After any step in a division process similar to that remainder and partial quotient satisfy the equation
met
in (1), the
dividend
.
7T7
divisor
,.
remainder
divisor
377
H quotient H
/ON
(3) v '
Or,
dividend
is
(quotient) (divisor)
+ remainder.
(4)
Equation 4
The
first
equation in (2)
an
illustration of (4).
34. Division
by
a polynomial
We
process for polynomials is similar to long division say that the division is exact if the final remainder
35
Divide:
(x
2
f
(x
+ 3x is
40)
5
(x
5).
SOLUTION, = x2 x(x 5)
2. (8x
T
x)
x; this
the
5x;
we subtract
this
is
this
x)
8; 40.
the second
S(x
5)
Then,
8x
We
(Divisor) x
x 5 a2

+ 8 (Quotient) + 3x  40 (Dividend)
5x
(Subtract)
x*
(Subtract)
8x Sx
40  40
(Remainder)
verifying that
CHECK.
is
exact,
we obtain a check by
(quotient) (divisor)
dividend.
We find
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
obtaining
.
(x f 8)(x
2.
5)
x*
3
+ 3x 9x
40,
which checks.
Divide:
1.
(4x
8x 2
+ 7)
r (2x
3).
We
first
a?,
4x 3
2.
&c 2
is
9z
+ 7.
term of the quotient;
Since (4x 8
s
2x)
2z 2 , this
the
first
as follows.
2x 2
2x*(2x
(Divisor) 2x
3)
4r*
2x2 )
x(2x
+  3) 3)
4s3
x
Sx 2
6 (Quotient) 9x f 7 (Dividend)
etc.,
6x 2 2x2 2x2
9x
[(
12x) r 2x]
= 
+

3x
12x
6.
6(2x
(Subtract)
+ 12x +
18
11 (Remainder)
Conclusion.
From equation
4x*
3,
Section 33.
8x 2
9x
+7
2x3
CHECK.
dividend
_ "^ _
11
2x3
remainder
Substitute x
16;
divisor
3;
quotient
9;
11.
Refer to equation
4, Section 33:
does
11
16
3(9)
27
11
16?
solution
is
is satisfied,
correct.
36
To
powers
term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor and write the result as the first term of the quotient.
Divide the
first
3.
and
from
the dividend.
Consider the remainder obtained in Step 3 as a new dividend and repeat Steps 2 and 3; etc.
Note
1.
in
Example 2 does not constitute an abTo verify the result, we should (without
substituting a special value for x) multiply the divisor by the quotient, add the remainder, and notice if we thus obtain the dividend.
EXERCISE 12
Divide and summarize as in the solution of Example 2, Section 34. // the division is exact, check by multiplying the divisor by the quotient. If the division
is
not exact, check by substituting convenient values for the literal numbers.
(x* 42
1.
7z 4 12)
(x
(c
+ 3).
7).
2.
3. 6. 7.
(c
2
lOc 4 21) h
4. 6.
(s
2
4 6s 4
(y
8.
9. (4c2
+ 3).
2
10.
1).
11. (x4
13.
+ 3x  4) ^ (2z f 7z + 8)
2
(x
12.
+ 36) + (y + 12).  12d + 35) (d  5). (d  13x + 15) + (x  5). (2z x (6 + x). (54 + 3z  ab  6 ^ (3a + 6). (6a  10) h f 5). (h* + 3h*
2
(</
4 15y
J
f
2 (ft
i
(z f 2).
*
ab
3
662 )
(2o (4z
3
+ 6).
3).
2).
19.
+ Sz  6)  3) (5x + 3x
2
i
18. 20.
f
(x
+ (a  5).  2t/ ^ (3z + 2y (6z + zy  a  15) (2a + 5). (2a  1). (2a (a + 6a + 3)
7)
2 )
!
f
+ 3x 9*
2x
6)
*
(x 4 3).
*
2a2 4 3a 3
26)
(a
2). 3).
2
23. (4x3
8x2 4 7)
19y
2
(2x
5
24. (36y
15^)
(3y 4 5y
4).
37
(2^
 1%  6 +  5y  12 +
2 2
lly) *
llr/)
(W (2y
J
3y
3).
+ 2).
(z
27. (x4
4z3 3
+ 3z  4x +
2
15)
3).
28. (&c2
5z3 )
^ (7*
2
2
+
)
5z2 ).
*
+ Wy +
3a2 6
12^
+
2
17zt/
)
+ 27)
3
2/ )
+ Soft (* + 3).
63
y).
4 (a2
+  2a6 + 6
(2x
32. (a3
3t/).
2
).
ft
3 )
s
(o
*
+ 6).
(2x
33. (x 3
(
34. (IGx4
y).
8^27
43x2
 9x 7
5
>
3*'
40. (6a3A
ISo2*
4aA
15)
5
+ 22 (2a* + 3).
common denominator
In a fraction, the bar should be thought of as a vinculum, a symbol We use this fact in of grouping, which encloses the numerator.
adding fractions.
ILLUSTRATION
1.
In the fraction
(3
2 _ a 5
=
>
a and
a) * 5.
SUMMARY.
To express a sum
of fractions with a
common denominator
as a single fraction:
1.
Form
the
sum
theses
2.
and
Divide by the
2.
common denominator.
8
=
=
ILLUSTRATION
5 5
3,9 = +5 o
,
o
83 +9 =
2x
14
=
ILLUSTRATION
6
3.
o^ x
7=
r=
=q
lla
(3
lla
lla
(5
x)
2x)
65 + s + 32s
lla
x
'
lla
lla
38
an equal one having an added factor in the denominator, we must multiply both numerator and denominator by this factor, in order to leave the value of the fraction unaltered.
fraction to
To change a
3
7
X2 7X2
3
6
14'
ILLUSTRATION 2. To change the following fraction to one where the denominator is 6o36, we multiply numerator and denominator by 2a26, because i 3a =
5
3a
2a?b(5
2
x)
10a26
2a?bx
2a 6(3o)
6a 6
An
integer
is
and then
of them.
To factor an integer
will
factors.
prime numbers.
2.
When
factored,
200
= 22255 = 252
38. Lowest
common
multiple
At present, when we refer to a monomial, or single term, we shall mean an integral rational term whose numerical coefficient is an
integer.
multiple, LCM, of two or more monomials is defined as the 'term with smallest positive coefficient, and smallest
lowest
The
common
exponents for the literal numbers, which has the given term as a factor. As a special case, the LCM of two or more integers is the smallest positive integer having each given integer as a factor.
ILLUSTRATION
1.
The
LCM of 3,
5,
8
and 10
is
30.
ILLUSTRATION
2.
The
LCM of 30&
and 5a26
is
39
To find
the
2.
Form
and
prime factors of
the highest
exponent
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION
2.
1.
Find the
LCM of 20a 6
=
and 70o46.
1.
In factored form,
22 57a463
20a2 68
22 5a263
70a46
257a4 6.
Hence,
1.
LCM brief,
Note
In
the
LCM of their coefficients and the highest powers of the Utters seen in the terms.
EXERCISE 13
Express the
sum
,3,79 L i+ir
2,6 __a *3+3 3* .3 5,76 5. 3
2
ft
,6 + 5y 5*
18
888'
5 z
,
_d _ 7
z
a
56
7
11 A o.
_ 3 7
'7
2a
3a
'3~~T~*
^ n
__ .
*
3 a;
_.
40 12.
5 
2y
5
.
14
2063
Write the missing numerator or denominator
<i
to create equality.
17.
1ft
18.
_ 
10 19.
40
A. ~
__
24
^ =
__
;
26
36x 7
Express the fraction as an equal one having the specified denominator. 2 5 27. 5 denom., 32. 26. denom., 21. ; o 7
28.
5
30.
denom., 40.
*j\
denom.,
be.
32.
=
5x?/
', 2
denom., lOxy
3
.
3x
Q
18xV
?/
34. STTL;
denom.,
20ft
fc
4
.
35.
5 3 denom., 20a 6
is
terms.
As a
37. 16; 24; 48. 40. 200; 36; 28. 15xy*. 43.
12; 75.
e^;
9x 2t/2
8a2 6 6
4a3 64
6a6.
.
14a2 63
12xi/
664
;
3zV;
20x.
47.
5W; 10^;
16^.
fractions.
Change
^,
and
a single fraction, the given fractions must be changed to new forms having a common denominaWe define the lowest common denominator! LCD, of a set of tor.
a
of fractions into
To combine
sum
fractions as the
LCM
of their denominators.
is the LCM of 6, 5, and 8 or ILLUSTRATION 1. The LCD of J, f and 35'8 or 120. Hence, to add the fractions, we. change them to new fractions whose denominator is 120:
,
1
*
1 4+8 +? 6 5
4_
2Q
324
715
20
+ 72 +
120
105
197
120*
simplify the present chapter, we will deal only with the case where each denominator is an integral rational term.
To
41
single fraction:
Find
the
LCD
For each fraction, divide the LCD by the denominator and then multiply numerator and denominator by the resulting quotient, to change to an equal fraction having the LCD.
2.
3.
Form
the
sum
of the
is enclosed
in
Place the result of Step 3 over the LCD, remove parentheses in the numerator, and reduce the fraction to lowest terms.
ILLUSTRATION
2/1.
We
sum
the
LCD
is
20;
we think
of 2 as
2.
Hence,
2(7
_
4
15x
_
10
220 20
2x)
5(3s)
20
2x)
20
40
20
2(7
40
15s
14
+ 4x
7
26
20
llx
20 3w
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.
Sax*
The
LCD
5a x
,
3
.
is
15a3z 2
We
have
2
15a3z 2
3z;
Ida's* r
= 3ax r
5a2
2.
the
LCD:
7(5a
2 )
9xy
35a2
3aa: 2 (5a2)
EXERCISE 14
Combine
into
14. i
83
1
15.
?
7
+ ^ 21
42
12 1A 16.
y5 + 3.
,
17 17 '
To30
74 +
7
lg 18
'
"
5'
0,1,4 2 + +
6
15
3o6
a3
3a
642
2a;
~ ~
+7
25
v\ ^ S
OB
b ""
c
2x
10
18
<u
.
Ta
6^'
25*
S
Gx
~ w
33k
4
36'
A 1.
12y
34
I'
A.
Sxy
2y

36 36>
JL
3a
2
37
1
39
^"
5a6
40
_
4
10
62^
9
54
2X
JIt 47 a:
2o~3
5o
+3
y2
Ki 51.
g
4*
52.
4a
2J
3a
+2
2x
4 +.
43
Mixed
of
expressions
an integral rational part and of one or more fractions is referred to as a mixed expression. If a mixed expression occurs as a factor in a product or as the numerator or denominator of a fraction, it is usually desirable to combine the mixed expression into a single
fraction before performing other operations.
A sum
ILLUSTRATION
T
1.
We
refer to
2. ILLUSTRATION o
391
ILLUSTRATION
3.
3z2 h 
is
a mixed expression.
15
ILLUSTRATION
4.
(2
+ j(3
15
a
a2

a)
=
*
(6
+ a) (15 ~
90
9a
15
'41
Complex
fractions
simple fraction is one without any fraction in its numerator or denominator. A complex fraction is one having one or more fractions in the numerator and denominator.
SUMMARY.
1.
to
a simpty fraction:
Express
2.
Form
and reduce
the result to
lowest terms.
I A
, _X^ __ t
5+3
5
T ILLUSTRATION
1.
5 = 
333
g
8 5 g
8 3 
12
be convenient to reduce a complex fraction to a simple fraction by the single operation of multiplying both numerator and denominator of the complex fraction by the LCD of all simple
it
Sometimes
may
will
will
44
a simple
fraction,
To reduce the given complex fraction of Illustration 1 to we observe that the LCD of 3/5 and 4/3 is 15. Hence,
15,
observing that
9 and 15(j)
=
1
20:
+5
4
15
+9
24
10
12
3020
2
15o6
56
=
, 3a
Q ILLUSTRATION 3.
T
+ yr 56
,
6o67
36
36
15o6
+2
56
606
45a6 30a6  35
265
ILLUSTRATION
36
4.
265
36
26
36
46
46
1
46
DEFINITION
ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION
I.
H is =
5.
r
The The
reciprocal of 3 is
J.
6.
reciprocal
ofvis? = Y'o
=::
o'
The
reciprocal of
is
is
EXERCISE 15
Express the fraction or product as a simple fraction in lowest terms.
1.
(4
+ f)(5).
4. (6 f ) (6
2.
(3
f)(4f).
6.
3.
(2f)(3f).
f).
(f
36) (f
46).
45
T+T
+ i + 5
fr^
7 15
T+T
1
~*
"'5
14.
12.
13.
g^4
5c~f
J2c'
2_ 3
16.
4_ 3
16.
5_ 3
17.
.
2
5 X*
\Jb
6
e
,
r
+4
. ,
+:
\J
Fj
+^
,
To
tif^ l/Vx
1ft
J. 2x
_
2
y ^
19
TIT'
a:
01
_
7
2a 26
27. 2
28.
29.
+?
3
31.
'
^
56
2a
30.
!i.
 12
and express
36.
41.
32. .
a:
f
3y
Find
the result as
a simple
37.
33. 75.
38.
34. 17.
39. 12?
.
36.
f
5J.
a.
10.
40. 2J.
42.
44.
45.
46.
By
means
writing a fraction, show that to divide a number the same as to multiply by the reciprocal of H.
N by a number H
46
and 2
lowest terms.
3.
Compute each
1.
expression, leaving
5). 2.
any fraction in
( 3)( 4)(
 (
2)(
5).
 ((
3)(
4)(0).
"
16.
8.
(3
2) (5)
(3X6)  { 4)  7.
12.
~
9.
(2X4)
2 f
(
3)
+ 6.

8.
11.
the two
( 3)(
2).
14
.
13.
17
.
(a)
Add
17
numbers;
16.
14.
18.
23 9
_
>
15
17. 17
29
0,
25
Read the
expressions
<
,
2 and 17
scale.
and
real
number
<
and
19.
21.
and
6.
22.
Which one
of the
less
numbers
15 and 7
is less
Which
one
is
numerically
Perform any indicated operation, removing any parentheses, reducing any final fraction to lowest terms, and employing the laws of exponents to simplify
expressions.
23.
(3a
26
c).
24. 2(3
27.
5a
c).
26.
28.
3k).
a2 (3a8 6
aft*).
26.
5(
3*).
3*y(2*
+ A)

 Wy).  2(3a + 4h 
 2*y(
3*
5j/).
x*(3xy*
2xy
+ 3) + 4i/(2xV 32.
3x*
+ 5).
2[3
3o
[2a
3(5
a)].
(6a
14
6)
(2o
46)].
15
37.
17.
 2AW(3iUPX
38.
4
6.
39. 7
2
40.
~
5A).
41.
4A2fc).
42.
4/*V(2%
3/fy
47
44.
( 2oV).
.(?)'.
46.
(
(2)'.
'
47.
(I)''
.(*)'
(I)66. (2*
+ 3) (2s 2/)(3z
7).
66. (3x*
68. (2a
7x)(2x
36)
2
.
57. (2z
%).
69. (3x*
5x
2r>
+ 3)(4z + 5).
64. (6o3
66. (18
19o2
3
+ 21a 26a;
9) ^ (2o
^ (2x
3).
5).
+ 4x 
2x2 )
4y A7 67 '
+8
2h3
'
4x
7s*
33^3
4
10
ft
/ II.
4A7
ti
.
i
5
_2.
10
_ 4.
3 2
iO
'
"
5
12
72 " j! 2xy
. I4
A.
4x2
3y
3
*
^
*
3x
rfc
By
2a
Q
3a
^
AV
5
76. 76.
.!__:>.
35
77.
J.

a
56
J
5
78.
^~9 J_
79.
L^.
_
_.
_
3
1
a
81.
5).
CHAPTER
DECIMALS
AND ELEMENTS OF
COMPUTATION
notation * for writing numbers is called a place sysIn this notation, each number is an tem, for which the base is 10. abbreviation for a sum involving units and powers of ten, written by
The decimal
(0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9).
3456
= =
3(1000)
3(10
3
)
We have 3456 as the sum of 6 units, or ones, 5 tens, 4 hundreds, and 3 thousands.
ILLUSTRATION
2.
23.572
2(10)
+3+~ + 10
'
'
^+
'
100
2 1000
103
10
10 2
'
the decimal point in a number, the places are named the units' place or ones' place; tens' place; hundreds' place; thousands' place; ten thousands' place; etc. Counting to the right of
Counting to the
left of
we have the tenths' place; hundredths' place; etc. The name of any place is the value of a
These values should be remembered in terms
of
powers of
ten.
3.
ILLUSTRATION
1000
103 ;
.001
tc
rrr
= ;
.01
T
ILLUSTRATION
tenthousandths"
*
4.
We
read .5073 as
"5073
will
be positive.
DECIMALS
49
In this chapter we will think of each number in its decimal form. The part to the right of the decimal point is called the decimal part
of the
number.
We consider each
even when the decimal part is zero The decimal places of a number are those places to the right of the decimal point in which digits are actually written in the number.
ILLUSTRATION
is
5.
its
decimal part
.507.
its digits
from
left
to right,
we may
an endless sequence
number
of this character is
is
An
endless decimal
however far we proceed to the right, which all digits are zeros. Hereafter, unless otherwise number mentioned will be a terminating decimal.
ILLUSTRATION
6.
,
any
is a terminating decimal. The 35.675, or 35.67500 is an endless but not a repeating decimal. familiar number TT = 3.14159 The fraction J is equal to the endless repeating decimal .333
a unit in any place in the decimal notation is multiplied by 10, we obtain a unit in the next place to the left. If we divide a unit in any place by 10, we obtain a unit in the next place to the right. The preceding remarks justify the following convenient rules.
If
I.
To multiply a number by
number.
10,
move
the
to
To
divide
in the
a number by number.
7.
10,
move
the
to the
ILLUSTRATION
10(315.67)
is
3156.7.
~~ =
31.567.
To
divide
by
1000, which
21.327
In finding a sum of decimals, after they have been arranged with the decimal points in a column, it is desirable to add once going upward and then downward to check in each column.
50
DECIMALS
ILLUSTRATION
1.
To
sum
of 31.457,
2.6, 3.15,
and
101.41,
we annex
31.457
number
EXAMPLE
1.573
Add:
3.671
1.157
4.321
Sum
10.319.
is
138 617
'
SOLUTION.
is
The sum
5.478.
(15
563 5 478
sum 
10.085.
EXERCISE 17
Write the number in decimal form.
1.
3 and 25 hundredths.
4.
10'.
3. 10*.
6.
~
to the
6.
i
7.
i
Write each number as a sum involving powers of 10, with one term corresponding to each digit (not zero) of the number.
8. 567.
9.
3149.
10. 16,342.
11. .319.
12. 27.0457.
sum.
+ 3(10) +6 + A +
+ 3 + 1 + JL + J+
.459.
f
15. 5(10*)
+ 7(10') + 3(10) + 5 +
the indicated
Compute
16. 2.057
17.
sum.
+ 3.11 + 4.985 + 3.05 + 1.5 + 2.177 + 3.193 + .098 f 1.567 f 2.457 + 3.167 + 2.13
the
1.5072.
20. 1.721
18. 21.675
(a)
14.521.
'
19. .0938
.0257.
2.468.
Add
numbers.
(6)
21. 5.26
22. .357
1.38
25.
.2983
43.8468
59.923
24.
.02438
.5729
Compute
2.156
3.149
DECIMALS
26.
51
Compute
13.083
+ 2.148  41.397 
12.938.
Perform
27. 10(.532).
28.1000(1.0219).
13.257
'
29. 10*(32.653).
30. 100(.00415).
.0317
57.38
.0498
oo
wo
IS"
ISSo*
not zero can be written as a fraction whose numerator is an integer and denominator is a power of 10. The exponent of 10 hi the denominator can be taken equal to the number of decimal places in the given number.
decimal part
is
ILLUSTRATION
1.
1.21(.205)
=
24,805 10 6
121
'
205
10
s
(121) (205)
10
102+*
We
decimal places in the result are a consequence of the law of exponents for multiplication, because the factors had two and three decimal places. This result is a special case of the following rule.
conclude that the
five
SUMMARY.
1.
Find
numbers of decimal places in the factors to find the number of decimal places in the product, and insert the decimal point.
the
2.
Add
multiply .0238 X 112.75, we find the digits of the product, at the right, and then point off Notice (2 f 4) or 6 decimal places to obtain 2.683450.
ILLUSTRATION
To
11275
(X)238
90200 33825 22550 2683450
that the final zero had to be written and counted in fixing the decimal point. In stating the final result, we could then
product of two decimals depend only on the digits of the factors. If the decimal points are moved hi the factors, this only alters the position of the decimal point in the result.
digits in the
The
ILLUSTRATION
Hence,
3.
In Illustration
2,
.0238(112.75)
2.683450.
2.38(1127.5)
2683.450.
52
DECIMALS
Perform
1.
3.51(1.4).
.46(.107).
3. 6. 9.
13(.461).
4.
.0142(3.6).
21.38(.024).
156.1(1.38).
7. 398.4(.0342).
.00175(.2147).
.0346(.00157).
10. 85.2(1.356).
11. 9.137(.2346).
12. 74.308(.00259).
In any number N,
let
us read
its digits
from
left
by definition,
the significant digits or figures of sequence, starting with the first one not zero and ending with the Notice that this definition does not last one definitely specified.
involve any reference to the position of the decimal point in N. Usually we do not mention final zeros at the right in referring to the
significant digits of
N, except when
The
it is
an approximate value.
ILLUSTRATION
(4, 1, 0, 5, 8).
1.
T is
is
we
agree to call
A
If
T the
T=
is
error
an approximate value of A.
if
of
a quantity,
35.62,
and
35.60
35.62,
should indicate significant digits in an approximate value the maximum possible error of A. This error is understood to be
The
most one half of a unit in the last significant place in A, or, which the same, not more than 5 units in the next place to the right.
at
is
ILLUSTRATION
should
mean
a surveyor measures a distance as 256.8 yards, he that the error is at most .05 yard and that the true result lies
2.
If
between 256.75 and 256.85, since the error (plus or minus) might be
=fc
.05.
it
In referring to the significant digits of an approximate value A, is essential to mention all final zeros designated in A.
ILLUSTRATION
3.
To
state that a
mean that the true weight differs To state that the weight is 35.6 pounds should mean
measured weight is 35.60 pounds should from 35.60 pounds by at most .005 pound.
that the true weight
DECIMALS
differs
53
from this by at most .05 pound. Thus, there is a great distinction between 35.6 and 35.60 as approximate values although there is no difference between 35.6 and 35.60 as abstract numbers.
In referring to a place in a number, we shall mean any place where a significant digit stands. In referring to a decimal place, the word
decimal will be explicitly used.
To round
for
off
N, means
to k figures, or to write a fcplace approximation to write an approximate value with k significant digits
is
This condition
SUMMARY.
1.
N leads us to the following method. To round off a number N to k places, drop off the part of
f
N beyond the kth place and then proceed as follows: // the omitted part of N is less than 5 units in the (k
leave the digit in the kth place unchanged.
2.
l)th place,
is more than 5 units in the (k f l)th place, // the omitted part of increase the digit in the kth place by 1.
is exactly equal to 5 units in the (k 3.* // the omitted part of l)th place, increase the digit in the kth place or leave it unchanged, with the object of making the final choice an even digit.
ILLUSTRATION
rounding
places
1.
off to five
sevenplace approximation to TT is 3.141593. places (or four decimal pldles) we obtain 3.1416.
The
On
We
three
>
.00005.
On
rounding
off TT to
we obtain
3.14.
2.
315.475 to five figures, with equal In justification we could specify either 315.47 or 315.48 as the result. accordance with Item 3 of the Summary, we choose 315.48.
off
ILLUSTRATION
In rounding
48.
For abbreviation, or to indicate how many digits in a large number are significant, it is sometimes convenient to write a number AT as the product of an integral power of 10 and a number equal to or greater
than
by
*
many
justified agreements.
54
DECIMALS
ILLUSTRATION
1.
If 5,630,000 is
appearance
fails to show how many zeros are significant. If just five digits are significant we write 5.6300C106), and, if just three are significant, 5.63C106).
By
illustrations,
we can
do not
underestimate the accuracy of computation with approximate values. On the other hand, we must admit that the rules sometimes overestimate the accuracy. However, we shall assume that a result obtained by these rules will have a negligible error in the last significant
place which
I.
is specified.
values,
round
found.
off the
round
number of
significant figures
value.
Let a = 35.64, 6 = 342.72, and c = .03147 be approximate values. Then, a + b \ c is not reliable beyond the second decimal place because both a and b are subject to an unknown error which may be as large as 5 units in the third decimal place. Hence, we write
ILLUSTRATION
1.
+b+c=
378.39147
378.39, approximately.
ILLUSTRATION 2. If x = 31.27 and y = .021 are approximate values, = .66, because y has only two significant digits: then,*by Rule II, we take xy
xy
31.27(.0ll)
.65667
.66,
approximately.
ILLUSTRATION 3. If a surveyor measures a rectangular field as 385.6' by 432.4', it would give an unjustified appearance of accuracy to write that
166,733.44 square feet. For, an error of .05 foot in either dimension would cause an error of about 20 square feet in the area. By Rule II, a reasonably justified result would be that the area is 166,700
the area
is
(385.6) (432.4)
square
feet,
In problems where approximate values enter, or where approximate results are obtained from exact data, the results should be rounded off so as to avoid giving a false appearance of accuracy. No hard and fast rules for such rounding off should be adopted, and the final decision as to the accuracy of a result should be made only after a careful examination of the details of the solution.
DECIMALS
55
Round
1.
and then
15.32573.
195.635.
2.
.00132146.
'
3.
.3148638. .0345645.
4. 5.62653. 8.
6.
6.
.00128558.
7.
392.462.
Tell between
measured
10. 567.0.
11. 567.4.
12. 35.18.
Assuming that the numbers represent approximate and product and state the results without false accuracy.
13. 31.52
sum
and
.0186.
14.
15. .0047(11.3987126).
Problem 15. In proceeding to multiply or divide approximate values, there is no advantage in keeping many significant digits in one value when other values have relatively few significant digits. A conservative
for
HINT
rule
is
we may round
off
any given
value to two more significant digits than appear in the least accurate of the given values.^
19. 2.056(10).
1
and
10.
22. 153,720,000.
23. 45,726.
an approximate value, write it as the product of an power of 10 and a number between 1 and 10, assuming, first, that there
25. 453,120. 26. 23,523,416.
are five significant digits and, second, that there are three significant digits.
24. 9,330,000.
27. 72,200,000.
In
28.
57.3 feet.
29.
of a rectangular field are 469.2 feet and the perimeter (sum of lengths of sides) and area of the field. of a rectangular box are 20.4 feet, 16.5 feet, of the box in cubic feet.
gallons,
and 7.8
30.
how
many
*
by 2.576 cubic
feet?
In this book, unless otherwise stated, the numerical data in any problem should be assumed to be exact. Results obtained from exact data may sometimes be rounded off. t See Note 3 in the Appendix for a convenient abridged method for multiplyic two numbers with many significant digits.
56
DECIMALS
times gives a zero remainder if number of decimal places. Usually, however, we may expect a remainder not zero however far we continue the division. We can always arrange the details so that the actual work amounts to division by an integer. This arrangement is useful in locating the decimal point in the result.
ILLUSTRATION
its
1.
To compute
372.173
5
two
decimal places, we
numerator and
indicate the division as a fraction, and then multiply denominator by 100, to obtain an integer as the divisor:
first
372.173
1.25
372.173(100)
1.25(100)
37,217.3
125
(1)
At the
right,
we
decimal points in dividend and divisor and mark with "A" the new locations of the decimal points observed
in the final fraction in (1).
297.738
(Quotient}
The mul
tiplication
to
67 75 92 3 87 5 4 80
3 75
1
point two places to the right in both dividend and divisor. In the process
the integral part of the quotient ends when we begin using digits of the dividend at the right of " the new decimal point A ." If we place each digit of the quotient directly
of division,
,
050
above the last digit being used at that stage from the dividend, the decimal point in the quotient occurs exactly above the altered decimal point, A in the dividend. We find the quotient to three decimal places, 297.738, and
,
1J300 50
then round
it off
to 297.74, which
we say
is
correct to
two decimal
places.
To
check,
we compute
1.25(297.74)
372.175.
We
do not obtain
1.
In any division, estimate the result before dividing, to check the location of the decimal point in the quotient. Thus, in Illustration 1, a convenient estimate would be 375 5 1.25, or 300. Then we are sure that the actual answer should have three places to the left of the decimal point.
Note
DECIMALS
Note
2.
57
In dividing approximate values, obtain the quotient to one more figure than is specified as reliable by Rule II, Section 49. Then, round off
the quotient in the preceding place.
Any terminating decimal can be expressed as a fraction, which then may be reduced to lowest terms. Conversely, we can express any common fraction as a decimal by carrying out the division indicated
by the
exactly.
ILLUSTRATION
On
we obtain J =
.875,
ILLUSTRATION
3.
3.125
3125 1000
25 8
.45833
24
11.00000
96
ILLUSTRATION
4.
To
we
140 120
200
192
quotient, we meet 8 each time as the only digit in the remainder. Hence, 3 will be obtained endlessly
in the quotient.
The
decimal .4583, where the dot above 3 means that the digit repeats endlessly.
80 72 80
etc.
EXERCISE 20
Write each expression as a fraction, and then an integer. (6) Divide until the remainder is zero.
(a)
1.
alter it to
make
the divisor
3.562
T
2.6.
2.
2.849
f
.74.
to three
5
3.
140.14
^ 2.45.
decimal places.
6.
381.32
5
58.
5.
.083172
.316.
.5734
*
12.8.
Assume
that the
numbers in the following problems are approximate values. division and state the result without false accuracy, according
8.
573.2 * 3.83.
s
19.438
s
2.21.
9.
.09734
f
3.265.
.5634.
10. 98.3
21.473.
12. .01793
Change
13. 2.75.
the decimal to
a fraction in
lowest terms.
16. .0175.
14. .0125.
to the
16. 2.375.
17. .0325.
given fraction.
19.
20.
A.
21.
A
22. ft.
23.
CHAPTER
4
ONE UNKNOWN
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
51
a statement that two number expressions are equal. The two expressions are called the sides or members of the equation. An equation in which the members are equal for all permissible values of the letters involved is called an identical equation, or, for short, an identity. An equation whose members are not equal for all permissible values oi the letters is called a conditional equation.
ILLUSTRATION 1. In the following equation, by carrying out the multiplication on the lefthand side, we verify that the product is the same as the righthand side. This is true regardless of the values of a and b. Hence the equation is an identity.
(a
An
+ 26) (a +
36)
a2
5a6
662
2 = is a conditional equation beILLUSTRATION 2. The equation x cause the two members are equal only when x =2.
be used in referring to both identities and conditional equations, except where such usage would cause confusion. Usually, however, the word "equation" refers to a conditional equation. At times, to emphasize that some equation "s" " " instead of = between the members. is an identity, we shall use A. conditional equation may be thought of as presenting a question: the equation asks for the values which certain letters should
itself will
. ,
values are requested, are called unknowns. an equation may represent known numbers.
Some
of the letters in
ILLUSTRATION
3.
x*
+ 3x 
is
an equation
in the
unknown
x.
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
52. Solution of an equation
ONE UNKNOWN
59
unknowns which satisfies the equation. A solution of an equation in a single unknown is also called a root of the equation. To solve an equation in a single unknown means to find all the solutions of the
equation.
3
is
5,
because when
true.
Two
if
solutions.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.
Solve:
1.
3x
= 
5x.
(1)
Add
5x to both members:
1
2.
3x V 5x
= 
5x V 5x,
or,
or
3
is
+ 2x = = 
7.
(2)
which
or
3 to
both sides:
3.
f
2x
= 
3,
2x
(3)
On
by 2 we obtain
= 
5,
(4)
Substitute x
=
3
5 in
(1).
Lefthand side:
Righthand side:
 3( 5(
5) 5)
+
7
15
18.
18,
= 
+ 25 =
which checks.
Comment. Each equation obtained from (1) was equivalent to it and this would justify us in saying that (1) has just one root, x = 5, without any
necessity for the check.
and (4) is a consequence of the following familiar facts: if equal numbers are added to or subtracted from equal numbers the results are equal; if equal numbers are multiplied or divided by equal numbers the results are equal.
of (1), (2), (3),
The equivalence
60
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
ONE UNKNOWN
(1) will also satisfy (2), be
Any
value of x satisfying
(1) to (2)
by adding
equals,
And, any value of x satisfying (2) pass from (2) back to (1) by the inverse operation of subtracting 5x from both sides of (2). Hence, (1) and (2) are satisfied by the same values of x, and
thus are equivalent.
5x and 5x, to the equal sides will satisfy (1) because we can
In solving an equation in a single unknown, by use of the following operations we pass from the original equation to progressively simpler equivalent equations, which finally yield the desired roots.
SUMMARY.
1.
Addition of
same number
to both
members.
2. 3.
Multiplication (or division) of both members by the same number, provided that it is not zero and does not involve the unknowns.
1.
observe that Operation 2 is a special case of Operation 1 is equivalent to addition of N. The because subtraction of a number
Note
We
is
Convenient mechanical processes, and corresponding terminology, grow out of Operations 1, 2, and 3.
term appearing on both sides of an equation can be canceled, by subtracting the term from both sides.
ILLUSTRATION
2.
Given:
j
= =
f
f.
f 3.
term can be transposed from one member to the other, with the sign of the term changed, by subtracting it from both members.
ILLUSTRATION
3.
Given:
+5=
2.
7.
5,
or
=
x
ILLUSTRATION
Transpose
4:
4.
Given:
4 x
x
all
+ 4,
may
or
= 9. = 13.
The signs of
both sides by
be changed, by multiplying
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
ILLUSTRATION
5.
ONE UNKNOWN
3x
6 = 5
:
61
Given:
ox.
Change
all
by
1)
5 H ax.
The
is
degree of
an
integral rational
term
in a certain literal
number
the exponent of the power of that number which is a factor of the term. If the term does not involve the number, the degree of the term is said to be zero. The degree of a term in two or more letters
together is the
polynomial
is
The degree of a of their degrees in the term. defined as the degree of its term of highest degree.
1.
sum
ILLUSTRATION
3.
is
With x as the
is 1
literal
The degree
3
of 2x
because x
xl
ILLUSTRATION
together is (3
f
2.
The degree
of
3#V
in x is 2, in y
is 3,
and
in
x and y
2) or 5.
A
is
polynomial of the first degree in x is called a linear of the form ax b, where a and b do not involve x.
An
an equation of the first degree, is an integral rational equation the terms involving the unknowns are of the first degree.
ILLUSTRATION
1.
in
which
The equation 3x
solve
is
a linear equation in
x.
a linear equation in one unknown: 1. If fractions appear, place parentheses around each numerator and clear of fractions by multiplying both members by the LCD of the fractions; then, remove parentheses and combine terms.
2.
SUMMARY.
To
Transpose
to
all
unknown
to
all
other terms
the other
member.
Combine terms in
unknown,
exhibiting
3.
it
as a factor.
coefficient of the
unknown.
4.
To
62
r. EXAMPLE
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
ONE UNKNOWN
3
~
*oi Solve:
1.
x 
x + r
2.
SOLUTION.
serving that
1.
The
LCD
is
30.
30
p =
2.
10(z4);
10(x
30
15(s
3);
30
_ =
60;
3(3
3(3
+ x) 51.
+ 3x 
60;
3x
3.
3x
= 8:
51
5;
8x
x
= 
56.
7.
CHECK. Substitute x
j ; Lefthand side:
r
1
~
^ o
4
7
j;
3 4 ___
o
==
A 2
o 1_2=
1
1.
Righthand side:
347 ^.
r
10
2=1
2=
1.
This checks.
In the case of a linear equation in a. single unknown x, if the unknown remains in the equation after Step 2 of the standard method of solution is applied, the equation is then of the form ex = 6, where b c j* 0, and b and c do not involve x. On dividing both sides of ex
That
is,
a linear equation
in
single un
In directions for solving an equation, in this book, a specification to add, subtract, multiply, or divide will mean to perform the operation on both sides of the preceding equation.
EXERCISE 21
Solve the equation for the literal
1.
number in
2.
it.
5x
x 2
+

7.
3z
3
18
x.
3.
5.
7. 9.
5 2
5
2y
3y.
4.
6.
3x
= 
4y.
5x.
+55y
4(2
5
).
2y
2(4
=

4y.
4.
B.
x}
3x.
Sy
+3
5y
10. 7
2(1
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
11. 2(7 13.
ONE UNKNOWN
llh
63
+ a)  1 
7x.
12. 14.
3.
8fc
4.
7.
16.
 7h = 14A  12. 52  11 + 32 = 2 4* f 3* 3s
2.
7k
+ 12 =
6w>
2k
16. 11
 34w 32
9.
17.
19.
5x  1
18. 42
+f
4*
+*f,
}.
21. to
+ ft.
h
22. 5*
+Y=
17*
3*
5*
3*
25 .
44 _
10
_
3
. ~
15
27.
_
2
6
__ ""
_
2
28.
10
=
3
12 13
" 31.
3
5*
T
7
3 5
32.
TO
+y
_ ~
5 6
25
5x
2x
35.
3 a:
~6~
6
"
a;
~2~
37 TO
+7 ^ + 2a; ~~5~~
3x
13
a;
43. .26
=
.2
.98
T.38.
16
3
44.
2s
3x
3.
.55
.33
1.7*. .96*.
.07.
46. .26a:
47. 2.5*
49.
.53*
46. 2.3z
48. .21*
2.4
.46
1.6
3.7
13.5
1.8x. .07*.
.79
.19*
.358
.032
60. 4.088
.03*
3*
64
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
61. 2.035
62. 3(5z
ONE UNKNOWN
.215.
1)
3.
63.
2y
I 
+
= =
1)
2(2
3(z
3t/)
1.
2(32
6(z
1) 1)
7z
1
1).
1).
2x
1)
3(3*
S(w
+ 2) 
5(2w
6(w
2)
+ 3.
68. 4r
7(2
r)
60.
62.
6(r
1).
Solve for P, or
69.
61.
A,
correct to
first clearing
of fractions.
300
500
250
750
= A[l = P[l +
J(.05)].
tt(.07) J
terms of a polynomial contain a common factor, we may express the polynomial as a product of this factor and a second factor. The second factor is the sum obtained by dividing each term of the
If all
6).
present, in solving equations in an unknown x, we will be interested in factoring polynomials only where a: is a common factor
At
we express such a polynomial as the product and another factor, we then refer to this factor as the coefficient
of the terms.
If
of
of x.
ILLUSTRATION
2.
On
2x
factoring,
we obtain
+ 4ox + %cx
=
a:
2x(l f 2a
is
+ c).
c).
(1)
In
(1),
we say
2(1
f
2a f
In a given problem, a constant is a number symbol whose value does not change during the discussion involved. A variable is a number symbol which may take on different values. Any explicit number,
such as
7,
automatically
is
a constant wherever
it
appears.
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
ONE UNKNOWN
65
ILLUSTRATION 1. The volume V of a sphere is given by the formula V = Jur3 where r is the radius. In considering all possible spheres, r and V are variables but TT is a constant, approximately 3.1416.
58. Literal equations
Sometimes an equation in an unknown x may involve other literal numbers besides x. In such a case, during the process of solution for x, we assume that the other literal numbers are constants. The summary of Section 55 still specifies our method of solution.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.
Solve for x:
1.
3bx
2 and 2cx:
36z
2cx
+
(1)
Transpose
_ ~
2cx
= =
+ a.
+
a.
2.
Factor on the
left in (1)
x(3b
3.
2c)
(2)
(2)
by
X
(36
2c),
the coefficient of x:
W^2c'
2x
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.
Solve for x:
^r
ao
is
3 
2a
1.
The
LCD
4*;
2ab.
noticing that
=
2a6()
2o6()
66;
bx.
2^) x
te.
We
obtain
4z
66
:
2.
bx
66;
x(4
6)
66;
^y
5
7
fiA
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
3.
Solve for x:
37  =
=
(4)
The
18
LCD
28
is
12z.
= 
15*;
(5)
CHECK. Substitute x =
in (4)
797 ____
3
5
,
5
Righthand
side:
T
This checks.
66
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
ONE UNKNOWN
Comment. In this chapter, the unknown will occur in a denominator only under the most simple conditions. In solving (4), an incorrect choice of the LCD, containing an unnecessary factor, might have prevented the equations in (5) from being linear in x.
59. Formulas
come to us
as the values of a
which we represent as literal numbers. Sometimes we are able to write a mathematical expression for one of the variables in terms of the others. The resulting equation is referred to then as a formula for the first variable. An algebraic formula is one involving only the operations of algebra.
ILLUSTRATION 1. The Fahrenheit reading, F, and centigrade reading, (7, in degrees for a given temperature are related by the equation 5F = 9(7 f 160. On solving for F, we obtain a formula for F in terms of C:
F = fC
To
find
+ 32.
C =
36 in
(1)
:
(1)
F=
f (36)
+ 32 =
64.8
+ 32
96.8.
EXERCISE 22
Solve for x, or y, or lowest terms.
1.
z,
whichever appears.
to
bx
3 Hby
5c
c.
2. 6.
16z
h.
ex 2z
5a
3h.
a.
4. 7. 9.
ay
2ay
ax
5.
3x
ax 48.
26.
bz
= =
3by f 4a.
5c
Sax
a.
bx.
10.
11.
12.
3x
26
c
= ~
b

ax
b
14. T
c j
A 0.
...
15.
3x = n a
be
7x
2dx
+ 8. = d?x + b.
Sax
13.
= =
d.
0.
16. r
.,_
a?x
3

, 2a3
17 JL f
3T7"
_ _ _ mo
U.
18 AO
2c
rt
o \J "'
19 AU *"
~
4
BC
a
a
2 o
= 24.3 2c
c2
1 1%
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
26. 3a(2x
ONE UNKNOWN
67
3z
36)
5(cz
3)
26.
26. 4c(ax
6c)
2a(bx
*
+a
0.
V/ 97
4 2 =15
Ho*
'
5 
==
3 29 
3z
.
24
4x
29
10*
31.
=
12
+ ^
15z
662
15az
In the Fahrenheitcentigrade equation, 5F = 9C 160, solve for C in terms of F. Then, use the resulting formula to find the centigrade tem
32;
(6)
212;
(c)
80;
(d)
50.
Let an object be shot vertically upward from the surface of the earth
initial velocity of v feet
us neglect air resistance and other disturbing features. Then, it is proved in physics that s = vt %gP, where s feet is the height of the object above the surface at the end of t 100 and t = 6. seconds and g = 32, approximately, (a) Find s if v
let
(6)
with an
t.
(c)
From
(6),
compute the velocity with which the object must be shot to attain a height
of 1000 feet in 5 seconds.
33. Solve 36. Solve
/
I
= ma for a. = a + (n
=
I
34. Solve 8
{
vt
for
v.
for d.
36. Solve
37. Solve
S 
r r
M for
1
M;
for
t\
for
J.
r for a.
38. Solve
S =
for
I:
for a.
of the following problems states a rule for computing values of a certain variable in terms of others. State the rule by means of a formula.
Each
39.
The
The
M, N, and P
is
sum.
per kilowatthour for the first 10 kilowatthours, 5^ per kilowatthour for the next 20 kilowatthours, and 2%i per kilowatthour for all over 30 kilowatthours. Write an expression for the total cost, C, of (a) 60 kilowatthours; (6) n kilowatt40.
is 7jf
hours where n
41.
>
30.
On any
product, the cost is 15^ per unit for 200 units and 12^f per unit for the remain(}er of the order. Write a formula for the cost, C, in dollars, of n units if n > 200.
63
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
ONE UNKNOWN
we
translate
expressions.
ILLUSTRATION 1. If x is the length of one side of a rectangle and if the other dimension is 3 units less than twice as long, then the other dimension
is
(2x
3)
is
2z
2(2z
3),
or
6z
6,
is
x(2x
2.
3).
ILLUSTRATION
integer
is
If x, y,
and
and
hundreds' digits of a positive integer with three digits, the value of the
+ Wy +
To
lOOz.
SUMMARY.
1.
solve
Introduce one or
an applied problem by use of equations: more letters to represent the unknowns and
give
Translate the given facts into one or more equations involving the
solve for their values.
unknowns, and
3.
Check
ment of
the problem.
1.
EXAMPLE
Jones
will
$350 is to be divided between Jones and Smith so that receive $25 more than Smith. How much does each receive?
1.
SOLUTION.
+ 25)
x
dollars.
is
The sum
of the
amounts received
$350, or
350.
..
(x
+ 25) =
(1)
On
solving (1), we obtain x = 162.50. Hence, Smith receives $162.50 and Jones receives $162.50 $25 or $187.50. These results check.
EXAMPLE
2.
of the larger is
Find two consecutive even integers such that the square 44 greater than the square of the smaller integer.
1.
SOLUTION. integer is x
2.
2.
From
the data,
Expanding:
+ 2)  x = 44. x* = 44; x* + 4z + 4
(x
2
2
(2)
4z
3.
40;
10.
The
integers are 10
and
12.
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
CHECK.
10 2
3.
ONE UNKNOWN
144
69
100;
12 2
it
144;
100
44.
EXAMPLE
How
take Jones and Smith, working together, which Jones can plow alone in 5 days and Smith, alone,
long will
SOLUTION.
1.
working together.
2.
In
Hence, in x
field.
is
parts plowed
by the men
in
= 3^
days.
EXERCISE 23
an equation in just one unknown. 1. A line 68 inches long is divided into two parts where one longer than the other. Find their lengths.
Solve by use of
2.
is
3 inches
cut into two pieces such that one part is 4 inches less than twj 'as long as the other part. Find the lengths of the parts. ;he
rope 36 inches
Sng
is
3.
is
55
feet,
if
the altitude
4.
f of the base.
of a rectangle
is
One dimension
if
the other.
of the rectangle
is
its
increased
5.
by 5
feet.
What number
Find two consecutive positive integers whose squares Find three consecutive integers whose sum
is
differ
by
27.
48.
is
Find the angles of a triangle where one angle angle and six times the third angle.
8.
9.
and a triangle have equal bases. The altitude of the rectangle is 25 feet and of the triangle is 20 feet. The combined area of the triangle and the rectangle is 280 square feet. Find the length of the base.
rectangle
10. J?ind
two consecutive
positive
differ
by
32,*
70
11.
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
ONE UNKNOWN
is
length of a rectangular lot is three times its width. If the length decreased by 20 feet and the width is increased by 10 feet, the area is
The
increased
12.
by 200 square
triangle
feet.
and a rectangle have the same 4 feet longer, and the altitude of the
The
is
altitude of
5 feet shorter
The area
of the rectangle
is
A sum
quarters.
to $13.55 consists of nickels, dimes, and There are three times as many dimes as nickels and three less
of
money amounting
How many
divided
3z)
is
by the
x.
is
5 and the
remainder
is 3.
HINT.
16.
Recall:
(quotient)
(divisor)
+ remainder.
peddler sold 7 bushels more than f of his load of apples and then had 9 bushels less than f of the load remaining. Find his original load.
hour, Jones can plow J of a field and Roberts fa of work together, how long will it take them to plow the field?
16.
In
it.
If
they
17.
in 21 hours
Johnson.
18.
How
long will
it
take them to
f long will it take two mechanical d .chdiggers to excavate a ditch which the first machine, alone, could con lete in 8 days and the
How
Jo*
*
long will it take workers A and B, together, to complete a job which could be done by A alone in 7 days, and by B alone in 9 days?
How How
long will it take to fill a reservoir with intake pipes A, B, and C open, if the reservoir could be filled through A alone in 6 days, B alone in 8 days, and C alone in 5 days?
20.
1000 articles of a given type can be turned out by a first machine in 9 hours, by a second in 6 hours, and by a third in 12 hours, how long will it take to turn out the articles if all machines work together?
2JL.
If
22.
An
integer between 10
if it is
in 5.
By
writing an equation,
5 times the
sum
of its digits.
61. Percentage
The words
hundredths.
per cent are abbreviated by the symbol That is, if r is the value of h%, then
and mean
=
156
'
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
ILLUSTRATION
ONE UNKNOWN
4J% =
4
7*i
7?
1.
6% =
1,
fi
.06.
.0475.
From equation
we obtain h = lOOr; hence, to change a number we multiply r by 100 and add the symbol.
ILLUSTRATION
2.
If r
=

1.75
and .0175
1.75%.
ILLUSTRATION
18
3.
cnn oLMJ
of a ratio
9
xrv\
0225
2 25 %
The description
If
is
described
r as
to
N,
of
N, with
M = Nr, = M
r
TT*
percentage
.
=
=
(base)
rate
percentage * r base
(rate)
(2)
/0
,
' (3) v
ILLUSTRATION
rate r
4.
To
fj$
=
1.
.75.
express 375 as a percentage of 500, we compute the Hence, 375 = .75(500), or 375 is 75% of 500.
Find the number of residents of a city where population, or 962 people, had influenza.
SOLUTION.
Let
EXAMPLE
13%
of the
P be
the
number
of residents:
.UP Note
1.
962;
P .lo
,
lo
7400.
In the formation of a mixture of different ingredients, we shall assume that there is no change in volume. Actually, a slight gain or loss of
for instance, as
In the typical mixture problem, where one special ingredient is involved, the equation for solving the problem frequently can be obtained by writing, in algebraic form, the statement that
(
the
amount
of the ingredient
the price of a mixture is the fundamental feature, the equation may be obtainable by using equation 4 with the costs of tHe parts thought of in place of the ingredients.
If
72
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
ONE UNKNOWN
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
In 5
2.
should be added
1.
gallons of a mixture containing 80% alcohol to 5 gallons of a 20% solution to give a 30% solution?
How many
gal.
added.
In x
gal.,
80%
pure
20%
In (5 4 x)
gal.,
30%
5) gal. of alcohol.
is
alcohol in the final mixture of (5 in the x gal. and in the 5 gal. Or,
.30(z
The
x) gal.
the
sum
of the alcohol
5)
.80*
.20(5);
1.
EXAMPLE
3.
What
off
should be drawn
percentage of a 20% solution of hydrochloric acid and replaced by water to give a 15% solution?
SOLUTION. 1. Think of the solution as consisting of 100 units of volume; then the solution contains 20 units of acid.
Let x% be the rate for the percentage which should be drawn Then, from the 100 units we should draw off x% of 100, or x units.
2. 3.
off.
2
;
15
20
.20z;
25.
Or,
we should draw
off
25%
EXERCISE 24
Change
1. to
decimal form.
2.
5%.
to
4J%.
3.
3%.
4.
45%.
5.
126.3%.
6.
Change
7.
.07.
.0925.
9.
.025.
10. .0575.
11. 1.35.
Compute each
12.
quantity.
13.
6%
of $300.
3^%
of 256.
14.
110%
of 1250.
price of copper per pound in the United States was approximately $.138 in 1926, $.081 in 1931, and $.215 in late 1947. Find the per cent of change in the price from 1926 to 1931; from 1931 to 1947. Solve each problem by using
19. If
The average
385
is
85%
of x,
an equation in just one unknown. find x. 20. If 268 is 24% less than
y,
find y.
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
21. After selling
ONE UNKNOWN
73
85%
has 84 dresses
22.
left.
He
sells
90 dozen at a markup of 30% over the purchase price. At what price per shirt could he afford to sell the remaining 10 dozen to clear his stock if he desires his total receipts from the shirts to be 25% greater than the cost?
$3000 of Smith's income is not taxed by the state where he lives. All of his income over $3000 is taxed 2% and all over $8000 is taxed 3% in addition. If he pays a total tax of $800, what is his income?
23. 24.
of
Problem
23, with
is
on
all
5%
25.
50^.
worth 70^f per pound and some worth are used in forming 100 pounds of a
55% 40%
gallons of a solution of glycerine and water containing glycerine should be added to 15 gallons of a 20% solution to give a solution?
How many
ounces of pure silver must be added to 150 ounces, pure, to give a mixture containing 60% silver?
28. 29.
How many
45%
at $1.25 per bushel and wheat at $.80 per bushel, so that the mixture will be worth $1.00 per bushel. How much of each kind should he use?
pounds of cream containing 35% butterfat should be added to 800 pounds of milk containing 3% butterfat to give milk con30.
How many
3.5%
taining
31.
butterfat?
40%
automobile radiator holds 8 gallons of a solution containing glycerine. How much of the solution should be drawn off and replaced
to give a solution with
An
by water
32.
25%
glycerine?
percentage of a 30% solution of sulphuric acid should be drawn off and replaced by water to give a 20% solution?
33.
What
What What
percentage of a
40%
solution of alcohol
75%
solution?
taining
30%
percentage of a mixture of sand, gravel, and cement, concement, should be replaced by pure cement in order to give
a mixture containing
40%
cement?
74
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
ONE UNKNOWN
A lever consists of a rigid rod with one point of support called the fulcrum. A familiar instance of a lever is a teeterboard. If a weight
w
attached to a lever at a certain point, the distance h of w from the fulcrum is called the lever arm of w, and the product hw is called
is
the moment of
The
following statement
is
demonstrated in physics.
LEVER PRINCIPLE. // two or more weights are placed along a lever in such a way that the lever is in a position of equilibrium, then, if each weight is multiplied by its lever arm, the sum of these products for all weights on one side of the fulcrum equals the sum of the products for all weights on the other side. In other words, the sum of the moments of
the weights about the
fulcrum
is the
same on both
it will
sides.
Note
1.
In
all lever
is
ILLUSTRATION
of the
is
1.
In Figure
2,
the
sum
moments
MIAMI
100
+ 5200), or
girls,
1400.
Fig.
Hence,
EXAMPLE
sit
weighing 75 pounds and 90 pounds, respectively, at the ends of a teeterboard 15 feet long. Where should the fulcrum be
Two
SOLUTION.
girl.
1.
Let x
feet
the other
>
girl is (15
x
2.
= =
(15
z)90;
83^
feet.
EXERCISE 25
weight of 300 pounds is placed on a lever 20 feet from the fulcrum. Where should a weight of 275 pounds be placed to balance the lever?
1.
2.
How
weight of 60 pounds is placed on a lever 8 feet from the fulcrum, heavy a weight should be placed 12 feet from the fulcrum on the
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
3.
ONE UNKNOWN
girl
75
weighing 80 pounds sits 4 feet from the fulcrum, another girl weighing 100 pounds sits 7 feet from the fulcrum on the other side, and a third girl sits 6 feet from the fulcrum. How much does the third girl weigh?
teeterboard
is
Jones and Smith together weigh 340 pounds. Find their weights if they balance a lever when Jones sits 5 feet from its fulcrum on one side and Smith sits 6 feet from the fulcrum on the other side.
4.
40pound weight is placed 6 feet from the fulcrum on a lever, and a 60pound weight 8 feet from the fulcrum on the other side. Where should a 30pound weight be placed to give equilibrium?
5.
heavy a weight can a man lift with a lever 9 feet long if the fulcrum is 2 feet from the end under the weight and if the man exerts a force of 140 pounds on the other end?
6.
How
7.
How many
lift
lever to
pounds of force must a man exert on one end of an 8foot a 300pound rock on the other end if the fulcrum is 1J feet
When we
we mean
say that a body is moving in a path at constant speed, that the body passes over equal distances in any two equal
referred to as uniform motion in or speed or rate of the body in its path is the path. The velocity defined as the distance traveled in one unit of time. If v is the velocintervals of time.
is
Such motion
*
ity,
and d
is
units of time,
(1)
d =
j
vt.
Since v
=,
the velocity
is
distance with respect to the time. In stating a velocity, the units for the measurement of time and of distance must always be mentioned.
ILLUSTRATION
speed, the speed
1.
If
an airplane
1250
>
flies
is
d t
or
The speed
*
minute
is
or 4J miles.
In physics, velocity is denned as a vector quantity, possessing both magnitude and direction. In this text, wherever the word velocity is used, it will refer to the
76
Note
bring in
1.
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
All motion considered in this
ONE UNKNOWN
book
will
be uniform motion.
If
the velocity of a
moving body is variable, a discussion of the motion must more advanced notions met in physics and calculus.
1.
messenger, traveling at a speed of 65 miles per hour, pursues a truck which has a start of 2 hours and overtakes the truck in 3 hours.
EXAMPLE
Then,
(3
+ 2)z;
rt
195
5z;
applies in the discussion of any variable quantity d which changes uniformly at a specified rate r with respect to change in the time t. Thus, we may refer to a rate of increase
The equation d =
EXAMPLE
full
motorboat went 70 miles in 4 hours when traveling at speed upstream on a river whose current flows at the rate of 6 miles
2.
per hour.
How
1.
boat travel in
still
water?
still
SOLUTION.
(x
2.
water.
In travel upstream, the rate of the current reduces the speed of the boat to
6) miles per hour.
From d =
vt,
with
4, v
= x 6, 70 = 4(s 4x
and d
6).
70,
(2)
On
solving (2)
we obtain
94;
x
still
23.5.
water.
path at a groundspeed of (?2 miles per hour, when the engines are working at full power, and while the wind maintains a constant direction and speed. G\ and <? 2 in general would be different because of the effects of the wind. Suppose that the gasoline tanks of the airplane permit it to operate at full power for only T hours after
this
We
Then,
it is
of
maximum
fly
may
out
if
Speed with respect to the ground as contrasted to the airspeed, or speed with respect to the air, which itself may be in motion because of a wind. We read "Gi" as "G sub 1 " or "G, 1," t The subscript 1 on GI is just a tag.
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
ONE UNKNOWN
flies
77
hours.
is
The
distance
out from
in
h hours
called the radius of action of the airplane in the specified * that direction, with the given wind. It can be proved
EXAMPLE
1.
How many
fuel
900 miles as the radius of action in a direction where the groundspeeds out and back are, respectively, 300 and 200 miles per hour?
SOLUTION.
equation in
(1)
Substitute
:
R =
900, Gi
300,
and
G =
z
900
_ "
'
Hence,
T =
7J hr.
EXERCISE 26
1.
At what
rate does
an automobile
travel
if it
Jones and Smith travel toward each other from points 500 miles apart, Jones at the rate of 60 miles per hour and Smith at 50 miles per hour. When will they meet if they start at the same instant?
2.
from the same place, in opposite directions, at speeds of 36 miles and 48 miles per hour, respectively. When will they be 600 miles apart?
3.
Two men
start at 7 A.M.
a motorcycle messenger starts from a city at a speed of 45 miles per hour to meet a regiment which is 120 miles away and is approaching at a speed of 5 miles per hour. When will the messenger meet the regiment?
4.
At 6
A.M.,
6.
in
How
long will
man man
can run
to gain
man
if
airplane leaves the deck of a battleship and travels south at the rate of 230 miles per hour. The battleship travels south at the rate of 20
6.
An
miles per hour. If the wireless set on the airplane has a range of 800 miles, when will the airplane pass out of wireless communication with the ship?
*
HEATH
AND COMPANY.
78
7.
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
ONE UNKNOWN
travels
x miles
8.
seconds?
In an 800meter race between two men, the winner's time is 2 minutes, and his lead is 40 meters. How many seconds would it take the loser to run 800 meters?
airplane flew 850 miles in 2J hours against a head wind blowing 30 miles per hour. How fast could the plane fly in still air?
9.
An
start together in a race around a 300yard oval track, one man at a speed of 9 yards per second and the other man at 7J yards per second. When will the faster man be exactly one lap ahead?
10.
Two men
Johnson be twice as wealthy as Smith if each has $4000 now and if their estates are increasing at the annual rates of $400 for Smith and $1200 for Johnson?
11.
will
When
can run around a 400meter track in 65 seconds. How long does Smith take to run the 400 meters if he meets Jones in 35 seconds after they start together in a race around the track in opposite directions?
12. Jones
In each problem,
flight by
an airplane
(b)
in a direction where the groundspeeds have the indicated values; number of hours flown on the maximum outward trip.
13. Sixteen fuel
find the
is
is
Twelve
fuel
is
is
is
have the specified radius of action in a direction corresponding to the given groundspeeds, find the number of fuel hours which must
be available.
16.
is
Radius of action
is
is
Radius of action
is
is
is
hours must be available to permit an airplane flight out from a field for 5J hours in a direction such that the groundspeed out is 200 miles and back is 185 miles per hour?
fuel
19.
How many
when
will
first
form a straight
line?
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
65. Interest
Interest is
ONE UNKNOWN
79
capital.
The
capital
At any time a'fter the originally invested is called the principal. investment of the principal, the sum of the principal and the interest
due
is called
the amount.
is
The
rate of interest
to the principal.
If r is
the ratio of the interest earned in one year the rate and P is the principal, then
interest for
one year
Pr.
(2)
is
1.
If
=^^ =
.0366,
or
3.66%.
computed on the
rate
r.
t
of the
be the final amount at the end Then, the interest for one year is Pr and, by definiyears
/
is
t(Pr) or Prt',
that
is,
Prt.
interest,
(1)
F = P
From
(1),
/.
(2)
P+
Hence, from
(2),
/
P + Prt =
P(l
+ rt).
(3)
F = P(l
4 rt).
In equations 1 and 3, t represents the time expressed in years. If the time is described in months, we express it in years assuming a year to contain 12 equal months. If the time is given in days, there
are
two
In computing ordinary interest we assume a year to contain 360 days, and, for exact interest, we assume a year to contain 365 days.
80
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
find the
ONE UNKNOWN
find the
To
interest
amount F when P, r, and t are given, first from 7 = Prt and then compute P + / to find F.
Note
l'.
ILLUSTRATION
1.
If
$5000
is
is
5%,
$40.97;
the final
amount due
1.
is
= =
$5040.97.
EXAMPLE
If
SOLUTION.
2.
1.
We have P =
Prt with
t
$1000;
F=
$1250; I
1250
1000
$250.
From
250
3,
1000(r)(3);
250
3000r;
OKA
.08J
In
F=
P(l
+ rt),
the principal
value of the
P P
is is
of
years will be F.
is
EXAMPLE 2. Find the present value of $1100 which 21 years, if money can be invested at 4%.
SOLUTION.
2.
1.
We
have
F=
$1100, r
.04,
and
Hence, from
(3),
1100
= P[l
1.1P
+ f(.04)];
1100;
1100
= =
P(l
.10);
P=
$100;
~
JL
.L
$1000.
CHECK.
1000(.04)(f)
F =
1000
100
$1100.
EXERCISE 27
Find
1.
and
the final
amount.
2.
On $5000
at
6%
for
216 days.
the final
On
$8000 at
4J%
for
93 days.
Find
3. 6.
and
amount.
4.
On
$3000 at
4%
On
$2500 at
if
51%
$150
for
is
27 days.
invested
at
9%.
With
6.
F=
$1000; r
F = P(l = .03;  f
t
+ rt) for P,
7.
to the
nearest cent.
F=
$3000; r
.05;
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN
8.
9.
ONE UNKNOWN
on $6000?
B1
At what
8%.
by the end
of
11.
amount
to $1300
5%.
(6)
by computing
interest
is
4%.
Jones agreed to pay Smith $6000 at the end of 5 years. What should Jones pay immediately to cancel his debt if Smith agrees that he can invest
money
14.
at
4%?
y
Roberts buys a bill of goods from a merchant who asks $2000 at the end of 2 months. If Roberts wishes to pay immediately, what should the seller be willing to accept if he is able to invest his money at 8%?
15.
debtor owes $1100 due at the end of 2 years and he requests the
ment, at
16.
5% How long
A man
an equivalent smaller sum immediately. At what would the creditor prefer to compute the present payor at 6%, and how much would he gain by the best choice?
will it
itself if
invested
at
5%
17.
simple interest?
invests $7000, one part of it at If the total annual interest is $320, how much
5%
is
CHAPTER
5
AND FACTORING
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
R2
A, we
call
R
is
a square root of A.
ILLUSTRATION
1.
16.
one negative, with equal absolute values. The positive square root is denoted by H VZ, or simple VA, and the negative square root b VZ. We call a radical and A its radicand. Unless other
VZ
wise stated, the square root of A will By the definition of a square root,
mean
its positive
square root.
If
is
positive or zero,
~3 because 32
or
3.
x.
(2)
9.
ILLUSTRATION
are
2.
V9 =
or
roots of 9
V9
and
V,
3.
V9,
We
J
read
as "plus or minus."
2
ILLUSTRATION
VJ
because
()
4
In the square of an integral rational term, each exponent will be an even integer because, in squaring, each original exponent is multiplied
by
2.
1.
ILLUSTRATION
(3xV)
32 (x2) 2 (i/s ) 2
be a perfect square if it is the square of an The student should learn the most common perfect square integer. integers, with the aid of Table I, page 283.
integer is said to
An
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
ILLUSTRATION
2.
AND FACTORING
1, 4, 9, 16,
S3
25, 36, etc.
The
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, etc.
Thus, \/25
integral rational term is said to be a perfect square if it is the square of some other term of the same variety. Hence, in a perfect
An
is
an even
is
integer.
ILLUSTRATION
I.
3.
25a264
2 2
(Safe
To find
1.
Rewrite the
2.
given term.
ILLUSTRATION
4.
Vl6x*y*
= VT6Vx*y* = 4#y,
because
To find the square root of a fraction, find numerator and of the denominator and divide:
II.
ILLUSTRATION
5.
\/T^
= v^4 7= =
V25
IWQa6
2
^*
ILLUSTRATION
\/100a6
10o3
6.
For the present, we shall consider \/A only where A is a perfect square monomial, or where A is a fraction whose numerator and denominator All literal numbers in A will be supposed are perfect square monomials.
Note
1
.
positive or zero.
EXERCISE 28
Find
1.
the results.
6.
25.
3. 121.
root
the result.
Inspect Table I if
V9.
8.
VIOO.
9. \/81.
10. \/l44.
84
11.
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
AND FACTORING
13. \/if. 17. 14.
Vl96.
tf. 16.
Vf.
15.
19.
V.
Vz
4
.
Vg.
20. 24.
V.
V^
5
.
21.
VSVo
2
".
18.
22.
23. Vtf*.
27. \/4^.
25.
Viol
26.
29. \/49?.
.
30.
.
31.
\64a.
fo2
33.
\49w*c4
34.
39.
tv
40.
t/=?.
41.
\(1
each quantity.
51. (\/37)
55.
'root.
2
.
52.
(\/142^)
2
.
63.
(V^) 2
64. (>/659)2.
When
longhand methods.
ILLUSTRATION
1.
2
(3s
5y)(2x
6x
21xy
 Wxy +
y)
7y)
ILLUSTRATION
2.
(x f y)(x
x(x
y)
+ y(x
y
2
.
y)
xz
xy
2
+ xy
x2
ILLUSTRATION
3.
ft
2
.
able to dispense with the longhand methods of the preceding section and should form the product of two binomials mentally. Products of the following types occur frequently.
member.
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
I.
AND FACTORING
85
a(x
+ y)
2
ax
f
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
 2ab + = x2 + (ax f 6x) f ab. (x + a)(x + 6) 2 (ax + b)(cx + d) = acx f (aa*x + bcx)
(a
&)
a2
6<f.
It proves convenient to
memorize Types
II, III,
and IV as formulas
and
also in words.
the
ILLUSTRATION 1. Type II states that the product of ence of two numbers is the difference of their squares. ILLUSTRATION
2.
sum and
the differ
III states that the square of the sum of two numbers equals the square of the first, plus twice the product of the numbers, plus the
Type
ILLUSTRATION
3.
(c
2d)(c
+ 2d) =
c2
(2d)
c2
4#.
(Type
II)
ILLUSTRATION
4.
From Type
III with a
3x and 6
=*
2y,
=
The
right
9x 2
Types V and VI should not be committed to memory. However, the nature of the right members should be memorized, with (ax 4 bx) in Type V and (adx + bcx) in Type VI remembered as the sum of the cross products.
members
of
ILLUSTRATION
5.
To
f
obtain (2#
5) (3x
7)
2* 3z
5
I
'
j^XT
Sum
The diagram and
lustration.
Product
6z2
35.
F7
I4x
15x
x.
sum
ILLUSTRATION
because the
6.
(2x
7fc)(3z f 2h)
6x2
I7hx
sum
of cross products is
7.
2lhx
(z
2 2
ILLUSTRATION
(x
3y*)
(Type IV)
86
ILLUSTRATION
SPECIAL
8.
(x
2y)(x*
+
2
2y)(x*
+

4t/ )
2
(Type
f 4s/
2
II)
/)](z<
+
2 2
4s/ )
=
8
(x*
4i/ )(z<
(4i/ )
(4
ILLUSTRATION
9.
( 3x
 4)( 3s + 4) = = EXERCISE 29
+ 3z)(4  3x)
 9z ) = 2
(16
16
+ 9z
2
.
Expand and collect terms, performing as miich of the work as possible mentally.
1.
5(3a
4t>).
2. 6.
3c(2
(c
6c).
.
3.
ab(4x
ax).
4.
5x(2y
3z).
7. (a
+ y)\
2y)(5
8. (c
10. (5
12.
14. 16.
d)(c
36) (a f 36).
2) (a
4).
+ 5)

2
.
18. (y
2
.
4)
2
.
19. (2a
5)
20. (3x
.
2)
21. (2z
22. (3x
4y)
23. (2a
+ 6)
2
.
24. (x
26. (2x
5)(* f 9).
28.
5y).
29. (a 31.
30. (w
3).
x).
3)(3y h 5).
2).
39. (4x
41. (6
3y)(2x
+ 3y).
h x).
40. 42.
44.
46. (4
5x)(~ 2
2x)(2
3)(fy
x).
43. (3*
4)( x
+ 5).
+ 36
49. (3
( y
+ 4).
2wxr2 ) 2
.
2 2
47. (2xy
.
(4a^
2
2/)
.
+ 46x)
60. (x
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
61. (x 64.
AND FACTORING
63. (J
87
J)
2
.
62. O/
+ i)
2
.
2*)'.
(we
2a)(wx* 4 2o).
66.
67.
(cd
(a;
3^)(cd
+ 3x).
66. (x
68.
60. 62.
+ .l)(z + .5).  *). (.3 + z)(.2 (a  6)(o + b). (& + fe)(fz y)(x 4 2/X*
2
.2)(x f .5).
69. (3
.2z)(2 f .5x).
61. (Jo
/).
2
a;
#>)(Ja
+ J6).
.5).
63. (.4*
).
.3)(.2x
2
64. (x
66.
68.
70.
66. (2
67.
69.
)(2
+ z')(4
3x2
7x(2ax
).
( 3
2
.
 4)(72.
2 f fa).
( x
2
t/)
.
71.
( 2s 
3y)
2
.
( 3
73. [2(*
76. (3o:2
?/)]
74. [3(o
+ 6)]
76. [5(2c
8)(x*
2
+ 2).
2
2
77. (4z2
3)(3x
2
+ 2).
s
78. (2x 2
3i/
)(x f
3
4?/ ).
79. (2a2
80. (z 3
4).
81. (3a
2
82. (2u4
84. (2x2
+ 2v
).
2
).
s
).
5i/
)(2z f 5y
).
7v2)(3w2 f 2V2 ).
86. (2a6c 2
71. Grouping
in multiplication
of the following illustrations is particularly useful in applications of Types II, III, and IV of Section 70.
The method
ILLUSTRATION
1.
(c
f
2d
lla)(c f 2d f
f
Ho)
(Type
.
= [(c + 2d)  llo][(c + 2d) llo] = (c + 2d)  (Ho) = c + 4cd + 4cP  121o  3z) = [(2x + y)  3] ILLUSTRATION 2. (2x + y = (2x + 2  2(32) (2* f y) + (3s) 2 = 4s + 4x +  12x2  6z + 9s
2 2 2
2
t/)
II)
(Type IV)
2 .
t/
ILLUSTRATION
3.
2
(a
+ &)
(c
+ 2)?
(Type
III)
c2 4 4c 4 4.
88
ILLUSTRATION
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
4.
AND FACTORING
[2*
O
2
EXERCISE 30
Expand and
1.
collect
2
.
[(* 4 y) 4 2]
(2
[(o
4.
7.
+ a 4 w)\
b
(4a
c)
8.
2
.
+ 5J. (3s + y + 5) ( 2 + a + 6)
6)
2
.
3.
[3
(2x
y)J.
2
.
6. (*
.
2y
3)
9.
[2x
3 (a
fc
)]
2
.
10. (2x
12. [(c
3*2
3?/)
14.
16. 18.
20.
+ 2x)  2][(c + 2x) + 2],  4). (a + w f 4) (a + w  2) (3* + y + 2). (3* + y  + )(a f t 4(a  3)] [(a 4. 6) + (c
fc
15. 17.
2).
19.
'
21.
22. (a 4 c 4 6
5)
2
.
23.
+ y)  3][> + y) + 3J  (2o + 6)] [4 + (2o + 6)1 [4  x)(a + b + x). (a + 6  y + 4)(3o  y  4). (3a  y + 2)(a; + y (z  3] [2s + y + o  z + y  2) (2x
2 2
).
28.
Expand
Use
the
(x
\
y +
z)
and
formula of Problem 28
.
26 4 3c) 2
3*i/
2
to 4 3a) 2
5X8 ) 2
In our discussion of factoring, unless otherwise stated, the coefficients will be integers in any polynomial referred to. Such an expression will be called prime if it has no integral rational factors except No simple rule can be stated for determinitself, or its negative, or 1. ing whether or not an expression is prime.
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
ILLUSTRATION (.
AND FACTORING
89
because these facltors are not integral and rational. Other prime expressions 2 2 2 are (x ?/ ), and (x* y), (x* f y ), (z xy xy
factor a polynomial will mean to express positive integral powers of distinct prime factors.
To
it
as a product of
ILLUSTRATION
2.
To
factor 4c4
462z2 we write
,
After an expression has been factored, the factors should always be verified toy multiplying them to obtain the given expression.
73. Factoring
by
inspection
Each ty/pe formula of Section 70 becomes a formula when read! from right to left.
I.
for factoring
ax
1.
+ ay +
by
2
az
a(x f y f
2
z).
iLLUSniiATiON
+ 3y + % =
z
t/(6?/
+ 3 + Sy).
is
division:
14xV =
2xV(7x?/
).
factoring,
sum and
II.
ILLUSTRATION
ILLUSTRATION
4.
#2
=
4
,
(x
3)(z f 3).
5.
.
To
factor 25s2
Oy
we observe that
H
25a?
(6x)
and Oy4
2 2
(32/ )
Hence,
ILLUSTRATION
6.
a4
IGt/
(a
2 2 4y )(a 4
(a
90
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
AND FACTORING
j
integral rational polynomial with three tei;ms is called a trinomial. The square of any binomial is a perfect s}quare trinomial.
An
trinomial of this type can be recognized formulas of Types III and IV of Section 70.
Perfect square trinomials:
III.
a1
a1
IV.
+ 2ab + =  2a& + b* =
fc*
(a
+

&);
&).
(a
we
notice that
2.
minus) twice
the product
of
the square
take the square roots of the terms which are perfect squares, compute the third tlerm which should be present, and check by inspection.
\
2 ILLUSTRATION 1. To factor 4z2 2Qxy f 25y we observe perfect squares 4z 2 and 25y 2 whose square roots are 2x and 5y. Hence the third term should = be 2(2x)(5y) 2Qxy, which checks, and gives
, ,
ILLUSTRATION
2.
2Qxy
+ 25y*
(2x
1624
+ 242^ + 9w
31
(4Z f 3w)*.
'
EXERCISE
Factor by use of Types I and II.
// fractions occur, leave the factors in the form which arises most naturally by standard methods. Check by multiplying
the factors.
\
bx.
4.
2.
2cx
+ 4<fc.
5.
3.
2 6zy f 2ax.
bx
4
f
c2^.
2cy
6.
3o&
+ 2a 6te2
5a2
7.
ac
+ 3bx + ex
2 <
8.
5y*
2 3y f ay
9.
2
.
4o< f
cf
3
.
10.
*
46V f
+ 86cx
11.
3aV 
2o?/
+ ay
See Note 5 in the Appendix for an explanation of the process for finding the square root of a number expressed in decimal notation, by means of pure arithmetic. This process is intimately related to the formula of Type III.
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
12. 14. 17.
AND FACTORING
91
6aV x2  a2
64
3<w2
+ 40^.
15. w>2 18.
13. 2t04z
6w*c2
+ 5w*r*.
16. y*
s2 .
2s .
25.
x*y\
25s2 .
9ft
2
.
36
19. 4x*
y\
1.
21.
36# 
121.
.
22. 9s*
4a2
24. 1
27.
25x2
w*.
1.
26. 9s2
J.
9a26*u>
16s*u>.
29. 25W?2
c2^.
.
30.
49u 2
32. 9
144a262
33. ax*
 16v^.  ay*.
36.
36a26s
64x 8
34.
Which trinomials
36. x2 37. 39.
+ 3x + 4. 4z + 6z + 9. 3z + fay + 4y*.
2
a2
+a+
6x2
1.
38. 9x 4
40. 4z2
to
any missing term of Types III and IV. 41. x 2 f 2bx + b*.
Insert
43.
Then
2
factor by use
42. 44.
a2
2a
(
+

1.
46. u?
47.
h 36.
46.
48.
x2 h 81
l&c.
49. 49x 2
51. 64
+
(
14ox
+a
2
.
53. 66.
67. 69. 61.
56.
2
.
68.
60.
+ 2<fy + y x f + 16. 4z  20xz + 25 x + x + J. 1 + z z  2x2. 9a + + 256. 166 + 49x 9x + hW. 24ax + 9x + 16a 25  30x + 9x
rf
.
2 2
2
.
62.
Factor.
63.
.
49
4ft
2
.
64. 75o2
3a262
65.
25s2
30^2
4
+ 9u
2
.
67.
x2 f 25^
x.
68. 9X4
+ 49s/ 
42xV
60.
4a2x
4ax f
92
70. x*
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
AND FACTORING
50. Y2.
9y*>
71.
.
98u4
3a2x2
9oz2
lay*.
10064
74.
5ay.
18u2
76. 16x 4
25wV  TOu2
2w6
^+
2
49t^.
77.
60wt>
12t*V
18y8
79. 147x2
First factor
80. 23 2
17 2
Check by expanding the original expression. 81. 522  482 82. 27 2  232 .
.
83. 1042
962
84.
452
trial
552
85. 37 2
33 2
by
and
error
method
VI
of Section 70.
(a
flex* f
* k can be factored by a Certain trinomials of the form gx* f hx trial and error method suggested by the preceding formulas.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
(x
2.
1.
Factor:
1.
2x
8.
We
=
sum
is
+ a)(x + 6) =
8;
(a
+ 6)a? + ab =
x2
2x
8.
Hence, ab
Since the
of 8.
thus a and 6 have opposite signs and are factors of the cross products is 4 2x, we guess that a =
and 6
2.
This
correct because
(x
4)(*
+ 2) =
a, 6, c,
x*
2x
8. 8.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
(ax
2.
1.
Factor:
15x2
+ 2z
=
We
6d
wish to find
oca;
2
and d so that
15z2
+ 6) (ex f d) =
=
15,
(ad
+ bc)x + bd
=
+ 2z is
8.
Hence, oc
choose 6
=
=
(15z
8,
2x.
2. First trial.
Since oc
=
4.
choose a
15 and c
is
=
8.
since bd
8,
2 and d
This selection
wrong because
+ 2)(z  4) =
3, c
5,
15s 2
6
5&c
2,
is
=
f
and d
4.
This selection
(3x
* If g, h,
2) (fir
+ 4) =
15x2
2z
8.
would probably be prime. Later, we shall discuss a condition which satisfy when and only when the trinomial is not prime.
and
A;
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
If
AND FACTORING
93
merely the negative of another, we do not consider them as distinct prime factors; we combine their powers into a single power of one of them.
is
ILLUSTRATION = x 2)
1.
In 4x
x
4
2}(x
f
2)
x*
4x
4,
we
2
.
notice that
(x
+ 2).

Hence, we write
Note
1.
xz
= 
(x
+ 2)(z + 2) = 
(x
+ 2)
The preceding
factoring
in
which
the coefficients are any real numbers, not merely integers as in the illustrations. The nature of the coefficients which we agree to allow in a polynomial and its factors affects our definition of a prime expression but not our
general factoring procedure.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
3.
Factor:
6z 4
error,
x*
15.
By
trial
and
6s4
z2
15
(3z
5)(2z
+ 3).
EXERCISE 32
Factor by
1. x*
trial
and
error methods.
2.
3.
a2
x2
< 2
6.
7. 9.
z 2 f lOz
4. y*
6. 2
2
+ 21.  1y + 12.
52
6.
8.
w*
5w
24.
16.
z2
18.
10.
a2
+ 6a 3y
7a
11. w*
+ 2w  48.
2w
12.
14.
4
8
2
.
w>
2
.
a2
24
32 54
+ 2w  w
4y
2
.
16. 62 18.
y\
fc
3&
6z
2
.
20. 22.
24.
72.
'2o:
29.
26.
.
+ 36  28. 27 + Qw 36 + 5h  K. + 7z + 3. 3o + 8a 4 5. 3a  lOa + 7.
w?
2
.
28. 2x*
x*
30.
94
31. 3x*
33. 8u*
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
AND FACTORING
4y
+x 9
10.
9.
4.
6I08
5 4 3x 4 2z2 8
4 2y
2
35. 1504
37. 7
a2
28.
.
15^.
8fc
19z
6z2
38.
40.
12fc2
4 15.
7b*.
39.
27z2 4 3x
+ 2.
15z2
.
5a2 4 J2a& 4
42.
3x2 4 7ax
6a2
Sw2
4 14u
20.
2
45.
5w2
28wu> 4 12^.
46. 45fc2
Sxy
4t/
6a2
13o6 4 S62
48. 60. 49
2
4a;
7xy
3t/
49. lOOa2
52. Tc2
 x*.
19cd
462
61.
+
2z2
6tf.
63. 65.
64a2
48ac
+ 9c
2
.
64.
+ 15 4 x.
30tw.
6z 2
+ 20 
7*.
66. 9 4 2502io2
58.
57. 2x?
59.
8a2c
18c.
.
W+
10064 .
60.
3a 4 13a6 4 10a62
2
rf
61. 25x2
63. 2r 65.
+ 30c + 3cX
.16d4 .
3.
llhr 4 ISAV.
16y*.
^31x 3s4
16x2 H
67. 69.
5x2
7z2
3.
xV 4 9xy
6s
1
4.
52.
9s*.
20.
71. 73.
4x2 4 12s
9.
76.
9a2 4 30a6
2S62
76. 3s4
17x2 f 10.
2y*.
77. 2X4
79.
+x 2
15.
78. 3s4
 5xV by
3O4
76. Factoring
use of grouping
following methods make frequent use of the fact that an expression enclosed within parentheses should be treated as a single
The
number
expression.
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
1.
AND FACTORING
3(x
a)
*=
95
ILLUSTRATION
ILLUSTRATION
5(x
a)
2(x
a).
2.
To
6),
we observe
the
common
factor (a
and remove
b) 4
2c(o
d(a
b)
(a
6)(2c
+ d).
factor,
ILLUSTRATION
bx
+ by 4 2&c 4 2hy =
4.
(* 4 y)
ILLUSTRATION
(or,
by changing
signs
1) both within and without the parentheses in order multiplying by to exhibit the same binomial factor as the first term:
6)
+ 40(6  2a) 
3x(2a
b)
4y(2a
b)
4t/)(2a
6).
In order to factor below, we group two terms within parentheses preceded by a minus sign, and hence change the signs of the terms, in order to exhibit the same factor as observed in the other terms:
ILLUSTRATION
5.
xz
kx 4 kw
z(x
wz
k(x
(xz
wz)
(kx
kw)
w).
w) 6
w)
=
3
(z
k)(x
(6
ILLUSTRATION
6.
3s2
8x
+ 4z =
4c)
Sx)
=
ILLUSTRATION
(c
2(3
7.
40)
x*(3
(3
40) (2
 (3z  &)
2
2z)
(6
We factor below as the difference of two squares:  a) 2 = [(c  2x)  (b  a)][(c  2) + (6  a)] = (c  2x  6 + a)(c  2x + 6  a).
a2
s
ILLUSTRATION
2
(c f d)
(a
d)(o
+cH
EXERCISE 33
Factor.
5(* 4
2/).
2.
4(3A
+ *) 3d)
9(3A 426(c
J/).
4 5a(c
2).
6.
3d).
2A(m
2)
3fc(m
2c(x 4 40)
96
7. 9.
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
5c(r
+
)
+ 2d(r + s).
(>
*)
3A(w
3a(w
11. 13.
15.
17. 19.
+ 26u>  46fc. 3ac + 3bc + ad + bd. cs + 3dr cr 3ds. 2cx + cy 2dx %. 4Ax 4bh 8cx + 8bc.
2k)
14.
16. 18.
+ h 2hx + 2%. 2a + 2ay + bx + by. 4&c 46A + bcx 56c. lOod 4bd. box + 26z
fee fa/
20.
36tt>
360
4aw
f 4az.
21. (x 3
2a; )
(x
2).
22. (ax 3
24. ax2 26.
23. x*
26. x8 27.
+ 2x* + x + 2.  3x + x  3.
2
+ + 6z

fee )
2
4(ax
+ b).
.
2 h ad
+ b&.
8z3
2x2
4x
+1lOx4
29.
 3a  3 H a. 3X  2x2 + 6x  4.
a3
2 3
28. 2 30.
+ 4x &c2
y)
2
5x
+
2
.
31. 2(r
33.
s)
x(s
2
.
r).
32. a(x
+ 6(?/
2
?/)
.
x2
(s H 3)
34. (w 36.
35. (2z
+ wY 3d)
2
y*.
37. (c
39. z2
(2x
+ y)
2
.
2
.
38.
41.
43.
2
2/
+ 20 H 1  9* + 2y + 2  4x
2
40.
2
.
42.
44.
4a2
922
2
2/
62
1.
 I)  16& 2 (4a (2x (4x  3y)  25. 4i^ + 20w + 25 9w>  4a  4ab  a f 2ab 16i/
fe)
81
62 .
fe
2
.
46. 9x2
+ 2y
z2 .
46. t^2
4x2
y*
4xy.
47. 16a2
49. bx 4 61. 2*
9x2 H 6x.
cy
4
.
48. a2c
60. a2
ft
a2d
2
by4 + ex*  w2 +  22
t*>
.
62. ch f 6dfc
2
 53.
64. 66.
2/
4<2 .
ft
24xj/ H 9j/
9a2
12a
Qxy
2
2/
25a2
10a6
 4.  6.
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
68. 4z2 59. 62
AND FACTORING
9s2
97
4xy f
y*
+
2
.
6w?
 w2
9z 2
+
2
2ab
+ a*. +c
y
2
60.
61. 62.
4# 4o2
a2
16102
4cd
+ 96 96s
4z 2
2o
2
4zy
12o6.
d2
66d
63. 16s4
Sly
81c2
+ 4z 
9y\
4s4
.
'64
cV 
+ 324 
77.
Cube
of a binomial
(x
2x2!/
On collecting terms we obtain (1) and, similarly, we could verify (2) 8 = y* + 3x*y + 3xy* + y8 (x + y) (1)  y) 8 = x8  3xa# + 3xya  y8 (x (2)
;
.
these formulas.
1,
From formula
3
with x
2
2a and y
2
6,
s
(2a
+ 6) =
(2a)
+ 3(2a)
12a2 6
2,
(6)
+ 3(2a)(6 + 6
)
ILLUSTRATION
2.
From formula
(4
 xY =
64
78.
Sum and
difference of
two cubes
By
long division
we
 a2
Hence, we have the following formulas, useful for factoring when read from left to right, and useful in multiplication when read from
right to
left.
98
ILLUSTRATION
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
1.
AND FACTORING
left,
By
use of
(1),
with 6
3,
(a
2 3)(a 4 3a
+ 9) 
a3
3*
a8
27.
ILLUSTRATION
27s8
2.
8s/
= =
(3*)'
(3* 44
ILLUSTRATION
3.
64s8
I8
(4z)
6
j/
(1
19?/
3
4z)(l
216.
+ 4z 4
16z2 ).
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.
Factor:
tf
lty
216
(y
27) (^
+ 8)
4).
EXERCISE 34
Divide by long division and check by use of Section 78.
*'
+y
2
~

a3
A ah
O. ~
o 2763 a 4 36
8s3 2x
3y
Multiply by inspection.
5. (c 4 w?)(c
cw
4 w*).
6.
(u
2 v)(w 4 uv 4
2
t>
).
7.
(3a
(1
2 2 c)(9o 4 3ac 4 c ).
8. (1
w)(l 4
9.
2 3x)(l 4 3x 4 9x ).
10. (2
3u)(4 4
11. (6
2 2 2x)(6 4 2bx 4 4x ).
4y 4
1).
Factor.
13.
d3
^.
v9 .
14. 18.
A3 48
2*.
15.
27.
16.
u3
64 8
4 1.
17. 1
x8
19. s3 4 1000.
20.
24. 27.
t^.
21. 1
27s3
22. 125 4
8^.
26. x8
23. s3
SwA
27x3
25. 216s3
yV.
64^.
343a3
Sz3*3
Expand each
28. (c 4 d)*.
32. (5
3
A;)
.
30. (2 4 y) 3 .
31. (u 4 3) 3
8
.
y)
ft
8
.
33. (2x 4 w) 8 .
34. (y
38. (x2
3x)
i/
36. (a
2 8
37. (a
,
2x)
2 8 ) .
2ft )
2 8
.
40. (o
2s8) 8
41. (2c*
3s)
8
.
2x)
8
.
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
Factor.
AND FACTORING
99
43. y*
46. 8z 47. 49.
+ 7z* 2
8.
44. 276
+ 26fc 16a*6
1.
6
 19xV  27y.  3o + 3a  1.
9w*x
d)
3
46. 64a
48. s3
8
.
+6 + 62? + 12s + 8.
.
w 
+ 27w*c  27s
2
60.
125us
x)*
75u2
f
51. (c
as
 62. (h
(y
can be written as the difference of two squares if the expression becomes a perfect square 2 after the addition of a perfect square multiple of x2y
of the
f
.
An expression
form z4
kx 2y2
+y
2
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.
Factor:
1.
64o*
64a2 62 44
256*.
4
aqd
25ft
is
640*
+ 80a 6
4 f 256 .
64a262 + 2564 becomes a perfect square if we add 144a262 2 2 2 2 Therefore, we add 144o 6 and, to compensate for this, also subtract 144a 6
2.
4 Hence, 64a
64a*
64o2fe2
4
+ 256
5ft
2
(640
4 )
= =
(64a
(8a
2
f
2 H S6
12a&).
EXAMPLE
2.
Factor:
1.
Qx4
I6x*y*
+ 4y*.
and 4y* are
(1)
SOLUTION.
The
9s4
db
In order to obtain 12a:V from (1), we would have to add 2&rV> but this is not a perfect square. To obtain 12#V we must add 4afy2 which is a perfect square.
,
2.
Add, and also subtract, 4zy in (1) Ox4  16zy + 4^ = (9s4  16*y
:
+ 40*
2xy).
*EXERCISE 35
Factor by reducing to a difference of two squares.
1. a*
4.
+ +L ftc + lla; + 4.
2
2.
^
4 5. s
+ 1. + A ^ + h*.
3
2
2
3.
6.
Qo4
9s4
+ 2o

f 1.
1.
10*' h
700
7. 4t0*
2
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
AND FACTORING
4
10.
+ Sa ^ h 9a 4# + 4d?h* + 25A
64A4
.
4
.
8. a<
 9oV +
4
Ify/
9.
25a4
 5aW f
4
.
46*.
4
.
11. s* 14.
13. s4 h 16. x*
+ 4. 625Z + 4w*.
17.
12. w^ 16.
+ 4s 81* + 64s
4
4
.
 12aW +
1604
Oa4
16a2c2
+ 4e*.
18.
20.
19.
25O4
+ 9^  34ay.
21.
An
if it is
ILLUSTRATION
1.
IGa4 ^8
is
(2O6
.
2 4 ) .
ILLUSTRATION
2.
2 2 3 (2a 6 )
The
In a perfect nth power, each exponent has n as a factor because in raising a term to the nth power we multiply each of the original exponents by n.
ILLUSTRATION
3.
(2
a2 64 ) n
2 3n a2n 64n
*81
I.
Special cases of
sum
//
is even,
commence factoring
b n ) by recognizing
it
as the
ILLUSTRATION
1.
x6
6
t/
(x
3 2 )
(y
=
6
t/ )
3
(a:
^)(x
+ y*)
(x
t/)(x
xy
+ y*).
We
could have
commenced by
cubes,
but
this
inefficient
method.
that each term
is
ILLUSTRATION
perfect square.
To
factor 16o4 64
81,
we observe
2 2 9)(4a 6 2 2
Hence,
16a4 &4
81
=
where the
II. n
final factor is
(2afe
2 2 (4a 6
+ 9)
9),'
3)(2afe
+ 3)(4a 6 +
a prime
sum
of perfect squares.
//
is
factor,
(a
6 n ) by recognizing
as the
sum
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
ILLUSTRATION
3.
AND FACTORING
707
x9
(x
3
+y =
9 6
(z
3 3
)
+ 2/*)(z
3 3
!/
+ (y +
3 3
)
/*)
*EXERCISE 36
Express the perfect power as the 3d or 4th power of some other term, whichever is the case.
1.
8a363
2. 6.
27ay. 64xy.
is
3.
7.
16a4 64
4.
12
.
81xy.
625ay.
5.
125xy.
256W8
!;
8.
not prime.
11. 16 15. 81 19.
a4 x8
x4
y
8
10. y4
14.
81.
.
13.
x4 f y4 a6
 w4  16x
.
12.
4
.
Six4
y a6
4
.
16.
x*.
17. 21.
w
x6
1.
18.
64.
64/.
6
.
20.
+ 64.
fl
1.
22. 729
a6
23. 27.
729
25.
256
a8
y
26.
.
h9
k*.
a9
+x +6
9
.
24. 125
<z
28. a8
.
+6
s
.
29. Six8
33. a6
Sly
.
8
.
31. 35.
625
16X8
32. x8 36.
646.
64
+ xy
8a3
27x6
 w* xu  yu
8 8
.
*82. Properties of
factors of a" db
bn
verified special cases of the following results, where n represents a positive integer. Any special case of the results can be
We
have
*
checked
I.
by long
n
division.
n
n, (a
b n ) has (a
b)
b).
as a factor; in other
words, (a
b n ) is exactly divisible by (a
1.
ILLUSTRATION
a3
a*
a4
II.
16
(a
6) (a
//
is even, (a
2.
ILLUSTRATION
a2
4
54
= =
(o
(
6) (a
s
+ b).
2& 4.
+ 5)( _
a&2
_
is
met
in
more advanced
J02
III.
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
AND FACTORING
6)
2
Ifnis
odd, (a
3.
+ bn
has (a f
(a
6
as a factor.
ILLUSTRATION a7
a8
s f 6
+& 7
(a
+ 6)(a
+ 6) (a ab f  a 6 + o ^  a 6 + a'6 4
6) or (a
+ 6)
not
(a*
+o
6*)
is
+6
a2
+ &)(a4 _
is
prime.
Special cases of the following general properties were exhibited by the second factors in Illustrations 1, 2, and 3.
A.
When
(a*
b n ) is divided by (a
in the quo
tient are f 1.
B.
When
(a
+ bn
or (an
bn ) is divided by (a
1
+ 6),
the coefficients
and
1.
Factors obtained
by
,
reference to
(I), (II),
and
(III) are
not always
prime. Also, as seen in Illustration 4 and Section 81, an expression n n with n even, may be factorable although (IV) of the type a 4 & In finding the prime factors of an is true. b n first use the methods
,
of Section 81
if
possible, before
5.
employing
(I), (II),
2
and
2
(III).
16).
ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION
z6
+ 64 =
y
9
(x
2 8 )
+4 =
3
(z
+ 4)(x*  4s +
8 6
6.
x9
= =
(z
8 8 )
(y
8 8 )
= =
(z
 ^(x + xV f
# )(x
2
2/
(x
(x (*
ILLUSTRATION
use of
7.
x4
= (x
2 2
(y
2 2 )
(x
+y
y)(*
8
+ y)(* +
2
).
(1)
By
(I),
x4
^
2/)(x
+ x*y + xy + y
2
).
(2)
(2) is
= &(x
Thus, we
finally arrive at the factors
f y)
j/
(x
+ y)
by a much
less
desirable process.
SPECIAL PRODUCTS
AND FACTORING
f03
*EXERCISE 37
Find the quotient by long division, and the remainder if the division
s
eocft reswft
+y
+ 2y
x4 z
is inexact.
+ 16 +2
and
~
13.
(
u*
16
y>)
8)
(a
+y
2).
).
14. (i6x*
a4)
1)
*
(2a?
+ a).
1).
15. (a8
8
(a
16. (243* 6
(3x
J?.
"

19 19.
sr
^
26 '
oo s"
"
a;*
2a
166*
a5
32
t>
c6 .
6
.
29.
a4
32.
+x
33. 1
.
 w4  ^. 41.
30.
u7
v7.
8
.
31. u* 35.
+ t^

34. a*
1.
256s/
l
36. 40.
32u8
37. 32a6
38. xn
+ y\
39. 128
x6
243j/*.
a8
27z.
42.
4
.
43. 4x*
46.
49.
+ 1. 32xw + y*.
x9
.
+ 810
45.
+ 16x + w + y
4 3*
ffi
x16 z
512
+ y". + 512a'.
48.
51.
CHAPTER
6
IN FRACTIONS
ADVANCED TOPICS
Whenever we make a
assumed
reference to factoring in a fraction, it will be that the numerator and denominator are integral rational
coefficients.
In the
final result of
any
we
form
if it
arises naturally.
SUMMARY.
1.
To reduce a fraction
to lowest
terms:
2.
all
their
common
factors.
ILLUSTRATION 1. In the following fraction, we divide both numerator and denominator by 3z 4y and indicate this by cancellation.
3x2
+ 2xy 2.
Sy
&xr=^Sy)(x
+ 2y)
+ 2y
In reducing the following fraction to lowest terms, we first notice that one factor in the numerator is merely the negative of a factor of the denominator.
ILLUSTRATION
x2 12 2x
9
2x
2
(x3)(x
2(3
z)(2
+ x)
x
_.
3)
In the preceding
(3
line,
we obtained
it
x)
by
1,
and hence
ADVANCED TOPICS
IN FRACTIONS
105
EXERCISE 38
Reduce
1
,
to lowest terms.
irv
wy
n
a*b(x
ni A/
2y)
r\
3
c*
6c f 6d
3c
c2d(o 4 36)
+ 3d
26y 6s
4at/
cz(z
+
y
2
y)
cd*(a
+ 36)
ex
2
2ac
z2
~
t1 ' 11.
ax a2
A
2
1ft 10.
^
cx
2 2
+ cy
:
^.
c 4o  96
14A
^ 2ax
36x
^*
a2
12. *
4ax
15
26x
13 '
_
m m42 m  3m  28
+ 2a a + a 2
lo.
13a;
10
3x2
3a:
2
17.
12a2
A
'
IW
4#2/ 4"
ty ax
22.
x* 4"
bxy
\
+ ay
2a
26
rt ,
Reduce to lowest terms with as few minus signs as possible remaining in the numerator and denominator.
3
a
27.
y)
2
OK
2z2y
o 4 6
ax 5
a;
Ofl
2a
+ 2d
5a
3v
3w
3x
z 2 Ox 418  2z
.
9
(y
2z)
9
*
94*
2
15z 4
4a;
 15
2a:
15ca;
27
39.
26x 2
263
x3 4
6^
x*
?0<$
ADVANCED TOPICS
common
of
IN
WACT/ONS
84. Lowest
multiple of polynomials
integral rational polynomials is defined
all
The
LCM
two or more
numbers, with smallest integral coefficients, which has each given polynomial as a Two results for a LCM which differ only in sign will be factor. considered essentially identical because usually the sign of a LCM is
the
literal
of
no importance.
\
To
The
find
LCM,
first
ILLUSTRATION
2(3
is
1.
LCM of
4(z
1).
z)(3
+ a),
3)(s
1),
and
3(z
x)
3)'
43(x
3) (z
+ 3)(z 
We
x
and
(x
3)
The
tors.
LCD of two or more fractions is the LCM of their denominaWe shall deal with the notion of a LCM only where it is a LCD.
1.
Note
factor
(HCF)
of
two or more
integral
rational expressions
coefficients,
which
is
the expression of highest degree, with largest integral a factor of each of the given expressions. Thus, the
is
4xy*
2xy
8
.
We
shall
not find
it
SUMMARY.
1.
To
express a
that
sum
is,
of fractions as
single fraction:
Find
the
LCD;
and form
the
product of all different prime factors, giving to each factor the highest exponent with which it appears in any denominator.
by the denominator and then multiply both numerator and denominator by the resulting quotient, to express the fraction as an equal one having the LCD.
2.
For each
LCD
3.
Combine
the
new numerators
and
divide
by the
Note
LCD.
To check
the addition of fractions, substitute explicit values numbers in the given sum and the final result.
1.
EXAMPLE
1.
4x
9
x*
+ x6
ADVANCED TOP/CS
SOLUTION.
1.
IN FRACT/ONS
107
*2
Hence,
2.
3.
3)(x
+ 3);
z2
+x 9) 6)
(x
+ 3)(*  2).
2. 3.
LCD
(a
3) (a; f 3) (a?
= =
x *
4.
and by x
x*
z2
+x (as
6
3z(a;
2)
(a;
3)
(2)
(3)
CHECK.
In
(1)
:
When x 
4,
we
obtain:
16
12
16
16
7
6
7
10
169
:
+ 46
, ,
,
For
j.
(4
ow ow  3)(4 + 3)(4
^r
2)
TT
which checks.
Comment.
such as
ILLUSTRATION 1. In the following addition of fractions, we change signs in the second denominator in order to exhibit the identical nature of two
factors in the denominators:
5
X
g\
1
I
7
A
f*
..
3(3c2d)
(52)
5757
6c
4d
3(3c
2d)
2(3c
(73)
11
32(3c2c*)
6(3c2d)'
EXERCISE 39
Change
the fraction
1.
to
the
specified denominator.
2).
3x/(x
2); 4);
3)
new denominator,
(x (y
+ $)(x
4)(3y
2.
3.
2y/(y
new denominator,
;
1).
3z/(2z
2/(a f 2)
9.
f
6.
4.
5. (3
a)/(2
new denominator, 2a
4.
708
ADVANCED TOPICS
into
IN FRACTIONS
Combine
Where
letters
are involved,
check by substitution
when
_Z.
10
"
nf
12
30
5*
4+
7 5?
v
_
46*
2a
3(a
11.
i\
^p
6)
5(a
iv
XU. _
6)
7x
32
.
8 ?
3
3a 4 2 x  5
'
4
 vs3x 5x 3y 5y
12.
4 6
3
15.
3s
2c
FJ 6d
+ 3d ^j c
'
16.
2a
46
66
3a
 1 ^ 6x  3
6x 4 6
s
*
2 2
3x
20.
2x
9a2
a
d2
6a
K
21.
2x
23.
3a+l. 3
a:
24.
!5
10
OK 26.
f
2fl
2y
+
' i
; 2
26.
4c
'
3a;
48
'
07
2a 00 29.
~n  2n
"*"
3a 6n
 4n  6a* 1
a  4 2a  4
2
"*"
 llo 2  a
x
4 2x
x 4 4
x 4 x
~~
2x41
x 4 4x
32>
2
12
60
"
3n
2c
n2
I
4
3n
4*
o2
16
a2 4 8a 4 16
3
I
'
33 ***** no
~ 
3
10 18
I '
3C
> 2
i 1 ^
lie 4 6
34 *"
+ 5x2 &^
^
^ .2
i^
2x
2y
27
"
4x
12x 4 9
x*
+8
2s*
x2
2* 4 4
s 4 3
37
:c
3s*
4
4""2x
"
5s2
4
4x
6
2^43^2
x6
ADVANCED TOPICS
39
2z
IN FRACTIONS
J09
3x2
2
x 2
+x
< **
+ 5 ~r 3s + 6* + 3 3s + 5 2a; 2s
2
2z
3
4*2
8s2
'
18
2x*
 toe +
a 3o2
2z2
3z
9 a
49 ** & _o 6a2
06
_r
fe
ro 2
' i
+ 36 + 7a6 + 26
a  9a
q
2
26
2a2
r2
6ar
___ +
9a2
2r
r2
86. Factoring
multiply or divide fractions involving polynomials, factor the numerators and denominators and divide out all common factors
To
1.
2x  19z + 42 ^ _ ^ u ^ _ 12
7x
15
+ 5) 7)(x + 2)
3) (a;
'
(2s '7) (a
3)
4(2z
6)
(x
+ 6)(s 4(x + 2)
6)
'
3)(2z
2 2t/ **
7).
y
z
ILLUSTRATION
x*
2.
5 x*
+xy = ^ 75 2xy + y
z
xy*
fj x*
^ + x*y
w3 x*
5 2 x
xy
xy
2
(a?
y)
(a;
'
(x
(^
+ y)
2(g
a;
y)
a:
(x
(x
y)(x
ILLUSTRATION
4
=
3.
T 2
(x v
1
ON 2)
2a;
^ 2
a;
4
=
.
x 2 :
=
where we divided out
(re
 2) 5
'x
x2
5*
2).
Whenever a mixed
to change the
mixed expression to a
hi simplification.
710
ADVANCED 7OP/CS
1.
IN FRACTIONS
At
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
Reduce to a simple
fraction:
Express the numerator and denominator of the complex fraction as simple fractions and divide:
u2
25
9
9u25
5
3u
3u
5)
(3t<
5)
somewhat shorter solution is obtained if, as the first step, we multiply both numerator and denominator by the LCD, 9, of the fractions
Comment.
involved in them.
ILLUSTRATION
4.
~ f (1
Zx 2
(2
2
*
J
(2
+ 3s
2
1
4 *"^
*""'
9s*
=)
2
f
3z)(2
3z)
3s
EXERCISE 40
Perform the indicated operation and reduce to a simple fraction in lowest terms. Check by substituting values for the letters, where directed by the instructor.
3a
36 a
+ 26
4
a&'
hxhy cwbw, abac 3xZy
K = 5. 2
a;
""
r
2 ^2 (a;
IA\ . lo).
A o. .
4a;
5w
2s
aw
^ 5k
.
ex
ok
1  16
A 9.
/K
.
'
6y
2
/
2
*
2y
(a?
(5x v
o *N 2 3x ) '
4
+
x
r=
IA = 10.
62
3s
=3y

4a*
a*
+ 06
96
ADVANCED TOPICS
14.
IN FRACTIONS
IU
a
3xl
oxf 6x
17.
20.
23.
26.
29 .
I
32.
(l \
o2
133.
2s*
+ 5z 
34.
12
nx
35.
on
at;
ex
ac). y
36.
*~
2?
37.
on
_i1
112
41
/
2
ADVANCED TOPICS
a4
IN FRACTIONS
_._
*
8164
U c  3o6c + 96^
c4
2
__
'
+ 36 \  6a6 + 96 /
a
2
.
a2
+ 606 + a + 276
3
42
(c*d 2 \c
 c*  4cP
'
c*'+ 8d \ a8  2763 /
44
3o H 46
5oc H
a
16o
z
2
t~
"""
~~~*
5o
__
o2
47.
4 7^2
Find
and reduce
the result to
a simple fraction
in lowest terms.
/3a:+l
l2^^2
Reduce
a*
6*
to
g 5
\ + JTT/'
.
a simple fraction in
lowest terms.
x4
..
+ 4x + 8
2
51.
_L_
x* *
62.
a4
..
+2
3
A2
V
2_V_? + 3/U + 2
66.
L_\ a/
64.
r7
A 4o
2a
1
+ 2a
66.
4o
_  _.
T
1
67.
4o
a
ADVANCED TOPICS
87. Equations involving fractions
IN FRACTIONS
773
To
1.
an equation involving fractions, we proceed as follows. Factor all denominators and form the LCD in factored form.
solve
2.
of fractions.
G, EXAMPLE
1.
Solve:
~
3
2x
2^3
2x
+ 28
9),
(1)
SOLUTION.
2.
1.
The
LCD

is
(2z
+ 3)(2z  3), or
+ 3) =
Or
3)
(4z
LCD:
2x(2x
2x
+ 28,
(2)
etc.
because
3.
(2x
in (2)
+ 3)(2z Gx
2x(2x
+ 3);
Expand
4x*
and
collect terms:
Qx
4x2
2x
+ 28;
 28 =
14x;
(1).
= 
2.
substituting x
2 in
roots than
x
3x
.
and x
2)

=
A 0.
2 are
^ 2
+2=
A 0.
or
(x 
^^ 2
1.
(x
we obtain
A
0,
or
The
final
The
root x
2 was
lost
by
the division.
In solving algebraic equations, we usually avoid operations of Type A in order that roots may not be lost.*
B. // both members of an equation are multiplied by an expression involving the unknowns, the new equation thus obtained may have more solutions than the original equation.
See Note 4 in the Appendix for a "proof" that 2 = 1, in which the fallacy involves an operation of Type A which conceals a division by zero.
*
114
ADVANCED TOPICS
The equation x
IN FRACTIONS 3
3.
If
+ 2)(x  3)
0,
or
x*
0.
By
x
substitution,
2.
we
3 and
The
root
A value
satisfies
is
of the
unknown, such as x
2 in
Illustratioij 2,
which
a derived equation but does not satisfy the original equation, called an extraneous root. Whenever an operation of Type B is employed, test att values
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.
Solve:
S)*Z
5
v
=
MMB
I A
1l**
*C/
=
^"
I X
O*
C/
^M
^
17 =
I
0.
JL
The
s
LCD is x  1 + 2(x 2
1;
1)
1:
0;
1
3z
3;
qr
a:
1.
in the denominators of the given equation, 1 cannot be accepted as a root because division by zero is not admissible. Hence, 1 is an extraneous root and therefore the given equation
TEST.
Since x
makes z2
has no
root.
EXAMPLE
2.
On
hour, a motorboat takes as long to travel 12 miles downstream as to travel 8 miles upstream. At what rate could the boat travel hi still water?
Let x miles per hour be the rate of the boat in still water. Then the rate of the boat in miles per hour going upstream is (x 3) and
SOLUTION.
1.
downstream
2.
t
is (x
+ 3).
we
obtain
From
d/v.
the standard equation d = vt of uniform motion, Hence, the time in hours for traveling
8 miles upstream
g
is
X
12
is
u
rx
=;
12 miles downstream
3.
Hence,
Multiply both, sides of
S(x
j = .
(1)
(1)
4.
by
(x
3)(s
+ 3):
=
I2x
+ 3) =
12(x
3);
8x
+ 24
15.
still
36;
(2)
4x
60;
water.
ADVANCED TOPICS
IN FRACTIONS
115
EXERCISE 41
Each equation
This reduction
will reduce to
may
linear equation if cleared of fractions properly. be prevented and extraneous roots may be introduced i]
*"
61 ~
2
LCD.
^
'*
x~=3
I7
7: J9 mm&
"
1
4mr
3 2
.75
and
check.
7 A 4.
If*
3
!SS
<7*
A 4.
K 6.
mLf
ml/
2*
+
2 *
3<
+4
5
.a
14
10.
+2
a;
2x
+2
2h
1
+1
1
12.
3x
14<
3
**
3 3*  6
x
t*
*
_
x
2
*3 m "I  1
+ 20+ t2 * +
14
17.
j^j
g^'
2
W.
. 2^"
O j

^
""
6*2 h6
.. ^^ A^r2 \JJb
/r
J(/
^^
mi
\ }
.3
+
*
x *
'
02
4x2 8x
3
+ +
3*
3
1
=
2x
ft
2* 3 * 5
3
*2
*2
6*
5*
2
4* 2*
+ 3*
9* 2
'
*
26.
+3
3 2x 2
 2*2  7x +
7
ii
14
w 27
6
:
5 ^
TT
^
*
_3 ^
2
yi
2sl
c
**"
+4
i_
^. JC
176
29. In
ADVANCED TOPICS
IN FRACTIONS
a certain fraction, the denominator exceeds the numerator by 5. If the numerator and denominator are both increased by 3, the fraction Find the original fraction. equals f
.
30.
On
six quizzes in
average score.
How
up
mathematics, a student has obtained 70% as his many scores of 86% each must be obtained to bring
to
80%?
and Smith both
31. In one hour, Jones can plow J of a field. If Jones work, they can plow the field in 2 hours and 24 minutes.
would
32.
it
takes a certain airplane as long to travel 320 miles against the wind as 480 miles with it. How fast can the airplane travel in still air?
33.
When the wind velocity is 20 miles per hour, it takes a certain air90% as long to travel with the wind to any destination as it would
How
fast
air?
tank has one intake pipe which fills it hi 8 hours. A second intake pipe is installed and it is found that, when both are in use, they hours. How long would it take the second pipe alone to fill the tank hi 2 fill the tank?
fuel
a river whose current flows at the rate of 3 miles per hour, a motorboat takes as long to travel 12 miles downstream as to travel 8 miles upstream. At what rate could the boat travel in still water?
35.
On
and 4 miles per hour, reIt takes a man as long to row 13 miles downstream on the spectively. slower river as to row 15 miles downstream on the faster river. At what rate can he row in still water?
36.
rivers flow at the rates of 3 miles
Two
89. Solution of
literal
In solving a linear equation in a single unknown x, when other literal numbers occur in the equation, it may be necessary to factor
either in clearing of fractions or in simplifying the final result.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2. 3.
1.
Solve for x:
1.
b(b
fc
Expand:
+ x) = + bx =
o2
ax. ox.
o2
o2
(o
Add
2 ox; subtract 6 :
o& f 6x
x(o
Factor:
+ 6)
x
4.
Divide by (a
+ 6)
= = =
62 .
6) (a
b.
+ 6).
Comment.
To
check, substitute x
ADVANCED TOPICS
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.
IN FRACTIONS
117
Solve for *:
62
a) (6
a2
= + aL+* 6
first
!L. a 6
+
The
LCD
is (6
+ a). We
6)
denominator (a
:
and
a
by multiplying by the
LCD
aw
6
2
+ 6* w
a
2
\
w+
a
+6
Multiply by
(6
a2 )
010
+6 2
(w
+ 6) (6 + a) and
(w
+ a)(6  a).
w=
o.
(1)
in (1)
solve, to obtain
EXERCISE 42
otoe for
1.
x or # or
is,
whichever appears.
2.
ex
3o
= =
2/i.
7x
36x
3ox
5.
3.
3o*
4a3
bz
9a2
4z
62 .
1.
4.
6.
962
2ax
4o2
6.
a2
=
= =
mnx
a
x)
anx
m.
ax. ax.
7.
x2
3n2
a2
(3n
62 a*x
z)
2
.
8. 6(6
a2
+
=
9.
a6x
o6x.
2
10. bx
12. hz 14.
2
bd
ad
11. 6(6*
13.
A2
ab
kz
k*.
ax
6cx
a2
b(x
26).
c2
6ax.
b'
x(a
a2
46)
62
+6
18
6
~^a
x b*~*a
+a +b
x
17 '*
2x
=
d
2x
26
2a
26
4A
19.
+h
4x2
21.
W
x
262
2x
a2
h
2
6
2oc
x x
x
+ 06 for 6.
26s
+ 2a + 4a6 + 2a
S  r
22. Solve
C=
r6
23. Solve
^ 1
for
r.
24. Solve s
=
c
r for 6. b
118
ADVANCED TOPICS
IN FRACTIONS
EXERCISE 43
Review of Chapters
4, 5,
and 6
Perform
1.
and
collect terms.
(3x
+ 5y).
4. (x
2.
(4x
5.
3yz)(4x*
2
+ 82/2).
6.
3. (2*
7. (a
+ 3)
2*)*.
V
3w>)
(2a
+ 56)
2
.
4)(a
+ 4a 4
16).
8. (2x
3s)(4x
+ 6x
11.
14.
s f 92 ).
Factor.
9.
2
j/
25s*.
4 4 Slj/ *
2
.
M % +
2
8
 9W.  276.
16.
18.
2
2/
*
8w
122/2
+ 4z*.
19. 2
21. S*2
23.
30;
h 45u>*.
2a8 h 4a2
a2
to
2o
25. x*
6a6
 4.  96
2
26.
w?)
f
4.
Reduce
3 .
a simple fraction in
lowest terms.
4j
5 .
Q O _
2 l~
1 j^
5 _ x
3x
*
(j
T
* ~
9
29 
ox
.
f
2x
+3
2a
56
3y2
or x
2y5
and
2
3c
36
3x
+x
3
2
2
.
'
12
H
2x
3+lx
1
+ 4x
"
7
2x
4x2
~+
16x
.
2 A 3X
2x h 9
+ 2x
CHAPTER
On
off
each of the perpendicular axes OX and OF in Figure 4, we lay a scale with as the zero point on both scales. In the plane of
Y
4
3
II
 
2
1
~
I
123456
I
I I
I.
654321
1
+
IV
III
3
The
4..
OY
this di
Fig.
The
vertical coordinate, or
OX
OX
the ordinate of P, is the perpendicular P; this directed distance is positive if P is P is below OX.
Each
abscissa
of the lines
OX
and
OF
is
called
a coordinate
axis,
and the
and ordinate
of
The point ordinates of P. the origin of the coordinate system. When the axes are labeled as in Figure 4, we sometimes refer to the abscissa as the and
together are called the rectangular coat which the axes intersect is called
OX
OF
720
on
OX
same unit
of length
In Figure 4, the coordinates of P are x == 5J and = 2. The coordinates of a point are usually written together within pay rentheses with the abscissa first. Thus, we say that P is the point (5J, 2). In Figure 4, R is the point ( 3, 4).
ILLUSTRATION
1.
Note
1.
The
and IV,
counterclockwise.
a point, whose coordinates are given, means to locate the point and to mark it with a dot or a cross.
plot
To
EXAMPLE
1.
3, 4).
3 on OX, erect a perpendicular to OX. Go up FIRST SOLUTION. At 4 vertical units on this perpendicular to reach the point R in quadrant II which is ( 3, 4).
SECOND SOLUTION. At + 4 on OF, erect a perpendicular the left 3 units on this perpendicular to reach ( 3, 4).
Note
2.
to
OF.
Go
to
The word
line in this
book
will refer to
otherwise specified.
EXERCISE 44
Plot the following points on a coordinate system on crosssection paper.
1.
(3, 4).
2.
(3, 0).
3.
(1,
2).
4.
(
3,
5).
6.
(0,
2,
2).
6.
((
5, 0).
7.
(0, 7).
8.
((
3, 4).
9.
(
3).
10.
3, 5).
11. (4,
4).
12.
2, 1).
Three corners of a rectangle are (3, 4), ( 5, 4), and (3, the coordinates of the 4th corner and the area of the rectangle.
13.
1).
Find
Find
the area of
(4, 7);
a triangk with
(
2, 3).
(5, 5).
15. (0,
4);
(3,
4);
(3, 2).
(
2, 1);
(3, 1);
(5, 3);
(5, 7).
square, with its sides parallel to the coordinate axes, has one If the units corner at ( 3, 2). 3, 2) and lies above and to the left of (
18.
of length on the axes are the same and if each side of the square long, find the coordinates of the other corners.
is
4 units
The
The
abscissa
abscissa
is
is positive.
is
is
negative.
A A
line is parallel to
on OF.
23.
What
is
at the point where x perpendicular to can be stated about the abscissas of points on the given line?
line is
OX
What
24.
How
all
points are
3 and
25.
4, respectively?
How
all
points are
7 and
respectively?
91
We recall
a constant
is
a number symbol
whose value is not subject to change during the course of the discussion, and a variable is a number symbol which may take on
different values.
When
desirable,
we may think
of a constant as a
a first variable, x, and a second variable, y, are so related that, whenever a value is assigned to x, a corresponding value (or corresponding values) of y can be determined, we say that y is a function of x. Then x is called the independent variable and the second variable, To say y, which is a function of x, is called the dependent variable. that y is a function of x means that the value of y depends on the
If
value of
x.
is
In the formula
is
of a circle,
if
formula in a variable x represents a function of x; the values of the function can be computed from its formula.
Any
ILLUSTRATION
of the function
is
2.
2 (3z H 7x
f
5) is
a function of
x.
If
2,
the value
(12
+14 +
5) or 31.
Note
1.
x,
we say that
y is a singlevalued function of a;; if just two values of y correspond to each value of x, then y is a twovalued function of x; etc.
722
Let y represent any function of x. Then, each pair of corresponding values of x and y can be taken as the coordinates of a point in an This leads us to adopt the following (x, y) coordinate system.
terminology.
DEFINITION
values of x
I.
y, of
and
In graphing a function, we usually plot the values of the independent variable on the horizontal axis of the coordinate system. A linear function of x is a polynomial of the first degree in x and hence has the form ax 4 6, where a and 6 are constants. In Illustra
To graph a function
will
mean
to
draw
its
graph.
tion 1 below
we meet a
x
is
linear function of
a straight 'line.
This
fact,
whose proof we
name
linear function of x.
ILLUSTRATION
function
If
is (J:c
5,
the independent variable, in order to graph the 3. \x 3), we introduce y to represent it. That is, we let y 6. 3 = then y = f( 5) Hence,, one point on the graph
1.
If
is
(5,
2,
6).
corresponding
following
(
Similarly, values of y
we
let
x
in
0,
2,
etc.,
given
the
6),
table.
We
plot
is
(
5,
by a
the graph, we read that the value of the function is zero (the graph The funccrosses the zaxis) when x = 5.
function.
From
tion equals
2 when x
= 1, approximately.
Fig.
y is a linear function of x, we need only two pairs of values of x and y to obtain the graph, because a straight line is definitely located if we know two points on it. However, in graphing any linear funcIf
tion,
we
shall
compute
is
check
lie
on a
line,
an error
indicated.
123
In graphing, do not choose the position of the origin or the scales on the coordinate axes until after a reasonably complete table of values has been prepared. Then, make the appropriate selections of origin and scales
so that as large a graph as possible
If
may
a function of x is defined by a formula, in general its graph is a smooth curve* To graph such a function, we introduce some letter, such as y, to represent the function, compute a table of corresponding values of x and y, and draw a smooth curve through the corresponding points on a coordinate system.
ILLUSTRATION
let
2.
To graph x2
x*
4x f
6,
we
4x
+ 6,
values,
6,
Fig.
Functions not defined by formulas arise frequently. Sometimes the only information concerning a function consists of a table of corresponding values of the function and the independent variable, where the table may be obtainable by experimental means or obser
In drawing the graph of such a function, sketch a smooth curve through the points obtained from the given values, unless otherwise directed. Instead of drawing a smooth curve through the
vation.
sometimes desirable to connect them by segments of straight lines and thus to obtain a brokenline graph.
points,
it is
Note
The intersection of
the'coordinate axes
may be
selected to repre
ILLUSTRATION
wholesale price for the critical depression months from June, 1930, to June, 1931. value To graph the index like 86.8 means 86.8% of the average level in 1926.
The second row of the following table gives the general index number of the United States Department of Labor
1.
Or,
m some cases,
two or more
disconnected
smooth curves.
124
number as a function of
Figure 7, we choose coordinate axes, with time plotted horizontally and index number vertically. We take 1 month to be the unit of tune. We let the intersection (origin) of the axes represent
June, 1930, on the axis of abscissas and 60 on the vertical axis, and assign units on the axes to suit the size of the figure. Then, for December, 1930, we plot the point (6, 78.4), etc. We join the plotted points by a reasonably
the graph of the function. From the graph, extended as a guess to July, 1930, we estimate that the index number then was 68.6.
is
f=0is
1 is
June, 1930
July, 1930
10 11
12
13
EXERCISE 45
The
1.
letter
x represents
where
it
appears.
Graph the function (2x \ 3). From the graph, (a) read the values of the function when x = 2J and x = 3J; (6) read the values of x corresponding to which the values of the function are 2, 0, and 3.
Graph
2.
6.
the function of
x and, from
x for which
3x
+ 5.
2x.
3.
7.
4z.
3*.
4.
8.
2x.
5x.
5.
9.
2
4.
10.
2x.
10. 7.
11.
12. 0.
13. x.
HINT
for
Problem
x,
Any
any variable
horizontal.
125
and
4),
15.
Graph
(x*
of x:
1, 0, 2, 3, 4, 6,
function
when x =
or 10.
(
and 5 and x
From
(6)
1;
the graph, (a) read the values of the read the values of x for which the func
tion equals
16.
Graph
x2
6,
5,
4x
+ 6)
4,
by computing
3, 2,
its
values of x:
1, 0, 1,
equals
3.
table gives the total mileage of hardsurfaced roads forming parts of state highway systems in the United States at the ends of various years. Graph the mileage as a function of the time.
The
table gives the time it takes money to double itself if invested at certain rates of interest, compounded semiannually. Graph the time
18.
The
From
money
to
double at 3i%.
TIME, YEARS
46J
34f
28
23J
14
ill
RATE
19.
1%
4%
By
velocity of sound in air depends on the temperature of the air. use of the following data, graph the velocity as a function of the
The
temperature.
From
if
the temperature
is
HINT.
20.
feet
on the
vertical axis.
table gives the number of divorces per 1000 marriages in various years in continental United States. Graph the number of divorces as a function of the time.
The
726
21.
an atmospheric pressure
is
of
ing table, where weight is in pounds, and temperature is hi degrees Fahrenheit. Graph the weight of air as a function of the temperature.
following table gives the "thinking distance" t, and the "braking distance" b involved when a motorist, traveling at s miles per hour, decides to stop his car. The value of t is the distance traveled by the car in } second,
22.
The
the interval which elapses between the instant an average driver sees danger t b is the total and the instant he applies his brakes. The sum d
distance the car will travel before stopping after danger is seen. On one coordinate system, draw graphs of t as a function of s and d! as a function of 8.
Sometimes we represent functions by symbols like /(#), H(x), K(s), etc. The letter in parentheses tells what the independent variable is.
The
read "f(x)" as the /function of x," or for short 2 5 by f(x) and write f(x) = Zx2 5; we "/ of x." We may represent 3s 5." H(y) would represent a function of y. For read this "/ of x is 3x2
instance,
ILLUSTRATION
We
we may
let
H(y)
7y*
+ 6.
is
If F(x) is
any function
of
x and a
any value
of x, then
a.
when x =
"F(a)
F(3)

3)
s ; 6 )
[F(~
2)]
5F(2)
= 
F of a." If F(x)  3s2  5 332  5  3  19; 3( 3) 2  5 + 3 = 25; 3( 2) 2  5  ( 62)  364  5 f 6*;  5 + 2) = 81; (12  5  2)  25. 5(12
"
is
read
x,
fc
127
in
of
variable z
is
case a value of z
values of x and
variables, or of
y.
any
Similarly, we may speak of a function of three number of variables. The functional notation
tions of
variable.
ILLUSTRATION 3. F(x, y) would be read "F of x and y" and would represent a function of the independent variables x and y. Thus, we may let
2.
Then, F(2,
1)
+3+2
7.
EXERCISE 46
Vf(x) = 2z
/(it.
f).
// G(z)
1.
2z
2
,
0(
3).
8. 0(6).
10. 0(o).
11. 0(2c).
2
12. 0(3z).
2).
13. If F(x)
= = 
*'
F(6); F(c
);
F(*
14. If 0(ii
15. If
KM
F(x
16. If F(x, y)
x*
ac
x2
17. If
y)
+ 2y, find F(2,  3); F( 4); F(o, 6). + 3xt/, find F( 2); F( 3,  2); F(c, 26).
1, 1,
18. If F(x)
ar, find
F:
graph
/(a?)
19. If /(x)
=x*4x +
=^12x
5,
by use
of
/(
20. If /(x)
+ 3,
4),
/(
3),
/(
2),
/(
and /(4).
solution of an equation in
two
variables x
and y
is
responding values of x and y which satisfy the equation. an equation in two variables has infinitely many solutions.
728
ILLUSTRATION
or y
If
Consider 3z
5y
15.
If
3,
then 9
5y
=
0,
Hence, (x 3, y = 15 or x then 3x 5;
.
15,
f) is
Thus, by substituting values for either variable and computing values of the
other variable,
we
could find as
many
solutions as
we might
desire.
In case x and y are related by an equation, then usually we may as a function of y. think of y as a function of x and, likewise, of
true because, in general, for each value of either variable we can find corresponding values of the other variable by use of the
This
is
equation. In particular, a linear equation in x and y defines either variable as a linear function of the other variable.
ILLUSTRATION
2.
From 3z
x
5y
=
5
15,
on solving
for
x we obtain
+ fe/;
3.
on solving
for
y we obtain
y
&
Hence
a;
is
well,
is
a linear function of x.
graph, or the locus, of an equation in two variables x and y is the locus of all points whose coordinates (x, y) form solutions of the equation. If we think of a: as an independent variable, the graph of the equation is identical with the graph of the function, y, of x, defined
The
by the equation. In particular, if a, 6, and c are constants, the graph of the linear equation ax by = c ISQ. straight line. For, the graph of this equation is the graph of the linear function of x, or of the
by the
equation.
15,
we obtain y =
fx
far
3.
The graph
graph
is
linear function
3;
this
any point where a graph on an (#, y) coordinate system meets the a>axis is called an xintercept of the graph. The ordinate of any. point where the graph meets the 2/axis is called a
abscissa of
The
To
the graph of an equation hi x solve for x; to find the yintercept (or intercepts), place x
solve for y.
find the xintercept (or intercepts) of and y, place y  in the equation and
=
and
129
Place x
2. 3.
Place y
and compute
x, to
Find any
and draw
on plotting
ILLUSTRATION
5y
2.
To graph 3x
3;
%=
(0,
and obtain
15, or
hence,
or
3) is
then 3x
5,
(5, 0) is
15,
The graph
is
ILLUSTRATION
x
5
3.
The graph
consists of all
coordinate plane for which x = 5, and the value of y is of no importance because it does not
Ho
44
44
occur hi the equation. Hence, the graph of is the line perpendicular to the xaxis x 5 = at the point where x = 5, as shown in Figure 8.
Fig.
An
nonessential features.
infinitely
many
Hence, although a given curve may have different equations, we shall refer to any one of these
ILLUSTRATION
This
1.
3x
+ 2y =
is
graph of 6x
solutions.
Frequently we refer to a function of a variable x, or to an equation in x and y, by giving the function or equation the name of its graph.
ILLUSTRATION = x2 parabola y
2.
+ 2y =
7,
or to the
assume without proof the fact that the equation of any =c straight line on an (x, y) coordinate plane is of the form ax 4 by where a, 6, and c are constants. The equation of a line is a linear
shall
We
130
relation
(x,
true
ILLUSTRATION 3. The equation of the line 3 units to the left of the yaxis is x
vertical
Let P, with coordinates ILLUSTRATION 4. line through (0, 0) (x, y), be any point on the and (1, 2). Then, from similar right triangles
hi Figure 9,
V x
%
I
or
EXERCISE 47
2.
6.
3y 3x
4s
y
12
0.
3.
6.
&c
3x
5y
15
0.
2x
4x
+ 7y 5w
0.
9.
+6
10.
4.
7.
20.
11. 15.
Q O* <6C
O/M __
9. 5j/ 4
10.
14.
s7. y  0.
The The The
5.
12.
a;
= 
3.
13.
0.
 
16.
&c f 9
17.
3y
+ 4  0.
OX.
left
OF;
(6)
4 units to the
of
OF.
20.
line
is (a)
the same as
its
abscissa;
(6)
the negative of
the
graph of
the
Zx
+ 5y =
15.
22.
2x
5y
10.
23.
3x
+ 2y  5 =
0.
24.
2x
+
25.
Find an expression 7y = 9.
Find an expression 5w  11.
3a?
CHAPTER
A
2/,
solution of a system of two equations in two unknowns, x and is a pair of corresponding values of x and y which satisfy both
If
equations.
simultaneous.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.
Solve graphically:
1.
y=
5,
(1)
+ 2y
2.
(2)
In Figure
10,
AB
all
is
the
graph of
(1)
and
CD
AB
consists of all
(1)
satisfy
and
CD
consists
(2).
of
whose coordinates
satisfy
B
O
and CD is the point of intersection, E, of only point whose coordinates satisfy both
equations.
2.
(4,
AB
We
1).
observe that
E
4,
Hence, (x
and
Fi 9 .
10
(2).
SUMMARY.
graphically:
1.
To
solve
Draw
the
2.
Measure
the graphs;
these coordinates
form a
Usually a system of two linear equations in two unknowns has just one solution, as was the case in Example 1, but the following
special cases
may
occur.
132
system has
no solution and
B. // the graphs of the equations are the same line, each solution of either equation is also a solution of the other and hence the system has
infinitely
many
solutions.
In
dependent equations.
Usually a graphical solution gives only approximate results, because in obtaining them we estimate certain coordinates visually.
1.
Note
EXERCISE 48
Solve graphically.
state this fact
If there
is
no
many,
\ y
f
+ 2x

= 
2
3.
\ 2y
f
x
8
= 
5.
\3y
f
+ 4z
23.
2y \ 4y
/ 2y
\
+

Zx 3z 5x
2a;
= 0, = = =
10,
3.
18.
+ \ 6x +
3x
= 0, 7y = 5.
3y
5y
\
f
 3 = 0, Wy + 3z = 4.
2z
2y
\ to
+ 7y
4x
= =
=
0,
0.
3z 2x
+ 5y =
3y
2,
5.
'
2a;
n
\ 2y
\
6.
5.
\ 4x
+ 2y =
7.
6*
%=
3.
10y
2a;
+4 =
0.
Graph x + 3y = 5. (6) Multiply both sides of the equation by 2 and graph the new equation, (c) By inference, state how two linear equations are related if they have the same graph.
16. (a)
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.
3.
1.
a i r Solve for
a;
j and
4*
+ 5y =
,
y:
<
/ 4.
18.
6,
(1)
1.
Multiply
(1)
by
3:
12x
Multiply
(2)
by
5:
(4):
5,
+ 10z +
2;
15^
I5y
= =
(3) (4)
(5)
20.
1.
Subtract, (3)
2x
= 
= =
In obtaining equation
4. 5.
we have
eliminated y
by
y
subtraction.
On
The
substituting x
1 in (2)
we obtain
1,
3y
4 f 2
or
2.
2).
and
(2).
133
SUMMABY.
To
solve
a system of two
by addition or subtraction:
In each equation, multiply both members, if necessary, by a properly chosen number to obtain two equations in which the coefficients of one unknown have the same absolute value.
1.
2.
Add, or
I
in Step
3.
so as to eliminate one
unknown.
the
unknown in
to
it,
and sub
known.
x and y are inconsistent or dependent, then, in eliminating one unknown, the other will also be eliminated. = results from this If the equations are dependent, an identity
If
two
linear equations in
elimination.
the equations are inconsistent, a contradictory = 36 is obtained. We shall omit proving these equation such as
If
facts
but
1.
them.
Note
mean
to solve
the given equations involve fractions, clear of fractions before applying the preceding method.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.
3x
+ 2y =
+
4y
6,
(6)
24.
(7)
1.
Multiply 6z
(6)
by
2:
(8)
D Y
+ 4t/ =
(8)
:
12.
2.
Subtract, (7)
12.
(9)
Hence, the given equations are inconsistent because a contradictory statement, 12 = 0, results from the assumption that a pair of
values of x and y exists which satisfies
(6)
and
(7).
COMMENT. In Figure 11, AB is the graph of (6) and CD is the graph of (7). It is observed that these lines are parallel and hence do not
intersect,
Fig.
11
(6)
and
(7)
have no
solution.
134
and
check.
Zx 2x
y=
7,
+ 3w
f
= =
2.
12.
3 =
2x
7:
 2* =
4.
0,
5.
3y
+ 12,
8
2y
0.
6.
10,
0.
=
I
6z 4
14.
3s
 2y =  3z =
_
2, 2.
8.
9,
H
Jy
9.
2x f 2s
2z
  3,  f
10.
322'
/3z
x
11.
12.
7 3
2"
10 ' 13
+ 5y = 9,
14.
\102,7*=8.
11*
=  3,  15. 5y =
15.
y=
7x
8,
+ 4y
43.
Proceed with the solution until you recognize that the equations are inconsistent or dependent.
the equations.
*
10.
19.
<
2y
3=
6.
0,
00. Elimination
by
substitution
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.
4x
6,
4.
(1) (2)
2. Substitute
J(4
3y) in (1):
4(4
6.
(4)
In obtaining equation 4, we have eliminated x by substituting for x from one given equation into the other.
3.
4. Substitute^/
2 in
(3):
1(4
6)
 1,
1.
is (x
2).
135
SUMMARY.
1.
To
solve
by substitution:
Solve one equation for one unknown in terms of the other stitute the result in the other equation.
2. Solve the
volving both
unknowns
EXERCISE 50
Solve by elimination by substitution
and
y y
check.
x
1.
= 3y  1,  3 = 4. w
f
2w>
2x
+

=  3,  15. =
0, 0.
fw =
\ 100
6.
2t;
+ 4,
0.
1.
2u
I L i
+

1,
f 3x
5.
4.y
+4=
0,
I
f
0.
+ 2y
y
\ 3z
+ 5y =
8.
0.
9.
14.
substitution.
Clear of fractions if necessary and solve by any method. your choice to just one of the two available methods.
<^Js i^wv
m^"
Do
"*T^
not restrict
tJ 1/
\J
"
^\ ^^
2x
^ ^y
^^
*
\JJb ^*~*r
mm^m
9J u
ij
m**^
7y
= =
3.
4y
^J ^^ * f
^
*
^f "
^*.
is i
JL^Xo
^*!^^t j
9x
=

5.
\ 6r
+ 21s = ~.6a;
7.
4y
.5,
=
~~"~
3.45,
"~
== .O.
1.5.
OI
2I
22.
04
Q ^7
25.
26
* H Jy
2x
= AIZ
27.
2y 4 3
5y
0,
'
+ ^2
3
? =
3a?
o.
+y+4
10
y
_ _
"^5
te
*2
29.
2f y
'
3x
2 3
136
a system involves other letters than the unknowns, it is usually best to solve by finding each unknown in turn by elimination through
addition or subtraction.
T>
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.
I.
(
<
ax
+
'
by
\cx\dy
I.
= =
et
,
(I)
;;
f.
Multiply
(I)
by
adx
Multiply
(2)
by
b:
(4)
v
+ My = bcx + bdy =
be)
de.
of.
3. 4.
Subtract, (3)
x(ad
7*
=
_
de de
(5)
and
ad
bf be
ce
of
by
1
by a] we
find y.
ad
be
in
unknowns
17,
(1)
 = + x
EXAMPLE
1.
Solve:
+=
y
10
2.
(2)
SOLUTION.
1.
Multiply
(2)
by
5:
x
7;
^ +=
10.
(3)
2. Subtract, (3)
(1):
X
:
= 
= 
7x;
= y
1.
3.
Substitute x
= 
1 in (1)
is (x
1,
+=
17;
The
i).
Equation 1 is said to be linear in l/x and l/y because, if we let u = l/x and v = l/y, equation 1 becomes 3u j 50 = 17. Similarly, In place of the preceding solution, we 2. equation 2 becomes 2u Hcould first solve for u and v; then their reciprocals would give x and y.
Comment.
t>
EXERCISE 51
Solve for the literal numbers without first clearing of fractions.
x
1.
17 '
3.
2 4 _ ^4
5w
3
+ 2i u
4
137
y
6.
MH,
6.
10 J_ 9 h  =
4.
(x
y
and y,orforw and
z.
Solve for x
ax
7.
2y
= =
2
2
+ 6,
26.
j
2cz
8.
dy y
c2
+d
2
,
f
610
2c.
= a
*'
1 2abx
6,
as
aby
=
*
a?
62 .
10.
aw; 4 bz
= 0, bw = a2
6s
f
11.
/ ??*
+?
22:
ax
12.
by
oi/
= =
3, 3.
2aw
*""
wa2
+
bz
s
62
06,
3a6
, .
+ 26.
2aw
14.
= =
2a
4a2
\ w>
+6
6 a*
2
,
aw
15.
6w>
+ bz =
a
6.
a2
+6 +6
= 2a_
26
16.
_
a
1.
17.
2a
system of three linear equations in three unknowns usually has one and only one solution. In special cases, however, such a system may have no solution, in which case the equations are called inconsistent, or infinitely many solutions, in which case the equations are called dependent. Such cases will not be considered in this book.*
EXAMPLE
1.
Solve for x,
y,
and
z:
+yz= x + 3y  z = x + y  82 =
3z 2x
11, 13,
(1) (2)
(3)
11.
SOLUTION.
Multiply
(2)
1.
Subtract, (1)
3:
(3)
:
(2):
by
+
(6) for
:
9t/
2y
82
Subtract, (5)
2.
2x f 8y
=  2. = 39. = 28.
3.
2.
(4)
(5)
(6)
x and
y:
Subtract, (6)
(4)
Substitute y
3.
3 in
(4):
2x y
2,
6 6
= 30; =  2;
= =
11;
Substitute (x
2,
3) in (1)
is
+3=
3, z
The
*
(x
?/
= =
= 
2.
2).
For a more complete treatment, see College Algebra, Third Edition, by WILLIAM L. HART; D. C. HEATH AND COMPANY.
738
SUMMARY.
knowns:
1.
To
solve
a system of
un
pair of the equations, eliminate one of the unknowns; eliminate this unknown from another pair of the original equations.
2.
From one
unknowns in them.
the
unknowns found in Step 2 in equations and solve for the third unknown.
we
solve a system of four linear equations in four unknowns, would obtain three equations in three of the unknowns by eliminating
To
the other
Then, we
three different pairs of the original equations. would solve the new system of three equations and, later, obtain
unknown from
A similar but more complicated method in five or more unknowns. A more elegant method
EXERCISE 52
Solve.
'
Do
3y
1.
3a?
5x
+
y
2
= 1,  1,
3,
2x
[
2.
2y Qx
= 2,  5z = 7, + 2z = 1.
+y
7
3.
+
#>
= =
3, 2.
'
12x
22
=
0.
'
1,
5.
4c
+ 6c = 14,  6 = 2 + 3a,
lOa
14c
7,
*
96
10.
6.

+ + 0, = ^ + + 92 3. 2s  y + 2 = 2,
22/
'
x  y + fa = 2x 62 3y
7.
 2C + 1 = .A+ 3B + 2C= 1.
2A
3J5
0,
3e
9.
,
8.
<
12x f y 6x  y
+ 62
= 3, = 12.
 6z  62 + 3 =  y  x  2.
y
2
3,
0,
x
10.
11.
H
L*
60
l
y y
5+1;
*
in all equations.
o &
z
5.
HINT
for
Problem
10.
Let x
M,
v,
and z
~w
139
4,
*12.
4s
= 6, 4y + * = 10, = 62 3w 3. f  y =  2.
5x y
x
*13.
+ 2y + w =
2 x
3u = 6, 6 =  2,  =  2.
EXAMPLE
If
1.
The sum
number
is 9.
the digits are reversed, the new number. Find the given number.
number
is
less
SOLUTION. 1. Let t be the tens' digit and u be the units' digit of the number. Then, the number is 10J j u.
2. If
digit.
IQu f
t.
From
the problem,
t
1n lOtt
~ =
'
3(10<
is
+ u)  9.
We obtain =
EXAMPLE
2.
2 and u
7.
The
original
number
27.
Workmen
if
works 3 days, or
and B complete a job if A works 2 days and both work 2f days. How long would it take each to
SOLUTION.
1.
it
takes
to do the job
2.
The
is
for
B,
1/y.
does in one day is l/x and, Since they do the whole job, under each set of given data,
work which
12
=
1
2,3 +x y
1,
and
12
5
solving the system consisting of the preceding equations of Section 102, we find x = 4 and y = 6.
On
by the method
on an (x, y) coordinate plane which is not parallel to the mx + 6, where m and 6 are yaxis has an equation of the form y constants. We can use this fact to obtain the equation of a line through two given points.
Any
line
ILLUSTRATION 1. To find the equation of the line through we substitute each pair of coordinates for (x, y) in y = mx
(4, 3)
and
(6, 9),
+ 6:
(1) (2)
(when x (when x
4 and y 6 and y
3) 9)
= 4m = 6m
+ 6,
f b.
solution of [(1), (2)] is (m = 3, b = 9). Hence, the equation of the desired line is y  3x 9. It can be verified by graphing or by substitution
The
lie
on the graph of
this equation.
140
One angle
of a triangle
is
30
is
third angle.
2.
The width
by 5
feet
feet.
Two
does he have?
of
How much
How much
of a
20%
50%
30%
ing
6%
7. If
milk containing 2% butterfat and how much containbutterfat should be mixed to form 100 gallons of milk containing
3% butterfat?
each dimension of a rectangle were increased by 5 feet, the area would be increased by 95 square feet and one dimension would become twice the other. Find the original dimensions.
8. If If
a twodigit number
is
divided
by
the result
is
is 16.
the digits of the given number are reversed, the than the original one. Find this number.
9.
new number
18 less
weight of 5 pounds is 6 feet from the fulcrum on the righthand side of a lever. It is balanced if we place a first weight 4 feet from the fulcrum on the right and a second weight 7 feet from the fulcrum on the
place the first weight 8 feet to the right and the second weight 9 feet to the left of the fulcrum. Find the unknown weights.
left,
or
if
we
10. If
we
seat a
boy at 5
feet
and a
girl
one side of a teeterboard, they balance a man weighing 160 pounds who is seated 6 feet from the fulcrum on the other side. Balance is maintained if the boy moves to 8J fe6t and the girl to 4 feet from the fulcrum o'n their side. Find their weights.
11.
When we
is
result
13.
divide a certain twodigit number by its tens' digit, the If we reverse digits in the number and then divide by the
result is 31/13.
original
12.
number, the
The sum
of the reciprocals of
is
two numbers
is
of the reciprocals
1/6,
How much
and nickel should be added to 100 pounds of an alloy containing 5% chromium and 40% nickel to give an alloy containing 15% chromium and 50% nickel?
14.
15.
A man
income
divides $10,000
among
6%
per annum, respectively. vestments is $80 less than his income from the third investment and his
total
is
three investments, at 3%, 4%, and His annual income from the first two in
rate.
complete a certain job if they work together for 6 days or if A alone works for 3 days and B alone works for 10 days. How long does it take each man to complete the job alone?
16.
Workmen A and B
In a threedigit number which is 31 times the sum of the digits, the units' digit is one half the sum of the other digits. If the digits are reversed, the new number obtained is 99 greater than the original number. Find its digits.
17.
Find
on an
(x, y)
coordinate
20. (3,
3);
2);
(4, 3).
19.
((
3, 1); 4, 5);
((8, (9,
2,
4). 2).
3).
((
3, 3,
22. 24.
(
3, 5);
 12).  2).
21.
23. (4,
2);
An
run and Find the velocity of the wind and the speed of the airplane in calm
25.
airplane, flying with the wind, took 2.5 hours for a 625mile took 4 hours and 10 minutes to return against the same wind.
air.
messenger will travel at a speed of 60 miles per hour on land and in a motorboat whose speed is 20 miles per hour in still water. In delivering a message he will go by land to a dock on a river and then on the river against a current of 4 miles per hour. If he reaches his destination in 4J hours and then returns to his starting point in 3J hours, how far did he travel by land and how far by water?
An army
CHAPTER
laws,
Law
a m an
a;
a.
am+n .
(ra factors)
Proof.
By
definition,
am an
a a
=a a a
(n factors)
2.
Hence,
ama n
(ao
a)(a*aa
a)
= am+n
\_(m 4 n) factors a]
Law for finding a power of a power: m n = am am am (a ) Proof. 1. +m = am+m+ (By Law I)
II.
' *
(a
;
m ) n = amn
m (n factors a )
(n terms
(a
m)
.
2.
Since (m
+ m 4
+ m)
to
m
)
= amn
III.
Laws
"(ffm>n);
1.
= _
15 Or
ILLUSTRATION
5 d
a6
"
~V a
,
>
am
o"
m.
**
By
a a
(m
afil'ji1
factors)
$'
(n factors)
1 _____
m)
factors a]
a*a
a nOT
143
n
(ab)
a n b".
(n factors ab)
and
b)
(a a
a) (b b
b)
~ an b n
Law IV
Thus,
(abc)
a nb nc n
ILLUSTRATION
2.
2 4 3 (4a 6 )
43 (a2 ) 3 (64 ) 3
Q4a*V*.
n
h) (a\
T
an
M*
a4
ILLUSTRATION
/a\ 4
3.
a4
.
/a2
(a
2 2 ) 
Proo/.
a /^ n a a ^) ^6T"6
(
;
a\
(n factors^
__
(n factors a) (n factors 6)
_ aa
6 6
a
6
a^
bn
is
Note
1.
The determination
of powers of
numbers
called involution.
EXERCISE 54
Find each power by use of
1.
the definition of
an exponent.
4
26
2.
(
5)
3.
(
3)*.
4.
(.I)
6.
(j)
6.
(
).
7.
What
is
Perform
8.
the operations
9.
a6a8
zV.
232.
12. (3z) 4 .
16.
ddW.
( 2zJ).
(
fy
.
)'.
19.
( 2a) 4
20. (b*)\
24.
23. (d2)**.
.
(o62).
(
.2a26) 3
27.
(
er
144
('
'.
_
64.
62.
(^'?. \yz
if
63.
Law
4
m>
n.
66. (a)
positive
2)
(
and
n
24
n
(6)
3)
3 ?
We
it
have
called
a square
roots,
root of
by
VA.
1.
ILLUSTRATION
If
The square
roots of 4 are db
Vi or
=t 2.
2 P. square root, then z But, if R is either positive or negative then R is positive and thus P has no positive or negative square root. P. Hence, cannot equal P may have square roots, we define the Therefore, in order that
a negative number
P has R as a
P as a new variety of number, called an imaginary numsymbol ber, with the property that
(V^P)*   P
Thus,
that,
if
and
(
V^)
V
=
P.
P as square roots.
we
As an immediate extension
is
and
(M
+V
agree
P)
P)
5 are the ILLUSTRATION 2. The square roots of the negative number 5. (7 18) is an imaginary number. imaginary numbers =fc
+V
number in this book will represent a real number. Imaginary numbers will not enter actively into our discussions until we meet them in the solution of equations
Unless otherwise stated, any
literal
in
later chapter.
145
Note 1. The somewhat unfortunate name imaginary number is inherited from a time when mathematicians actually considered such a number to be imaginary in the colloquial sense. In a similar fashion, our common
negative numbers, at their called illusory or fictitious.
first
The
introduction into mathematics, were also student will soon appreciate that imaginary
numbers deserve consideration on an equal footing with real numbers. Imaginary numbers are indispensable not only in pure mathematics but also in important fields where mathematics is applied. Imaginary numbers will be studied in more detail in a later chapter.
107. Roots
We
z
call
.
R
If
a square
is
R =A
if
cube root of
if
(1)
ILLUSTRATION
25
1.
32.
root of
27.
is 0.
is
is
a cube root of
following facts are proved in college algebra numbers are treated in a complete fashion.
The
1.
when imaginary
roots,
Every number A, not zero, has just n distinct nth of which may be imaginary numbers.
2.
some or
all
If n is even, every positive number A has just two real nth roots , one positive and one negative, with equal absolute values.
Ifn is odd, every real number A has just one real nth root, which is positive when A is positive and negative when A is negative.
3.
is negative, all
nth
roots of
are imaginary
If
A
.
of
its
If
A is negative and n
2.
called the principal nth root is called is odd, the negative nth root of
is
nth root
ILLUSTRATION
4th root.
are
is
=fc
3 and
+ 3 is the principal
of
125 principal cube root of All 4th roots of 16 are imaginary numbers.
The
+5
and
125
is
5.
it
ILLUSTRATION 3. The real cube root of 8 is 2. Also, by advanced methods 1 + can be shown that 8 has the two imaginary cube roots ( 3) and
146
108. Radicals
A, which we read the nth root of A , is used to denote the principal nth root of A when it has a real nth root, and to denote * any convenient nth root of A if all nth roots are imaginary. In
The radical
is
When n
2,
we omit
is positive. is negative
II.
^A
v~A
A
if
and n
is odd. is even.
III.
imaginary
1.
is negative
and n
2.
ILLUSTRATION
^'sl
= =
3.
^32 =
because
v/
is
imaginary.
ILLUSTRATION
2.
y^y
^)
=
3*
=
gj'
By
(VA)
ILLUSTRATION
3.
A.
7
(1)
(V3)*
(v'c
2
3.
(169)
169.
8 (^ctf) 
2cd*.
+ cd + d
2 4 )
c2
+ cd + #.
avoid ambiguous signs and imaginary numbers in elementary problems, the following agreement will hold in this book unless otherwise specified. If the index of a radical is an even integer, all literal numbers in the radicand not used as exponents represent positive numbers, and are such
Note
1.
To
is positive.
By
the definition of
it
follows that,
=
ILLUSTRATION
*
a.
(2)
4.
^5 = x.
v'S4
5.
This matter of convenience is discussed in more advanced treatments of imaginary numbers. If all nth roots of A are imaginary, it is not usual to call any particular one of them the principal nth root. n f If a is negative and n is even, then a is positive and the positive nth root
of an
is
a,
or "^a*
2.
a.
This case
if
is
is
ruled out
negative,
For instance,
by Note Vo* =
a.
747
2. 49.
3. 81.
4.
121.
5. J.
6.
&.
7. .01.
10. 100.
11.
&.
12.
&.
216.
13.
16.
27.
16. 27.
17. 125.
18.
1.
19.
20.
23. 625.
24. 10,000.
26.
A.
26. .0001.
Find
power of
27. Vtf.
31. 35. 39.
V&.
(v^)
v^=~8.
6
.
43. 47.
51.
^64.
v^~T.
V400.
VX)1.
60.
irrational
numbers
number which can be expressed as a fraction m/n, where the numerator and denominator are integers, is called a rational number. All integers are included among the rational numbers because, if m is any integer, then m can be expressed as the fraction m/1. A real number which is not a rational number is called an irrational
real
number. f are rational numbers. Any terminating decimal fraction is a rational number. Thus, 3.017, or 3017/1000, is a rational number. IT and V% are irrational numbers. A proof of the irrationality of V2 is given in the Appendix, Note 1. Any irrational number can be = 3.14159 expressed as an endless but not a repeating decimal. Thus, v are endless but not repeating decimals. and V%  1.414
ILLUSTRATION
1.
7, 0,
and
148
If
is
then
VA
not the nth power of a rational number, and v^A is irrational and is called a surd of the nth order.
2.
is real,
ILLUSTRATION
V3 is a surd.
is
not a surd because v'd? 2. A sometimes called a quadratic surd and one of the
v^64
is
cubic surds
irrational expressions
algebraic expression is said to be rational in certain letters if it can be expressed as a fraction whose numerator and denominator
An
are integral rational polynomials in the letters. An algebraic expression which is not rational in the letters is said to be irrational in them.
T
.
ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION
1.
=
,.
oa
is
rational in
a and
x and
x.
2.
V3x
h y is not rational in
/r
y.
ILLUSTRATION
polynomial in
is
3.
x.
The expression x\ 2 3x 2 \/5 is an integral rational The presence of irrational explicit numbers, A/2 and V5,
of
no concern.
Hereafter, unless otherwise stated, in any integral rational polynomial we shall assume that the numerical coefficients are rational
numbers.
111. Perfect powers of rational functions
rational expression is called a perfect nth power if it is the nth power of some rational expression. Also, we say that a rational
number
is
if it is
number. If an integral rational term is a perfect nth power, the numerical coefficient separately is a perfect nth power. Also, each exponent in the term has n as a factor, because in obtaining the nth power of a term each exponent is multiplied by n. In verifying that a term is a perfect nth power, first factor the coefficient.
ILLUSTRATION
ILLUSTRATION
1.
32y
15
is
32y
15
= 2V5 =
\3o /
^ 3
3 6
(2I/ )
2.
X* is ^r* e
a perfect square: ^
X2
9o6
149
following Properties I and II have already been met in Section 108 as direct consequences of the definition of an nth root.
The
II.
Va n =
Vob =
1.
a.
(If a is positive
when n
is even)
III.
vWb.
3z, because
(3x)
2
ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION
V&x? = VsVtf =
\fab
9z2
2.
^fc^fb
because
(vWfc) 3 = (^a) 3
"
^)
06.
IV 1V
o T ILLUSTRATION 3.
^
4/81
4
= =
81
3
,
because
/3\ 4
34
( j
81
, T ILLUSTRATION 4.
r>
u because
n
=
/
*
=
an
.' =
a _
6
V. //
m/n
is
an
5.
integer,
vam =
=
a
1 1 *
ILLUSTRATION
i
.
v^o^
a4
because
(o
4 s
* au .
The
all
cause then
following proofs are complete if a and 6 are positive, beprincipal roots involved are positive. The interested student
may
consider the possibility of negative values for a and 6. To complete the proofs, it should be demonstrated that in all cases the two sides of each
formula in
(III), (IV),
and
Proof of
(III).
Raise
(v)
root,
^a^fb is an nth
root of ab, or
Proof of (V).
in
By Law
of
,
II,
page 142, (a
Va"*.
n n
)
a"'
 am
Hence,
a"
is
an nth root
a m or a"
150
II is
m = n.
cause,
if
However, we
we
gives
VA by mere inspection.
6.
ILLUSTRATION
Or,
V&xfiy
 ^(2xV) 8 = 2zV
(Property II)
by
EXERCISE 56
Each radicand
1.
is
perfect power.
3.
Find
Vol.
VP.
2.
7.
3d*.
.
Va*.
.
5.
6.
Vy.
<&.
V*2.
tff.
8.
**.
10. 16.
11.
^x5
14. 19.
Vy*.
\/A.
16. 21.
^.
^Jf.
.27.
^7?.
20. 25.
29.
22.
^3fc.
28.
24.
^p.
26.
30.
34.
Vm*.
V/8E5
tfrV.
^^.
\/9^.
V^.
v/*.
31. 36.
.
33.
5
.
38.
^SE
"
1
39.
42.
^I6a.
43.
^ .001. ^ 32 VSS5
10
.
37. 41.
46.
^0625.
44.
^06.
We have previously defined a? only when p is a positive integer. We shall now introduce other types of powers in such a way that all
the types, together, will obey laws of the same forms as those for
positive integral exponents. If fractional exponents are to
plication, then, for example,
akcfr
o^
a,
or
(afy
a;
thus, a&
of a*
Similarly,
we
a6
,
should have
 a6
or
(a$)
151
if
Accordingly,
m and n are
:
define
m
a"
i
=
=
v/a1";
(1)
[when
Thus,
of
m=
in (1)]
an
v^a.
(2)
we may
principal roots.
1 is
= v^ =
x
2.
(8*
8)*
ILLUSTRATION
2.
v.
/
=
8)
\& =
2
4.
ILLUSTRATION
3.
(m
8)*
= v (
vlJ4
4.
In
(1),
we
It is
m an
very useful to
or
is
the
m
a"
(v^)".
(3)
To prove
(3)
we must show
members
.
of (1)
and
(3)
are
identical, or that
(4)
ILLUSTRATION 4. To show that \/aJ = ('^a) 4 raise the right member to the 3d power and use the laws for integral exponents
,
:
[(>^)4]3
= (^)i2 = [t^) 3] =
4
.
(a)
a4
is
a cube root of a4
If
is
we assume that a
is positive,
then this
positive
.
and hence
4 by v^o
In accordance with Note 1 on page 146, we agree not to deal with m the symbol a" if n is evenjand a < 0. With this case eliminated, we
prove
that
(4)
by
:
we
obtain am
root of am
~~
a*.
152
ILLUSTRATION
From
(3), since
\/64
6
=
26
2,
64$
(^64)
32.
(1)
= ^oT6 =
met
&(* = v^ = 2
if
32.
The
difficulties^
an
is
used when a
"
is
is
eve
results
from reel
V^I =
(
l)i
= (
1)*
2 = = v'Pl)' V
tion,
with a are to obey the law of exponents for multiplies then we should define a so that
aan = a+n =
Hence,
if
an
, '
or
aa n =
an
, '
or
=
1.
an
an
1.
0,
we
=
=
ILLUSTRATION
1.
By
1.
(17z)
1.
a negative exponent
if
is
mul
3"3
Hence,
duced,
we
positive exponent of the types previously intro define or* by the equation apa~p = 1, or
is
any
ILLUSTEATION
1.

Br
 I _ 1.
In a fraction, any power which is a factor of one term (numerate or denominator) may be removed if the factor, with the sign of it exponent changed, is written as a factor of the other term. That is
a
_ ~
=
bx
Proof. '
ax~n b
ax""
r b
a
7 n bx
a T
b
==
xn
a _^ r ar*
b
153
We may
ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION
ponents,
rj
17o
TJ
17o6~ 2
we may
To
IF3^4
_ =
3c*b3
~oJoJ
(3)
/
/
j
_ =
Sc3^3
fQ
(
~HT'
'
as follows:
1
*
Pw
/I
^
\
i
I
JL
\ 1
O7)3 OC/
^3 O
2J)3/^ O Ot/
x *v
(4)
EXERCISE 57 Find
the value of the
to
radical or
from a
negative to
41
20. 16*.
25. (.36)*.
'.
30. 35.
(
S)
4
.
31. 36.
((
2)~
6
.
32.
(
5)
3
.
33.
(
1)*.
34.
(
8)*.
(
8)*.
27)*.
37.
(
125)*.
38. (.0081)*.
3,
39. (.0001)*.
Find
40. 8*.
page 151.
44. 81*.
43. 36*.
48.
45. 125*.
(
27)*.
49.
(
64)'*.
754
75.^
76.
^ri
77.
^br
x*
78.
iy*
81.
&
82.
83.
4
y
4
.i
84.
^
a*
4a
M OO.
"*
2a
oft
Ov
&c*
ftft
90.
(L03)"
/ rvo\K* 8
8L
(1.04)"
(1.05)
and each
radical as
95. z*.
96. a*.
97.
&i
v/^3
.
98.
3ai
100. ax*.
101. fcci
102.
103. v/6.
104. (56)*.
105. (6c)*.
110. (2a^)t.
116.
106. Vy>*.
107. (2^)*.
108. (4C3)
9
,
111. <Q>.
2
112. ^fe11.
C^HM.
Va2 f
62 .
119.
Vo ^a8 
36.
fe
116.
120.
;
#(a
4 6)
3
.
2
.
^(c
3d)
3
.
8
.
^ST^
vT^ll
122.
8 Compute ( i)~
( J); (
.04)~.
rational
detailed
Appendix, Note 2), shows that the formulas of Laws I to V of pages 142 and 143 apply if the exponents are any rational numbers.
shall
which we
omit
(see
Hereafter, unless otherwise specified, to simplify an expression involving exponents will mean to perform indicated operations as far as possible by use of Laws I to V, and to express the result without
Moreover, unless specifically requested, we shall not introduce radicals for powers having fractional exponents. In operations involving exponents, it is frequently convenient to express the numerical coefficients of terms as products of powers of
zero or negative exponents.
prime
factors.
755
(x*)$
 aH =
125
i
/
x4
/21te\*
\125arV
/
1
/827afa\*
V
8 = /238x\* "
2*3*3*
""
5*
1
25
1
Y"
"1
(125)
EXAMPLE
1.
Lrs/
17
iV
!"*
Simplify:
.a
^f
FIRST SOLUTION.
Change
to positive exponents:
J_
a*
J_
1
q*y*
2
1/
V
(<rV*)(oV)
SECOND SOLUTION.
(a
+ if*)
1
+ ay
We may
2
t/
+a
use the special products of Chapter 5 in multiplying or factoring polynomials involving negative or fractional exponents.
ILLUSTRATION
2.
(ar
y$)(x~*
+ y$)
(Type
II,
page 85)
ILLUSTRATION
3.
(z*
2?/
2 )
ILLUSTRATION
4.
2x2
+ z" 1
(2s;
3)(xr
+ 2).
EXERCISE 58
Simplify and, if no
1. 6.
letters
a&e2
4
2. a&c*.
7.
8
.
4.
asa.
5. (a*) 4 .
(3 )t.
(2)1
8. (x*)
4
.
9. (4z2)*.
11. (5a~2 )
16. (ax1
13.
(5)i
.
20. (a").
21. (2X
2 8 ) .
22. (5a) 2.
23. (oV)*.
24.
?56
26. 29.
26.
80. 34.
(5arV3 ) 2
271
4 2
!/
28. 32.
32i
216i
33. (4V)t.
(a:
)*.
35. (27a8a*)i
VT of.
25
r*
Qfl oo.
a\l
TT:

w
QQ
44.
n q1
rr
1
^
;j~
^49.
46.
^.
60.
46.
47.^.
5L
^fs
48.^.
62.
^S.
i~
63.
67.
PTr
68.
69.
(27w)i
to
l
.
60. (32a666)*.
62. (216ar6 )i
Simplify
63.
a 1
+ b~
'
64.
3a~2
6.
66.
a^ !r
Zr3
2
66. 5a~ l
+ &'
A7 67
~ a lb
'
al
rt
71.
Aft **
^^
/,2
J.A*
72.
52
_ T^ 42 _
41
afl
_.. 2
73.
" a 8
_ 6
"
74.
32
1
.
+ ^2"
&)>.
76. (Sat)1 .
76. (c
+ M)'
1
1

77. (cr1
+ b^}~
6'
78. (4a~8
Expand and
79. (ar1
j/
)^1
2/" ).
80. (3a
81. (4x
83. (xi
y)(4a;
+ y).
82.
(jg
86. 87.
90.
93.
+ y*)(a:*  y*).  2)(3ai + 4). (5a* (<r + 6) (2a* + 36ty. (a + 6) + 4).
2
.
+ 3) (a' + y (2 + ar
1
2
.
+

Z>*j
2
.
2 2
92. (x 4
2?/
2 )
.
2 3 ) .
96. (3
y~
97. (3
 6arH2
157
101. (4a~*6 n ) m
.
99. (3a;*) n
*
102
to

a6 * \*
4z 4 * \*
103 
455=
106. (c*
l04
(*
/.125;r /.
\3
106. (a
6*) (a
a6*
+ 6).
<*)(<
<*d
+
When
if Factor
perfect square.
ILLUSTRATION
Or,
107.
110.
a;
1.
x
(a*)
3
x
2
(yty
(x*
64
.
y*)(x*
+ zfyi +
109. Oar2
112. 9a*
jf.
x*.
96.
^
jft.
25^.
1
114. 16a*
2
.
49y*.
2
116. 4o
+ tr  4a~ 6~ + b~\
Zxy1 1
117.
Gzor 1
+ 9x~
2
.
119. 9o~2
121.
tor** f
b~*.
20ai6V
+ 256*.
5.
4X 1
.
123.
tyf
125. Sa
+ 276.
129
126.
By.
127. 216
if Find the
128
 r> 
uc!.
130
Although
it is
operation.
SUMMARY.
order n:
1.
To remove
factors
from
the
radicand in a radical of
many
as possible are
perfect
2.
nth powers.
the
Find
nth
the final
result
= v^v^S.
158
ILLUSTRATION
1.
A/493
A/49A/3
7A/3;
A/147
7(1.732)
12.124.
(Table
I)
T o 2. ILLUSTRATION
\/3a
/o
5 = + 7 x
,
3/3az \;
Hereafter, unless otherwise specified, if a radicand involves fractions, reduce it to a single fraction. If a radical is of order n, simplify
the radicand
power.
form where
a perfect nth Also, in a radical of odd order, change the radicand to a " "
it
by removing from
signs are
3.
any
factor which
is
all
if
possible.
1
ILLUSTRATION
v/^"2 = v/^~Iv/2 = (a
v'
fl
26
= v'
+ 26) =
v'^Tv'a
+ 26 = 
v'a
+ 26.
In a sum, two or more terms involving the same radical as a factor may be combined by factoring.
ILLUSTRATION
+ 26\/3 = (5 + 26)\/3. V20 f 2\/45 = V5\/5 + 2V9A/5 = 2\/5 + 6^5 = 8>/5. V7 + 3V^5) cannot be simplified in form. (\/3
4.
5V/3
ILLUSTRATION
(Using
5.
7\/5
 3V5 +
I)
6\/5
V5 =
10\/5.
EXERCISE 59
Simplify the radical and then compute by use of Table
1.
I.
A/18.
2. 7.
A/75.
3.
V20.
4. 9.
A/24. A/72.
6.
A/200.
6.
A/500.
A/27.
8. A/108.
10.
16.
11. 16.
A/5.
AV3T3.
12. 17.
A24.
xVZTs.
13.
A6.
A^~l6.
14.
19.
A54.
v108.
13.
A^^54
20.
Vx\
22.
Vo*.
28.
23. \Vy*.
2 6.
27. A/9o*.
A/8^.
v^.
32.
A20o*.
33.
V2.
?59
38.
36.
V75?.
37.
8
.
V375J5
39.
40.
<>
V 27a
VsiaV
VxJla5
.
41.
46.
42. 46.
60.
^
128x.
.
43. 47.
44.
1
'
V/320V5
v^
48.
49.
61.
62.
63.
64.
* ^V12V
69. 62.
66.
662
.
V i60.
63.
S4o2
.
68.
V9 + 92/
V4 
61.
64.
67.
+ 5a 6.
2
66.
68.
2d
'
^a ab
**
,
*
d
2
72. 3\/3
76.
Vl47
 VS.
76.
^24
h 2V/8I.
77. 80.
aV2  56V2.
78. 81.
VS + V25a.
^48^ V48i/.
79.
82.
+ *VVa.
The product
Also,
we
recall that,
1.
by the
definition of
a root, (\^J)
A.
ILLUSTRATION
(2V3)(5V6)
ILLUSTRATION
.
2.
(5^3)
 5(^3) 8 ^J/oS
375.
ILLUSTRATION^
 S
Vg'
^p
/^6
"
V^
/a
"
b\b'
760
ILLUSTRATION
4.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.
Multiply
(2\/3
is
+ 3V2x)(3V3 
\/2z).
The product
6(V3)
2
2\/3\/2z f
=
Comment.
18
 2Vfo f
9\/6i
3(2x)
18
prefer
an expanded solution:
2V3
+ 3\/2z
 V2s
4(multiply)
18
If
+ 7\/3\/2x P
3(2z)
18
Qx
+ 7\/6x.
\^A we
we remove a
must multiply by
ILLUSTRATION
5.
3\/6
EXERCISE 60
Express by means of a single radical, and then compute by use of Table I
if necessary.
2.
6.
V2\/3.
3.
7.
\/5vTo.
4.
\/3Vl5.
vWl2.
3V3(2\/6).
6. (^2) 8 .
(2^6).
11.
14.
17.
8. (3>/5) 2 .
9.
10.
5V6(2V2l).
(3^2)
3
.
V30>/35.
12.
(2V3V5) 2
/
/
13.
16.
16. 3>?
36(v
45).
^^l^ls.
v^
22.
VT/s
18.
^
VT4
19.
^
20.
^?
v'To
21.
4^
j^/rfc
24.
^V4C
26.
^^^
^
26.
^=a/^^r
27.
collect terms.
V3aVl5a.
29.
ZVxVSx*.
30.
76?
33.
zxfa*.
(3VS).
(5i~+i;) 2
.
'
32. 36.
VfoV25xy.
36.
2
.
5\/3a~'3.
2v/4^
4
.
37.
40.
38.
39.
(6V?~+~1)
(
41. (2
+ 3V6)(3 \/2)(\/3
V5).
49.
61.
64.
56.
68.
+ V5). (3\/2 + V3)(V2 + 4V). (2V3  V7)(2V3 + V?). (2\/3 + V5)(V2 + 4). 62. (v^ + 5) (V  2Vi)(Vx + 2V2). (2#x  3)(5v^ + 2).
2
.
 3)(5\/2 + 2).  V5)(3V3 f V5). (2\/3 (Vg  \/5)(V6 + Vg).  3\/3)(5V2 f 3\/3). (5\/2
(3^2
+ V3)(\/2 + V6).
63. (\/2
+ 5\/2)2.
65. 67.
2\/3)
2
.
(Vx 
5V^)2.
69.
(Va
+ 6v^)
62.
2
.
60.
(aVy
61.
\^^^ xcoefficient
v^
Replace the
63.
3V2a.
64.
68.
sVfo.
65.
aVbx.
66. 70.
67.
S^P.
2^a.
69. 2V/36.
denominator in a radical of order n, after the radicand has been expressed as a simple fraction, multiply both numerator and denominator of the radicand by the simplest expression which will make the denominator a perfect nth power. In particular, if the radical is a square root, we make the denominator a perfect square; if a cube root, we make the denominator a perfect cube.
T
To
rationalize a
ILLUSTRATION
1.
/3
1/7
/S
7?
\~7T
= VSI ~
~~T~~
4.583 7
A,K 655.
frr
,
,
(Table
T,
I)
Notice the inconvenience of the following attempt at computation of without rationalization of the denominator; a long division is required.
1<732
'
(Table
ILLUSTRATION
2.
762
ILLUSTRATION
3
/64ar4
__ ""
3/64~
_ ~
8/43.32?
"*
"^43 3a;2
\9x*
\9z
3z
^oO
_ = 4^33* 2
3a;
a6
oW
EXERCISE 61
+ <*
V}.
VJV.
2. 7.
V.
^}.
12. 16.
Vf
4.
9.
V.
5.
Vf.
6.
8.
^J.
13.
^S.
14. 18.
10.
^5.
.128.
col'
^~dW
15.
^pj.
Vl)07.
V^.
\/^12.
^.
^
^T03.
17.
Eliminate any negative exponents, rationalize the denominators, and lect terms involving a common radical factor.
19.
\K
22.
\ F?>
24.
26. i/T
26.
27.
28.
29.
S^
31
"V5S?"
32
33.
8/6 9o4
34.
s=s
36.
37.
41.
42.
c3
tf1
44. v/ 46.
46.
V^Tft'
47.
VF
5
.
48.
VF.
49.
60. v^a~76~2 .
61.
66.
V J + ar'.
67.
61.
68. v^
+ or*.
62.
69.
v'a f
60.
63.
^^
5VJ
h h
V45.
10V
$4.
<^.
66.
^F
163
denominators
of the following illustration is frequently equivalent to the procedure of the preceding section.
The method
ILLUSTRATION
to
1.
is
multiplied
by
^2
in order
make
the
new radicand a
ILLUSTRATION
2.
If
c V5,
we can
rationalize it
by multiplying by aVb +
Vd
because
(a\/6)
(aVb  cVd)(aVb
ILLUSTRATION
2
+ cVd) 
(c\/5)
a'6
3.
3V^ p 2V2 
\/3
7=
=
2
\/3
6(\/2)
(3
2)
V5 (V3)
(V3)
 
In finding the quotient of two radicals, it may be desirable to write the expression as a single radical before rationalizing.
ILLUSTRATION
4.
EXERCISE 62
Rationalize the denominator and, if no letters are involved, compute by use of Table I. Collect terms in any polynomial.
2>/2
+ V3
V2 + V3
164
2V3  V5
y
V2)
7="
4v
V2 + 3V3 2V3
34.
+ 3 V2
V2 + V5 3V5  V2
2 V?
+
\/3
(1
22.
23.
2\/3
25. (3
3\/7
7
2V6
(2
+ V7
26. (\/3
24.
27 :
S
X
+ V2).
L
33.
+ VTI) +
VII).
28.
29.,^=.
30.
^=.
31.
32.
~^>
^^.
K
Ol O
^:.
l
.
36.
37.
*/
*v
r"
38.

40.
"v
41.
^ y
o/
16a3 62
42.
=
2\fc
v27xy*
44.
43.
3
46.
^p=. + +
SVa;
3
^gVo +  V2o
1 6
46.
8 
+
=
^
m
\^2a
V3V2 + V5
vS.
=
=
2
7='
47.
p: V3V6 + V5
=:
>.
V^VJ
=.<
fc
49.
50.
61.
hfW
21
Changing from
fractional
exponents to radicals
a product of powers involving fractional exponents to radical form, first change the fractional parts of the exponents to fractions with their lowest common denominator.
ILLUSTRATION
1
1.
To change
by
will
To find a power
to the
or a root of
1.
applied
2.
Simplify the indicated power of the radicand and express the result as a radical.
165
2.
(2v 5x)
4[(5z)*]
be unnecessary to introduce fractional exponents in an operation of Type I. Also, with experience, one observes simple rules such as
recognize that, in simple cases,
it
We
may
"the
wth
root of the
nth
3
root of
is the
mnth
root of
A."
(1)
ILLUSTRATION
3.
v^ =
3.
A^Va =
v'a.
II.
T'o
orders:
1.
its
radicand, and
LCD.
ILLUSTRATION
V^3\/2
3*2*
ILLUSTRATION
5.
(3a6)t
27a3
III.
1.
3a
To reduce
to
the order of
Change
common
2.
denominator.
ILLUSTRATION
^625 =
In reducing the order of a radical, it is convenient to commence by expressing the radicand as a power of some expression.
ILLUSTRATION
7.
\/16z2
v"(4z)
166
1
far as problems in this text are concerned, we agree that an expression is in its simplest radical form if all possible operations of the following varieties have been performed, with any negative ex
As
ponents eliminated.
SUMMARY.
1.
To reduce a
single radical.
2.
to
3. Rationalize all
4.
denominators.
Remove from each radicand all factors which are perfect nth powers, where n is the order of the radical.
5.
6.
inferred that the preceding operations need be performed in the specified order. To simplify a radical expression will mean to reduce it to simplest
It
must not be
radical form.
ILLUSTRATION 1. To simplify the following radical we rationalize the denominator, and finally notice that the order of the radical can be reduced.
ef^~ =
\16c
l
6/q2.4c2
= v
2c2 2c2
\164c12
2c2
EXERCISE 63
Change
1. atb*.
to simplest radical
2.
form.
3.
x*y*.
5ai
4. 2z*.
6.
6. a$bt.
7. a$b%.
to
8. xly$.
9. xty$.
10.
Reduce
11. 16.
a radical of lower
12.
2 ^wT
.
order.
\^.
v^.
^27.
^8l.
13. 18.
v^.
Vtf.
14.
Vy\
#9.
^49.
15.
17. 1??.
19.
20. 25.
21.
22. 27.
4T25.
23.
28.
^36.
2 v/iF
.
24.
26.
J/W.
29. V%a*.
30.
167
(V&.
VS.
.
i
>
33.
V5.
34.
35. 40.
36. (v'a)'.
37. (\/3) 4
38. (V2)'.
39. (v"5) 4 .
41.
(V5).
42. (\/6) 4 .
43.
4
.
44.
45.
50.
47.
52. 67.
(2v 3)
48.
63.
(v^
49.
54.
V^.
.
V\/5.
A/V1.
66.
60.
66. V^a;.
59.
62. 66. 63.
61.
66. 69.
72. 75. 78.
^yv
64.
68. 71. 74.
^2^2.
70. 73.
67.
v^
5
Va.
^2.
v^r
V2 v^
5
^3
i
4 \/2.
76. 79.
77.
80.
V6~
%Vy
.
^
>^S.
82.
v
84.
~
81. 86.
90.
83.
87.
91.
85.
vx^.
3
(v^x2 ) 6
.
88.
92.
89.
93.
97.
94.
95.
Vx~*
102.
99.
100.
101.
464
103.
(v^)
7
.
105.
109.
106.
107.
Wjty
2
.
(av^)
6
.
110. (6V/3) 6
114.
111. (cv/4) 3 .
113.
V3a
+a
4
120. j
118.
119.
Va +
123.
\/3a
122.
+ 9y~
2
.
;+
Find
16.
21.
26.
V3 + V2
2\/2
26
Express without radicals, or negative signs or zero in the exponents, and simplify by use of the laws of exponents.
33.
&?.
v^p.
34. <Vf.
35.
40.
V9.
ty&o}.
36. 41.
Vi^.
37. 42.
47.
38.
43.
39. 44.
v^.
W~
5
.
^C^.
K1 51.
&r
8
.
46. (16z)*.
46. (a6)*.
62. (2o
+ 6 )2
1
.
63.
S^1
+ 2y)~
l
.
64. 5(a~2
+ 36 )'
1
2
.
27.
Change
66.
to simplest radical
form.
68. 62. 66.
70.
V96V.
67.
61.
^32^.
^iaF3
69.
v'Vj.
60.
64.
#&.
(V2a).
aW.
(2V3X)
3
.
65.
68.
72. 76.
C^^.
73.
74. v/49.
V5V5.
77.
\/2lfyr\
78.
169
82
84. 86.
3\/
+ &V8.
87.
86.
5VI2 
(V2Va  Va b
.
88.
90.
(Vo
+
36.
89.
2763
i
91.
92.
6
93.
3
94.
96.
J
v2
62
x
.
x^a2
96.
V(a
97.
f
V6 1
a~2
^
(V a 
CHAPTER
10
But, if R is either positive or negative, R is positive and hence cannot equal is not a square root of 1. 1. Obviously R = Hence, no real 1. number is a square root of Similarly, if P is positive, any square P would satisfy the equation root R of the negative number Rz = P. But, 1 is positive or zero for all real values of R and P has no real number R as a square root. Therefore, in hence order that negative numbers may have square roots, we proceed to define numbers of a new type, to be called imaginary numbers. 1 be introduced as a new variety of number, Let the symbol * called an imaginary number, with the property that
By
definition,
is
a square
root of
2
1 in
case
# =
2
1.
For convenience, we
or
i
8
V
1
1.
= 
1.
let i
Then, by definition
i*i
that the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication will be applied to combinations of i and real numbers as if i were an ordinary real literal number, with i2 Then,
1.
We agree f
=A1
Any
in particular,
(so that
integral
i,
,')
= ,=_!,
a square root of
1.
(2)
as well as h
i
i,
is
power of
and hence
(*)(*)
(1)(1)1.
(3)
Refer to the introduction of negative numbers in Section 6 and observe the similarity of the present discussion, t This procedure can be arrived at logically by a more advanced discussion.
171
i(i
t(
1)
i.
t 13
=
(3
W2
ILLUSTRATION
'
2.
If
  P;
Hence, the negative number
Hereafter,
db
(
VP) =
t^P
= 
P.
t'
P has
we
This agreement about the meaning of P is equivalent to saying that we should proceed as follows in dealing with the square root of a negative number:
P=
the two square roots db P or ( P)^ represents the P has the two square roots
iVP.
(4)
ILLUSTRATION
3.
The square
roots of
5 are
ILLUSTRATION
]Vofe /.
4.
V 4V 9
We
(iV4)(i\/9)
6i 2
= 
6.
Va
V^I\A=~9 = V(which
If
is
4)(is
9)
= V36 =
6,
a and b are real numbers, we call (a + bi) a complex number, whose real part is a and imaginary part is bi. If b 7* 0, we call (a 4 W) an imaginary number. A pure imaginary number is one whose real = and 6^0. part is zero; that is, (a f bi) is a pure imaginary if a Any real number a is thought of as a complex number in which the  a f Oi. In coefficient of the imaginary part is zero; that is, a
particular,
means
(0 4 Oi).
772
3i) is
an imaginary number.
The
real
number 6
+ Oi).
all literal
numbers
sent real numbers, except that hereafter i will always represent Any literal number in a radical of even order will be supposed positive,
this is possible
repre1.
if
itNote 8.
we
order to provide square roots for negative numbers. It might then be inferred, incorrectly, that still other varieties of numbers would have to be
etc., of positive
and negative
also roots of all orders of imaginary numbers. An extremely interesting theorem is that the real numbers and the imaginary numbers,
numbers and
as just introduced, provide all the numbers we need in order to have at our disposal roots of all orders of any one of these numbers. Explicitly, in more
advanced algebra,* it is proved that, if k is any positive integer, then any has just k distinct kih roots, which are also complex complex number numbers (including real and imaginary numbers as special cases).
irNote 4 In the theory of electricity, it is customary to use j for because the letter i is reserved for a different purpose.
EXERCISE 65
Express by use of the imaginary unit
1. 6.
i
and simplify
the
remaining radical.
V^~9.
V^
\
17.
11.
16. 21.
v^^OO.
V27.
V^36.
22.
V^
v
32. 36.
29.
30.
34.
V Ifo*. V 12t0.
o2^
31.
36.
V
/
V V 4ay.
33.
V a V
2 2
**
.
37.
V27F.
38.^
42.
*
A89
cW
'
V
26
4L
V 546.
81.
43.
 M.
44.
46.
63.
f
See
De
173
1 until i
1 of i
an exponent
greater than 1.
48. i7 .
49. %.
61. t 18 .
66. (3 68.
62.
i.
63. (3
t)(3
2
.
t).
64. (3i
66. (2i
69. (5 62. 64. 66.
69.
+ 3)
67.
4)*.
61.
2i2
+ 4i
V^~2V^~8.
67.
70.
V^VV^~3(5
2
(a;
75.
68.
V 27\^ ~3.
:
V^2(3  5V^1).
x
2
 V^27).
71. (5
 V^~8)
2
.
72. Substitute
73. If /(*) 74. If /(x)
=*
+ 6i in

60;
+ 34).
/(3i); /(2
= =
3a:
+ 2x a?
7, find /(ft);
5i).
a*
+ i).
3i4
HINT
for
Problem
75.
4i.
the terms of highest degree in the variables are of the second degree. A quadratic equation in a variable x can be reduced to the standard
form
axa
bx
+c
0,
(1)
where
a, b,
and
is
c are constants
7*
equation in x
=
1.
is
0.
3z2
5x
+7=
is
a pure quadratic in
x.
To
and
2 solve a pure quadratic equation hi x, solve the equation for x extract square roots.
174
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2. 3.
Solve:
ly
= 18 +  3y*  18;
7y*
3y
2
.
4y
Divide by 4:
y*
= =
18.
j.
On
EXAMPLE
2.
2.121.
Solve:
2j/
+ 35 = 2
2/
5y*.
SOLUTION.
7y
35;
5.
Hence, y
=b
V
2
.
iV5.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.
3.
1.
Solve for x:
a*x*
ft
o2^2
(a
2
a&c2
ab)x*
Factor:
= = =
o&c2
+a
ft .
a2
a2
62 .
3.
Divide by (a2
06)
X2
. a?& = tfab
.
b)(a
a(a
+ 6)
'*
6)
or.
a^
+6
!
4.
K
1.
a quadratic equation are explicit numbers and if a radical occurs in any solution which is a real number, always compute the decimal value of the solution by use of Table I. If it is desired to check such a solution, substitute the radical form instead of the decimal
If the coefficients in
value, unless otherwise directed by the instructor. The approximate decimal value, as a rule, could not lead to an absolute check.
EXERCISE 66
Solve for x, or otherwise for the letter in the problem.
1.
5x2
125.
25.
2.
6.
3x2
12.
3.
Jt /
3. 7.
x2
= "
9.
4.
8.
JLm%
4x2
3x2
 
9.
6.
9x2
t
 == /  G.
2x2
5x2
7.
fii%
11.
1 ft 1Q.
7*2 9 AJU
in QT^ XV* 7*
19 &WU 9hr%
2
13. 15
16.
1622
4.
0.
14.
7* *
6.
15.
.
Jx
9x2
+ 49 
17.
7X2
3s2
18.
 1 Jx2 2 2 Jx } * fcc
175
+ 64 c
0.
20.
4oz2
4z 2 4x2
rf.
23.
21. fcc
24.
9ac*  46
25a
4&r*.
26. 9az*
2
46
+ 9cz*.
c*
+ 25a =
=
25
+ 4a z*.
28. 2cx*
+ 4d S
for
4<fc*.
29. Solve /r
31. Solve
rov2 for v.
?rr
2
J#*
Jir
A =
for r.
A for
or x.
07 33.
^2
g
+ 2 _5 g.
34.
04^.5 j
4
35.
x j
49
0.
2*
+3
as
+6
zero*
This fact
is
the
SUMMARY.
1.
To
solve
an equation in x by use
of factoring:
sides by the
2.
LCD
Transpose all terms to one member and thus obtain zero as member. Factor the first member if possible.
3.
to zero
and
6
solve for x.
EXAMPLE
Solve:
5z
1,
6x2
0.
to obtain convenience in
2. 3.
Factor:
(3z
+ 5x  6 =  2) (2* + 3) 6*2
or
2;
if
0.
0.
The equation
is satisfied if
3x
4. If
5. If
2x
is
+3
f
is
0.
3x
2x 4 3
= =
0, 0,
then 3x
x
3;
=
x
one solution.
a second solution.
then 2x
776
EXAMPLE
Solve:
1.
4x*
+ 20s f 25
or
(2z
.
0.
SOLUTION.
Factor:
(2*
2. If
+ 5) 2
0;
+ 5)(2* + 5) 
0.
2z f 5
for x,
we
Since each factor gives the agree to say that the equation has two equal roots.
0,
then x
same value
In solving an equation, if both sides are divided by an expression involving the unknowns, solutions may be lost.
EXAMPLE
3.
Solve:
1.
5z2
&t.
SOLUTION.
Transpose 8z:
5z2
Sx 8
= =
0;
x(5x
8)
=
=
0.
2.
Hence, x
or 5x
and f
INCORRECT SOLUTION.
&c by x:
8.
Then,
incorrectly,
we obtain x = f
was
lost
on dividing by
Some
literal
4.
1.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2. If
(2ax
2ax
=
=
0,
then
2ax
ax
6;
x
x
H
3. If
ax f 26
0,
then
= 2a
26;
= a
4.
solutions 5
and
a
EXERCISE 67
Solve 6y factoring.
1.
x2
3z
=

10.
2.
5y
=
.
14.
3.
s2 f *
=
144
12.
4.
z2 f 3z
3x2 x2
28.
0.
6.
21x
6s2
= =
14z2
Ifo.
6.
W5z2 x2
0.
7.
7x
8.
9.
9z
15
0.
10.
+8
6x.
3.
11. 4x2
14.
25
2z
= 
0.
12.
15.
8x.
13.
2s3
+ 5z 
3z2
5.
8z2 f 3
177
24x
9.
1.
17.
25y
20y
4.
18.
z2
22. 24.
26.
28.
30.
32.
20.
3z2
+2
= 
7*.
21.
+ 6*   9. 2z + 7x   6.
2
23. 12
5z 2
17z
0. 0.
25. 16z 2
+ 40z + 25 =
27. 15 29.
31. 33.
 7w  4w2 = 0. 7z2 + 9z  10 = 0.
4
2x
x2
0.
+ 5x  9x = 0. 6 + 5x  6x = 0.
2 2
Solve for x or
34. 3fo2
+ ex
w or z. = 0.
2
35. 2or2
3dx
0.
x2
+ or  6a = 0. 2z + bx  36 = 0. 46 z h 4a6x + a =
2 2 2
2 2
37. x2
56x
+

662
0.
0.
0.
2
39. 3w;2
0.
bw
46 2
=
=
7bx
2aV 
abx
362
0.
9aV +
12a6x
+ 46 =
0.
62. (x
2w
w
1
0.
2x
+8
ar
*
2
+ 3)(2z 
5)(3z
7)
63. 6z8 f
15*
0.
64. (2x
3)(3x f 5)
2x
+ 7.
65. (3z
l)(2x
+ 5)
3z
19.
the square of
if
That
is,
we complete a square
we
add
or
g)'
178
ILLUSTRATION
ofi(6), or 3:
x2
if
we add
the square
x2
ILLUSTRATION
2.
Ox
+9
(x
3)
2
.
To make z2
a*
(J)
or
7z
+^
(x
I)
SUMMARY.
1.
To
sofoe
Transpose
all
terms involving x
and
all other
terms
to the right
member and
collect terms.
2.
coefficient of
left
x2
3.
Rewrite the
left
member as
the square of
a binomial.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.
Solve:
1.
a;
+ 4x + 1 =
x2
0.
(1)
1.
Subtract
1:
+ 4x
(2)
left:
Since 4
*
2,
add
2? or 4, to
*2
3.
+ 4z + 4 = 4 1;  3. (x + 2) x + 2 = V3
x
(3)
(4)
or
 
db
V3.
(5)
Thus, the roots are irrational numbers. To compute approximate values for the roots to three decimal places, we obtain V3 from Table I
:
* 2.
2
%
1.732
= 
.268
x
3x*
= 
1.732
= 
3.732.
EXAMPLE
Solve:
1.
&e
+2
&c
*
**
0.
SOLUTION.
2.
3x*
2.
Divide by 3:
Since
*
sa
8 53 =
2
~
3.
J,
add
8
()*
I
or
^ to complete a square.
16

/4\* I
.. .
2 _
\3/
tr
9
10
39
.
16 ^ ^ 6
..
Hence,
179
From Table
I,
VIo =
o
3.162.
SB
Hence,
2.387,
3.162
OOQ>y
.,
and
=
43.162
o
x* f
.279.
O .n
EXAMPLE
3.
4s
+7
0.
SOLUTION.
2.
x2 4 4x
7.
Since (4 4 2)
2,
we add
2* or
4 to both
sides:
3.
Hence,
 
*V3.
ox* f bx
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.
4.
Solve for x:
1.
Subtract
c:
+c ax* +
fez
0.
c.
Divide by a:
x1
6*
1
rr*
f
6 
c 
3.
, '
or
4a2
:=:
x + +a
,
,
&
/&\*
(^) \2a/
,
&*
4o
6
^r a
C 
o
4ac
Simplify:
4.
+ ^j (x
6
6 \8
TT"'
2o
_ 5.
,
,
6
JT:
a;
Subtract
=
2
2a
=2a
1
fe
Vfe2
=b
4oc
2a
fe
=fc
V6*
s
4oc
2a
Note
An
equality
A =B A A 
is satisfied if
5, that
is,
if
A=B
J?
arif
A = B.
is,
(7)
Equally
well,
A2 = B
if
5, that
or t/
t/ If
A * 
B.
(8)
both sides of each equation hi (8) are multiplied by 1, we obtain equations (7). Therefore, on extracting the square roots of both sides of A* = B1
,
we obtain
all
possible information
by writing
"
A =
."
B, instead of writing
is, it is
A =
we read
d= as
+
if
or
That
necessary to
780
make
it
Sx.
2. x* 6.
6.
*2
J*.
x2
+ 10*. + f*.
10. 13. 16. 19.
a:
3.
*2 *2
2cx.
*a
+ 4dx.
J*.
7.
+ j*.
0.
8. x*
Sofoe
9.
a;
fo/
completing a square.
2
12.
a;
+ Ox = 7. + 9 = 6*.
4y
2
4 10s f
24
*2
=
=
5.
6x2 4*2
4z.
+ 4* + 4 = 0. x + 13 = 6*. 9x + 1 = 12*.
2 2
*2
1.
+ 13 16x + 9 =
2
12*.
22.
4z2 4 4z
=
21.
0.
23. 26.
3z2 h 8z 4*2
1.
24*.
26. 9*2
12*
12*
5.
= (* = (2
* *2
+ V2)
and *
= (
2 \/2) satisfy *
+ 4* + 2
0.
*2
4*
+
*2
13
0.
Solve for
29.
square.
30.
+ bx =
4*
662 .
c
31. 2*2
56*
362
b
32. 6*2
0.
0.
34. .3*2
.06*
.144
0.
36. o*2
37.
+ 4*  c = 0. Hx* + Kx + P  0.
36. 2*2
38.
+ bx + c = 0. A* + 2B* + C =
2
0.
axa 4 bx
+c=
(1)
n.
In
(2), it is
We
and
call (2)
permissible for a,
6,
c to
j* 0.
181
SUMMARY.
formula:
1.
To
solve
it to
the standard
form
ax*
2.
bx
0.
b,
and
c.
and
62
c in the formula.
ILLUSTRATION 1. = = 6 6, and c
To
2.
solve 3z2
=
6
0,
we observe that a =
3,
 (_ ~
x
6)
V(6
'
43
(
2)
_
3
2VT5 ~ _
6
3.873
+ 3 873 =
o
2.291,
and
"
3 873 o
'
= 
.291.
fe
4x ILLUSTRATION 2. To solve 2z2 5 = 0, we notice that = 5. Hence, from the quadratic formula, = 4, and c
2,
db
Vl6 4
40
~4~4~2
4
V 24
x*
2t>/6
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.
1.
Solve for x:
1.
3ex f 5dx
I5de
0.
Group terms
in
a::
z2 4 x(
3e f 5d)
15de
0.
l,
6=
3e
5rf,
and
3e
/ox (3)
9e 2
+ 60efe =
25(^4 30de
+ 9e*
Hence, from
(3),
x
o*
o*?
(.1
i
3e
.
i i
..
+ &0
2
............... 3e)
3e
5d 4 5d 2
+ 3e
(5d
'
3e
5d
5d
**
"
The
solutions are 3e
.
and
In deriving the quadratic formula, we showed that an integral rational equation of the 2d degree in x has just two roots (which sometimes are identical). This result is a special case of a general theorem that, if
the degree of the equation is n, the equation has just n roots (with repetitions of values possible among them).
782
Check
5
if directed
0.
by the instructor.
2
6za
+x8y_
12.
0.
2.
6.
3y
2
j/
+ 2y 
3. 6. 9.
6y
7y
=* 0.
4. 7j/2
7.
2y 4 10
0.
z2
+

13
4z.
0.
4*2
10.
9*2
13. 9z2
+ 9  12*. + &c + 1  0. + te  1.
2s
8. 16z2
25 49
=
6z2
0. 0.
4z2
&c
18
+1Ify
8
.
11. 14.
36z2
By
2z2
9s2
+ 4x 3
16.
19.
2*2 9s2
7.
17. 4z* 4
2z.
+ 3  8z. + 6z = 7.
=
4z
22.
+ 16  0. 4s* + 5  82.
=
4x.
&c.
21. 3s2
24. x*
8.
25. 4x2 f 53
3x2 f 2x
27. 30.
28. 9z 2
31.
27
12x.
25z2 f 4
20c.
15.
19a;
12.
33. 36.
34. 24y2
+ 2y =
4r2 h 29
= 
8x.
&c2
2
39. 41.
38. 2z2
+ hx 2
16A2
0.
43. y2
45.
47. 49.
46. 48.
6% 
4hy f 10
15y
0.
3z2 f 3&c2
6x
+ 5/uc (
10
+ 5x =
6
0.
50.
Check the
solutions
V6
2
4oc)
i
2a by substitution in
+ 6x f c = 0.
a;
y in terms of a: x in terms of y:
a;
2y
2
2y
15z2
+ xy + + 5y = 0.  2  x + 3y IZxy =
2
a;
0.
hi
y in terms of
Problem
52.
Table I
is
Thus,
if
we meet
(42)*.
183
pure quadratic equation should be solved by merely extracting square roots, as in Section 126. Any other quadratic equation should be solved by factoring if factors can be easily recognized. In all other cases, solve by use of the quadratic formula, unless otherwise
specified.
The method
is
not recommended
in
any problem unless specifically requested; this method was troduced mainly as a means for deriving the quadratic formula.
1
in
31
From geometry, we recall the Pythagorean theorem, which we associate with the triangle
in Figure 12.
.
R9
// a and b are the lengths of the perpendicular sides and c is the 2 2 2 length of the hypotenuse of a right angled triangle, then a f fc * c
.
Find the length of a side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude is 3 feet shorter than a side.
1.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
the triangle.
In Figure 13, let ABC represent Let x feet be the length of a side of
1.
AABC.
AD
and
DC
are, re
From
AC = Iff +
or
(X
~
fa
(1)
3.
Simplify in (1)
x*
f
z2
+ 9;
(2)
x2
4.
24*
+ 36 
0.
Solve
(2)
rf
171 * 8
 12*6^8;
(Using Table
I)
=
The
is
smallest root has no significance in the problem because (1.61 negative. Hence, the side of the specified triangle is 22.39 feet long.
3)
184
EXAMPLE 2. An airplane flies 560 miles against a head wind of 40 miles per hour. The plane took 28 minutes longer for this flight than would have
been the case in
still air.
How
1.
INCOMPLETE SOLUTION.
plane in still air. In flying against the wind, the speed is (x 40) miles = per hour. From the equation distance (rate) (time), the flight times for a distance of 560 miles against the wind and in still air are, respectively,
560
x
2.
40
and
560 x
From
560
560
"
28
"
40
/JA '60
clear of fractions
and
solve for x.
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISE
70
Solve each equation by three methods, (a) by factoring, (b) by completing a square, and (c) by use of the quadratic formula.
1.
2*2
+ 5* =
33
3.
2.
3* 2
+5
4x
6
= =
2
16*.
3.
12* 2
11*
15.
ty.
3.
6. x*
45.
2*.
6.
7.
14*2
8.
9.
10. 4y*
17
I2y.
11. 1
+ 25* =
5* 2
10*.
0.
0.
12.
+9= 49* + 4 = 6* + 5* =
16</
2
2
24p.
14*.
56.
13. 25*2
16.
20*
1.
14. 16
17.
=

16. 6* 2 18.
= =
7*.
6*2
19. 5y2
+ 5 = 0. + 36  0.
*
II*2
4*2
49*.
20. 16y2
+1=
.
&y.
21.
20*2
13*
21.
23*
*
X
=3.
3 o
x
7
+x
"" 
2
2
OB
5 2
29.
4
1
~*
*
4
28. 30.
2*T~I
6T=
32* "
2*
\g&
&*2
+ a*
2fcc
3S.
4*2 f 26*
32.
a*2
26*
+ 2  *. = 2* + 3.
31. 3*2
33. c*2
0.
185
+ 2fcc
3cx
0.
+h=
0.
unknown number.
is
434.
is
area of a rectangle is 221 square feet and one side longer than the other. Find the dimensions.
37.
The
feet
38.
39.
is
306.
40.
6 feet longer
than a
41.
is
Find the length of a side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude 2 feet shorter than a side.
42. After plowing
a uniform border inside a rectangular field 50 rods long by 40 rods wide, a farmer finds that he has plowed 60% of the field. Find the width of the border.
43.
The diameter
of a circular field
is
40 yards.
yards.
What
(Use
IT
increase in the
diameter
44.
by 440 square
3^.)
A
An
circular field is
is
surrounded by a cinder track whose width is J of the area of the field. Find the radius of the field.
airplane flew 660 miles in the direction of a wind and then took 40 minutes longer than on the outward trip to fly back against the same
wind.
fast
still air,
how
46. Jones travels 4 miles per hour faster than Smith and covers 224 fast does each man travel? miles in one hour less time than Smith.
How
motorboat takes 2 hours to travel 8 miles downstream and 4 miles back on a river which flows at the rate of 2 miles per hour. Find the rate at which the motorboat would travel in still water.
47. 48.
If
is
tive area
Solve
E for E in terms of A
an object
is
the measured crosssection area of a chimney, 2AE is the smallest root of the equation E*
its
socalled effec
+ A*
.36A
0.
shot vertically from the surface of the earth with an initial velocity of v feet per second, and if air resistance and other dis= vt %g&, turbing factors are neglected, it is proved hi physics that $
49. If
where
s feet is
the height of the object above the surface at the end of t (6) If (a) Solve for t in terms of s. 32, approximately,
when
feet.
CHAPTER
ADVANCED TOPICS
EQUATIONS
1
IN QUADRATIC
is
ax* f bx
+ c,
^
0.
3.
where
a, b,
and
1.
c are constants
and a
z2
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2x
xz
2x
3.
We
x and compute
the corresponding values for y. In Figure 14, we plot the points ( 3, 12), ( 2, 5),
etc.
they appear on the zaxis, because then the corresponding points on the graph are met hi their natural order as we draw the curve. The curve through the plotted points is the graph of the function and is called a
Fig.
14
parabola.
The
value of the function, and we call V the minimum point of the graph. The vertical line through V is called the axis of the parabola. The part of the curve to the right of this axis has exactly the same shape as the part to the left. That is, the parabola is symmetrical with respect to its axis. The equation of the axis of the parab1. ola y = x2 2x 3 shown in Figure 14 is x
point V at the rounded end is called the vertex of the Since V is the lowest point of the graph, the ordinate of V,
minimum
ADVANCED TOPICS
If
IN QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
187
a parabola is concave downward (open downward), instead of concave upward as shown in Figure 14, then the vertex of the parabola
is its
highest point
and
is
called the
maximum
At a more advanced
I.
stage,
we meet
to the xaxis;
is positive
and
concave downward
II.
is negative.
The abscissa of
5; when x
value
has this value, the function has its minimum or according as a is positive or negative.
ILLUSTRATION
1.
its
maximum
In Figure
14, at V,
2
7:^A \
1.
SUMMARY.
tion f(x):
1.
To form a
table of values in
Find
Choose pairs of values of x where, in each pair, the values are equidistant from the vertex, one value on each side; the values off(x) cor2.
responding
to
ILLUSTRATION selected z = 1 db
etc.
In Example 1, the abscissa of V is x 1. Then, we = 2 and z = 0; x I 3, or z = 4 and x = 1, orz 2; The corresponding pairs of values of y are equal.
2.
*EXAMPLE a maximum.
SOLUTION.
2. 3.
will
be
1.
50z
x2
of f(x) is attained at the vertex of the parabola which is = 25. Hence, the product the graph off(x), or when x = 2)] [50 * ( of the parts of 50 will be greatest when they are equal, each being 25. The
The maximum
is
625.
After having formed a table of values for graphing a quadratic function of x, select the scales on the coordinate axes with care. Choose
Note
1.
the unit for distance on the zaxis large enough to spread out the parabola in order to make it generously open. Choose the vertical unit independently
of the previous choice of the zunit in order to be able to plot all points from the table of values on the available part of the crosssection sheet.
188
ADVANCED TOPICS
IN QUADRATIC
EQUATIONS
EXERCISE 71
For each function,
(a) find the coordinates of the vertex of the
graph and
the
equation of its axis; (b) graph the function, with values of x extending at least 4 units on each side of the vertex; (c) state the maximum or minimum value
of each function.
1. x*.
2.
4z 2
3.
7. a*
x\
4.
6z2
5.
*2
+ 5.
6. x*
4.
9.
2z2 3s2
12.
+ 4* + 3. + 6z  5.
10.
+ 6z + 5 3z + I2x.
2
8.
z2
11.
2z2
13.
4z 2
12*.
14. 2z 2
+ 7. f 8z + 3.  20z + 4.
4x
maximum
3z 2
or a
minimum
value,
and obtain
vertex.
16.
4z2
IQx
+ 3.
+ 24z 
7.
17.
6z 2
+ 8.
shot vertically upward from the earth's surface with an initial velocity of 96 feet per second, (a) draw a graph of the distance s as a function of t\ (b) from the graph, find when the object commences
18. If
an object
to
fall,
the
maximum
is
height which
it
reaches,
and when
it
face.
shot vertically upward from the earth 's surface with an initial velocity of 80 feet per second, find when the object reaches its
19. If
an object
maximum
20.
I2x
+3
by use
x from
4 to 4 inclusive.
to
x3
22. x4
23.
x*.
24.
z3
26.
xs
+ 2x* 
4*
+ 3.
26.
3x*
4z3
12* 2
+ 6.
each problem by introducing just one unknown x and then finding the maximum of a quadratic function of x, without graphing.
if Solve
is
a maximum.
of largest area which
Find the dimensions of the rectangular can be inclosed with 600 feet of wire fence.
field
29. In forming a trough with a rectangular cross section and open top, long sheet of tin is bent upward on each long side. If the sheet is 30
inches wide, find the dimensions of the cross section with the largest possible
area.
30. Divide
is
a maximum.
ADVANCED TOPICS
1
IN QUADRATIC
EQUATIONS
789
x has a value for which the graph of f(x) meets the xaxis, then with this value of x we have/(x) = 0. Hence we are led to the following procedure.
SUMMARY.
tion in
1.
an equa
terms
to
one member
to
obtain
tion of the
2.
form f(x) =
an equa
0.
Graph
and measure
0.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
page 186.
2.
2
1.
Solve z 2
1.
2x
graphically.
14,
Let y = x* 2x 3 and consider its graph in Figure The graph crosses the xaxis at x = 3 and x = 1.
Since y
which z  2x
=
1
1,
are imaginary) this would be indicated the fact that the graph of f(x) would not meet the xaxis.
If the roots of f(x)
1
by
+
2
bx
+c=
+
c.
(1)
we
bx
(2)
The
I.
parabola, which
is
has
when
meet the xaxis when and only when the roots are
imaginary.
parabola can be defined geometrically as the curve of intersection when a right circular cone is cut by a plane which is parallel to a straight line on the cone through its apex.
Note
1.
790
ADVANCED TOP/CS
IN QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I,
ILLUSTRATION 1. In Figure 15, parabolas the graphs of II, and III are, respectively,
left
members
of the fol
lowing equations.
(I)
z2 z2
(II)
(III)
+1= *'2z + 5 =
2x
2x
0; 0;
0.
From
roots,
the graphs,
we
roots x
Fig.
15
But, before solving a quadratic equation graphically, we may (1) clear the equation of fractions; (2) divide out any common constant factor from all terms; (3) make the coefficient of z 2 positive. Operation 3
Find
1.
2x
0.
2. x*
4.
7.
+ 4x + 7
13
0.
5.
+ 2x  8 = x*  2x + 3 =
=
2z 2
0.
3.
x2
+ 6# + 9
=
2
0.
0.
6.
fz
z2 .
9.
8.
4c
2z2
5.
10.
12x
11.
4x
+ 3.
t
12.
3z 2
6x
5.
grrap/&
o/
x2
4 4z f
14, find
13.
for
is 1.
+ 4x f 4
= 6
by
By
use of a single graph, solve each of the following equations graph2z2  5x  7 = 0. 2s2  6x 3 = 0; 2s2 5x = 0;
Let r and
f
foe
+c
0.
Then, from
ADVANCED TOPICS
IN QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
b
;
197
 b + V62 2a
4ac
8
 Vb 2
4oc
(1)
2a
numbers and that a j^ 2 4oc Then, the roots are imaginary when and only when b
a,
6,
We
assume that
if
and
c are real
0.
is
negative;
If
ft
one root is imaginary, the other is also. = s = 6/2a. Moreover, 4oc 0, then r
if
on sub
we
obtain
2 2Vb s =
4oc
S
2a
0;
V6 4oc  0.
2
Hence,
if
then
fc
4ac
0.
the preceding remarks and Section 134, we see that the items in any row of the following summary hold simultaneously.
From
THE ROOTS OF
ax
2
THE VALUE OP
62 6s
62
THE GRAPH OF
axz
+ bx + c =
4ac 4oc
4ac
+ bx + c
real
>
= <
numbers, the roots are rational when 4oc is real and is a rational number. That is, and only when V& 2 4oc is a perfect the roots are rational numbers when and only when fe
If a, 6,
and
c are rational
2
square.
We
ax*
call
62
4oc
the
discriminant
2
of
the
2
quadratic
c,
equation
+ bx + c = 0,
as soon as
we know
the value of 6
4oc,
we can
tell
character of the roots of the equation without solving it, and the general nature of the graph of the function without graphing it.
192
ADVANCED TOPICS
/N QUADRATIC
EQUATIONS
it
should be
by
1.
2
clearing of fractions
EXAMPLE
function
State what you can learn about the graph of the quadratic 6 without graphing. 3a \ 5x
1.
SOLUTION.
2.
The
is
25
72
47.
coefficient
lie
Hence, the graph would not touch the zaxis. Since the of z2 is r 3, the graph is concave downward and therefore must
below the a>axis.
wholly
only in the signs of the coefficients of fyeir imaginary parts, then either of the given numbers is called the conjugate of the other.
If differ
ILLUSTRATION
of (a
1.
The conjugate
bi).
of (3
+ 5i)
is (3
5i).
The conjugate
+ bi)
is
(a
the roots of a quadratic equation are imaginary, these roots are conjugate imaginary numbers, because the imaginary parts come
When
from
V6
ILLUSTRATION
The
=t
roots of x*
f
4z
+5
.
=
.
are
,
.
.
v 16 ~
20
i,
conjugate imaginanes.
EXERCISE 73
Compute
1. y*
the discriminant
0.
and
tell
4.
3s2
+ 10 =  5z + 7 =
1y
2. y* 6.
4i/
21
0. 0.
3.
z2
2z
0.
0.
9z2 3z 5x2
+

12z
+4
5z2
.
6.
7.
30
2x
%
3
7
2
= 2%.
fo2
0.
0.
.
8.
9.
10.
11.
13. 8a?
14. 5z2
17.
+ 1  2z.  3x = 0.
=
ftc
2
12.
+ 4z = 25 + 4z = 25z + 1
4x*
2 2
3.
20z.
15. 1 18.
2x
4 .3
16.
+ 5z =
Qx
+ 4.
z2 f
.4a;
0.
check the graph by computing the discriminant and thus determining the character of the roots.
Solve graphically;
19.
x2
4x
6.
20.
z2
+7
4x.
21. 4z2
+ 4z =
1.
ADVANCED TOPICS
Compute
IN QUADRATIC
EQUATIONS
193
the discriminant of the function and, without graphing, state all facts which you can learn about its graph. 22. 4x* 25.
I2x
9.
23.
7.
2z 2
3z
5x
5.
24. 3**
4x.
3z2
5z
26. 4z 2
+ 7.
30.
27.
3s2
2x
+ 4.
+ 7t.
Sum and
use of
r
29.
W.
+ V^~9.
31.
6\^"T.
37.
By
 6 + V6 2
4oc
o 2a
and
6
a'
2
Vfe2
4oc
2a
'
we
obtain
26
2a
2
'
rs
+ Vb  4oc  6  Vb  4oc
2a
2a
2
(b
6x
4oc)
4a
2 Hence, for the equation ox
4oc
4a
rfs= rs
(1)
=
=
c
(2)
ILLUSTRATION
1.
For 3z2
5x
+7
0,
we
find r
+s
and
rs
J.
THEOREM
I.
+ bx + c = 0,
5).
ax*
Proof.
1.
frt
+c=
a(x
r)(x
(1)
We can write
ox2
+ bx + c =
(Z
at x2 4 a? 4\
1
a/
c d
2.
From
Section 137,
4
=
(r
(r
+ s)
and
=
rs.
Hence,
s).
bx
+c=
a[x
+ s)x 4 rs]
a(x
r)(x
194
ADVANCED TOPICS
1.
IN QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
equation whose roots are 5 and
ILLUSTRATION
(x
A quadratic
5)
is
+ 3)(z 2.
0,
or
s2
2x
15
0.
[a
1 in (1)]
ILLUSTRATION
=b 3t) is
To
eliminate fractions
we use a = 4 = 22, and then group within sum and difference of two quantities, as an
parenaid in
multiplying:
0;
[(2z
2)
1,
0,
or
(2s
 2)  9i 13
0.
Since
4z2
&c
+ 4 h 9  0,
or
4s
 &c +
0.
certain circumstances, we have seen how to solve the equa2 c = bx 4 c. tion ax2 f bx by first factoring the function ax
Under
Formula
to /actor the
funo
tion by first solving the equation (of course, not using factoring in
the solution).
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1. 1.
Factor 6x2
Solve 6z2
23a?
f
20 by
first
solving an equation.
23z
+ 20
V49 
0,
"
a?
23
23
12
l24
O
jr
5 A
A ana
a;
2.
From formula
62*
23*
+ 20 =
6(z
$)(*
j)
(2*
5)(3*
4).
that any quadratic function of x can be expressed as a product of factors which are linear in x. However, these factors involve rational, irrational, or imaginary coefficients depending on
1 states
Formula
s.
on page 191, we
c can be expressed // a, b, and c are rational numbers, ax* 4 bx as a product of real linear factors with rational coefficients when and 2 4ac is a perfect square. only when the discriminant ft
ADVANCED TOPICS
IN QUADRATIC
EQUATIONS
795
EXERCISE 74
Find
the
sum and
unknown
x,
x2
7
18
+ 5x  3
&c
=
.
0.
2.
2x
7
5x*
+ 7.
4z*.
0.
3. 4z*
6.
3z
17
6.
4.
2z2
5.
3x
5s2
0.
7.
5x2 .
8.
12z 2
+3=
7z2
9.
9z*
7s.
10.
2z2
5z.
11. 5
4x.
6.
2
12.
4z2
12s
9.
2z2
2z2
18.
14. + dx = h. + 3z + as + c  0. + + 2a + d = 0.
3a;
cz2
3z
15. 4z*
ox
c.
Compute
20. 4(* 22.
(a;
f)(x
+ f).
3i).
+
+ 1 + 2\/2).
+ 3i)(x  2 
+1
2V2)(z
Form a
as
roots.
24. 3;
28. 32.
7.
26.
2;
3.
26. J;
30. 34.
f;
2i.
27. J; 2.
f; f.
}V3.
29. 2;
33.
.
3V2.
31. 35.
\/2.
t.
36. 1 db
V2.
j}V3.
37.
=t
=fc
V5.
JV2.
38. 3
41.
44.
2\/2.
5t.
39.
42.
45.
40.
43. 46.
4
i
3i.
2i.
Ji.
2iV5.
f tV3.
47.
Jt V2.
formula.
48. 12z'
51.
+

llz
13*
36.
60.
49. 27z*
62.
24x2
48x2
50. 27x2
53.
fay
12z
16j/
27x2
32.
Without factoring or solving any equation, determine whether or not the expression has real linear factors with rational coefficients.
64. 8z*
+ 7* 
2.
56. llz2
12*
5.
56. 6z*
+ 25xy + 26j/
2x
J
.
ifFactor,
57. a?
+ Ox +
58. 4s*
12x
+ 7.
59. 2z*
+ 6.
796
1
ADVANCED TOPICS
in
IN QUADRATIC
EQUATIONS
39. Equations
quadratic form
x* (z
2
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2. If
1.
Solve:
1.
5z 2
2
+6
2
2)
0. 0.
(1)
Factor:
if
3)(z
=
0,
x*
0,
then x
\/3;
z2
then x
V2.
four solutions,
Vjji
and
=t
V2.
(1),
1.
Let y
2
2/
x2
then
2
i/
z 4 and, from
%+6=
2)
0.
Solve for y:
(y
3)(y
0;
hence, y
3. If 4. If
=
=
3 and
2, 3,
?/
2.
y y
then z2
= =
2 and z
3 and x
= =
is
A/2.
\/3. said to be in the quadratic
x*.
then x2
Comment.
form
in
z2
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.
2.
1.
Solve:
2ar4
y
z~ 2
3
2
2/
= =
0.
Let
or2
then
(2y
ar4
and
1)
2#
0.
Solve for y:
3)ft/
+
rr
0;
hence, y
=
o
"~
and y
Tf
11
 thpn r~2
2
^1^9
=
a:
r2 *= 3*
1
4
2'
Vfi
3
2'
4. If
2/
= 
1,
then or2
= t
1;
= v
1; x*
= 
1;
t.
5.
The
solutions are
3.
=fc
and
EXAMPLE
Solve:
(x*
+ 3z)  3x  ftc  4 =
2
0.
INCOMPLETE SOLUTION.
1.
Group terms:
Let y
(z
=
4,
0.
2.
x*
+ 3z;
z2
then y2
3y
4 x2
0; hence,
y
1.
and y
1.
We
3x
and
+ 3z
= 
In solving an equation of the form x k = A where A; is a positive integer greater than 2, we agree for the present that we desire only real k solutions unless otherwise specified. The real solutions, if any, of x = A are
1
.
the real
A?th
roots of A.
4 Thus, x
= 'v/ci =
8 has no
2.
z6
64
ADVANCED 7OP/CS
EXAMPLE
4.
1.
IN
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
of factoring:
197
Obtain
all
roots
by use
2
8z 3
125
0.
SOLUTION.
2. 3.
Factor: (2x
+ 5)(4z or
lOx
Hence,
2x
+5=
and
0,
4z2
+ 25) = 0. lOz + 25 = 0.
400)
The
solutions are
= 5.
i(10
VlOO 
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.
If
is
of 625, then x*
625.
Solve for x:
2
x4
25)(z
2
625
0;
0;
(z
+ 25) =
z2
25
or
x*
= 
25.'
Hence, x
Note
2.
5 and x
In this section the student has met further illustrations of the truth of the theorem that an integral rational equation of degree n in a single
variable
x has exactly n
roots
be equal). Also, we have seen illustrations of the related fact that, if n is a positive integer, every number has exactly n distinct nth roots, some or all of which may be imaginary.
may
EXERCISE 75
Solve by the method of page 196, without first clearing of fractions they occur. Results may be left in simplest radical form.
1.
when
x*
5z2
+4
=
=
.
0.
2.
&4z 4
x4
10z2
+9
=
0.
0.
3. x*
4
8x*
16
0.
4.
9z 4
+4
8
13z2
18.
5.
+
9
15z2
4.
6. 9.
?/
=
16
3
2.
7.
4 z y 4 7y
8.
=
1
Sly
0.
10.
13. 16. 17.
x6
7r*.
11.
27z
28X3
12.
8/
+ 39y =
=
5.
4ar4
liar2
3 =
0.
i
14.
36X"4
13ar2
+ 1=0.
0.
250T4
8z6
26x~2
3
+1=
0.
0.
16. 2
+

17ar2
9Z4
+ 35z + 27 =
18. 1
2ar2
=
0.
3or4
0.
0.
19. (x 2
z)
(&c
&c)
+

12
20. (x 2
+ 3z) x)
2
2
3z2
9z
=
9
6z2
17z2
+ 3z 60
0.
z2
+ 4z 
68z
0.
798
ADVANCED TOPICS
IN QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
26 25 '
x*
+ 3*
29.
a;
30. 4x*
31.
zw
30z5
64.
0.
35
2
T
+ 3a x =
3
HINT
36. 2x*
if
for
Problem
33.
Let y
(2
x)/x
2
.
llax 2
+
0.
12a2
0.
36. (2z2
 3az) 2
2o2a;2
2a4
Find
all roots
+8
=
3
0.
39. x3
27
0.
40. 16z 4
81.
0.
27.
625z4
42.
Sy
125
0.
43. 125z
+ 27 =
44.
46. 64.
47.
1.
48. 8.
49. J.
60. ^y.
ifFind the
61. 1.
62. 16.
66. 16.
66. 256.
67.
Jf
40.
An
we M N represent any equation. On squaring both if3f = ATorifM = N. Hence, obtain M = N which N* consist of solutions of M = N together the solutions of M N. with those of M =
Let
2 2
,
is satisfied
2 =*
all
ILLUSTRATION
1.
is
x
x
3
3)
a *
2. 4.
(1)
On On
we obtain
find
(2)
we
3
1
2;
hence,
5
(1).
or
1.
5 of
an operation on an equation in x produces a new equation which is satisfied by values of x which are not roots of the given equation, we have agreed to call such values extraneous roots. From
ADVANCED TOPICS
IN QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
199
the preceding discussion, we observe that, if both members of an equation are squared* extraneous roots may be introduced.
ILLUSTRATION
2.
In Illustration
1,
1 is
an extraneous
root.
141.
Irrational
equations
irrational equation is one hi which the variables occur radical signs or hi expressions with fractional exponents.
An
under
EXAMPLE
(a),
1.
folio whig
(6).
2*
2 =
1.
4.
(6)
2x
= 
2z*
+ 4.
SOLUTION.
2. 3.
Square both
4.
sides:
SOLUTION.
2.
1.
4x*
4.
2z x =
4z2 2z
2
4)
0.
3. 4.
Sx &c
+
=
+

0; 2z(z
4)
0.
and
4.
TEST.
Substitute x
=
No.
(a)
:
in (a) :
TEST.
Substitute x
in (6):
Does
= V4? 2 = 2?
2
4 in
Or, does
Does
=  VI?
*=
Yes.
:
Substitute x
4 in
6?
(6)
Substitute x
Does 8
is
2 6
=  V36?
Does 8
x
is
Yes.
Or, does
is
No.
a root.
is not,
and x
a root.
met the extraneous roots x = in solving (a) and x = 4 hi solving (6). The test of the values obtained in Step 4 in either solution was necessary in order to reject these extraneous roots. The necessity for the test is also shown by the fact that, although (a) and (b) are different equations, all distinction between them is lost after squaring.
Comment.
We
SUMMARY.
1.
To
solve
an equation
involving radicals:
to
Transpose
the
all
// the most complicated radical is a square bers; if a cube root, cube both members; etc.
2.
root,
square both
mem
Repeat Steps 1 and 2 with the effort to eliminate all radicals inThen, solve the resulting equation. volving the unknowns.
3.
4.
Test each value obtained in Step 3 by substitution in the given equation to determine which values are roots.
* Also true
if
200
Note
1.
ADVANCED 7OP/CS
IN
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
is
positive,
VA
or A$, represents the positive represents only the principal nth root of A.
VA,
Also, in testing for extraneous roots, remember that m represent only the principal nth root of a
.
we
are using a
to
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.
2.
1.
Solve:
(x
Square:
3. Simplify:
2x
+ 5.
4.
Square:
36(2*
+ 5)
(x
38)(*
2)
38 and x
= 0. = 2.
TEST.
Substitute x
2 and * 2
* *
= =
2: does
38: does
Hence, neither x
38
is
root.
EXERCISE 76
Solve for x or y or
1.
z.
Va+2
3.
2.
V3 z =
v'J+l = 3* = 5\/2.
2V3
5s
5.
3. 6.
V2  7z = v"6*  2 = 4.
=
4.
4.
8.
1.
9. (2 f z)*
10. (3
13.
+z = (2* + 3)*
11.
5.
12. (2
2)*
= 
2.
14.
= =
0.
15.
Vy =
4*2
y. 0.
= 32*.  2* 2 =
17.
0.
3V* +
2*.
18.
0.
+ zV3 =
3j/\/5
20.
v/*?^"24*
3 =
V2*
21. 2i/2
0.
4 1
26.
Vi.
1.
4 4 4 V^ =
28.
30,
^2 
27. 29.
V? 2*  V3  * = 1. V2  4* + 2\/l  3* = 2.
g*4
2*
2.
31.
2*45
2.
ADVANCED 7OP/CS
32.
IN QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
33.
201
V3 +
(3
x)*
x*.
x2
2.
V3f
3x
= 2V3x Vx"
\/3
x.
V3x
+ 46 =
2V2x
h b.
=
=
V20s,
(a) for s;
(6) for 0.
39. Solve
Z;
(6) for g.
*40
SOLUTION.
2.
1.
Solve: 4x*
7x
=
2
0.
Let
(4y
2,
xi;
then
y
0;
=
y
x$
and
2
4g/
+
y
7y
J.
0.
Solve for y:
l)(y
+ 2)
=
J
or
=
2
= 
and
2;
3. If
y y
= =
J,
then
xi
or
Six
'v'x
hence,
x
3
4. If
then
x^
J;
hence,
variable.
(J)
= =
8.
irSolve by reducing to
41. 52 44.
+ 3Vz = 2. 3x + 7xi = 6.
=
8xi
47. 3xi
60.
4.
2
x2
+ 2x  Vz + 2x  6 =
all real roots.
61.
3X"1
1.
if
Find
62. #* 66. y*
= =
8.
53.
x*
= =
32.
9.
64. 2$
16.
65.
x*
x*
= 
8.
4.
67. x*
68.
&
=
= 27.
243.
69. 62. (2
= 
27.
60. (2x
63.
1)*
4.
61. (5
0.
3x)*
2x~3
15x*
8 =
64.
3X3
+ 3x)* = 8. + 26x* 9 = 0.
EXAMPLE
1.
If c is
a constant and 2
3x 2
is
7x
+c=
s,
SOLUTION.
with r
2.
+8=
or,
+s
*;
202
ADVANCED TOPICS
2.
IN QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
if
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2. 3. 4.
5.
Given condition:
5.
1.
(1) (2)
Sum
Solve
of the roots:
+s
rs
8
2h.
(3) (4)
and
(2) for r
and
s:
= 3; 6= 
= h
2.
2A;
3.
(5)
EXAMPLE
for
+ 2s 2 2
3kx
+ =
fc
0.
SOLUTION.
1.
in standard form:
+ 2)z 
3kx
+ = 0. = k + 2, 6 =
4oc
or
3k,
is
and
=
=
&.
zero:
discriminant
3.
= (8)
3&)
4(&
or
+ 2)(fc)
k
=0;
and
k
5k*
Sk
0.
Hence,
k(5k
I.
0;
THEOREM
2 // one root of ox
+ bx + c =
=
is 2fte negative
of the
0. s
Proof.
2.
1.
If r
and
s,
or r
+ s = 0.
6
Hence,
'
+s=
=
a
0,
0, '
or
0.
Therefore
0.
THEOREM
II.
7/6 =
bx
+c
=
is the
Proof.
Since 6
0,
then
=0 = r + s.
Hence, r
s.
Note 1. Theorem II is the converse of Theorem I. Theorem II could have been abbreviated by adding the words and conversely at the end of Theorem I. Or, both theorems are included in the following statement:
.
"
One
root of ax*
+ bx + c =
when
=
I,
0."
Theorem
In this statement we justify the phrase only when by and the word when by Theorem II.
4.
EXAMPLE
+ 9A
2.
a?
Find the values of the constant h so that the equation 3 \ x will have one root the negative of the other.
1.
SOLUTION.
From Theorem
W
hx* f
1
x(W
h
1)
3
.
0.
0;
d=
ADVANCED TOPICS
IN
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
203
*EXERCISE 77
use of the discriminant, find the values of the constant k for which the equation will have equal roots for the unknown x.
By
1.
4x*
fcc
2
4
6.
+1+ 3fo + 5 =
Zkx
0.
2.
4z 2
+ 5kx + 4
5.
=
fcr
0.
2
3. 2fer2
+93. 4.
\2x.
0.
0.
x2
a;
5s2
2fcc
a;
=
k
7. 0.
&2:t2
fcc
2
x
2x
=
=
8.
x2
kx
9. fee
+x +
the
Axe
Find
5z 2
k for which
10.
2kx
+ k.
3fc
11. 2kx*
3fcc
+ 5.
2x2
s2
3x
fcc.
13. 2z 2
+ 2z 
2A;x.
14.
2Jb 2
5kx
+ 5.
=
0.
In
all
probkms, x
is 3, is
is
is the
unknown and
are constants.
15. If 16. If
one root
one root
2z2
5x + d
3x2 f dx
+5=
0.
17. If
18. If
5, find
the other^oot:
2z2
3z2
is J,
+ bx 3 = 0. + 7x + h = 0.
4x
5hx
Find
19.
h under
5:
*
The sum
of the roots
of
tle
is
is 7:
20. 21.
22.
23.
The sum
roots
is
9:
is
by
by
6: 2:
24. 26.
3:
One
One
27. 2to  ihx  5h?x + 6 = 0. + Zhx  5 = 0. 29. h*x* +^h*x + 5hx  4 = 0. 28. x + 12z  3A x + h = 0. 31. x  3A z = A  2x. 30. hx* + Wx = 3 + x. 33. x  hx 32. 3z + 5h?x = 2 + x. + 2x = 0. ox + bx + c = 34. Prove that, has one root zero, then c = 0,
26. hx*
2
Ox
/i a;
if
and
conversely.
CHAPTER
THE BINOMIAL THEOREM
integral
power
of a binomial
By
multiplication,
1
we
(x
+ y) = x + y\
4
2
(re
i/
*/
4.5Z2/
+ y*.
We
I.
see that,
if
n=
the
1, 2, 3, 4,
or
5, the
expansion of (x
+ y) n conx
tains (n 4 1)
terms with
In any term
sum of the
,
II.
less
is I
r
the ex
~ The second term is nx n l y, and in each succeeding term ponent of y is 1 more than in the preceding term.
III.
IV. // the coefficient of any term is multiplied by the exponent of x in that term and if the product is divided by the number of that term, the
quotient obtained is the coefficient of the next term.
*
ILLUSTRATION
1.
In
we obtain
(at^ y}
4
,
is
Or 4, of the fourth term. amhe'^pefficient the fourth term is lQx*y*; m^rqjperty IV, we obtain (102) the coefficient of the fifth term.* s
(62)
5
3,
+ y)
B
,
4, or 5, as
V. The
coefficients of
2.
ILLUSTRATION
The
205
if
we have merely verified their truth The theorem which justifies this assumption 4, and 5. binomial theorem, which we shall accept without proof
is
called the
in this text.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
(c
1.
Expand
1.
(c
f w)
7
.
By
use of Properties
c5
2
I, II,
and
III,
we obtain
c2
+ w) =
7
c7
+ 7cfiw +
left for
f
cV +
eW +
^6
cufl
+w
7
,
the
unknown
coefficients.
is
By
(76) 4 2, or 21;
(21 5)
5
3, or 35.
By
7
coefficients; hence,
+ w>)
c7
(w\
2a
r
SOLUTION.
1.
(2a
=
)
[(2a)
( ) ]'
2.
We use
Properties I to
V with x
2a and y
'
(2a)
80
.
or
160
...
20
following array of numbers is called Pascal's Triangk. The successive rows give the coefficients in the successive positive integral powers of x f y. To form any row after
ATote 1.
The
the second, we first place 1 at the left; the 2d number is the sum of
the 1st
and 2d numbers in the preceding row; the 3d number in the new row is the sum of the 2d and 1 10 10 5 5 3d numbers in the preceding row; etc. This triangle was known to Chinese mathematicians in the early fourteenth century, and it appeared in print in Europe for the first time
in 1527.
14641
121 1331
1 1
206
any power
of
+y
is
observe that the signs are alternately plus and minus hi the expansion of a power of a binomial where one term bears a plus sign
We
sign.
symbol
is
The symbol
ILLUSTRATION
n\
read
ton inclusive,
5!
12345
120.
31
=
1
123
6.
1L =
10!
1234567 12345678910
J_
720*
8910
EXERCISE 78
of Properties
d)
6
.
ItoV.
(x
6.
9.
+ 6) (2 + a) (a + 6
(a
6
.
2.
(c
3.
7
.
y)
9
.
4.
4
.
6.
(x
2o)
7.
(36
y).
6 2 ).
8.
+ 3) (2c + 3d)
6
(c
8
.
2 8
) 6
.
10. (c8
3d}
a)
9
.
4
.
11. (a2
12. (c
x3 ) 6
13. (x
i)
14. (1
2 4
16.
(Vz  v^).
5
.
16. (z*
19. (z*
+ a)
6
.
17.
( a
+ JT
.
18. (2T8
x)
2a~ 1 ) 4
20.
21
,
1.(?36>V \a /
26. (a2
.
Find only
23. (a
+

12)
.I)
24. (c 28. (1
3)
25
.
+6
3 20
)
.
26. (1
.
+ 2a)
2
10
.
27. (1
22
.
12
.2)
29. (1
 V2) 
12
30. (1
3s3 ) 18
31. (2x
36. (*
a2) 80,
n.
32. (z*
y)
36.
+ &)". (a + z)*.
expression.
33. (a" 1
+ 3) M
y)
34. (x 38.
a"2) 11
)*.
37. (z2
(w; .h
71
ot
41. 11!
42.
3!
43.
5! 4!
^fVi
By
use of Properties I to
IV
of Section 143,
we
obtain
207
(z
T y)
,
v.
%n
+
,
,
nx n~ ly
i
n(n
~jr
1) ^ (1)
n(nas
In
(1)
in y, y* t
"and
so forth."
In the terms
we
shall accept
without proof.
,
SUMMARY.
+ y) n
A. The exponent of x
B. The denominator
that is,
is
r.
is the
tor inclusive;
C.
The numerator of
r
f
n and
1 less
The
last factor is
1.
When
.
(A), (B),
.
state that
r 4* 1)
the
term involving yr
is
n(n
1) 
(n
p
write
xn
. r
r r
.
/\
(2)
By
use of formula
(x
2,
we may
*"
*
+ y) n =
n(n
+
? r!
1)
nx~*y
n(n
xn ~*y* f
(3)
(n
1) vn _ r, ir r AC" 
y
ir
J_
l*n iy
We
write
By
use of
(2),
of (3) without writing the other terms. n refer to (2) as the general term of the expansion of (x y)
any term
we can Hence, we
.
ILLUSTRATION
1.
The term
jj
+ y)
is
7.5.5.4
x*y*
or
35zV.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.
11
6)
the binomial.
8th term
''
(2)
with r
7,
and y
b:
<3*ty<
W
26,730a'&'.
208
Note
1.
derive a formula for the rth term in (3), we notice that this term will contain y*" 1 as a factor. Hence, we substitute (r 1) for r in
(2)
To
and
find that
tte rth term is
*i
~*u
n(n
1) '
(n
^.
4 2)
ixnr+i^ri.
(4)
We may call
solved
(4),
as well as
(2),
by use
of (4) with r
Example
8.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.
zlz in the
expansion of
(v
z3 ) 7 .
4,
=
is
(z
3 4
=
.
7, r
v,
and y
z3 : the
term
T~o~q~l
6
(~~
2;3 )
4
>
or
35V3 ;?12
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
3.
Compute
(1.01)
6
(1.01)
(1
2 = I 6 + 6(1) (.01) (.01) 4 = 14 6(.01) + 15(.01) 2 f 20(.01) 4 = 1 f .06 + .0015 + .000020 H (negligible = 1.06152 = 1.062, approximately.
6 4 3
4 .Ol) 4 15(1)
terms)
EXERCISE 79
Find only
1.
Term
Term Term
2.
4 y) in the expansion of (z + x)
y)
9
.
10
.
3. 4.
7
.
Term
4 3y)
8
.
5.
7.
x)
9
.
6.
3d term of (w
10th term of (x 2
11
z)
4 x)

7
.
8.
4y
.
3 10
) 7
.
9.
4th term of (x
5y)
.I)
term of
(1
.02)
11. 6th
term of
13.
(1
8
.
Term
Term
22 ) 6
14.
involving
w10 in
4
y)
8 8
I/ )
.
15.
Term
n.
209
a
Term
Term
+
2 8 ) .
Middle term of
y)
19.
.
20.
7
2/)
21.
Term
23.
Term
(sp
\
(y
Find
power.
25. (a
the term or terms with the largest coefficient in the
x\* o)
'
expansion of the
28. (c
+ x)*.

26. (c
10
w>)
27. (a2
+ 6)
9
.
rf
)".
of the binomial theorem. In any problem involving decimals t use only enough terms to obtain the result correct to three decimal places.
Compute by use
a)
4
.
30. (100
2)
3
.
31.
99 4
32. 394
34. (1.01) 7 .
36. (1.02).
38. (.99) 6 .
42. (.52) 8 .
44. 101 B
45. 62*.
CHAPTER
13
AND VARIATION
RATIO, PROPORTION,
146. Ratio
The ratio of one number a to a second number a/6. The ratio of a to 6 is sometimes written a:b.
tion,
is
and any
ratio:
a:b
=
if
(1)
The
of the
ratio of
same
kind.
The
^.
147. Proportion
proportion
is
proportion proportion
a statement that two ratios are equal. That is, a merely a statement that two fractions are equal. The
is
*
a:b = c:d
means
read
that
r
3a
is
(1)
The proportion
a: 6
c:d
is
"a
is
to 6 as c
to d."
We say
and d form a proportion. = c:d, the first and fourth numbers, a and d, the extremes, and the second and third, b and c, are called
a, 6, c,
the
means
it
of the proportion.
1.
ILLUSTRATION
change
solve the proportion a;: (25 x) 3:7, to fractional form, and then solve the resulting equation:
To
we
first
x
*"~
Z X
3
*'*
Jx =
75
3z;
ICte
75;
hence, *
7.5.
RAT/0, PROPORTION,
AND VARIATION
211
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2. Also,
3.
1.
x\y
+ y " 36.
7x
3y.
(2)
(3)
On
we obtain
(x
10.8,
25.2).
ATote
Jf .
two
any number
then
any two
to the
area of the other as the square of any side of the first triangle
the corresponding side of the other triangle.
square of
EXAMPLE
2.
similar triangle,
a triangle are 12, 8, and 15 inches long. In a the longest side is 40 inches long. Find the other sides.
sides of
The
Let x and y be the lengths in inches of the sides of the similar triangle corresponding to those sides which are 8 and 12 inches long in the first triangle. Then, SOLUTION.
1.
y:12
= =
40:15 40:15
or
r  o
(4)
z:8
2.
or
~
4ft
JLO
(5)
we
find y
32
feet
and x
21J
feet.
EXERCISE 80
Express each ratio as a fraction and simplify.
2.
J:.
3.
5:7.
7. 9.
4.
x:
6.
Find
6. 8.
Change
11. 3:(20 13. x:(x
15.
to fractional
form and
solve.
2x)
5:2.
12. (2 14.
16.
25)
3z)
6. 2.
2*:(5
17.
line
the ratio 5: 4.
18 niches long is divided into two parts whose lengths have Find the lengths.
272
RATIO, PROPORTION,
AND VARIATION
is
4: 11.
Divide 90 into two parts such that the ratio of one part decreased
by 5
by 10
is
1:4.
is
20. 21.
is
4:3.
The
triangle,
a triangle are 12, 8, and 18 inches long. In a similar the shortest side is 40 inches long. Find the other sides.
sides of sides of
22.
The
is
a polygon are
10, 7, 4,
and 8 inches
long.
If
the long
est side
much
niches.
24.
whose base is 15 inches long has an area of 220 square Find the area of a similar triangle whose base is 6J feet long.
triangle
of a quadrilateral is 49 square feet and its longest side is 12 feet long. Find the area of a similar quadrilateral whose longest side is 15 feet long.
25.
The area
The area
feet.
of a triangle
is
its
shortest side
is
12 feet long.
is
30 square
26.
A man
tall
10 feet long.
27.
How
high
the tower
if its
shadow
is
69 feet long?
9J
A man 5J feet tall stands 40 feet from a street light and casts a shadow feet long. How high is the light?
3: a;
z:27
for #.
x.
a:x
called
=
a
x:b for
If a:x If a:x
x: 6, then
is
x:b, then x*
ab or x
mean
64 and
31.
4 and
2 and
8.
J.
and
8.
34.
36. 38.
3 and 27.
37. y*
and x~4
4
y
,.,,12. 2t/
'
zy and * + 2z + 4 22
to
*// a:b = c:x, then x is called the fourth proportional Find the fourth proportional to each set of numbers:
41. 2,
a,
b,
and
c.
5,
and
14.
42. 5, 4,
and
7.
43. 3, 6,
and
a'6.
RAT/O, PROPORTION,
AND VARIATION
a and
b.
213
Find
the
*// a
45. 2J;
46. 2xy, y.
47. 5m*n;
3m3
*// a:b
48.
c:d and
if
no denominator involved
PROPERTY
I.
ad
6c; or, in
any proportion,
means
PROPERTY
II.
==
?;
tt
or, the
means may
said to be obtained
from a:b
50.
c:d
by
alternation.)
PROPERTY
III.
is
said to be ob
c:d
by
T
inversion.)
51.
tion.
PROPERTY IV.
7
(Said to be obtained
by composi
To
c:d.)
52.
PROPERTY V.
7
(Said to be obtained
by
division.)
is
proportional
or
y varies
y
directly as x, or
is directly
proportional
}
to
x or
y
y varies as x
in case there exists a constant k such that, for every value of x, there
is
y =
kx.
(1)
The circumference C of a circle varies directly because C = 2irr. The constant of proportionality is 2ir.
1.
as the
From y =
kx,
we
obtain k
= 11
X
Hence,
if
is
is
proportional to x,
a constant.
Con
RATIO, PROPORTION,
versely,
is
if
AND VARIATION
y
*
a constant, then y
leads to y
kx.
2.
ILLUSTRATION
then y
If
If
is
is
if it is
known
that 
4,
4x,
and y
proportional to x.
y is proportional to x, then x is proportional to y. In other words, the proportionality relationship is a reciprocal property. This is true
because,
if
kx, then
* T
y.
(2)
Hence, if y varies as x, with fc as the constant of proportionality, tnen x varies as y, with l/k as the constant of
proportionality. If y varies directly as x, so that equation 1 is true, then the graph of the relationship
is
a straight
y.
line,
because
(1) is linear
in
x and
of k,
of (1).
observe that, for any value the graph of (1) passes through the
We
origin,
because (x
0,
0) is
a solution
ILLUSTRATION 3. If y is proportional to x, with 3 as the constant of proportionality, then The graph of this equation is given y = 3x.
in Figure 16.
1
Fis.
16
We say that
y y
in case there exists
is
is inversely proportional to x,
or
varies inversely as x,
x, there
y *
k x
(i)
From
of
this equation, k
is
x and y
a constant.
RATIO, PROPORTION,
ILLUSTRATION
1.
AND VARIATION
215
necessary for a train to go a given distance d varies inversely as the speed s of the train because t =* d/8. The constant of proportionality here is d.
The time
with k as the constant of proportionality, then likewise x varies inversely as y, because the equation A; xy, which comes from (1), leads to both of the equations
If
y varies inversely as
x,
and
2.
=y
If
(2)
ILLUSTRATION
y varies
in
has
or
no
y
points
for
which x
j* 4.
=
0,
because in such
cases
xy
and hence xy
We
Fis.
make up the following table of values by substituting the values of x in y = 4/z. The graph, in Figure
17
extends beyond all limits upward and downward, approaching the yaxis as shown. Similarly, as x grows numerically large without bound, either through positive or through negative
17,
zaxis.
The curve
an
illustration of
We say that
z varies jointly as
x and
y,
or
x and
or
y,
or
x and
d)
y,
z varies as
x and
y,
z'= hxy,
*
(2)
in detail in
Chapter
16.
216
RATIO, PROPORTION,
AND VARIATION
Notice that the significance is that x and y are multiplied
Any
may be
combined.
inversely
ILLUSTRATION
To
directly as
x and y and
as uP means that z
kxy/vP.
If
P=
lOafy/s
3
,
then
P varies
directly as
#2 and
y,
51
Suppose it is known that certain variables are related by a variation equation, with an unknown constant of proportionality, k. Then, if one set of corresponding values of the variables is given, we can
find
A;
by
EXAMPLE
and
If
is
proportional to x and
w2
and
if
36 when x
w~
3, find
y when x
3 and
w=
4.
SOLUTION.
constant.
2.
1.
We
ku?x, where k
is
an unknown
To
find k, substitute (y
36,
36
3.
&(3 )(2);
From
(1),
(a?
4. Substitute
3,
w
4) in
kw*x:
(1) (2)
96.
1.
translated into
an equation
involving
an unknown
2.
constant of proportionality.
The unknown constant was found by substituting given data. 3. The value of the constant of proportionality was substituted in the equation of variation, and this equation was used to obtain the value
of one variable by use of given values of the other variables.
by use
of
an equation
of varia
sufficient to enable
us
EXAMPLE
square of
2.
The
kinetic energy of a
moving body
is
proportional to the
Find the ratio of fye kinetic energy of an automobile traveling at 50 miles per hour to the kinetic energy of the same automobile traveling at 20 miles per hour.
its velocity.
RATIO, PROPORTION,
SOLUTION.
2
AND VARIATION
217
1.
,
Then, E = kv permit us to find the value of &.) 2. Let EI be the energy at 20 miles per hour, and E2 the energy at 50 miles per hour. Then, #1  *(20) 2 or Et  400fc; (3)
Let E be the energy, and v the velocity in miles per hour. Where A; is a constant of proportionality. (The data do not
# =
2
&(50)
or
# =
2
2500&.
(4)
3.
From
(3)
and
(4),
E1 _ ~
Ei
Thus,
2500fe
_ ~
26
"
400&
^ **'
2 is
In applications of an equation of variation, the constant of proportionality will depend on the units in terms of which the variables in the problem are measured. Hence, if the constant is determined for one set of units, care must be exercised to employ the same units whenever this value
Note
1.
of the constant
is
used.
EXERCISE 81
Introduce Utters if necessary and express the relation by ing an unknoum constant of proportionality.
1.
an equation
involv
2. 3. 4.
6. 6.
z.
\ x and
/r
proportional to
is
its altitude.
its radius.
7.
a sphere
8.
pressure applied to
9.
as the square of
10.
body above the surface of the earth varies the distance of the body from the earth's center.
of a
available in a jet of water varies jointly as the weight of the water per cubic foot, the cube of the water's velocity, and the crosssection area of the jet.
11.
by a
218
RATIO, PROPORTION,
give
AND VARIATION
the variable
a statement about
letters
on
All
k represent
variables.
7w.
13. z
4
3x\
r2
5xy*.
16.
16. w y
4*
T
17. 10
18.
<>
u =
z
19.
rt
w
By
20.
employing
21.
P is directly R is inversely
=
2
y,
while
R=
y
4 when x
3 and y
22.
C7
15
when
a;
5,
2,
23.
when z =
2,
and
9.
if
24. If
w
y
is
 
proportional to z and
w=
5 when x
7, find
w when
y
6.
is
25. If
inversely proportional to
x and
if
5 when x
20, find
when x
26. If
15.
is
=
27.
3 when
y,
and
if
The distance fallen by a body, starting from a position of rest in a vacuum near the earth's surface, is proportional to the square of the number of seconds occupied in falling. how far will it fall in 7 seconds?
28.
v, is
If
a body
falls
The
64 pounds is moving at a velocity of 50 feet per second, find the kinetic energy of a body weighing 30 pounds whose velocity is 2400 feet per minute.
one body is sliding on another, the force of sliding friction is proportional to the normal pressure between the bodies (if this pressure is moderate). If the sliding friction between two castiron plates is 60 pounds when the normal pressure is 270 pounds, find the normal pressure when the
29. If
sliding friction is
600 pounds.
safe load of
a horizontal beam supported at its ends varies directly as its breadth and the square of its depth and inversely as the distance between the supports. If the maximum is 2400 pounds for a beam 4 inches wide and 10 inches deep, with supports 15 feet apart, find the maximum load for a beam of the same material which is 3 inches wide and 5 inches deep, with supports 25 feet apart.
30.
The maximum
RAT/0, PROPORTION,
31.
AND VARIATION
219
the supports be placed if a beam 5 inches wide and 8 inches deep, like those in Problem 30, supports 6000 pounds?
far apart
How
may
32.
12 feet apart.
33.
steam per second which will flow through a hole varies jointly as the steam pressure and the area of a cross section of the hole. If 40 pounds of steam per second at a pressure of 200 pounds per square inch flows through a hole whose area is 14 square niches, (a) how much steam at a pressure of 260 pounds per square inch will flow through a hole whose area is 20 square inches; (6) what is the area of a hole which allows 30 pounds of steam to flow through it when the pressure is 300 pounds
per square inch?
34.
The
and inversely as
the square of its diameter. If a wire 350 feet long and 3 millimeters in diameter has a resistance of 1.08 ohms, find the length of a wire of the same material whose resistance is .81 ohm and diameter is 2 millimeters.
y is proportional to x and if y = 16 when x = 4, graph the relation between x and y. Make a statement about the change in the value of y (a) if x varies from any given value to a value three times as large; (6) if
36. If
t
x increases by
36.
25%
inversely proportional
The approximate
is
round object,
ject's
is
velocity of a stream of water, necessary to move a proportional to the product of the square roots of the obits specific
diameter and
gravity.
If
needed to move a stone whose diameter is 1 foot and specific gravity is 4, how large a stone with specific gravity 3 can be moved by a stream whose velocity is 22.68 feet per second?
38.
Read Example 2
in Section 151.
is
of a skater
is
whose speed
Find the ratio of the kinetic energy 20 miles per hour to his energy when his speed
safely transmitted by a solid circular steel shaft varies jointly as the cube of its diameter and the number of revolutions it makes per minute. If a shaft 1.5* in diameter rotating at 1520 revolutions per
minute can' transmit 135 horsepower, find the speed at which the
illumination received from a source of light varies inversely as the square of the distance from the source, and directly as its candle power. At what distance from a 50 candle power light would the illumination be
40.
The
feet
220
41.
RATIO, PROPORTION,
AND VARIATION
Newton's Law of Gravitation states that the force with which each of two masses of m pounds and pounds attracts the other varies directly as the product of the masses and inversely as the square of the distance between the masses. Find the ratio of the force of attraction when two masses are 8000 miles apart to the force when they are 2000 miles apart.
approximation, it is found that the wind pressure on a surface at right angles to the direction of the wind varies jointly as the area of the surface and the square of the wind velocity. What wind velocity
42.
first
As a
would be necessary to cause the pressure on 40 square feet of surface to be double the pressure exerted on 10 square feet by a wind velocity of 30 miles per hour?
current in an electric circuit varies directly as the electromotive force and inversely as the resistance. In a certain circuit, the electromotive
43.
force
is
The
the resistance
increased
by 20 %,
;
is c
by 30%?
Note
1.
The statement x
r, s,
is to
t is
and
number k
z
9*
y is to z as r is to s is to t, or x, y, and z abbreviated by x: y:z = r:s:t, and means such that x =? AT, y = ks, and z kt.
and
4:
under
2:5,
44. x:y:z
and
2&;
x
z
+ %y + z =
=
5k.
40.
HINT,
4k;
and
46. x:y:z
46. x:y:z 47. x:y:z
= = =
5:
3:2,
and
x*
2:5:1,
3:
and
1:2,
and
2.
CHAPTER
14
PROGRESSIONS
A seqwnce
a definite order.
An arithmetic progression
a sequence of numbers
ceding one by adding to it a fixed number ence. The common difference can be found by subtracting any term from the one following it.
ILLUSTRATION
1.
common
difference
is
9, 6, 3, 0,
3,
the
6.
in
an arithmetic progression
Let a be the first term and d be the common difference. Then, the second term is a + d; the third term is a f 2d; the fourth term is a f 3d. In each of these terms, the coefficient of d is 1 less than the number of the term. Similarly, the tenth term is a + 9d. The nth term is the (n l)th after the first term, and is obtained after d has been added (n 1) times, in succession. Hence, if I represents the nth term,  l)d. / = a (1) (n
ILLUSTRATION
1
1.
If
3 and d
4,
is
f
17(4)
71.
54.
Sum
of an arithmetic progression
S be the sum of the first n terms of an A.P. The first term is a; the common difference is d', the last term is I; the next to the last On writing the sum of the n terms, forward and term is I d, etc. backward, we obtain
Let
222
PROGRESS/ONS
l;
(1)
S~l +
On
(l
d)
(l
2d)
+  +
(1)
(a
+ 2d) +
(2)
(a
+ d) + a.
(2)
and
we
obtain
1).
Hence, 2S
= n(a +
0, or
(3)
S = 5 (a
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1. 1.
+
a
I).
+
(n
5 4 2 4l}d.
to twelve terms.
from
+
I
2.
We have = 8 + 11( 3) = 
25.
102.
If
we
S =
we
observe that the
npJ)>
of
(4)
sum
*
of
an A.P.
the
and
I
last terms.
On
substituting
(n
l)dm
4 (n
(3),
we
obtain
S = % [2a &
The quantities a,
d,
I,
l)d].
(5)
n,
arithmetic progression. When three of the elements are given, we may obtain the other two by use of I = a 4 (n l)d and formulas
3 and
5. 2.
EXAMPLE
I
in
an A.P.
for
which a
2,
402,
and
n =
1.
I
SOLUTION.
2.'
We
a
From
(3),
S =
13(404)
rf
5252.
From
l)d,
402
+ 25d;
hence,
16.
If
a sequence of three numbers a, 6, and c forms an A.P., then a c 6, because each side of this equation is equal to the
difference.
3.
common
EXAMPLE
if
(17, k, 29)
form an A.P.
hence,
SOLUTION,
17
29
k',
2k
46;
23.
PROGRESSIONS
t
223
12 H
171.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.
4.
1.
+9+
I
h 171.
We have given a  6, d 3, and = To find n, use = a + (n  l)d: 171 = 6 + 3(n 1); 171 = 6 + 3n3;
Z
n =
56.
3.
To
8 =
KA
EXAMPLE
5.
SOLUTION. 1. Think of a new A.P. where 8 is the 39th term is the 36th term of the new progression.
2.
Use
(n
l)d with a
36:
EXERCISE 82
Write the first six terms of an A.P. from
1.
a a
= =
15; d
18;
=
d
3.
2. 2. 4.
a o
= =
17;
&;
d d
= A.
3.
3.
Which
6. 3, 7, 11, 15.
Find
which
the sequence
forms an A.P.
* 12. b, 17, 23.
9. 3, 8, b.
Find
13.
14. 15.
Given terms:
Given terms: Given terms: Given terms: Given terms:
4, 2, 0; 3, 3J,
16.
17.
18.
Given terms:
Find
and
the
sum
to 15 terms.
to 28 terms. to 33 terms.
to 41 terms. to 17 terms.
t
21. 9, 6, 3,
24. 5, 4i, 4,
to 81 terms.
224
In each problem,
the
PROGRESSIONS
certain of the elements a, d,
I,
n,
and
are given.
Find
missing elements.
10, 17,
= 
410, 381,
3,
n d
26.
4.
26. 28.
a
i
= =
4,
72,
4,
n =
n
18.
a
I
53, 27,
d
Z
= =
19.
J.
87,
60,
d
Z
 =
0,
n 
18.
f. J.
30. a
32.
11,
= 52,
= d
S =
n
26,
2496,
n =
=
16.
3.
33.
S =
2337,
n 
38,
34.
S =
5278, d
Ftnd
the value of
k for which
forms an A.P.
36. (3 37.
2*);
(2
*);
(4
+ 3*).
36. (2
+ *);
t
(2
is
+ 4fc);
(6fc
1).
7 and the
common
difference
38.
is
9 and the
common
difference is
,
which term
is
is
5.02?
which term
129?
is
common
difference of
9 and
The
means between a and /. To insert k arithmetic means between two numbers, a and J, means to find a sequence of k numbers which, when placed between a and Z, give rise to an A.P. with a and /
arithmetic
as
its
extremes.
1.
EXAMPLE
11.
SOLUTION. 1. After the means are inserted, they will complete an A.P. of seven terms, with a = 13 and I = 11. We shall find d for the progression and then form the terms.
2.
From
(n
11
l)d,
3.
13
+ 6d;
d
4),
 or 9;
4.
Hence, the missing terms are (13 The A.P. is (13, 9, 5, 1, 11). 3, 7,
are
(9, 5, 1,
3,
7).
PROGRESSIONS
225
mean is inserted between two numbers, it is called the arithmetic mean of the numbers. Thus, if (6, A, c) form an A.P., then A is called the arithmetic mean of 6 and c. Then, A  b = c  A or 2 A = c + 6. Hence,
When
a single arithmetic
x _ A
or the arithmetic
the arithmetic
mean of two numbers is one half of their sum. Thus, mean of b and c is the number which is frequently
and
c.
ILLUSTRATION
Note
1.
1.
The
arithmetic
mean
of 7
and 15
is
J(7
15)
11.
average of k numbers is denned as their sum divided by k. As a generalization of equation 1, the average of k numbers is frequently called the arithmetic mean of the numbers. Unless we are dealing with just
The
two numbers, so that k 2, the arithmetic mean of k numbers has no connection with the notion of arithmetic means as they occur in arithmetic progressions.
1
In a problem dealing with an A.P., write down the first few terms of the progression and describe them in the language of the problem. Then, decide which elements are known and which you wish to find.
EXAMPLE
1.
6%
simple interest.
Find the accumulated value of his investments at the no interest is withdrawn until then.
first
1.
The
$1000 invested
sulting interest
3.
invested will draw interest for 28 years; the re$1680 and the amount at the end of 30 years is $2680.
draw
is
interest for
just
one year; the resulting amount is $1060. the end of 30 years and receives no interest.
4.
The
last
$1000
invested at
The
total
of 30 years
is
+ 2680 + 2620 +
=
S
2740, n
+
=
1060
30,
1000.
We
wish
for
an A.P. in which a
and d
= 
60.
5.
From S  5 (a
!),
=.^(2740
1000)
$56,100.
226
PROGRESSIONS
2.
contractor has agreed to pay a penalty if he uses more than a speckled length of time to finish a certain job. The penalties for excess time are $25 for the 1st day and, thereafter, $5 more for each day
EXAMPLE
than for the preceding day. If he pays a total penalty of $4050, excess days did he need to finish the work?
,
how many
which form an A.P. SOLUTION. 1. The penalties are $25, $30, $35, = 5, and S = 4050. We wish to find the number of terms, n. where a 25, d
2.
From
S = Jn[2a
(n
1)<T,
4050
3.
[50 *
+ 5(w by
2:
2
1)
(1)
To
8100
50n
+ 5n 1620
5n;
0.
w2
+ 9n 
(2)
On
n
solving (2)
45.
by factoring, or the quadratic formula, we find n = 36 and The negative root has no application in the problem. Hence,
of
+ 30 + 35 H
to
36 terms.
EXERCISE 83
1. Insert
four arithmetic
17.
arithmetic arithmetic
2 and 40.
17.
four arithmetic
12. 16.5.
7.
6. Insert
7. Insert five
means between
/
f m and
6.
Find
8. 6;
the arithmetic
mean
of the numbers.
10.
38.
9.
15; 37.
all all
13; 27.
11.
15;
23.
12. x; y.
13.
14. 15. 16.
inclusive.
inclusive.
3.
than 498,
PKOGKESS/ONS
17.
227
There are 16 rows of billiard balls in a symmetrical triangular arrangement on a table, with 46 balls in the first row and 3 less balls in each other row than hi the one preceding it. How many balls are on the
table?
all positive
and negative
integral multiples of 6
horizontal base of a right triangle is 15 feet long and the side perpendicular to this base is 45 feet long. At intervals of 1 foot on the
base, a perpendicular is drawn to the base and reaches to the hypotenuse. Find the sum of the lengths of all perpendiculars, including the vertical leg of the triangle.
20.
The
A man
for 12 years at
6%
his investments at
Find
21.
for
the total
sum
of
money paid by
Debtor borrows $10,000. Agrees to pay: at the end of each year 10 years, $1000 principal and simple interest at 3% on all principal
Debtor borrows $20,000. Agrees to pay: at the end of each year 20 years, $1000 principal and simple interest at 5% on all principal
A man
5%
24.
of *an A.P.
is
is
55.
Find the
sum
25. If
5x
j
8, find
the
sum
1,
28 inches long and each other rung is one half inch shorter than the rung below it. If the ladder has 18 rungs, how many feet of wood were used in making the rungs?
of a ladder
is
*.
by a fixed number
called the
common ratio.
223
PROGRESSIONS
8, f 4,
2,
1.
the
common ratio is
2)
= +
determine whether or not a sequence of numbers forms a geometric progression, we divide each number by the one which precedes it. All of these ratios are equal if the terms form a G.P.
ILLUSTRATION
If the
2.
To
If 3, 8,
8
O
=x
O
or
64
=
common
the terms will form a G.P. whose the reciprocal of the ratio for the given G.P.
(4, 8, 16, 32),
the
ILLUSTRATION 4. The G.P. (a, ar, ar2 ar3 ) has the common the G.P. (ar8 ar2 ar, a) has the common ratio arVar8 or 1/r.
,
ratio r
whereas
Let a be the first term and r be the common ratio. Then, the second term is ar; the third term is ar 2 In each of these terms the
.
exponent of r is 1 less than the number of the term. Similarly, the 7 The nth term is the (n l)th after the 1st and eighth term is or n1 hence is found by multiplying a by (n 1) factors r, or by r Hence, if I represents the nth term,
.
(1)
ILLUSTRATION
1
1.
If
3 and r
2,
is
3(2
192.
59.
Sum
ar
of a geometric progression
Let
(a,
S be
2
,
the
*,
sum
of the first
,
n terms
of
a G.P.
is
The terms
are
ar,
" arn 2
ar"
),
where ar
n "2
the (n
,
l)th term.
(1) (2)
Hence,
S
Sr
=*
+ ar
2 4 ar
+
f
and
in (2)
ar f ar2
+ ar
f
we
we
obtain
(3)
S  Sr = a ,
arn ,
because each term, except arn on the right in (2) cancels a correspond a arn or r) ing term in (1). From (3), S(l
,
PROGRESSIONS
229
Since
ar n
~l
y
then
rl
arn
Hence, from
(4),
In using
(4), it is
it
as
r L.
(6)
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.
2, 6, 18,
(4),
to six terms.
n =
6;
=
2
2; r
3.
From
2
S==
23
13
1458
2
Z is
79R 728
'
Formula 5
EXAMPLE
2.
is
convenient when
explicitly given.
+
2
(1.05)
2
;
+
8
(1.05)
3
;
+
I
+
2
(1.05)
35
.
86
.
SOLUTION,
a
o = 6
(1.05)
(1.05)
(1.05)
From formula
88
3
5,
(1.05)
36
(L05)
1
(1.05)
(1.05)
r,
Note
n,
Z,
S) are given,
we
ar n1
2,
rl
(4),
Z
and
(5).
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
If
S =
750, r
and
400, find
n and
a.
1.
From S
trrr\
a
l
750
<
=
J.
=~; ~~ &
hence,
50.
K/%
2.
From
arn~\
2ni
400
23;
=
n
50(2*');
1
2r~ l
or
=
n T4.
8;
hence,
3,
If three
numbers
(a, 6, c)
ILLUSTRATION
1.
50 Tn
or
230
1
PROGRESSIONS
term, a, and the last term, I, in a G.P. are called the extremes of the progression. The other terms are called geometric
first
The
means between a and I. To insert k geometric means between two numbers, a and I, means to find a sequence of k numbers which, when placed between a and Z, give rise to a G.P. with a and I as its
In asking for geometric means, valued means.
extremes.
we
EXAMPLE
1.
Insert
SOLUTION. After the means are inserted, they will complete a G.P. of four terms with a = 6 and I = *. We shall find the common ratio of the = arn~lt with n = 4, progression, and then its two middle terms. From I
we
obtain
i? 9
firor;
rsA.
27
The G.P.
is (6, 4,
f *).
,
and f
EXERCISE 84
Write the first four terms of a G.P. for the given data.
1.
= =
5; r
3.
2. 2.
= =
16; r
J.
J.
3.
4; r
4.
27; r
= 
state its
common
ratio
and
write two
6.
10, 5, J,
7. 8,
f f ft.
, ,
\
8. 4, 2, 1, 0.
9. a, ax,
ax 2 , ax8
Find
the value of
15. x,
4,
ia
what
fact
do you observe?
use of I = ar"""1 , find the specified term of the given G.P. without finding the intermediate terms.
By
17. 3, 9, 27; find the 6th term. 19. 12, 6, 3; find the 8th term.
18. 4,
9th term.
20. 6,
PROGRESSIONS
Find
the last term
237
and
the
sum
of the G.P.
22. 12, 6, 3,
to 6 terms.
15, 45,
6, 12,
to 7 termu.
to 6 terms.
}, 1,
to 8 terms.
to
28. 4,
8z2 16s4
to 7 terms.
find the
sum
of the G.P.
+2+
tfie
4 ife.
30. 5
15
+
=
I
+ 3645.
3;
Z
Find
31.
5; r
2;
640.
I
32.
2; r
486.
33. r 35.
10;
.001;
2;
2
100.
5 S =
a
2186;
1458; a
2.
S =
275; r 256; r
= i;
=
J.
400.
*#*; a
1458; r
 =
J;
135.
37. a
Find Me
39. 40.
41.
G.P.
is
5 and
common
ratio is 2. ratio is
.1.
if
is
25 and
common
if
is
40 and 80 and
common common
ratio
is 2.
42.
The 5th
term,
if
is
ratio is J.
*
number of geometric means. 44. Five, between 128 and 43. Five, between 2 and 128.
Insert the specified
45. Three, 47. Six,
2.
46. Four,
between
and
1,000,000.
48. Three,
between 16 and
.0001.
// x and y are of the same sign, and if a single geometric mean G of the same sign is inserted between x and y, then G is called the geometric mean
of x and y;
49. J;
53.
16.
(x,
G, y) form a G.P.
60. i; 36.
Find
the geometric
mean
of the numbers
51. 4; 25.
y.
52.
9;
Find an expression for the sum and simplify by use of the laws of er but do not compute. Use formula 5 on page 229 when convenient.
54. 1 55.
56.
(1.03)
I
+ +
(1.03)
+ +
(1.03).
(1.05)
(1.02)".
232
67. (1.06) 4
58. 1
I
PROGRESSIONS
(1.06)
3 6
(1.06)
(1.06);
(1.02)
16
(1.02)
H to 21 terms.
18
+ +

(1.02)*.
(1.03)(
4
.
f
term of a G.P.
is
is
mediate terms.
k.
(k
+ 3),
(6k f 3),
64.
66.
is
j and 6th
is fo.
How many
if
ancestors have
in
ations
5.
no ancestor appears
you had in the twelve preceding genermore than one line of descent?
An
much
the
investment paid a man, in each year after the first, twice as as in the preceding year. If his investment paid him $13,500 in
four years,
first
how much
did
it
in the first
and the
fourth years?
agreed that the first ticket drawn will pay its owner $.10 and each succeeding ticket twice as much as the preceding one. Find the total amount paid on the first 10 tickets drawn.
67. In a lottery, it
is
68.
first
that (1.03)
1.344.
61
..
./,.'.'
*W^\en a proHe*^ is met where a sequence of terms is suspected of ^ A.P., generally it is an advantage to compute the explicit forming values of the first few terms in simplest form in order to verify the
'istence of
%
a common difference between the terms. On the other d, if a sequence of terms is suspected of forming a G.P., it is best 4te the first few terms, without actually computing them, in a hich will exhibit clearly any constant factor which appears to
r
e powers.
*
1.
i,
*,
rubber ball is dropped from a height of 100 feet. On the ball rises one half of the height from which it last fell. has the ball traveled up to the instant it hits the ground for
PKOGRESS/ONS
SOLUTION.
ball:
1.
233
We
= =
list
the
first
100ft. i(100)ft.
\
=100
4(100)
ft.
ft.
=i(100)ft.
= 3d fall = 3d me =
2d
rise
i(i)(100)
ft.
i(100)ft.
i(i)(100)
ft.
)m100)ft.
efc.
10
ft.
2.
The
an unsymmetrical term.
On
up
porarily, the total distance, in feet, traveled otherwise 12th fall is the sum of
to eleven terms.
(1)
In
(1)
100, r
J,
and n
11.
The sum S
is
obtained from
rn
ion
"
11
(i)
_ ininsik! ~" ~ ~ _ ~
100(2047).
1024
'
_
3.
25(2047)
256
adding the 1st fall to S, we find that the total distance traveled by the ball is 299fJ feet.
On
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISE
Solve by methods involving progressions.
1.
85
If
$500
is
to be divided between 10
and each succeeding man preceding man, how much will the 10th man receive?
ceives $5
2.
men
At a bazaar, tickets are marked with the consecutive even integers and are drawn at random by those entering. If each person 2, 4, 6, pays as many cents as the number on his ticket, how much money is received
if
of each swing, after the first, of a pendulum bob long as the preceding swing. If the first swing is 40 inches long, does the pendulum travel on the first 8 swings?
The path
is .9
as
far
how
152 logs in layers so that the top layer contains 2 logs and each lower layer has one more log than the layer above. How many
4.
A man
piles
234
6.
PROGRESSIONS
In a professional golf tournament, the total prize money of $5187 is divided among the six players with lowest scores, so that each man above as much as the man below him. How much does the the lowest receives
man
dropped from a position of rest in a vacuum near the earth's surface, will fall approximately 32 feet farther in each second, after the first, than in the preceding second. If a body falls 10,000 feet in 25 seconds, how far does it fall in the first second?
6.
A body,
7.
first
n
n
positive integers.
positive
8.
9.
Find an expression
for the
sum
of the first
even integers.
the beginning of each year, a man invests $300 at simple interest at the rate 7%. At the end of 15 years, what is the total value of his in
At
vestments
is
if
if all
required interest
motor truck contains 10 gallons of water. We draw off 1 gallon and replace it with alcohol; then, we draw off 1 gallon of the mixture and replace it by alcohol; etc., until 9 drawings and replacements have been made. How much alcohol is in the final mixture?
The
radiator of a
11. 12.
first
x.
In creating a vacuum in a container, a pump draws out J of the remaining air at each stroke. What part of the original air has been removed by the end of the 7th stroke?

pendulum bob moves over a path 15 inches long on its first swing. fifths of the distance of the In each succeeding swing the bob travels fo^ur preceding swing. How far does the bob travel during the first six swings?
13.
In a potato race, tw^njiy potatoes are placed at intervals of 5 feet in a line from the starting poih^with the nearest potato 25 feet away. A runner is required to bring the potatoes back to the starting place one at a time. How far would he run in bringing in all the potatoes?
14.
15.
speculator will
the
first
month and,
there
after, in
If his original
capital is $2700,
16.
when
will
he become bankrupt?
Two men
minute, but, thereafter, in each minute he goes 30 yards less than in the preceding minute. When will the first man overtake the second?
17.
Prove that the squares of the terms of a G.P. also form a G.P. Then state a more general theorem of this nature.
18.
Prove that the reciprocals of the terms of a G.P. also form a G.P.
PROGRESSIONS
19.
235
rubber ball
bound, the ball rises tance has the ball traveled up to the instant the ball hits the ground the 7th tune?
dropped from a height of 300 feet. On each reone third of the height from which it last fell. What disis
for
20. In a certain positive integral number of three digits, the digits form an A.P. and their sum is 15. If the digits are reversed, the new number is
594
less
the value of a certain quantity now, and if its value increases at the rate i (expressed as a decimal) per year, then the new value
Note
If
is
is
(P
f Pi), or
P(l 4
i).
That
is,
end of any year is (1 f t) times the value at the end of the last year. values at the ends of the years form a G.P. whose common ratio is (1 If A represents the value at the end of n years, then
The
+ i).
This formula
principal
is
referred to as the
compound
t,
P is invested now at
the rate
i)
In
all
rate is constant.
in
first
year,
and
if
the annual rate of increase of consumption for the amount consumed in the 7th year;
12 in the first 12 years, given that (1.06)
6%,
(a) give
an expression
(6) find
2.012.
$1,000,000 worth of its products this year and the sales will increase at the rate of 5% per year. Find the total sales
22.
corporation will
first
sell
during the
23.
(1.05)
26
3.38635494.
Find
24.
of a city increased from 131,220 to 200,000 in 4 years. the rate of increase per year.
The population
piece of property
is
value
25.
now
$15,360.
was purchased 4 years ago for $4860 and its Find the annual rate at which the value increased.
as a
end
for
of a certain quantity decreases at the rate w (expressed is the value at the decimal) per year. If // is the value now, and n of n years, prove that H(l w} (This formula is the basis
The value
K=
percentage .nethod.)
26.
is
n.otor
$1024.
27.
truck was purchased for $2500, and its value 4 years later .Find the rate, per year at which the value has depreciated.
Find
3 years ago for $512,000, is sold for $343,000. tytel, purchased te per year at which its value has depreciated. the
236
PROGRESSIONS
A sequence of
their reciprocals
progression
if
ILLUSTRATION
1.
^, J) is
a harmonic progression
(1, 3, 5, 7, 9)
form an A.P.
k harmonic means between two numbers, we first insert k arithmetic means between the reciprocals of the numbers. The reciprocals of the arithmetic means are the harmonic means.
To
insert
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.
1.
16.
we
insert 5 arithmetic
$.
From
= a f
(n
l)d,
with a
J,
and n
7,
we
find
3. 4.
is (J,
A=4 &
progression
is (4,
^,
16).
(3ft
^,
8,
*EXERCISE 86
Insert the specified
1.
Four, between
Four, between
3.
& and
J.
4.
6.
5. Five,
between f and
d)
Four, between
J and
3.
//
(c, .ff,
mean
7. 4;
of c
J.
is called the harmonic /orw a harmonic progression, then and d. Find the harmonic mean of the numbers. 8. 9; 6.
9. 4;
8.
11.
x and
y.
infinitely
many
terms
,
Sn
represent the
(4),
sum
ar"" 1
Then, by
page 229,
a + ar + ar2 HSuppose that a set of strings of the same diameter and substance are stretched to uniform tension. If the lengths of the strings form a harmonic progression, a harmonious sound results if two or more strings are caused to vibrate at one time. This fact accounts for the name harmonic prop ession.
*
PROGRESSIONS
ILLUSTRATION
1,
1.
237
 >
=jj^j
to infinitely
many
terms.
(2)
In
(2),
;
is
^;
r=
^;
ar"
^(3)
By(l),
If
+ l + 1 + + ...+^ ^2^.
without
if
n grows
larger,
limit,
to zero as
we
please,
is sufficiently large.
JL
J_ ni
2
64
__
the term
^
is
as near
Thus,
65,
18,446,744,073,709,551,616*
0) as we practically zero. Hence, in (3), 8n will be as near to (2 please for all values of n which are sufficiently large. To summarize this statement we say that as n becomes infinite Sn approaches the limit 2, and
which
is
2 the sum of the progression 1, 4, 4, We sometimes use "n >oo " to abbreviate our conclusion can be briefly written limit Sn
call
we
4,
to infinitely
many
terms.
"n
becomes infinite."
Then,
2.
Now,
consider
is
(a, ar,
ar2 ,
to infinitely
many
terms),
under the
,
> oo 1 and f 1. Then, as n a number between the absolute value of the numerator arn in (1) grows smaller, and is as near to zero as we please for all values of n sufficiently large. Hence, from (1) we see that, as n grows large without limit, the value
condition that r
of
Sn
approaches
/
\r=r
That
is,
0_\ r^7/'
limit
n
too
or
a r^"r"
(4)
Sn =
=2
1
r
This limit of the sum of n terms, as n becomes infinite, is callejd the sum of the geometric progression with infinitely many terms. If S represents this sum, then
Thus,
if

(5)
<
or
1,
(a
<n*
to infinitely
many
terms)
(6)
238
Note
1.
PROGRESSIONS
Recognize that S in (5) is not a sum in the ordinary sense of the word, but is the limit of the sum of n terms as n grows large without bound.
ILLUSTRATION
4
2.
By
T
use of
(6),
with a
5 and r
terms]
},
4
to infinitely
many
7377
10.
Practically, this
means
that,
if
we should add a
relatively large
number
of
we would obtain approximately 10, and that by adding enough terms we can obtain as close to 10 as we may desire. Thus, Su =
terms,
The
a
indicated
series.
An
sum
of
numbers
is
frequently called
+ u% + u* +
is
to infinitely
many terms
(7)
left in
called
an
infinite series.
(6) is referred
EXAMPLE
.5818181
1.
SOLUTION.
.5818181
.5
many
is
terms,
+

.00081
(6),
+
the
.081
.99
) is
an
infinite
geometric series
By
.081
sum
of this series
=
.5
9
110*
.01
Hence,
.5818181

+ rf^
& + rf*  f?
1,
Comment.
By
represent the sum of the first n terms. Then we say that the series has a sum S, and call the series a convergent infinite series which converges to S in case the
In any
infinite series
such as
(7), let
Sn
Sn is S as n becomes infinite. If Sn has no limit as n becomes infinite, we say that the infinite series is divergent, or diverges.
limit of
In this section we have proved that the infinite geometric series in parentheses in (6) has a sum, or converges, when r < 1. When r ^ 1, the series is divergent, or does not have a sum, because in this case Sn in (1) does not approach a limit as n > oo Thus, for the G.P. (1, 2, 4, ) where Note
2.
 \

2,
we
find that
Sn
increases
beyond
all
bounds as n 
oo
PROGRESSIONS
*EXERCISE 87
239
of each of the followng infinite geometric series by use of the established formula.
the
I
Find
7
sum
3. 6.
7.
'
2.
4.
6.
8.
to the
.
Find a
9. .333
rational
number equal
10. .444
.
11. .666
.
12. .0999
13. .8333
.
14. .1666
.
17. .030303
20. 4.222
.
..
21. .2111
22. .345345345
.
24. 252.525.27.
25. 16.7167167
.
.
.
.153846153846153846
28. .076923076923076923
being brought to rest by air resistance. The path of each swing, after the first, of the pendulum bob is .98 as long as the path of the previous swing (from one side to the other). If the path of
29.
pendulum
is
the
first
swing
is
30 inches long, how far does the bob travel in coming to dropped from a height of 100 inches. to f of the height from which it last fell.
ball in
a position of rest?
30.
rubber ball
ball rises
is
rebound the
On
distance traveled
31.
by the
coming to
rest.
The side of a certain square is 10 inches long. A second square is drawn by connecting the midpoints of the sides of the 1st square; a 3d square is drawn by connecting the midpoints of the sides of the 2d square; Find the sum of the areas of all the squares. etc., without end.
Note
as
1.
If

<
1,
we know that
and
equal to
Sn
if
is large,
n increases. When n is large, it is decidedly easier to compute S than in place of Sn /Sn, and hence it is convenient at tunes to use S
<
Sn
for the
G.P.
3,
f f
,
(II)
this pro
many
terms.
Find
8 f J
+fH
CHAPTER
15
LOGARITHMS
164. Logarithms
Logarithms are auxiliary numbers which are exponents, and which permit us to simplify the operations of multiplication, division, raising to powers, and extraction of roots, applied to explicit real numbers. Previously, we have introduced exponents only under the assumption that they are rational numbers. In connection with logarithms, however, when we mention an exponent, it may be any real number, rational or irrational. A logical foundation for the use of irrational exponents is beyond the scope of this text. Hence, without discussion, we shall assume the fact that irrational powers have meaning and that the laws of exponents hold if the exponents involved are real numbers, either rational or irrational, provided that the base
is positive.
ILLUSTRATION
1.
10^ =
if
414
.
v^ are
used
In the following definition, b represents any positive number, not is any positive number. 1, and
DEFINITION
I.
exponent of the
N
to
to the
base b is the
obtain
N.
In other words, if 6* to the then x is the logarithm of to the base b," we write base 6. To abbreviate "the logarithm of Then, by Definition I, the following equations state the "log*, i/V." same fact, the first equation in exponential form and the second in
LOGARITHMS
logarithmic form:
247
N=
ILLUSTRATION
ILLUSTRATION
1.
b*
5
,
and
then 5
x
is
log*
N.
(1)
If
 4
the logarithm of
2.
"Iog 2 64"
since
is
to the
64
2*,
6.
ILLUSTRATION
3.
Since v^5
5$,
.333
ILLUSTRATION
4.
To
5 o
find Iog 2
J,
we
,
express J as a power of 2:
Aence
Iog 2
since
=
&
= = =
2~3
=
o
3.
ILLUSTRATION
ILLUSTRATION
5.
If logb 16
4,
then b 4
16; 6
v'Te
2.
6.
If log
1
J,
then cri
2.
Hence,
b,
we have
log & 1
=
0;
and
61
b.
Hence,
log b 6
1.
(2)
Note
1.
We
1 is 1
power of
the base
'x
do not use b = 1 as a base for logarithms because every and hence no number except 1 could have a logarithm to
1.
In the definition of
log&
if
N, we stated that
That
is,
in this book,
we
shall
mean a
b is positive.
we stated that the base These agreements were made to avoid meeting impositive
we speak of number N.
the
Also,
In advanced mathematics
proved that,
of
if
N to the base
Since 27
EXERCISE 88
1.
3 s what
,
is
2.
3.
54 what
,
,
is
3"1 what
6, what
is
4.
is
242
5. If
LOGARITHMS
the logarithm of
N to the base 4
2 as
its
is 3,
find
N.
6.
Find
7. log,
number
*
10.
N  4.  2. logio N
=  .
9. logio
1.
12. log* JV
3.
 = J.
1.
1.
14. Iog 2
'AT
 =
J.
2.
3.
4.
17. Iog4 AT
N=
=
19. logs AT
20. logioo
N
21. logioo AT
22. 23.
5.
10.
Find
33. Iog 9 3.
37. loge J.
39. log,
&.
kFind
unknown
in the problem.
40. Iog6 16
2.
J.
3.
42. log*
625
4.
46. Iog 4
2.
= 2.
1.
 
1.
 
48. log
y=
J.
60. logb
63.
fs
==
2. 3.
= .
2.
logj
16
x.
log^
64. logs
N= f
166.
Common
logarithms
Logarithms to the base 10 are called common logarithms and are the most useful variety for computational purposes. Hereafter, unless otherwise stated, when we mention a logarithm we shall mean a common logarithm. For abbreviation, we shall write log N, instead
3!
logarithm of N.
and read log as the logarithm of Then, from the definition of a logarithm, the follow
common
N=
10
and
log
N.
(1)
LOGARITHMS
ILLUSTRATION
Since Since
1.
243
log 10,000
Since
10,000
log
10 4 ,
hence
.333
4.
^Io =
.01
10*,
hence
^Io
1Q2 ,
hence
log .01
2.
have seen that log may be either positive, negative, or zero, depending on the value assigned to N. Also, we notice that log N is an integral power of 10. is an integer when and only when
We
ILLUSTRATION
2.
For future
following logarithms
by
reference, the student should verify the use of the definition of a logarithm.
167.
Some
properties of logarithms
The
base
1. 6,
following properties hold if the logarithms are taken to any but we shall write proofs only for the case where b = 10.
the
sum
of the logarithms of
its
MN =
log
M + log N.
N
,
(1)
.
= 108 then MN = 1010 = 108 = 3, log N = 5, and log MN = 8. Also, by the definition of a logarithm, log M
ILLUSTRATION
1.
If
M=
1.
103 and
Hence, log
MN
log
Proof of Property
Let log
M = x and log N
MN 10*10*
y.
Then,
M=
2.
10*,
N
10",
and
10*+.
Since
!T/ie
II.
minus
That
is,
log
log
M  log N.
N * y.
Then,
(2)
Proof.
1.
Let log
M
=*
x and log
2.
Hence,
log ^
y  log Af
log AT.
244
ILLUSTRATION
log 300
2.
LOGARITHMS
If
we
.4771, then
log
= log 3(100)  log 3 + log 100 = .003 = log Ttffof = log 3  log 1000 =
EXERCISE 89
.4771 .4771
+23
2.4771;
2.5229.
its
logarithm by use
and
powers of 10.
log 2
1. 6.
.3010; log 3
2. 21.
.4771; log 7
.8451; log 17
1.2304.
6. 70.
3. 34.
4. 51.
5. 30.
Every number, and hence every logarithm, can be written as the sum of an integer and a decimal fraction which is positive or zero and
log TV is written in this way, we call the integer the characteristic and the fraction the mantissa of log N.
less
than
1.
When
N= log N =
log
0,
<
1)
+ mantissa.
f
(1)
man
ILLUSTRATION
3.
2.
If log
N=
f
lies
between
4 and
Hence, log
3.75
N
The
(a fraction).
To
4
.25.
Hence, log TV
3.
= 
3.75
= 
.25.
ILLUSTRATION
ods.
The
following logarithms were obtained by later methstudent should verify the three columns at the right.
LOGARITHMS
1
245
ILLUSTRATION
1.
All
same significant digits (3, 8, 0, 4). To obtain the logarithms, log 3.804 was first found from a table to be discussed later; the other logarithms were then obtained by the use of Properties I and II.
log 380.4
log 38.04'
log 100(3.804)
log 10(3.804)
log 3.804
log .3804
=.5802
Q
=log~
=
log

804
=
=
log 3.804
log 10
log .03804
if
log 3.804
log 100
= 
+ .5802.
Similarly,
is
equals 3.804 multiplied, or else divided, by a positive integral power of 10; hence, it follows as before that .5802 is the mantissa of log N.
In Illustration
is 1, etc.
the characteristic of log 380.4 is 2, of log 38.04 These facts could have been learned as follows.
1,
ILLUSTRATION
2.
To
two
100
<
380.4
< >
1000.
or,
Hence,
log 100
<
log 380.4
<
log 1000;
0,
2
1);
<
log 380.4
<
3.
(a fraction,
\
<
or,
by
definition, the
is 2.
we met
The mantissa of log depends only on the sequence That is, if two numbers differ only in of significant digits in N. the position of the decimal point, their logarithms have the same
I.
THEOREM
mantissa.
N is an integer positive or zero, which is one less than the number of digits in N to the
1, the characteristic of log
,
left of
THEOREM
integer;
if
N<
1, the characteristic
of log
the
N is in the fcth
then
246
ILLUSTRATION
3.
LOGARITHMS
we find the characteristic of log N by merely inspecting N. Thus, by Theorem III, the char4 because "3" is in the 4th decimal place. acteristic of log .00039 is By Theorem II, the characteristic of log 1578.6 is 3.
By
Hereafter, for convenience in computation, if the characteristic of is negative,  ft, change it to the equivalent value log
[(10
ILLUSTRATION
log .000843
1.
k)
10],
or
[(20
*)
20], etc.
.9258,
we
write
 
.9258
(6
10)
.9258
6.9258
10.
The characteristics of the following logarithms are obtained by use Theorem III; the mantissas are identical, by Theorem I.
IST SIGNIP. DIGIT IN
1st decimal place
of
ILLUSTRATION
Loo
AT
STANDARD FORM
9.9258
2d decimal place
6th decimal place
N= NN=
.843
.0843
.00000843
8.9258 4.9258
10 10 10
71
Mantissas can be computed by use of advanced mathematics, and, except in special cases, are endless decimal fractions. Computed
mantissas are found in tables of logarithms, also called tables of mantissas.
ILLUSTRATION
fifteen
1.
The mantissa
for log
10705
is
.029586671630457, to
decimal places.
correct to four decimal places Table II gives the mantissa of log has at most three. significant digits; a decimal point is underif lies between 1 stood in front of each mantissa in the table. If is zero so that log is the same and 10, the characteristic of log as its mantissa. Hence, a fourplace table of mantissas is also a table of the actual logarithms of all numbers with at most three sigis less than 1 10.00. In case 1.00 to nificant digits, from
the characteristic of log by and III besides obtaining the mantissa of log
we must supply
by use of Table
II.
LOGARITHMS
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.
247
II.
To
N in the
"6."
2.
table;
in the
is
row
for
"31"
in the
The mantissa
.4997.
By Theorem
2, or (8
10):
log .0316
= 
+
II
.4997
8.4997
10.
ILLUSTRATION
2.
From Table
and Theorem
II, log
31,600
4.4997.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
is
2.
Find
1.
if
log
N=
7.6064
10.
.6064;
2.
this is
locate the
the mantissa of log found in Table II as the mantissa for the digits "404."
the significant digits of
To find
N:
To
or
decimal point in
III,
N:
N is (7
10)
3; hence,
by Theorem
ILLUSTRATION 3. If log 3.6064, the characteristic is 3 and, by has 4 figures to the left of the decimal point: the mantissa Theorem II, 4040. is the same as in Example 2. Hence,
DEFINITION I. A number is catted the antilogarithm of ~ L, and for abbreviation we write = antilog L. log
L in case
ILLUSTRATION
ILLUSTRATION
4.
5.
3,
hence 1000
antilog 3.
10).
EXERCISE 90
each number is the logarithm of some number N. the characteristic and the mantissa of log N.
1 to 8,
1.
In Probkms
2.9356.
3.5473.
State
2. 6.
15.2162.
3.
6.
7.2356
10.
7.
1.300.
4.
8.
2+
5.1942
.3561.
5.675.
10.
.2562.
10. .3267
3.
11. .4932
6.
12.
3.4675.
14. 368.
to
16. .000673.
16. .00897.
17. .000007.
Use Table II
18. 65.4.
19. 43.2.
22. .0346.
27. .086.
23. 9.46.
24. 6530.
28. .000358.
29. 101,000.
30. .00089.
31. 157,000.
32. .0000002.
248
Find
LOGARIJHMS
the antilogarithm of the given logarithm
by use of Table
36. 1.8785. 41. 2.4800.
II.
34. 3.3927.
36. 3.6684.
37. 0.1553.
42. 0.5611.
39. 1.8692.
10.
10.
10. 10.
46. 8.9823
10.
10.
10. 10.
48. 2.9340
61.
2.3010.
Interpolation in a table of mantissas is based on the assumption are that, for small changes in N, the corresponding changes in log proportional to the changes in N. This principle of proportional parts is
merely an approximation to the truth but leads to results which are sufficiently accurate for our purposes.
agree that, whenever a mantissa is found by interpolation from a table, we shall express the result only to the number of decimal places given in table entries. Also, in finding by interpolation in
We
a table
of mantissas
when
log
or just five significant digits according as we are using a fourplace or a fiveplace table. No greater refinement in the result is justified
because the unavoidable error, which may arise, frequently will be as large as 1 unit in the last significant digit which we have agreed
to specify, although the error
is
rarely larger.
t
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.
in
Table
II.
We
<
13.86
<
13.90.
Hence, by the
is
we assume
3% of the way
log 13.86
&
to
log 13.86
2.
.6(log 13.90
by Theorem
II.
From
From
table:
= = =
1.1399"
Tabular difference
is
log 13.86
1.1399
? 31 .1430  .1399 = .0031. = .00186, or .0019. 1.1430J .6(.0031) + .6(.0031) = 1.1399 + .0019 = 1.1418.
Comment. We found .6(31) = 18.6 by use of the table headed the column of proportional parts in Table II.
"
31
"
under
LOGARITHMS
ILLUSTRATION
~ 10
1.
249
To
T2910:
L2914:
2920:
mantissa mantissa
is is is
46391
?
Tabular difference
15
_
is
is
.4654
.4639
.4(15)
mantissa
.4654
.0015.
6.
.4639 4 .0006
.4645.
Hence, by Theorem
= 
.4645
7.4645
10.
EXAMPLE
2.
Find
1.
log
1.6187.
is
SOLUTION.
The mantissa
of the
.6187
lies
between the
consecutive entries .6180 and .6191, the mantissas for 415 and 416.
2.
Since .6187
is fa
way from
.6180 to .6191,
we assume
that
N is
of the
way from
41.50 to 41.60.
11
[1.6180 Ll.6187
^1.6191
= = =
log 41.501
log
41.60
.10
41.50
.10
J*
A(IO)
.064, or
.06.
log 41.60
J
41.50
approximately
N=
ILLUSTRATION
2.
41.50
+ &C10) = N
if
06
41.56.
To
find
log
N=
6.1053
10:
34
= .4. Hence, 10 x = .4(10) = 4. 1270 + 4 = 1274. J .1072, mantissa for 1280 = .0001274. Hence, .1053 is the mantissa for 1274 and N
15
r.1038, mantissa for 1270H ? J L.1053, mantissa for
.4
by
We
read
.4(34)
or
.4,
and
is
^=
if
.5.
Since 15
is
nearer to
.4
than to
is
.5.
Note 1
there
equal reason
for uniformity
we agree
to
Any
positive
number
(1)
250
LOGARITHMS
where P is a number greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10, and fc is an integer, either zero or positive or negative. We refer to the righthand side of (1) as the scientific notation for N.
ILLUSTRATION
1.
5,832,900
5.8329(10*).
.00000058329
5.8329(.0000001)
5.8329(10~
7
).
notation gives a brief and easily appreciated form for writing very large or very small numbers.
scientific
The
ILLUSTRATION 2. The nucleus of an atom has a diameter which is estimated as less than 3(10~12 ) centimeters. The mean distance from the sun One to the outermost planet Pluto is approximately 3.67 X 109 miles. lightyear, the distance which light will travel in one year hi interstellar 12 space, is approximately 6 X 10 miles.
In equation 1, and P have the same significant digits because the factor 10* merely alters the position of the decimal point to change P into N. Hence, the scientific notation is very useful hi writing a number N, particularly if it is very large, when we wish to show how are significant. This feature was referred to in many digits in Section 48, page 53, for the case where k of (1) is positive.
68,820,000 is the approximate value of some quantity and if just five digits are significant, this is not indicated by the usual form of the number. We write it as 6.8820(107) to show that one of the zeros
ILLUSTRATION
3. If
is significant.
ILLUSTRATION
log
4.
If
1.352(10*), then,
by Property
I,
page 243,
log 1.352
+ log
108
0.1309
is
+8=
8.1309.
Thus, 8
\
is
= P(10*) where k is an integer Consider any number N, where and 1 ^ P < 10. Then k is the characteristic and log P is the mantissa of log N, because
log
where
log
P<
since 1
^ P <
10.
if
we
=>
P(10*),
P
5.520
and
2V
5.520(10*).
(Four digits
significant.)
LOGARITHMS
Note
1.
251
logarithms, the only other variety used appreciably is the system of natural, or Naperian logarithms, for which the base is a certain irrational number denoted by e where e = 2.71828
Besides
common
logarithms were invented by a Scotchman, JOHN NAPIER, Baron of Merchiston (15501617). His original logarithms were not the same as
Note
2.
Naperian logarithms, in his honor. Common logarithms, also called Briggs logarithms,' were invented by an Englishman, HENRY BRIQQS (15561631), who was aided by Napier.
those
now
called
EXERCISE 91
^i
Find
1.
II.
1826.
4. 12.67.
5. 35.94. 9. .5627.
8. .4213.
11. .01563.
15. .001439.
19. 3.126(103 ).
12. .001139.
16. .05626.
13. 90,090.
17. 1.233(104 ).
20. 2.438(10*).
II.
Find
from Table
21. 3.2367.
26. 3.1395. 29. 6.3350
33.
22. 7.1247
26. 2.9276.
10.
10.
10.
10.
10.
32. 8.0255
36. 5.5511.
10.
8.8862.
10.
37. 5.9885
38. 8.3358
20.
39. 9.6270
10.
40. 6.4228.
we
shall
of
any
Under
product, quotient, or power computed by use of logarithms depends on the number of places in the table being used. The result is frequently subject to an unavoidable error which usually is at most a
by
interpolation.
Hence,
at least fiveplace logarithms to obtain fourplace .accuracy, and with at least fourplace logarithms to obtain As a general custom, in any result we shall threeylace accuracy.
252
LOGARITHMS
1.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
Compute
Let
.0631(7.208) (.5127)
by use
of Table II.
represent the product. By Property I, we obtain log by adding the logarithms of the factors. We obtain the logarithms of the factors from Table II, add to obtain log P, and then finally obtain
P from
Tkble
II.
in blackface type,
was made
up completely as
log .0631
8.8000
10
log
7.208= 0.8578
9.7099
19.3677
.2332.
10
(Table 'II)
20
[
,
9.3677
10.
antilog (9.3677
10),
Table II]
EXAMPLE
2.
or.* Compute
1.
431.91
equals the logarithm of the numerator minus the logarithm of the denominator.
SOLUTION.
By
Property
II, log q
Before computing, we round off each given number to four significant For instance, 15.6873 bedigits because we are using a fourplace table.
2.
comes
15.69.
= =
2.6354
1.1956
1.4398.
(Table II)
(Table II)
Hence, q
27.53.
(Table II)
EXAMPLE
3.
SOLUTION.
log 267
= = =
12.4099
3.9521
10
10.
8.4578
Hence, q
.02869.
Comment.
When we
result
first tried
would
to subtract log 8956 from log 257, we be negative because log 8956 is greater than log 257.
In order that log q should appear immediately in the standard form for a negative logarithm, we changed log 257 by adding 10 and then subtracting 10 to compensate for the first change. Actually,
log q
2.4099
3.9521
 
1.5422
8.4578
10.
necessary to subtract a larger logarithm from a smaller one in computing a quotient, add 10 to the characteristic of the smaller logarithm and then subtract 10 to compensate for the change.
it is
Whenever
LOGARITHMS
253
'
* * A EXAMPLE^ Compute
INCOMPLETE SOLUTION.
(log
g=
First
v (4.803)
(269.9) (1.636)
(7880)(253.6)
4.803
(+)
log 269.9
[log 1.636
*"
log
(
)
log
= numer. = denom. =
log q
7880
Hence, q
=
of Table II.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
5.
Compute the
Let
reciprocal of 189
by use
R =
189
log 1
0.0000 2.2765
?
= = =
10.0000
10
10.
2.2765 7.7235
.005290.
In writing any approximate value, it is essential to indicate all final zeros which are significant. Hence, in writing R = .005290 in Example 5, the final zero was essential. It would have been wrong to write R .00529, because this would not show that we had reasonably accurate information concerning the next digit, zero. Note
1.
four
significant digits,
round
off AT to
four significant
EXERCISE 92
logarithms.
31.57
.789. .137.
2.
6.
.8475 .0179
X
X
.0937.
3.
6.
925.618 3.41379
X
X
.000217.
.0142.
4.
7.
925.6
.35641.
8.
(
(
HINT.
all factors
Only
positive
numbers have
real logarithms.
First
compute as
if
675
13.21
**
.0894 .6358
895
*
325.932
1
568.5
lv
^rfc
^ ^
1A JL4
23.14
1K JLO
.0421
w
.53908
100,935
254
17
16.083
LOGARITHMS
256
9.32X531
.8319
JL f
47
.0158
.5685
.53819
X X
.0673
.42173
'
.3852
X .217 X .956
5.4171
X .429 18.1167 X 37
n.
(5.6)
.00073
.965
(
3.9078) ( .00031)
(132) ( 1.93)
number.
27. .02567. 28. .0683(.52831).
26. .00382.
Compute
652(735);
.351
(6)
compute
(6)
Compute
*
*
625;
compute
(log 625).
*175. Cologarithms
The logarithm
and
is
of the reciprocal of
written colog N.
colog
Since log
1=0,
N=
.031
log
log
N.
log 1
(1)
ILLUSTRATION
1.
n Colog
i
noi
= =
10.0000
1.5086.
10
log
ggjl
can be quickly obtained by inspecpositive part of colog tion of log N: subtract each digit (except the last) in the positive part
of log
,,
The
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.
Compute q
16.083
47
is
r ^
.,
coioganthms.
the same as to multiply by 1/N. Hence, instead of subtracting the logarithm of each factor of the denominator, we add the cologariihm of the factor:
divide
To
by
16.083
256
47
_ "
.0158
(16 083
'
/ 1 \ /
1.6721; hence,
8.1987
q
3.7437.
The
instructor
may
LOGARITHMS
1
255
We
III.
an aid
to
N equals k times
(1)
the logarithm of
N:
log
N* = k
log
N.
Proof.
Let x
log
N.
N
10*.
Hence,
Nk Therefore,
(10*)*
10**.
i
(A law
of exponents)
by the
log
definition of a logarithm,
Nk
kx
k log N.
(Using x
7.
log
N)
ILLUSTRATION
1.
6 Log 7
5 log
Log N* = 3
log
N.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
'
1.
Compute
(.3156)
4
.
By
Property III,
log (.3156)*
log (.3166)*
= 
10).
10.
Therefore, (.3156)
.009918.
Recall that any root of a number is expressible as a fractional power. Hence, as a special case of Property III we obtain
IV.
log
Proof.
Since
3/N = W*, we
log y/Jf
T
log JV
T
log
N.
ILLUSTRATION
2.
Since
VJ? = Ni and
log
log
VN = ilog N\ 2
4/N
*/N = \ 3
log N.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.
Compute ^.08351.
By
log AT.
Hence,
256
LOGARITHMS
_
8.9218
6
10
*
log v^.08361
58.9218
6
60
9.8203
10.
(2)
.6611.
Comment.
usually
it is
Before dividing a negative logarithm by a positive integer, best to write the logarithm in such a way that the negative part
will be
10.
after division,
Thus, in
(2),
we
10 to make it subtracting 50 from 60, and compensate for the subtraction; the result after division standard form for a negative logarithm.
T7
by 6
is
in the
EXAMPLE
3.
on*/
Compute
Let
q
05831)
~=\*
]
\65.3VT46/
SOLUTION.
2.
1.
Then
log q
log F.
Vl46  i
/
1 j
log 146.
10 10
\
j
log 66.3
log
1.8149
1.0822
2.8971.
6.4003
10;
21ogF  2.8006
10
42.8006
50.
log q
= 21ogF =
jp
42.8006 g
50
c Am 8.5601
,
10.
Hence, q
.03632.
EXERCISE 93
logarithms.
4
.
(17.5)
8
.
2.
(3.1279)
3. (.837)*.
4. (.0315) 8 .
8.
6.
VT09.
(1.04)
7
.
6. v/2795.
9.
10. (10,000)*.
13. (700,928)*.
17.
(
1.03)*.
18.
(
1796)*.
23.
20.
(
.00831)
8
.
21. (143.54)*.
22.
24.
(
.0057)*.
24. (157)"8 .
).
HINT
for
Problem
1/(157
26. (13.67)*.
26. (3.035)*.
27. (.98)*.
28. (.831447)6
LOGARITHMS
29. (1.03).
1.
257
.
30. (1.05).
32. (1.04).
Given the sevenplace log 1.04 = 0.0170333, compute Problems 31 and 32 and compare with the less accurate former answers.
34. 10' 66
V265.
* 38.
36.

37.
4 31
;
!.
21.4V521.923
;I^
891
"" 39.
0198
(3.82616)
40
758>32
'
(46.3)
"
41
\163 X
.62*
^ \.031 X
A0
/
47.5317
.964*
10*V?78
(.983174)'
**
10i"v387
'
..
^ 463.19
5731.84
(57)(8.64)'
46 *
/( 316)(.198)
.756392
'
47
/54.2VT89\
'
V .157386 )
Observe that no property of logarithms is available to simplify the computation of a sum. Use logarithms below wherever possible.
ATofe ^.
49.
62 "
'
U'
^45 2
364.1
(.9873)
R1 5L
16.3*
"453
.110173
B3
log 86
log 53.8*
66. (53.17)57.
4
.
*
67. (60.2).
log 567
20
log 235
58. (.065) M2 .

HINT
69.
for
Problem
= 
.7621
9.2379
2
.
10.
Compute
(a) (antilog
I.
2.6731)
(ft)
[antilog
(
1.4973)]
DEFINITION
The geometric
mean
of
Thus, the
and
is
^MNPQR.
the geometric
mean
61. .00138;
.19276;
.08356; .0131.
//
that
a, 6,
and
a triangle
by
c),
it is
proved in trigonometry
A,
A = VS(S Find
the area of
a)(8
b)(8
where
S =
J(a
+6+
c).
62, 375.40;
141.37; 451.20.
.0739168; .024853.
258
The time
is
I
LOGARITHMS
t
centimeters, is given
byt
wv>
where g
980 and
v =
3.1416.
Find the time for one oscillation of a simple pendulum .985 meters long. (6) Find I if the time for one oscillation is 3.75 seconds.
64. (a)
65.
centi
steel shaft
which
horse power designed to transmit safely safe value for d is revolutions per minute.
when
revolving at
Find the number of horse power which can be safely transmitted at 1150  1.9834. revolutions per minute if d
pounds of steam per second, which will flow through a hole whose crosssection area is A square inches, if the steam approaches the hole under a pressure of P pounds per square inch, is approximately w .0165AP*7 How much steam at a pressure of 83.85 pounds per square inch will flow through a hole 12.369 inches in diameter?
66.
The weight w,
in
Solve for x:
log x
log
6.
^
By
+ log 2 f log x
6
log 5
6.
2 log x
log x
+ log 5  log 2
x
6.3980.
(Table II)
3.1990;
antilog 3.1990
1581.
(Table II)
An
is
in
an exponent
an exponential equation. Sometimes, an exponential equation can be solved by taking the logarithm of each member.
called
EXAMPLE
2.
Solve 16*
74.
sides:
SOLUTION.
x log 16
log 74;
log 74 log 16
"
()
0.2716
0.0806
0.1910;
hence
1.552,
LOGARITHMS
*1 78. Logarithms to various bases
259
convenient for a system of logarithms when they are being used to simplify computation. The only base other than 10 which is used appreciably is the irrational number e = 2.71828
The base 10
is
which is fully as important a constant hi mathematics as the familiar number IT. Logarithms to the base e are called natural, or Naperian,
logarithms.
mon
Natural logarithms have many advantages over comlogarithms for advanced theoretical purposes.
= 6* and x Recall that the equations and b are given, we can find log$ Hence, if
b* by use of common logarithms. equation the natural logarithm of can be found by solving
tial
In particular,
e* for x.
EXAMPLE
1.
Find
log, 35.
Let x = log, 35; then, 35 = e*. logarithm of both sides we obtain x logio e = logio
SOLUTION.
On
35.
taking the
common
logio
35
logio e
1.5441. 0.4343'
log. 35.
()
3.555
I.
= 
10.1886
9.6378
0.5508.
10
10
THEOREM
N=
(1)
If.
Proof.
Let y
Hence,
Nb
(2)
(logo 6)(log&
N).
The number
called the
with respect to the system of to the base 6, we could form a table of logarithms to the base a by multiplying each entry of the given table by logo 6.
*EXERCISE 94
Solve for x or for n, or compute the specified logarithm.
1.
12'
.67*
28.
8. "" 1
2. 6.
51*
569.
3.
&* 
28(2').
4.
15s*
85(3*).
6.
.093*
12.
7. (1.03)"
.587.
8. (1.04)"
1.562.
9.
(1 ' 05 iT e
6.3282.
.UO
12. log. 1360.
10. log
W+
log
5.673.
260
16.
LOGARITHMS
Find the natural logarithm of (a) 4368.1; (6) 4.3681. (Notice that the results do not differ by an integer, so that Theorem I of page 245 does
not hold for natural logarithms.)
We recall that y =
logo tion of x
call
loga
relations.
We
function of y.
ILLUSTRATION 1. In Figure 18, we have the graph of y = log, x. For any base a > 1, the graph of This logo x would be similar.
graph
assists
us hi remembering
I.
If x is negative, Iog x is
not defined.
II.
If
<
<
1,
loga
is negative,
and loga
0.
// x increases without limit, log a x increases without limit; if x approaches zero, log a x decreases without limit.
III.
Since y
loga x
same graph.
*EXERCISE 95
1.
.3.
Graph y
10
.e.
logio
x for
< =
30.
io.s.
2.
Graph y
2*
from x
6 to x
4.
From
6.
interest
by the formula
A = P(l
ILLUSTRATION
1.
i)
n
$1000 is invested for 20 years at annually, the amount at the end of the time is
If
5%
compounded
A =
1000(1.05)*>
1000(2.653)
$2653.
(From Table
III)
LOGARITHMS
For unusual values
table as in Illustration
of
1,
t,
261
it is
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.
Compute
log 1.036
A =
=
2000(1. 036)
26
.
0.0153;
Hence,
A =
$4826.
= = A =
0.3825
3.3010 (+)
3.6835.
We claim
only three significant digits in the result because accuracy is lost The 4th digit in 4826 is unreliable. in the multiplication 25 log 1.036.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.
2.
1.
1
i:
2500
or
(1
=
=
2000(1
1250.
+ i)
8
.
+ t)
=
= $$&
+ i)
Hence,
4 i
v' 1.250;
we compute
this root
by use
of Table II.
1.028.
log 1.250
3.
0.0969;
1
J log 1.250
0.0121;
or,
i
hence,
v/ L250 =
Therefore,
+i=
1.028;
1.028
.028
2.8%.
^EXERCISE 96
By
the
1.
use of Table III, find the compound amount at the end of the time if
is invested at the specified rate
money
compounded annually.
2.
$2500; at $1600; at
4%, 3%,
$1200; at
$400; at
6%,
for 13 years.
3.
35 years.
4.
5%,
for
42 years. Use
this
From
5.
A =
P(l
+ i) n
and Table IV
to solve
P=
A(l
+ i)*.
5%
result
principal should be invested now at compounded annually to create $2500 as the amount at the end of 15 years?
What
principal should be invested now at compounded annually to create $1000 as the amount at the end of 26 years?
6.
What
6%
At what interest rate compounded annually grow to the amount $3500 at the end of 10 years?
7. 8.
will
a $2000 principal
At what
itself
interest rate
compounded annually
will
a $3000 principal
double
9.
by
How
at
5%
10.
take $300 to grow to the amount $750 compounded annually? (Recall Section 177.)
long will
invested
annually?
11.
6%
simple
interest?
CHAPTER
16
81
Graph
of a quadratic equation in
two
variables
which
satisfies
the equation. The graph or locus of points whose coordinates, (z, y), form
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
equation are
2.
1.
Graph:
1.
z2
0,
2
f j/
=
25;
25.
When x =
and
x2
(0,
5.
Two
solutions of the
(0, 5)
5).
When
0,
solutions of the
Two
and
(
5, 0).
3.
We plot the
and OY in Figure 19, and verify an advance inference that the graph is a circle whose center is the origin and radius is 5.
the same unit on
OX
Comment. Let P, with the coordinates (x, y), be any point in the coordinate plane with origin at 0, in a system where the same
unit
is
Fig.
19
used in measuring
all lengths.
Then
(OP)
2
.
x*
+ y* P
+
=
2.
2
j/
must
lie
on a
circle
about
as center
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
Graph:
1.
9x*
4y*
36.
(1)
9z2
36
263
g
9
x
2.
=
=
9+
=t 2. If
2
.
(2)
We
if
assign values to y
Thus,
0,
then z
= =
of x.
=t
=fc
3,
then
vl8 
2V2 =
2.8.
We
We plot
the points given by the pairs of values of x and y in the table. In Figure 20, the points listed for (a) in the table give the open curve FDE; the points for (6) give HBO. These two open curves, together, are called
is
it.
1.
Each
2 Comment. The equation 9x2 4y = 36 defines z as a towvalued function of y, as shown in (2), or y as a towvalued function
of x.
The graph
two singlevalued
irra
and
x
is
The graph
the branch
and the graph of the second is HBO. The two branches together make up the graph
FDE
of equation
rical
1.
The branches
are symmetr
Fig.
20
every hyperbola there correspond two characteristic lines, called asymptotes, which are indicated by dotted lines in Figure 20. As we recede out on any branch of the hyperbola, the curve approaches the corresponding asymptote but never reaches it. By moving far enough out
Note
To
on the branch, we
is
approach the asymptote as closely as we please. It for equaproved in analytic geometry that the equations of the asymptotes
may
264
1.
and factor
0.
the left
member:
9x2
2.
3x
4t/
0;
(3x
2y)(3x
+ 2y) =
0.
to zero:
2y
and
3x
+ 2y =
=
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
3.
1.
Graph:
Solve for y:
x 2 f 4y2
25.
(3)
y
2.
i(25
x2 )
= =
JV25 
x2
(4)
to exceed 5.
3.
8,
V25
x2
39,
which
imaginary.
Place x
25;
Hence, two points on the graph are (0, and (0, f ), labeled A and C in Figure 21.
4.
Place y
xintercepts:
x2
25;
5.
(5,
0)
and (5.
5, 0), labeled
Fi 9 .
21
As many more points as desired can be found by substituting values of x in (4) and computing the corresponding values of y. When the points are joined by a smooth curve we obtain the oval ABCD in Figure 21. The curve is called an ellipse. The graph of the positive valued function x2 from (4), is the half of the ellipse above the xaxis. The y = JV25
,
JV25
The
x2
is
symmetrical to the
The
summary
are proved in
more
advanced mathematics.
The graph of any quadratic equation in two variables x and y with real solutions is either an ellipse, a hyperbola, a circle, a parabola, a pair of straight lines, or a single point.
,
SUMMARY.
1.
a a graph of jc H y
\/c and center is the origin, provided that the same unit is used on the scales of the xaxis and yaxis.
265
// a,
6,
and
c have the
same
sign, the
9 graph of ax
&y*
c is
an
with center at the origin; if a b, the ellipse is a circle, provided that the same unit is used on the scales of the xaxis and yaxis.
ellipse, 3.
ax* f by2
4.
c is
a hyperbola.
graph of xy = c is a hyperbola; ifc>Q, one branch of the hyperbola lies wholly in quadrant I, and the other in quadrant III; if c < 0, the branches are in quadrants II and IV, respectively.
If c j
0, the
// a quadratic equation in
is
involve
2 y or xy,
the
a parabola whose axis is parallel to the yaxis; 2 equation does not involve x or xy, the graph is a parabola whose
to the xaxis.
axis is parallel
ILLUSTRATION
of 5x
2
1.
y
is
is
= 8 is an ellipse, of the equation 3#2 7y* a hyperbola, and of 4z 2 f 4y* = 25 is a circle, whose
The graph
radius
5/2.
4.
EXAMPLE
xy
3y*
0.
(5)
SOLUTION.
Hence,
1.
Factor:
(2x
(x, y) in
3y)(x 4 y)
=
0.
0.
(5) is satisfied
(a)
by values
2x
case
(6)
3y
0,
or
+y=
Therefore, the set of all points (x, y) satisfying (5) consists of those satisfying Or, in other words, the graph of (5) consists (a) and those satisfying (6). of the graph of (a) and the graph of (6).
of (a) and (6) are straight lines through the origin. the graph of (5) consists of these two straight lines.
2.
The graphs
Hence,
Another case similar to Example 4 was met in finding the asymptotes in Example 2. They were the two straight lines which are the 2 2 4y = 0. graph of the equation 9z
Comment.
EXAMPLE
5.
7 y
= =
0.
SOLUTION.
2.
1. is
Solve for y:
x,
is
z
fx
+ J.
To graph
Thus, y
the equation, we would compute the coordinates of the vertex of the parabola and proceed as in Section 132, page 186.
266
be able to construct reasonably good graphs quickly. Beyond this, it is also essential to have a procedure for improving on such graphs when the necessity arises. The following
It is important to
y.
Refer to the summary of Section 181 and if possible decide on the nature of the graph before carrying out details of the work.
2.
When
the
z graph of ax
H
by
= =
c is
circle,
find
its
radius, 17 >
and
3.
When
graph of ax*
4 by*
c is
an
ellipse,
by placing y ~ and solving for x, and find the y4ntercepts by placing x = in the given equation. Then, sketch the ellipse through the four intercept points thus obtained*
4.
When
a hyperbola: Find its asymptotes by replacing c by and constructing two straight lines which are the graph of ax 2 f by*  0.
the
4
2 graph of ax
by
c is
the
Find
the xintercepts or the yintercepts. (One set of intercepts witt be imaginary because the hyperbola will cut just one of the
coordinate axes.)
Sketch the hyperbola through the real intercepts thus found, with each branch of the curve approaching the asymptotes smoothly.
5.
When a
solve for it
quadratic equation in (x, y) is linear in one variable, in terms of the other variable and then graph the resulting
We obtain the asymptotes, as in Note 1, page 263. Then we sketch branches EDF and GBH through points B and D in Figure 20.
as obtained through the preceding suggestions, or when doubt arises as to the nature of a graph, solve the given equation for one variable in terms of the other and compute as many points as needed, with Example 2 of Section 181 as a model.
* Illustrated in
To improve on a graph
Example
3,
page 264.
267
crosssection paper.
2.
5.
4.
7.
+ y* = 9. 4z + 4y = 9.
2
36.
3.
6.
4x2
2
j/
6.
16.
4.
xy
4y
2
9z2
0.
8. 0.
0.
9.
9x2
36.
3/)(3s
+ 2y) 9. 0.
11.
\
a;
4x
+ 7.
4y
2
2y
4s f 6z2
13.
3s2
(a;
+ 4xy
2y)(3z
0.
14. 36
*2
9w2
16.
2y
6)
0.
and
x
ay
+ by +
is
c,
where
it is
to be horizontal as usual.
2y
+ Sy  6.
19.
0.
EXAMPLE
1.
=
SOLUTION.
1.
(1) (2)
graph each equation, on one coordinate system. The graph of (1) is the hyperbola and the graph of (2) is the ellipse hi Figure 22. 2. Any point on the hyperbola has coordinates which satisfy (1), and any point on the ellipse has coordinates which satisfy (2). Hence, both equations
are satisfied
We
and
Z>,
by
of the ellipse
A: B:
D:
9,
(x
y
3,
3,
=
y
2).
C: (x
(x
3,
 
 2).   2).
2).
Fig.
22
These pairs of values are the solutions of the system [(1), (2)] and can be checked by substitution in the given equations.
can be found by the preceding graphical method and, usually, solutions can be read only approximately from a graph.
Only
real solutions
268
Solve graphically.

(*2
**
+ = 16, 2 = 3.
2
2/
(2*
+ y = 3, tf + f 9.
2
o *
9t/
36,
*i
/
<
25x2
+y =
2
/y.2
25,
"""
Q i/
 2z2 = 12.
2
Sx
+ 9,
2z2
2
z?/
2
4.
6y
0,
+ +
=
2
4t/
=
9.
36,
\25z
1
4
4y
100.
\z
2
t/
system consisting of one linear and one quadratic equation in two unknowns x and y usually has either (a) two different real solutions, or (6) two real solutions which are the same, or (c) two imaginary solutions.
These
the straight line, which is the graph of the linear equation, (a) may cut the graph of the quadratic in two points, or (b) may be tangent to, or (c) may not touch the graph
following geometrical possibilities:
of
the quadratic.
EXAMPLE
1 1.
Solvebolve.
4x 2  6^ 2*  3y =
9t/
63,
(1) (2)
3.
SOLUTION.
1.
Solve
(2) for x:
:
3y
"
Zi
3

(3)
'
.
3 )(y
63.
2,2
3.
In
(3), if
. y =
(y
3,
+2 =
)
0;
3
2,
and
then
v
= x
2.
then
x
3,
3;
if
= x
= 
9/2.
4.
The
./.
solutions are
and
=_i
=_2
Since a solution of a pair of equations in x and y is a pair of related values of x and y, it is very essential that each solution should be
plainly indicated as a pair of values, as in
Example
1.
Note
be
269
SUMMARY.
1.
To
solve
in x and y algebraically:
Solve the linear equation for one unknown in terms of the other, say for y in terms of x, and substitute the result in the quadratic equation; this eliminates one unknown.
and, for each value of the unknown obtained, find the corresponding value of the other unknown by substitution in the given linear equation.
I
2. Solve the
EXERCISE 99
Solve, (a) graphically
,
and
(b) algebraically.
<>
16,
, *
\4d
+ 3c
7/
50.
\u
+ 2v 
6.
+ 2b 
4.
Solve algebraically.
(2x
\
2z
+ + 3 = 0, + y  Qy = 9.
2
(z2
\x
12.
92/
=
3y
25,
0.
\ a
46 = + 2a 
12,
46
y,
/ y
+ 2y  2x +
=
1
5.
0,
+ 24i/
'
t
36.
0,
4a;
2xy
2
2/
+ 8z =
2y
3.
+y z
2by
2a2 f &2
When both equations of a system are quadratic, the system usually has/owr different solutions, all or two of which may involve imaginary
numbers.
tems
of this type
1
.
fact stated in the preceding paragraph is a special case of the following theorem which is proved in a later course in algebra:
Note
270
system of two integral rational equations in x and y, in which one equation is of degree m and the other is of degree n hi x and y, usually has
mn
solutions.
Thus, a system consisting of an equation of the third degree and a quadratic usually has 3 X 2 or 6 solutions. Usually, the algebraic solution of two simultaneous quadratics brings hi the solution of a fourth degree equation
hi one variable.
At
very simple fourth degree equations. Hence he is not prepared to consider the solution of all systems of simultaneous quadratics. Therefore, in this chapter we consider only special elementary types of systems.
1
in
both equations have the form ax 2 f 6t/2 = c, the system is 2 linear in x2 and y2 and can be solved for x and y2 by the methods applicable to systems of linear equations.
When
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2.
1.
Solve:
(* *2
'
'*
\ x*
1.
+
=
2
~ ""> 2 2y = 34.
50.
db 4.
Multiply by 2 in
(1)
2sa f 2y2
Subtract, (3)
Substitute x2
3.
(2):
z
16 f
4,
2/
16;
x
y
16 in (1):
25;
9;
3.
4.
Hence, if x f 3 and y
is
either 4*
4 or
we obtain
4,y
4,
= 
4,
EXERCISE 100
Solve each system, (a) graphically
*' ^

and
(b) algebraically.

2'
9.
is2
+
" 2
2
t/
36.
"
\9z
f
W2
16.
Solve algebraically.
L /
,
z2 *
+ 4s/ =
2
S*y2
14,
'
/ ^
1
re rt
t/
Ifi. 16.
f
= 4, v2  11.
2
2 / 2* A' I
32/
2
5ar
h 2w
3,
17.
10'
<*
7.
 %* 
6,
ft **
V
1
 3^
+ 5r*.
= 4.
7r*
1 Ait2
\ llr*
= 3ft 5a*  
7r*
2
11 '
4.
^
+ 2y
ft?/ 2
\ 9x
= =
AQ
'
12
<
13.
2 2 \ 4x h 9y
271
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
2. 3.
1.
Solve:
* + * ~ 14J ( x 3xy + 2y \
2 , 2
ft
0.
0.
1.
Factor
(2):
(x
2y)(x
y)
Therefore, (2)
is satisfied if
either
if
2y
=
if
0,
satisfied
and only
x*
& + yt =
14,
2
2/
14,
4.
On
solving (I)
(x
\/7,
(a?
by the method of Section 184, we obtain two solutions: V?). From (II) we obtaui V7, 2/ = y = V7) and (x =
= fVTO,
JVTO);
(a;
  fVTO,
 
say that the given system in Example 1 is equivalent to the systems I and II because the solutions of the given system consist of the solutions of (I) together with those of (II). The preceding method applies if, after writing each equation with one member zero, we can factor at least one of the other members.
1
We
system in which all terms involving the variables are of the second degree can sometimes be solved by use of the equation we obtain on eliminating the constant terms from the original system.
EXAMPLE
1.
Solve:
INCOMPLETE SOLUTION.
Multiply
(1)
(2)
1.
by by
2:
7:
(4):
Multiply
56.
56.
(3)
(4)
Subtract, (3)
xy
0; or,
0.
(5)
is
2.
To solve [(1),
(2)]
[(2), (5)].
This system
2
equiva
8,
/ xy
+ 4y =
0.
8,
(6)
Instead of using (2) in (6) we could equally well have used (1). system in (6) has two solutions and thus [(1), (2)] has four solutions.
Each
272
Solve algebraically
and
graphically.
{% vj
j /
**'
\
1i
/
'
H" y)(x
.
""
2y)
0.
\ (x
2/)(x 4
3y)
0.
Hereafter in this chapter, leave all surd values in radical form. Moreover, unless otherwise stated, to solve a system will mean to solve algebraicatty.
f
2z2
2
+
f
5*s/
3y
2.
0,
(3x*
\
\2s
*
Zxy
+ 5xy r + sy = 4.
=
(a;
f 3y
7.
2z
xy
0,
2y*
8.
28,
8.
'
x2
10,
2c2
2cd
15.
2a:
+ 2/ =
2
5.
=
\t
22
11,
fx2
\
f
+3
6
0.
x2
a^
+ 4y =
z
40.
0,
2w2
f
f
3mn =
8n
2
1,
2
2/
35.
\9w
,
=
t/
9.
2
2mn
f
n2 =
1D *
64.
\x
for
Zxy
+ 7 = 0,  If + 4  0.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
1.
Solve:
+ * = 27 ( x + , I y = 3.
*
(1):
'
(2)
1.
Factor
(*
2.
3.
+ y)(x*  xy + y*)
=
x2
27.
(3)
Divide, (3)
by
(2)
xy
+ y* =
9.
(4)
Hence,
and only
3,
if (x,
y} satisfies
(5)
+yxy
\ x*
+ y*
9.
(6)
solution
by
solving [(5),
(6)]
by
the
273
(7) (8)
Solve:
*+
(
I
xy
=^ 5.
(8):
+*x*
20,
INCOMPLETE SOLUTION.
2.
2
1.
Add,
(7)
3.
From (9), (x + !/) = 25; hence To solve [(7), (8)], we would solve each
(x
+ 2xy + y* z + y = 5, or +y
a;
25.
(9)
5.
+y=
5.
5,
1 xy
X +.V = = 5. \ xy
!
5,
*190. Determination
of tangents to curves
Find the value of the constant k so that the graphs of the equations in the following system will be tangent:
1.
EXAMPLE
+ \x + y
f
x2
?/
= k2 = l.
(1) (2)
(1),
graph of (2) is tangent to the graph of the two solutions of the system [(1), (2)] must be identical.  fc2) = 0. 2z 2  2x 2. Substitute y = 1  x in (1) (1
1.
:
SOLUTION.
If the
then
(3)
From Step
(2)
2
we
roofa.
Hence, Us
4(2)(1
line is
fc )
0;
8fc
0;
=fc
i>/2.
tangent to the
in
x and
y.
equation in x and y is said to be symmetrical in x and y in case the equation is unaltered when x and y are interchanged. A quadratic 2 equation in x and y is symmetrical in x and y if the coefficients of x and 2 y are equal and those of x and y are equal. The method of the next example applies where each equation is symmetrical in the unknowns.
An
EXAMPLE
1.
<a
Solve:
<
2xy f x
+y
,
= 
2y
=
4.
*
8,
(1)
) rt \
(2)
INCOMPLETE SOLUTION.
1.
Substitute
+ v;
= u
v.
From
From
2.
(1) (2)
2w2
2w2
f 2t^
+ 4u = 8,  W + 2u   4.
*
u and
4w2
v:
Eliminate
3.
(5)]:
+ 6u  4 =
0.
(6)
(u, v)
Solve (6) for u; then obtain v from (4). Each pair of values when placed in (3) gives a solution of [(1), (2)].
274
\8a
( a; 2
+6
2*
98.
( a
3*
3.
+ y) ( y(x + y)
24,
40, 20.
H
4.
2 xy H y
7,
*
\
}
uv
4t^
0.
6.
4,
=
3.
9,
+v
z2
OPfl/
8.
I
+
=r ^^
3,2
ft "
13,
f4c2 h3^f2/2
/ \ xy
8,
^ **y
1.
=
12.
11.
2.
=
f
5.
2
2/
\ 3j/
'
icy
y*
13"
4.
*
icy
+ xy +
=
29
61,
y.
x
14.
+ 2y f 2 =
+ ^ f
3,
y = 6, = 14.
16.
2?/
1,
8.
Find
the values of
k for which
Then, if k
is real,
16
'
17'
'
5.
\Sy
+ 3x 
18*
1
*.
+ 2y + kx =
0.
an expression for
i.
1ft
/!/ <
 mx
.
c,
+ 4y2 ^
the
2 4x y 6 = 0.
36
^ w.
4y
.
(y

= mx
.
fl2a
_ ^2 = (W>
c,
(x
 my
f
c,
method applying
to
symmetrical equations.
22.
17,
22
/
1
^ "~ 3a^ +
2x
2
2 ==
2/
1,
xy h
2t/
17.
24.
without
first clearing
of fractions.
25.
^
=: H 28
11,
26.
27.
0.
7.
275
+ y = 25, '\2x + y = T.
f4*2
2
f
2 A
fa*
2
+ 42,*=
2
fi
16,
^
(a
2)(*
1)
\* s/ =  0,
*
1
f*
\ z*
+ y'20,
4y
2
9.
4.
 s*,
results
1, 2,
and 4
algebraically
Graph each
fc
4z
+V
equation.
0.
10.
4z
ty*
0.
11.
4x
9y*
36.
algebraically.
2*+ 1=0,,
Sx
4y
3y*.
4x*
xy
110
17 '*
y*
2
t>
 4.  9,
,
'
V*
r'
3.
rA
75.
or
a;
2o6
2
.
The sum
of
two numbers
is
28 and the
sum
of their squares
is
634.
is
whose diagonal
24.
13 feet long.
The area
The sum
is
.
of
a rectangle
is
its
perimeter
is
49
feet.
of the reciprocals of
two numbers
is
numbers
26.
two investments at simple interest, a first part at twice the interest rate obtained on the second part. The first investment grows to the amount $345 in 3 years, and the second to the amount $220 hi 4 years. Find the interest rates and the sums invested.
A man
276
27.
is
The sum of the squares of the two digits of a positive integral number 65 and the number is 9 times the sum of its digits. Find the original
number.
Some men row 15 miles downstream on a river to a mountain and then climb 12 miles to its summit. They take 9 hours for the journey and, the
28.
Find the rate at which they row in still water and their speed in ascending the mountain, if they descended 1 mile per hour faster than in ascending, and if the rate of the current of the river is
next day, 9 hours to return.
1
on one
side of
feet
unknown weight
is
moved
2 feet nearer the fulcrum, the weight balances 2 pounds placed 9 feet from the fulcrum on the other side. Find the unknown weight.
equal size and pays each of his workmen $4 per day. He paid a total of $42 to 2 Workmen after each, working alone, plowed one of the fields. These men took 2f days to plow the third field
30.
farmer has 3
fields of
when working
field
together.
How many
days did
it
take each
man
to plow a
alone?
31.
Two
At 6
A.M.,
towns on opposite sides of a lake are 33 miles apart by water. from each town a boat starts for the other town, traveling at uni
pass each other at 9 A.M. One boat arrives at its destination 1 hour and 6 minutes earlier than the other. Find the time it
form speed.
The boats
make
wheel of one automobile makes 96 more revolutions per mile than a wheel of a second automobile. If 20 inches were added to the length of the
automobile, the result would be the diameter of a wheel of the second automobile. Find the diameter of a wheel of each
radius of a wheel of the
first
TT.
APPENDIX
NOTE
If there exists
1.
THE IRRATIONALITY OF V2
2,
a rational number which is a square root of exist two positive integers m and n, such that
then there
n
where
(l)
m
is
7T
In other words,
if
V2
is
rational
there exist
is
two
integers
true.
1.
Let us show
m and
without a
common
=
2n2
the right member.
or >
(2)
2
;
= m
2
.
not be a factor of
2.
2
.
That
(2)
:
is,
hence 2 is a factor of a factor of because otherwise 2 could = 2k, where k is some positive integer.
Place
m=
2k in
2n2
= w2 =
(2fc)
4&2 ;
(3)
is
2k2
Consider n2
factor of n.
3.
2&2
since 2
is
and 2 that
contradicts our original assumption that Hence, the assumed equation 1 has led us to a contradiction, and it follows that (1) itself must be false. Therefore no rational number exists which is a
square root of
2, or,
\/2
is
an
irrational number.
Comment.
(1.414)
2
We
1.4,
easily
verify
that
(1.4)
1.96;
(1.41)*
1.9881;
1.999396; etc.
1.41,
On
1.414,
1.41421,
,
(4)
see that the square of each number in (4) is less than 2 but that, on proceeding to the right in (4), the squares of the numbers approach 2 as a
we
limit.
in (4)
a rational number; we refer to these numbers as the successive decimal approximations to A/2.
Each number
in (4) is
278
APPENDIX
NOTE
2.
RATIONAL EXPONENTS
complete proof that the index laws hold for any rational exponents could be constructed by showing, hi succession, that the laws hold if the
exponents are
(1)
any
positive rational
numbers and
negative rational numbers. Without giving a complete discussion, we shall indicate the nature of the methods involved by proving some of the necessary theorems. For convenience in details, we shall assume tha$ the base is
positive.
In our proofs, we use the index laws for positive integral exponents
definitions of Sections 113, 114,
and the
and
115.
a n) = a n (m\p
Proof,
mp
.
(a*)*
= [(o)
W
]
= (a)
mP
;
[(3),
page 151;
(II),
a n) (!\p
tap
[(3),
THEOREM
II.
Proof.
[a* an)
J>\nq
= _
m \*tf/
<
(a*)
Uv
2\*m
am apn
(Theorem
[(I),
I)
a oJ (m
Therefore,
am *+*.
root,
\A.
;
page 142]
by the
definition of
an ngth
/
.
ao
^a
mfl+pn n
o> (m\
r/
Suggestion for proof.
!\
Compute
_
*/
fl
In the remainder of this note we shall assume that the index laws have been completely established for all positive rational exponents.
THEOREM
Comment.
IV.
Law
any
positive
been established if both exponents are positive. Hence, it remains to show that, if h and k are any k = h a*~*. positive rational numbers, then a~ a~ o~*~*, and o*a~*
are assuming that
I has
We
Law
Incompkte
proof.
By
*a*
=*.=
a*
a*
a*"
1
or,
APPENDIX
279
NOTE
of
3.
ABRIDGED MULTIPLICATION
method for abbreviating multiplication digits when the result is desired with
significant
EXAMPLE
places.
1.
Compute
decimal
893.214, multiply in succession by 800, 90, 3, .2, .01, and .004 and add the results (in ordinary multiplication these Since we desire accuracy in the second operations are in reverse^ order).
1.
SOLUTION.
To
multiply
by
decimal place,
2,
we carry two
In the abridged method, to multiply by 800 we multiply by 8 and move the decimal point; all digits of 11.132157 are used in order to obtain This first operation accurately locates the four significant decimal places.
decimal point for the
rest of the items.
3.
To
when multiplying by 90 we do
not need
the
last digit
'V"
over "5" and multiply 11.1321 multiply 11.13215 by 90. Next, place " by 3; then >/" over "1" at the right and multiply 11.132 by .2; then " " >/" over "2" and multiply 11.13 by .01; then V" over "3" and multiply
II. 1
V"
by
.004.
off to
two decimal
places, obtaining
9943.40.
Note
point
tion.
is
1.
The advantages
As compared
of the preceding abridged method are obvious. with the ordinary method, less labor is involved, the decimal
accurately located,
abridged method of division can be developed similar in princiole to the method of abridged multinlicatioiv abova.
Note
g.
An
280
APPENDIX
NOTE
The
arise
1.
if
4.
2=1
Suppose that
Multiply by y:
Subtract 6s :
Factor:
(y
6)
:
y
y
2
6.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Divide by (y
Since y
6. 7.
6 (Step 1),
6.
Discussion.
zero, because
=
is
if
6.
Hence, Steps
by
zero
not allowed.
NOTE
5.
Consider finding V7569. Since the radicand has four digits to the left of the decimal point, the square root must have two digits to the left of the decimal point, because the square of any number of units is less than 100,
and the square of any number of hundreds is greater than 10,000. We observe that 80 is the largest whole number of tens whose square is kss than 7569.
Hence, we consider finding
x,
<80
z)
7569.
(1)
By
we obtain
7569;
,(2)
2
6400
280 x
From
(3),
7569
1169.
6400;
(3)
1169,
1169
ieo+T
trial divisor
An
approximation to
;
(4) is
obtained
if
we use the
160 in place
/
of (160 f x)
this gives
x
Then, we take x
167, gives
115?
160
_ ~
7+ 7
'
(5)
f
x) or
1169
,,
7, exactly.
Hence,
V7669 = 80
h
87.
7669.
APPENDIX
In the following examples, the student
28?
will observe, in brief form, steps
corresponding to those just explained in detail by reference to the formula 2 for (a &) Hereafter, the details will be carried out without making the
possible contacts with the square of a binomial. Essentially, at each stage of the following arithmetical process, we have knowledge of a in a binomial
(a f 6)
to
b so that (a
+ 6)
will
be as
root is
EXAMPLE
1.
Find V7569.
SOLUTION. Arrange 7569 into groups of two figures each, starting at the decimal point. After each of the following steps, read the corresponding
explanation below.
Step 3
Step 4
8
75 69 64
160
11 69
Ififi A v/vr
87
75 69 64
11 69
167
The largest perfect square less than 75 64 below 75. Write V64, or 8, above 5 of 75. 2. Subtract 64 from 75. Bring down the next group, 69.
Explanation.
1.
is
64.
Write
3.
4.
Form
2X8=
16;
annex
(160).
.
Obtain the complete divisor: 1169 f 160 = 7 + 167 as the complete divisor. Write 7 over 9 of 1169.
5.
Add 7
to 160, forming
Find 7
87.
167,
or
1169.
Subtract.
is
zero,
V7569 =
written in
The complete
solution.
It alone
would be
an actual
2.
1.
EXAMPLE
Find V1866.24.
First trial divisor:
SOLUTION.
2. First
2X4
8.
Annex
0,
giving 80.
 3+; 80 3 83, complete divisor: 266 * 80 the complete divisor; write 3 over the righthand 6 of 66.
43.
16
3.
18 66.24
1866.24.
4.
5.
Second
trial divisor.
43
86.
Annex
(860).
80
Second complete
divisor.
1724
f
860
2
2+
83
;
266 249
860
+2
862.
862
1724.
Check.
We find
that (43.2)*
1866.24, or
V1866.24
43.2.
282
APPENDIX
3.
EXAMPLE
SOLUTION.
or
2*.
Find V645.16.
1.
Hence,
largest perfect square less than 2 is the first digit of the square root.
trial divisor, 40, it
.
The
is
2.
figure
may
and
3.
this is
be 6 since 245 * 40 = more than 245. Therefore, we must use 5 as the
2 5. 4 6 45.16 4
To form
500,
we take 2
504.
25 and annex
0.
2016
f
500
is 4+.
Then 500
+4=
The
result is 25.4.
SUMMABY.
1.
To find
notation:
Separate the number into groups (or periods) of two figures each, both ways from the decimal point.
2.
Below the first group, write the largest perfect square less than Above the group, write the square root of this perfect square.
3. Subtract the perfect
first
that group.
group;
bring
down
the next
by doubling the part of the root now found, and annexing zero. Divide the first remainder by this trial divisor, taking as the quotient only the whole number obtained. (Possibly reduce the number by I.)
the trial divisor
.
Form
Write
5.
Form
of the
6.
new
figure
Multiply the compkte divisor by the new figure of the square the product under the remainder. Subtract.
root.
Write
7.
Continue in
this
to 6, until the
remainder
is zero,
many
will not be a terminating a random number N, and carry decimal. Then, in finding VAT, we annex zeros at the right in out the square root process to as many decimal places as desired.
Note
1.
As a
rule, for
VN
EXERCISE 104
Find
3969.
number.
to
hundredths
thousandths.
3. 273,529.
7.
2. 134.56.
4. 8299.21. 8. 2.1904.
5.
105,625.
6. 936.36.
40.8321.
9. 78.354.
10. 15,765.
11. 1643.8.
12. 7.809,
ANSWERS TO
Note.
EXERCISES
Answers to oddnumbered problems are given here. Answers to evennumbered problems are furnished free in a separate pamphlet when
requested by the instructor.
'
Exercise 2.
3.
Page 7
7. 0. 9.
1. 56.
13. 5.
16.
12.
8.
5. 36.
17. 4.
19. 3.
21.
2.
26. 120.
37.
27. 120.
39. 5.
29.
360.
41. 52. 61. 31.
31.
96.
8.
11. 56.
9.
4.
23.
168.
13.
47. 14.4.
49. 4.
66. 360.
Exercise 3.
1. 27.
Page 12
7.
3.
18.
6.
13.
16.
9.
11.
35.
13. 0.
16. 29.
13.
17.
18.2.
19.
23. 61;
26.
11.9.
14;
17.
33.
30; 4.
5.
27.
36.
36;
7.
32.
7.
70.
10.
41. 22.
61. 28;
4.
43. 3.
63.
46. 13.
\
32.
49. 12.
67. 100.
69. 66. 3;
14;
0;
0.
9;
18;
 53.  2.
61.
67. 23;
Exercise 4.
11.
Page 15
17.
<.
13.

<.
 
16.
>.
3
.
>.
19.
<.
21.

29. 33.
31. 36. 2
> > 
3;
6;
> < 

.
.
Exercise 5.
1.
Page 17
7. 8.
10.
3.
11. 36.
13.
24.
2.
6. 5.
9. 44.
16. 0.
17.
8a
24.
19.
c.
30c.
13.
21.
2o f 56
c.
23. 31
31.
5a
29. 15a.
35. 18
8a
(5
y.
26.
12.
41. 16
12a 4 156.
(4a
37.
3c).
7a
+ 46).
43. 2ac
+ 36 +
27. 15o.
+ 4y).
Exercise 6.
1. 9
Page 20
6. 6cd. 7.
lla.
3.
l&c.
5x
166
9fc
6a.
3a
lie.
11.
19c
IScd.
13.
2a
16. 19.
+ db

3y.
4c;
7x
lldb
21.
14x
+ 2c.
9ac
17.
 3m
26 f 4;  60  k  6h; 9m
23.
10.
7xy
46.
9o
+ 4A.
206.
290
^
ANSWERS
25. 3fl
31. 2t
14A
3.
23*.
33. 2a.
27.
3a
f 10y
35.
41.
56
10.
43.
3.
s.
29. 37. 2.
21a
Sly
+ 9.
4x.
39. 13
12*
36.
Exercise 7.
Page 24
125a
Exercise 9.
3. 3fl26.
Page 28
6.
1528
7.
9.
4s2*.
11.
6x
2x2j/2
13. 21.
2as 6
20a
2
fc
15.
15.
8o86>.
17.
24rW.
6s
2
19. 12a;
lOa?
4
.
3y.
2x*.
23. 15z
12y.
25.
27.
29. 3^
3hk.
35.
10w>.
33.
6a4 6.
39.
24m6n4
18o2 62
3^44rA;34'*.
41. 46.
14x3
10x4
+ &c 2
.
12x2
43. 3o 46 4 f 47.
15o6
9o6.
2y
+ 4y
12.
.
4a
lOa
14.
49. 6x
24x*
12.
Exercise 10.
1. 3*
Page 30
7.
4# 2a2 6
+x9*2
3.
2z2
3x
9.
2o
+ ab
x2
.
35.
156*.
5.
20a8 a2
11. 9r
 43o +  25a*.
21
13.
ab
15.
J
.
15. c2
^
17.
19.
W
8Wfc H
16A
21. 9a*
12o6
+ 46.
23.
+ 60 + 9. oV  2a6x f V
ANSWERS
25. 31.
37.
297
46*.
 x2  llx + 15. 33. 6  5x 20  146  36* + 6. 2^  20y  6j/2 f 25y  25. 25x f 4y* + 9 + 30*  12y  2Qzy. 51. 6a  llo8 2x  x2  16x +"l5.
x
2
+ 3y* 
10.
27. 3a
+ a'6 2
 8.  6x2  x8 35. 2x  5x2  8x + 5. 39. 6s4  7x + 12x  19x + 7. 43. 15s4  17x + 12x2 + 17*  15.
29. y
.
47. a* f 6.
17o
+ 30.
53. x*
27y*.
Exrc!$
11.
Pag* 33
41.
fa
+ 56.
43.
46.
2
45.
3a
2a2
47.
5.
+ 5a*.
49. r
2x
+ 3.
53.
+
h
55.
+ r.A^i 3x 15 5x*
4y
57.
663a.
63.
59.
2x
+? 2
a;
61.
'
#
Exercise 12.
1.
Ps
36
6. 8
+ 4.
3. c
3.
3.
7.
4.
15.
o6^r2o 4 6
x x x2
17.
+ 2.
25.
19.
3x+ll + x
3
21.
2.
23. 2x
 r^r2x  3
29.
2y *
4y
81.
2
Zy
+

27.
33.
x2
4 H
?_^ x 3
35. 4w^
x2
+ xy + y*.
6u>
+ 9.
+ 3xy + 4y 37. a + a^ +
2
.
x2
39.
3x
+ 9.
3.
6*.
2x2
Exercise 13.
Page 39
^
15.
o
21. 36c. 23.
292
29.

ANSWERS
35
39. 300.
8L. Q
41. 18,900.
jt.
43.
35..
45.
37.48.
47.
24a36. Page 41
36az 4
80/W.
Exercise 14.
1.
V
3.
i
H.
23. .
6.
&.
7. ft.
'
^'
13.
16.
.
17. J.
6
*/.
^J>.
5r3fe
26
31.
13
106*
3a
206
._
45.
4*
7;
3
15ay
3a
.<
'
19o f 94
20
Art
12
47.
5x  9
Ox
 10^ +
20
._
49.
.
2y
3
4yz
6y
+9
13z
_.
27y
__
Sab 3
4a2 6*
Exercise 15.
Page 44
9.
11.
H.
5
13.
2
5
3a
3bc
+ 4a'
3
*
46c
+ 3'
'
'
5a2 fe
4x2
2
Zxy*
20x 2
156
+
2o
33.
+
!
3
35. f
.
^.
36
 3z 37.  I
45
36x
39.
24
&.
41.
&.
43
2a3fe
'
2a*
3o
5/i*
Exercise 16.
1.
Page 46
7.
60.
3. 0.
6.
13. 17.
15.
}
32;
14.
17. 42;
25. a'62
 4.  8.
33.
9.
1.
11. 6.
19.
<.
21.
>.
23. 26 29.
37.
9Jk
3a'6.
27.
11 A.
2o.
f
foy 35.
43.
12zV.
&.
^.
41. 24
W.
ANSWERS
a2*)2
293
4c
3y
5x
a5
Pase 50
5.
Exercise 17.
1.
3.25.
3.
100,000.
f 9.
.0001.
7. .0000001.
9.
3(10
3 )
+
3.
102
+ 4(10)
11.
13. 536.437.
15. 5735.35.
17. 14.1192.
19. .0681.
21. 6.64;
23.
103.7698;
16.0762.
31. .000317.
25. 1.178.
33. 5.738.
27. 5.32.
29. 326,530.
Exercise 18.
1.
Pase 52
6.
4.914.
3.
5.993.
.51312.
7.
13.62528.
9.
.000054322.
11. 2.1435402.
Exercise 19.
1.
Pase 55
.315.
5.
15.326;
15.3.
3.
.31486;
195.64;
196.
7.
.034564;
.0346.
9.
and 567.45.
13. 31.54;
.586.
16. 11.4034;
2
19. 2,056,000.
21. 10 (6.7538).
Exercise 20.
1.
Pase 57
7.
1.37.
3. 57.2.
6
6.
.263.
150.
9.
.02981.
11. .286.
13.
17.
19. .625.
21. .15.
23. .4375.
Exercise 21.
1.
Pase 62
3.
3.
11.
13. 1.
21. J.
23.
3.
31. 8.
41. 3.
33. 6.
43. .36.
63.
61. f
7.
55. 2.
294
ANSWERS
Excreta 22.
Page 66
*
2a36
2a6
'
3c
23.
o6c)
6d
n 9
35.
k
a a
<\j
l)d:
37.
r*
(n
 I
33.
\
5 1
39.
o tt
A >.
M+N P + r

a 1
4t C 
^^,0,0 +
.12n
11. 40';
120'.
6.
Extrcta 23.
1.
Page 69
3. 22.5'
32.5*
and
35.5'.
7.
and
5'.
5. 3f.
15;
16;
17.
9. 8'.
13. 13 nickels;
39 dimes; 36 quarters.
19.
16.
80 bu.
17.
8f
hr.
3H da.
Excrcist 24.
21.
2$ hr.
2%.
Page 72
7.
L
21. 27.
31.
.05.
3. .0375.
6.
1.263.
17.
7%.
26.
9.
11.
135%.
50*f.
13. 8.32.
16.
37*%
29.
of 200.
175%
of 200.
560 dimes.
23. $22,000.
75
at 70 ff; 25
Ib.
at
20
gal.
gal.
58&%.
Exercise 25.
Page 74
3.
1. 6.
21^r ft. from fulcrum on other side. 8 ft. from fulcrum on side of 40 Ib. weight.
Exercise 26.
63&
Ib. Ib.
7.
69&
Page 77
hr.
6.
1.
50 m.p.h.
3.
At end 7
310 m.p.h. >
16$
sec.
7.
~
x
til
sec.
9.
11.
At end 10
yr.
hr.
and 28 min.
hr.
16.
17.
Approximately 8.13
1306$ mi.; 7 hr. and 28 min. 19. At lOft min. after 2 P.M.
Exercise 27.
Page 80
3.
L
ft.
$180.00; $5180.00.
$159.00.
7. $2914.98.
$48.00; $3048.00.
9. $42,857.14.
ANSWERS
It
17.
295
18.
$1000.00.
18. $5000.00.
At 5%;
gains $17.86.
$4000 at
5%; $3000
at
4%.
Excreltt 28.
Past 83
db $.
7. 3.
9. 9.
1.
rfc
5.
3.
11.
5.
11. 14.
18. .
16. i.
17. .
19. x*.
21. a.
81.
28.
83.
a.
36.?.
25. 2a*.
37.
27. 2^.
39.
29. 7*.
8*c*.
7*A
~

41.
Extreist 29.
1.
Past 86
6. c*
15a
20t>.
3.
4a6x
16
a*6x.
7. a*
13. 19.
a4
+ 2ay + y*.
25. 6
81.
37.
43.
49.
+ 5x + x*. 6x* + 17 + 12. 21u* + 29u>  10. + 19x  20. 9 + 246x + 16Wx*.
3aj*
 y. 16. a*  60 + 8. 2L 4z  4u* + M* 27. x* + 4z  45. 33. 8y  IQxy + 3a?. 39. 8x + 6xy  9j/.
9.
11.
^ 
17. x*
23.
29.
36. 6y f 41.
15.
46. x*
61. 67.
io
 9z*.  #*.
47.
63.
.1.
69.
.15.
63. .08x*
.2&r
69.
66. 16
8a*
67.
71. 76.
7x
+ x.
20x*.
79. 2a*
83. 12x
 15M.  sV  6.
a*6*
73. 4s*  Sxy + 4y*.' 77. 12x*  x*  6. 8L 21a + a6  10M. 86. 9u  15w*e  14.
Extrclst 30.
Past 88
L
6.
9.
11. 17.
21. 23.
26. 29.
31.
3. 9  12* f 6y + 4x*  4xy + &. + y* H 2xy + 4 + 4x + 4y. 9x + + 25 + 6xy f lOy + 30x. 7. 16o* f 6* +  806  8oc + 26c. 4z*  12ox + 12M* + 9o* + 96*  18o6*. 13. 16  4a*  4o6 x* + 2xy f y*  9. 16. a + 2ab + 6*  x*.  16. 19. x*  y f 2y* 9a*  Gay + 4x* + 4xy + y* + a*  60 + 9 + 4ax  12x + 2ay  6y. 4x* + 4x* + y* 8x 4y + 4 + 4xy 2yi + 4z.  4cd + 4d*  a*  2ax  x*.  f 6  9. 4a + 4xy + 27. 4a* + 96* + 16c* + 12o6 + 16ac + 246c. + 25x* + 9a*  lOua + taw  30ax.
x*
!/*
c*
6*.
i/*
*.
z*
j/*
c*
to*
Exttcist 31.
Past 90
6.
t
7.
x(3
+ 6).
a
3.
2x(3y
+ a).
9.
y(2c
+ <P +
1)
x(36
+ c).
(<<#
4a).
296
11. ay*(3ay 15.
ANSWERS
21.
27.
31. 41.
13. 17. (8
vto*(Wx
3b).
+ 5wx

2 ).
xy)(8
23. (2a
+ 36)(2a I)
2
.
+ xy).
19. (2x
y)(2x
+ y).
1).
25. (16a
+ l)(16a 2
u>).
29. (5w
33. a(x
43. (a
).
45. 12>;
51. (8
(w
a6)
.
6)
47. (x
9)
49. (7x
+ a)'.
65. 20acd;
2
.
53. 12x2;
(2x
57. (3x
63.
.67.
73. 77.
+ &)'.
(2cd
So)
59. (2x2
7)
2
.
61. (2a2
St2 ) 2.
2
w)(3
+ w).
5)(7w
71. 2(7u2
25^) (2x
+ 5)
5t>)(2z
2
5t>).
5y^)(7x
+ Sw ^).
81. 4(100).
83. 1600.
85. 280.
Exercise 32.
Page 93
L
7.
(x
13.
3.
(a
(x
9.
15. (6
19. (9
Jb).
25. (50
31.
27.
37.
43. 49.
63.
).
59. (3x
65. (
+ 2y)
2
.
 1). 29. 35. (5a2  7)(3a2 f 4). 33. (4w^ + 3)(2w>' 3). 41. (3x + 2)(x + y). 39. (1  3x)(9x + 2). 47. (3a  56)(2<z  6). 46. (6u/ + u)(2w  5u). 61. (x  2y)(x + 2y)(x + 4y ). 67. 2x(x  y)(x + y). 66. (4  3x)(2x + 5). 6L (5x + 106)(5a:  106 ). 63. r(2  5ft) (1  3ft).
X2 (4x
21. (x 4
6)(o
6)(x
2).
5.
11. 17.
23. (5a
3)(2x
2y)(*
+ 2y)(^ + 4j/
).
67. Prime.
71. 24 (5w
75. 79.
+ 4).
Exercise 33.
1.
Page 95
5.
(2ft
2(x
(2d
+ 2y).
5c)(r
).
3.
(c
7.
13.
19. 4(x
25.
31.
35.
39.
43.
47.
 6)(ft  2c). 21.  3)(x2 + 1). 27. (x  a). (2 + x)(r  y)(22 + w + y). (22 + w  3x)(2 + 1 + 3x). (2 + 1  3*  l)(2a + 32 + 1). (2o  1 + 3x)(4a + 1  3x). (4o
+ (a H 6)(3c + d).
9.
16.
+ d)(x + y).
l)(w
3&)(m
11. 17.
+ 1).
s
23.
 2).  2k).
29. (3x
2)(x f 2).
37.
+ 8 + 3).  3d  2x  y)(c  3d + 2x + y). (c 41. (y + z + 2x)(y + z  2x). 46. (3x  y + 2)(3x + y  2). 49. (6 + c)(x  y)(x + y)(x + y
33. (x
3)(x
).
ANSWERS
51. (z2 65. (c
297
(2o
63. (2x
w)(s 2  3d
4w
1).
63. (r
4 3t 59. (a
6)(r
4 3< 4 a + 6).
3x).
+ 6 + 3x)(a + 6 
Exercise 34.
1.
Page 98
96s
.
x9
xy
7.
27a
(d
(1
4y
8
.
2
.
3. 9.
a2
1
 3a6 +  27x8
.
5. c
4 w>.
8x.
11. 6"
13.
17.
21.
26.
29.
33.
37. 41.
43.
46. 49.
 tO(l 4^4^). 19. 4 10)(  10 + 100).  3)(1 + Zx + 9a; 23. (1  i/z)(36x + 6x2/2 + 27. (7a ). (6x 31. u* f 9u + 27u f 27. A  3h?k 4 3/iA; 36. 64z + 48z y + 12xj/2 f &c + 12m + 6w*c + w*. 39. c  G^c + 126c  86. a  6a x + 12a x 2  Sx*. 8c  36c4z 4 54c z  27z  l)(x + * 4 l)(x2  2x + 4). (x + 2)(x  37/)(4x + Qxy + 9y )(x + y)(x2  xy + y 47. (a (2x  3x) 61. (c  d  a)(c2  2cd + + <w  a^ + a2). (w
2
( 2
y)(d?
+ dy + y
2
).
15. (y
3)fo
+ 3y + 9).
).
2 2
2/
A;
2 2
).
ffi
Exercise 35.
1.
Page 99
3.
6.
9.
13. 17.
21.
+ a + l)(a  a + 1).  ^z f )(z (z + hz +  5a6 4 26 (5a 4 5ab 4 26 )<5a  4^z 4 8A (z 4 4Az 4 8fc )(z  2c )(3a  2ac  2C (3a 4 2oc  5y )(3x  3xy  5y (3x 4 3xy
(a
2
(3a
2
2 2
+ 2a +
2x
l)(3a
2 2
2a
+ 1).
2
/i
/i
).
7.
(2i0
>
).
11.
(x
).
15.
19.
).
2 2
). 2
4 2)(x 4
2x
2
4 2).
).
Exercise 36.
1.
Page 101
5.
(2ob)
(a
3
.
3.
2
(2a6)
2
4
.
(5x y)
8
.
7.
2
).
(4
9.
13.
17.
19.
21.
26.
27. 29.
33.
36.
11. (2 4 x)(a 4 * w)(2 4 w)(4 4 t^ 15. (3 (x< 4 y )(^ 4 y*}(x )(* + y). 2x)(3 4 Jto)(9 + 4x).  l)(w 4 l)(u 4 w 4 l)(w  u + 1). (u  2y)(x 4 2y)(x 4 2xy 4 4y )(x  2xy 4 4y). (x  x 4 1). 23. (x + 9)(x W + 81). (x 4 l)(z* (4 4 o )(2 a)(2 4 a)(16 4 a<).  ab 4 6 )(a  a 6 4 6). (a 4 b)(a  y)(3x 4 3/)(9x< 4 31. (5  2x)(5 4 2x)(25 f 4x*). (3x  26) (a 4 26) (a 4 2a6 4 46 (o  2a6 4 46 (a  3x )(4a 4 6ax 4 9x). (2a
x)(a
4
).
8 8
J/ ).
).
Exercise 37.
Page 103
3. x*
L
6.
x6 a4
4 x*y 4 sV + o^ 4 aV
V 4 xy
ay
8
6
.
 2xy 4 4xV 
8xy
4y
4
.
298
7. xi
ANSWERS
4
9. 2*
13. 15.
88.
85.
87.
89. 41.
45.
49.
It x + z + x* + x + 1. + w + w^ + w*z + to *  xty + *V  aty 4 *V ~ *Y + *V ~ V + *y*  V*. 19. a  a*b + a6  6. 17. x + y a* + 2a + 4. 23. z  xV 4 *V  y x 4 xy 4 tf. 27. z + 2V + 4x*z* + tote 4 16x. 4s> + 6x f 9.  t0)(a + w)(o + c). 8t (a  y)(l f y)d + y + i/)d y (1 + t*V + + v+ (w  l)(16a* + 8a + 4a + 2a + 1). (2o  32x + 16x  8x + 4x*  2x (2 + *)(64  3a?)(a' + 3aa; + 9x<). 48. Prime. (a 47. Prime. + t>)(w !* +  *)(4 + 2x + x)(64 + &r + x<). 5L (u* (2
4
.
(t*
)(ti*
)(ti
).
tt
(ti*
*).
Extreist 38.
Past 105
7.
1.
3. f.
5.
^4^
9.
2
2s
~11.
a
13.
^4r
15.
^T^:23.
17.
'
2y
4 ^
!**a. a
31.
27.?*
4 y
.
29.
^.
c
3x 4 2y
x 3 rrr*
^
83.
 x43
,
5
35.
,
.
2x
n
rr
26
x
107
Excrcis* 39.
Pag
+ 3)(*  2)
.
*
4z
^r ,.
2o
7.
4o6
15(o
6)
15(x
17.
y)
13s
4y
6rf
2c
3(4x
2x
10
*
19x
6x
(2x'
+4 l)(3x + 3)'
'
6a 2o
* *"*
6 3
3xy
+8
*
2x2y
f^ f 4
6(an)
*
%FflV^
3(1
+ 2n  n)(n + 4)
14
\ r \
Vv^r
+ x  12 Iftc + 36z f 45
8
^V V
^FUi
(3
2x)(8z
 27)
ANSWERS
12x
37.
299
43.
13*
2(9
3  4x)(x  3)
18x
Past 110
6.
Li
(2a f 36) (a*
3.9.
+ 4)
06
+ 6*)
19.
12
.
'ba
2y
17.
23.
Z a + 36 lOsy 4 3x
1
2L
+ 3x
2
29.
+
'
3L
37.
2y(y r ~ y
_ S3.
2x(x
* v*
36.
c(n
,v)
y
36c
+5
""^
39.
+ 4)
4L^
jiT * 7v***'
ac
i^
a8 6*
i
4a
yy
y^v
**y /
MQ
y)
x
2a(5a
1)
14.
3.
11. 2.
13.
21. 31.
&.
4
hr.
23.
5.
6.
7.
11.
9. 3.
2. 5.
16. 5.
17. 4.
19.
26. 1.
33.
27. 3.
29. tf
36. 15 m.p.h.
380 m.p.h.
Paft 117
6.
Extrcist 42.
2MJa;
<5
3.
3a f
K
6.
^^.
*
7. 2n.
t _1_
M
.
rf
2o6
17.

6
19.
13. 2a.
i
Extreii* 43.
21. 26.
23. r
Pg 5).
118
6.
1.
0s*
7.
 2501  64.
3. 9.
4x* 4 12x H 9.
(y
+ 5*)(y
11. (i
6tcy*
4y).
300
13.
ANSWERS
(o
36) (a'
+ 3o6 + 96*).
19. (4x
1).
15. (3y
+
a
2 2
17. (2
23.
.
1)(2
to).
21. 5(i
25. (x
36) (x
+ a + 36).
6
36xf
2y
83.
x*
6
Ol. .
2a
a2
5a6
62
56a
"
*
=
40
o3
c1
36.
*.
9
37.
2.
39.^a + 6
17. 10 sq. units.
Exercise 44.
13.
Page 120
16.
sq. units.
(5,
1);
area
sq. units.
25.
units.
Exercise 45.
1.
Pase 124 x
(a)
(6)
8 and
4;
(6)
if
i,
f,
and
0.
if
15.
Equals
6.5 or
.5.
Page 1ST
f
.
7.
3.
1.
6.
7.
c
2
33.
3; 5;
9.
11. 4c
4;
12C
13. 9;
6*
15. 4;
H*;
(x
+ 2y)/(x 4.
(
+ 3;
c<
.
y).
17.
5x
+ 9.
2 27; c
+ 66c.
Exercise 47.
19. 23.
Page 130
(5, 0);
5;
21.
f, 0);
Cuts xaxis at
(0, f).
yaxis at
(0, 3).
Cuts xaxis at
#axis at
25. y
fx
Jgk
Exercise 48.
ATote.
Page 132
In this answer book, in any solution of a system of equations, the values of the unknowns will be arranged in their alphabetical order.
1.
((1,
If).
3.
(2, 5).
5.
( 2,
3).
7.
(
2J,
f).
9.
f).
if.
No
solution;
parallel lines.
13.
No
15. Infinitely
many
solutions.
Exercise 49.
1.
Page 134
5.
(0,
(3, 2).
3.
((i
1,
3).
4).
7. (2,2).
9.
(
f, ).
11.
).
Exercise 50.
1.
Page 135
6.
(0, 0).
3.
(7, $).
9.
2).
17.
(
ff,
3).
7. <0, 0).
V).
19.
(.42, .19).
21.
25. (5,
(
.35, .27).
29. (5,
3).
Exercise 51.
Page 136
5.
(i,
!(!,_ 7
/2
'
i).
3. *'
(2, 5).
).
6\
'
la' 2 j
13. (26,
/a
6\
'
a)
6
/3M* U UM^'
'
"
""
M
2n
'
9AT2fc/
3o).
15. (a
+ 6,
a).
17.
(m 
2m
n,
ANSWERS
Exercise 52.
1.
(1, 2,
301
Page 138
f, ). 6.
(f,
7.
(ft,
 2).  A, A)'
3.
( i 11.
<
2, 3, 3).
(i
i 
i).
13.
(
1,
f, f).
1, 3,
2)
Exercise 53.
1.
5.
Page 140
3.
gal. of
11'
by
3'.
9.
lb.;
2d, 6 Ib.
13.
40
lb. silver;
80
lb. lead.
$3000 at
17. 465.
19.
2.
= 
4x
3%; $2500
at
4%; $4500
at
11.
21.
 
6%.
Js
+ 2.
23. ^
26.
Exercise 54.
1.
32.
3.
243.
6.
11.
16
.
13. 32a".
16.
&. 625zV
Minus.
9. x*+*.
17.
8z.
19.
16a.
21.
a2*.
23.
d2**.
<w 33.
4

25. c*cP*.
27. .09cd.
29.
Zr
1 31.
<M SO.
d3
6s
w 37.
a*
ISa2 "
66. (a) 16;
_
64s 2
__
w*c*
7.
>
200x
16:
(6)
n odd.
Exercise 55.
Page 147
J.
=fc .1.
1.
8.
3.
9.
6.
=fc
9.
12.
11.
i
3.
13.
f
5.
16.
=fc
3.
.
17. 5.
19.
6.
21.
31. 3. 41. 2. 63. 20.
23.
33. 57. 43. 4.
66.
26.
36.
46. 2. 67.
27. d.
37. 6.
4zy
3
.
2.
47.
69.
.1.
1.
61. 20.
 i
63.
.2.
Exercise 56.
1. 6.
Page 150
7.
*.
3. a.
.
6. x*.
.
9.
y9
11. 21.
13.
16. 2y.
17. 2y.
19. J.
23.
&.
2a2
.
26. f. 36.
27. 3s*.
.1.
29. 39.
31. x*y*.
33.
37. 2xy*.
 2z.  2.
2y
41.
xz*.
43. .2rc.
46. .5x.
47.
^
2x
w . ^^
Exercise 57.
1. 3.
Page 153
7.
3. 2.
6. J.
&.
9. 8.
11. i.
13. sV.
16.
17.
19. 1.
302
ANSWERS
109. (3ar>
6")(3ar
+ 6).
111. (2x*
yi)(2xi f yi).
ANSWBRS
113. (3x*
303
5y*)(3a*
+ 5y).
119 (Sa 1
115. (2a*
36*)(2a*
36*).
117. (z
3ar)*.
6).
121. (6x*
125. (2a*
120. Sar1
+ 36*)(4a* + jr.
5.
Extrclst 59.
1.
Pagt 158
4.472.
8.484.
3^2;
4.242. 5.196.
2.520.
^
3. 0.
2VS;
6V2;
10V;
14.14.
7.
3V3; 2^2;
x*V&
IL .3V6;
17.
.6708.
13. 10.
15.
3^4;
4.761.
^5;
1.710.
 3^2; 
3.780. 27.
35.
21. tf^'x.
23. y<^P.
20. 37.
3a.
2ayV^.  o^.
.5xV;.
ayi/lV.
2a^. Sy^^.
2d^cd.

43. xy*V3ij*.
51.
y*
45.
53.
40.
V^.
>^.
+ 56.
71. 8^/2?
2y*
57,
 4; ^2T atr
67.
'
50.
3Vl
81.
aVl
63.
66. x*.
2x^2T
60.
**
^ ab
Pigt 160
73.
75.
3V.
77. (a
5fe)V2.
70. (3
x)^3x.
81. (2x
Exercist 60.
1.
Vl5;
3.873.
3.
5V2;
9^60;
7.070.
5.
6V^
8.484.
32.40.
7. 40.
0.
18\/2; 25.45.
35.24.
23.
11. 5>/42;
15.
17.
 2^; 25.
2.884.
V7;
2.646.
21.
^9;
2.080.
VH.
?
i
27.
^O a
375a.
45. 18
_
20.
_
31.
3xV5.
3*V2x.
33.
3a6</2a6.
35.
37. 54s.
30. 6s**
47. 5.
43. 1.
51. 50.
13V6.
14
27
4>/6.
55.
+ 6.
61.
xyzV*.
^486.
63.
Vl8a.
65.
V^te.
67.
^27V.
Exercist 61.
60.
Pgt 162
5.
1.
^V2;
.707.
3.
i\/10; .632.
11.
iVlO;
.7905.
13.
0.
16.
 ^^7; 
.2646.
.3107.
17. ri^iKJ;
.1095.
304
A 21.
ANSWERS
V
23.
'
19.
a
'
25.
3z

29.
26
35.
26
39.
5to5
3a
2c
43.
ax
45. 47.
a
53.
49.
3)
_
5ao
61.
4V5.
63. 0.
65.
a
Page 163
5.
;
a.
Exercise 62.
1.
$;
^v^; 9 ~ 5
o
.577.
3.
fV5;
Vl5;
2.683.
1.549.
.172.
1.155.
1.890.
7.
1.291.
9.
11.
3
;
13.
.057.
15. 3
 2V2;
7
17.
3
e
6
;
.0694.
.689.
17
.437.
25.
5
;
.465.
27.
2
31.
i^l8;
29.
 ^100; 
.4642.
i^5;
.342.
33.
35.
87.2o&
89.
41.
26c
45.
4.900.
2V5
+ 4V3
14
V6
ax*
Exercise 63.
3.
Page 166
5.
7.
9.
It
19.
13.
Vs.
15. 23.
31. 39.
V^.
17.
21.
25.
33.
27.
35. 43.
51. 59.
29.
37. 9.
41.
9a.
45.
63.
61.
47.
49.
67.
^3.
56.
63.
ANSWERS
65. v^27.
305
Vtf
67.
o<
69.
73.
75. 1.
77.
81.
*
9L
93.
3*
y*
6^
26
95.
3^.
97.
101.
26
105. v'a.
113. 2vl2.
46
103. a
111.
107.
#Zy.
109.
119.
2(V
^2).
121.
123.
I
2a
/
Exercise 64.
3.
1.
Page 168
5.
3>/3; 5.196.
7.
125.
9.
11.
fVH;
1.342.
13. 239.
15.
1^12;
4.242.
.572.
19.
26.
v^2; 1.260.
21.
3V2;
23.
29. 35. 43.
&VI6;
3zi
.1265.
33.
31.
37.
39. 47.
41. 36.
a;
45.
61.
a
67.
59.
65. 4;
3.
61.
63.
*4
67.
6v 6.
83.
75. v*6.
77.
79.
yVx*y.
81.
2zJ
89.
8R
91.
(31
180)^3
87.
f
i.
(a
97. 6
06
306
ANSWERS
Exercise 65.
Pa 9
172
7.
L
11.
3i.
3, 6e.
5. St.
5*V2.
9.
#.
.6i.
13.
IT'
15. it.
17. .3*.
19. ft.
at
31.
23.
itV5.
33. 5tfc\/3.
25.
&iVll.
35.
27.
2W.
37.
29. obi.
2isV2.
SisVVsty.
39. frdi.
41. 49.
~1.
43. d=fi.
51.
46.
53. 10.
47.
57.
t.
1.
55. 13.
29 4
11*.
59. 21
67.
20t.
61.
65. 4
19i.
+ 40*.
71.
15.
69.
3*V
10V2.
75.
 20*V 63. Si
77. 1
40.
17.
2*.
73. (4*
19);
( 34
6t);
(
70t
66).
41
.
Exercise 66.
Page 174
Note. In simplifying radicals in the solution of an equation, it will be assumed that any literal factor of a radicand is positive if this adds to our convenience in the reduction.
1.
=fc
5.
3.
3t.
5.
=fc ft*.
7.
$36;
d= 1.183.
.829.
9.
iv
30
1.826.
IL
17.
.
6a
13.
.707.
ijl;
*
15.
i2;
19.
2(1
33. db
+ c)
db .707.
m
14.
T
iVl3;
1.803.
*V2;
35.
37.
Exercise 67.
1. 5;
Page 176
5. 0;
f.
2.
3.
4; 3.
9. 0;
11. 19.
f
i;
13.
17. f ;
25.
33.
I
J;
;
.
f.
27. f ;
35. 0;
i
3.
21.
f.
7. 0;
3;
2;
i
2.
15. *;
f.
29. f ;
37.
3&;
23. f ;
31.
;
6;
4.
1.
26.
39.'
6.
5
49.
S'
i

3;
53. 0;
55.
3; .
Exercise 68.
Page 180
16;
(x
(
4).
3.
7. f;
+ *)*
^ 
c; (x
c).
7;
1.
11. 3;
5. ;
7.
13.
 ).  2;  2,
(
ANSWERS
1C.
307
17. (2
2
:t
Vl4
:
2.871;
.871.
+ t);
2
(2
t).
o
23.
~^=
o
4* \/TQ
: 
2.786;
.120.
25. ;
1.
29. 6a;
d=
3a.
3t
oc
6;
$6.
38.
86.
V4  +
9
37.
tf
 4HP
Extrcisc 69.
P*gt 182
5.
1.};
dr
3. f;
.
J.
3t.
7.
f;
f.
2
v.
1<U107 1
1 Rfift l.OOO.

~
41 oi x
v ^ \/2
ttll:i
2
OO.
5V2. ^
^.loo,
1.
2a
12ac
51.
53.
y
a;
x f 2;
y
2;
y x
^(1
1
x).
2y.
Extrcist 70.
Pag
184
5. 9;
L 9. *;
3;
'
3. ;
f.
5.
7.
2
11. i; i.
.905.
13.
^ o
5
;
.847;
.047.
15. 0; f21. ;
17.
iA';
\/41:
i;
19.
=fcfc6.
1.
23. 6
12.403;
b).
.403.
25. 4;
L
fc;
f.
27. 6;
oo 29.
35.
^(1
wi
01 31.
11
JA.
oo 33.
=*
37. 13'
46.
by
17'.
39.
^; 
tf.
41. 14.928'.
'
20 m.p.h.
47. 6 m.p.h.
308
ANSWERS
t
49. (a)
;
<7
(6)
500' at
3.46 sec.
and 9.04
sec.;
0'
at
sec.
and
12.5 sec.
Exercise 71.
Page 188
L
3. 5.
Vertex
Vertex
0);
0); 5);
3,
axis
axis
x x
a;
0;
min.
0;
max.
= 0. = 0.
=5.
3;
Vertex
Vertex
axis
4);
0; min.
7.
9.
axis
x max. x
min.
5.
= =
9.
8.
4.
Vertex Vertex
Vertex
(1,
5);
axis
5); 9);
x =
x
1;
=
2;
11.
13.
(2,
(f,
axis
=
f
;
min.
5.
axis
min.
=
by
15.
Min.
= 
13.
17.
Max.
19.
At end 2$
sec.
27. 30;
30.
29. 7*"
15".
Exercise 72,
1. f.
Page 190
7.
11. 2.6;
3. 3;
.6.
3.
5.
Roots imag.
1.6;
4.1.
(1, 1*);
9.
13.
Roots imag.
3;
1.
(3*;
1).
Exercise 73.
1. 3.
Page 192
Disc. Disc.
= =
9;
real,
12;
real,
5. Disc. 7. Disc.
9. Disc.
= = =
0;
real, equal,
and
rational.
and
irrational.
16;
19. 5.2;
1.2.
21.
1.2;
.2.
49; graph
to the 3axis,
a parabola concave upward, with its axis perpendicular cutting zaxis in two points, and hence the vertex is below
that axis.
graph is a parabola concave downward, with its axis perpendicular to xaxis, which does not meet that axis and hence lies entirely below it. 29.  2 + 5i. 31.  6*. 27. Disc. = 52; etc.
26. Disc.
59;
Exercise 74.
1.
Page 195
5.
5;
;
3.
3.
f;
9.
f.
11. f ;
f f
f;
;
.
7. 0;
tf.
13.
.
15.
y
3

.
17.
r; 5 h a 5 + o ^4
19 25.
fir; fr^1fcl+c
x2 z8
21  te'
0.
1*
2x
3z
7.
+
f
5z f 6 2
= =
27.
33.
3z
10
0.
0.
31. 37.
0.
1
9z2 4 4
x8
4z
0.
39. 2a
 7x + 2  0.  18  0.  2x  13 = 0.
ANSWERS
41.
309
45. x*
51.
x9
47.
53.
57.
43.
a;*
49.
 4x + 24 (8z  15)(3z 4
0.
4).
=.
No.
(Disc, is not
i).
59. (x
a perfect square.)
+
.
ft) (a;
*7.
Exercise 75.
1.
Page 197
2t;
=fc
1;
2.
3.
fc2;
2.
5.
3i;
=t
1. t
9.
;
db
i.
11.
i?
3;
1;
1.
13.
d= 2i;
=fc
17. 23.
1;
*; 3;
29. 1;
35. d=
 f. 19.  . 25.  2;  4.
=b
fi.
2;
1.
15.
1;
5;
f;
1(1 =t
37. 43.
4;
*( 3
=t
V5).
31. 2;
;
^2.
tV5).
3;
1;
*(3
*(1
db
V5l).
tVf).
2Va;
f;
i^ea.
J(~
;
39. 3;
*( 3
3tV3).
41.
2;
^(3
1 =b
2t.
3iVi).
45. 4;
51.
( 2
1;
;
VS).
.
47.
53.
1;
J(l db
3i.
iV).
49. i;
55.
i(
*V).
=t
3;
57.
d= ft.
Exercise 76.
1. 7.
Page 200
7.
3.
sol.
No
sol.
5.
12.
13.
25.
No No
15. 4.
17. 9.
19. 4;
 13.  2.
31. 4; .
9.
14.
11.
f >/2.
23. 0.
21. 0;
sol.
27. 3;
f V5.
2;
1.
29.
33. 1;

3.
35. o. 43. 1;
61.
37. 0; 46.
39.
7T
41.
49. 16.
is
&.
^V2.
243.
45. 8;
53. 4.
59.
^.
65.
47. 16;
if.
=t
No
243.
57.
positive).
25$.
63.
^4
(x~%
Page 203
6. 0;
it
1.
db
1
=
1 is
3. 2.
 J.
7. 9.
H (&
10;
2.
13.
.268;
^;
k
.
3.732.
23.
15.
21. if.
 &.
=fc
&.
=fc
19.
25.
3V5.
27.
29.
f.
31.
.816.
33. 1;
i f
2.
Exercise 78.
1.
Page 206
s
.
3. 5.
7. 9.
+ 5o6 + 10a6 + 10a*& + 5a& + 6 x  8ofy + 28zV  56x y + 70x y  56xV + 28a;V  8xy 16 + 32a 4 24a f 8a + a. 7296  14586 y + 12156y  540&V + 1356V  18^ + V*. a f So^ + 3a6* + 6.
a6
J
8
5
f
y.
IL o
13.
6a w 6
4
15a6*
20a6
f
15a6
6a'6l
<>
310
15. a* 17. a*
.
ANSWERS
 4oir
8x*
I5xy*
H
32x* 
40IT
+ IT
8
.
19.
x,
+
,
24x
16
a* 25.
a*
a*
a
27. 1
Ig0ou
lg
f
a"
f
20a&
30
f
190a6.
/
81.
2x* 
+ 2.31.

^
29. 1
12 >/2
^^
\
j
132.
2ox + 435
_
^
85. *n
+
48. 126.
89. 720.
Exercise 79.
8.
P3t 208
5.
35z11. .00056.
18.
7.
9.
n(nl)...(n~5)
6!
15x*.
15.
21.
2016xy10
4000o
28.
3/
25.
27.
126o>6;
83. 132,651.
29. 10,000
36. 1.127.
+ 600a  40a + o.
39. .904.
3t
96,059,601.
48. .002.
87. 1.230.
41. 1.243.
45. 14,776,336.
Extrcls* 80.
1.
Page 211
,
8.
5.
s/a.
7.
9.
8'.
11.
*.
32'; 21$".
18. 30.
15. f.
17. 10";
19. 20;
70.
2L
28.
5500
sq. in.
25. 5.366'.
85. db 9i.
29. db
v^6.
81. d= 1.
88.
25.
$
9m4
5n
39. d= (y
+ 3).
41.
35.
oe
48.
T3
45. 77
Am
27
175
47.
Exercise 81.
Ps
217
8.Z.
V
a*
7.
9. T
15.
varies directly as
27. 784'. 87.
x9 and
y.
21.
12t/
r^ox
28.
 (6)
25.
^.
48.
81.
sq. in.
5*
in diameter.
4L
(
/i
/,
1:16.
2, 4) or
6, 2,
56%.
45. (10,
6, 4).
4).
ANSWERS
Exercise 82.
3?T
Page 223
14;
L
9.
15;
13.
i
18; 21;
11.
14.
3.
16.
12;
78;
10;
8.
19.
S 
645
21.
25.
29.
33.
27.
31.
'
35.
46.86.
18,308.
525.
37. 21.
39. 136th.
Exercise 83.
1. 5; 5.
Page 226
3.
8;
11; 6;
14.
10.5;
1.5;
3;
7.5;
8; 10;
7.
12;
1;
13;
f
;
;
15$.
12.
i;
11.
^.
17. 376.
9. 26.
19.
13. 36,270.
15. 2223.
19. 360'.
21. $11,650.
23. $30,500.
25.
2565
Exercise 84.
1.
Page 230
5;
15; 45;
(1.01)
135.
8
.
3. 4;
8;
16;
23.
32.
7.
&;
^.
S = 
9.
or4
or*.
11. 1.01;
13. 4.
15. f.
I
17. 729.
19.
21.
25.
2916;
192;
S =
S
4372.
= 
&.
1215;
910.
129.
81.
8 n =
8;
6;
29.
35.
W.
a
25;
36;
n 
8;
37.
1275.
33.
5 39.
111.111.
i
n 
5.
n =
11;
S = ^^i.
(4;
80.
41. f.
43. (4;
8;
108) or
(.
12;
36;
16;
32; 64) or
16; 32;
64).
_
67. 63.
.
10;
if
100;
1000;
0;
10,000;
100,000.
VJJ,
>
v^
if
<
0.
(1.06)>
(1.06)
:rr
59. .
eA .
.06
2.
 1
^^
M 05^7
(1.02)"
.02
Ol. .
(1.02)"
( 1>02)i
 A;
66. 8190.
67. $102.30.
Exercise 85.
1.
Pase 233
6.
$95.
3.
227.8" approximately.
9. $7020.
$3125.
7.
*n(n
1).
21. (a)
23.
U.
yr.
.
Page 236
6.
1.
i;
t;
il
A
3.
9.
A;
16.
i; f;
f.
1;
f;
f;
A;
y).
7. 2.
11.
2*y/(*
372
ANSWERS
Exercise 87.
Page 239
7. flft.
5 1O ** TT
1.
14.
3.
22i
33 27.
_7_
r
6.
I
33
29. 1500".
9.
iL
QQ *^
33. 12.
13.
1K *w
1T JL *
19 Q1 *IJL * 90
25.
3^.
31 200
sq. in.
Exercise 88.
1. 3.
Page 241
9.
3.
1.
6. 64.
7. 81.
10.
1L
1.
1.
13.
15.
&.
17. 2.
31. 4.
19. 2.
23. 6. 37.
26. 2.
39.
27. 2.
3.
29. 3.
43. 10.
33. i.
41. 5.
45. 1.
47. 2.
61. 100.
63. 64.
Exercise 89.
1.
Page 244
6.
.7781.
3.
1.5314.
1.4771.
7. 3.2304.
9.
1.6232.
13. .7533.
16.
17.
.5229.
2.1549.
Exercise 90.
21.
1.7696.
23.
.3853.
1.3768.
Page 247
1.
Ch.
3. 7.
Ch. Ch.
6.
Ch.
9.
=
15.
3;
man.
.5473.
9.2562
10.
11. 4.4932
19. 1.6355.
10.
13. 5.
4.
17.
6.
21. 7.8949
10.
10.
23. 0.9759.
31. 5.1959. 41. 302.
26. 4.2504.
33. 243.
27. 8.9345
35. 4660. 45. .0960.
43. .00589.
51. .00500.
47. .000900.
49. .264.
Exercise 91.
1.
Page 251
6.
3.2615.
3.
2.7261.
1.5556.
7.
9.4790
9.
9.7503
17. 6.0910
10.
10.
13. 4.9546.
16. 7.1581
10. 10.
10.
23. 1.459(10).
31. .4693.
25. 1379.
33. 7.695(108 ).
27. 39.95.
36. 1.030.
39. .4236.
Exercise 92.
Page 253
Note. In some classes, the teacher may desire to teach the use of 5place logarithms. For the advantage of such classes, in the case of each computation problem in the remainder of this chapter, the result obtained by use of 5place logarithms is given in black face type beside the result found with 4place log
arithms.
1.
24.91; 24.909.
3.
.2009;
.20086. 61.098.
5.
7.
.007667;
.006380; .0063797.
11. .1406;
.0076660.
9. 51.10;
.14061.
13. 24.56;
24.668.
27.609.
16. .07808;
.078096.
21. .003467;
17. 5542;
6644.4.
19. 27.61;
.0034669.
ANSWERS
23.
313
L6802(10"
(6)
2.627(10');
2.6266(10*).
26. 1.580(10');
6
6
).
8.065; 8.0662.
Exercise 93.
Page .256
6.
5358; 6369.6.
.94986.
3.
.4107; .41082.
1.044;
1.0440.
7. .9500;
9.
1.315; L3158.
.60296.
28.936.
60.324.
16. .1585;
.16849.
1.010;
1.0099.
23. .1266;
29. .8630;
.12668.
26. 2.111;
31. 50.12;
2.1111.
60.466.
1.0412.
.86268.
By
.60604.
33. 141.9;
141.82.
216.08.
.93896.
37. .4971;
.49714.
.0013626.
41. .9388;
By
1.916;
.136;*
43. .3986;
.39882. 134.84.
1.9166.
49. 134.9;
.1366.*
1.1177.
69.
4place table:
(a)
2.219(10
);
(6)
3.222(10
).
'
61. .02323;
.023229.
63. .0007867;
.0007869.*
Exercise 94.
1.
Page 259
6.
1.341;
1.3410.
18.02.*
3.
1.319;
1.3194.
6.634.*
5.195;
6.1923.
7. 18.1;*
9. 5.63;*
IL
13. 2.303;
2.3026.
16.
14.2;*
4.317; 4.3176.
14.20.*
Exercise 96.
1.
Page 261
7.
$4682.
3.
$4502.
6.
$1203.
5.8%.
9. 18.8 yr.
11. 16
yr.
Exercise 98.
1. 6.
(4, .5);
Page 268
3.
(5,
(
2.8,
2.9).
1.5).
3).
9.
(2.1,
1.5);
(
2.1,
7.
(3.2, 3.7).
No real solutions.
Exercise 99.
1.
(3,
Page 269
3.
(5,
4);
(6
,
4, 3).
t
;
/6
5.
_
1,
2*W
'1);
3);
(5,
3).
^
7.
+ _*V6\ Y
3, 3).
/6 ^
+ 2t'v
9.
/
>
(
(
(4, 2);
(4, 2).
(i
2).
15.
(il); (i3).'
Exercise 100.
Page 270
3.
1. 5.
(1.837,
.790);
1);
(
1.837, db .790).
1).
(V2,
(db
);
( V^,
(
ffl.
(V5,
(^v^,
( V5,
(
7.
V2,
V);
i^/7)',
\/2,
(
V5).
9.
iv^S);
is
V,
iv^S).
11.
(V,
v^,
The
result
314
ANSWERS
Exercise 101.
Page 279
1.
(V2,
V5); (
3.
(i, 1);
(
6. 7.
.
13. 15.
 4); ( 4,  1); ( 14, 4); (4, 1). (14,  ft); *), ( f, i); ((I,  i). (ft); (i  ft); 2, i); (2, (_ JV5); (2, 5); ((ftV2, JV5); ( ftV2,  4); ((6, 4); ( 6,
(ft,
( V3,
(2,
1).
ft,
ft).
ft,
2,
5).
Exercise 102.
X
Page 274
1. 5.
(((i,
9.
5);
(ft,
3).
1).
3. 7.
(1, 1);
2);
(
1,
f);
(
1,
Vl5).
1, 1).
2);
(f,
V); (
1).
(1, 2);
[ft(
4
5
Vg), J( 4
+ ts/6)].
(4, 5).
18.
( 5
(ft,
+ *Vl4,
1);
15.
2,
(ft,
(ft,
17.
25.
();
3,
25. (i,
(i
 1); ( 2, 1); 2, 2, 1); ( 2,  1);  2, 1); ( 19. c V9 + 4m  1); (1, 3); ( 1,  3).  i). 27. (i, 1);
ft,
iVII); ( 5
(ft,
Vl4,
ft,
ft,
+ tVl4);
2,
(5, 4);
1);
(d=
ft,
2, 1).
8
.
21. c
Vo + 6m
(
,
1).
Exercise 103.
1.
5.
(2,
Page 275
3.
(4.1,
3);
1.8,
(ft,
4).
(2.5,
1.8);
(
4.1,
=fc
1.8).
((
2.1);
5.2).
7.
(V65,
1,
*V35); ( f V65,
(1, 0);
ftV5).
13. (f,
2);
(4,
7).
16.
0);
(V5,  3*V2); ( *V2, 3tV^). ( 3,  6); ( 4^3, 5^3); (4V3,  5V).  J^V2). 5); ( 10, 5); (ftV, J^V2); ( ftV2,
1), ft(a
21. [ft(a
1)];
ft;
[ft (a
1),
ft
(a
1)].
23. 12'
by
5'.
26.
27. 81.
29. 3 Ib.
31.
6f
hr.;
5ft hr.
Exercise 104.
1.
Page 282
5.
63 (exact).
3.
523 (exact).
325 (exact).
7. 6.39 (exact).
9. 8.85.
11. 40.54.
INDEX
Numbers
Abscissa, 119. Absolute value, 4. Addition, 8. Antilogarithm, 247.
refer to pages.
Approximate values,
52.
Equivalent equations, 59. Exponential equation, 258. Exponential function, 260. Exponents, general, 150. laws of, 25, 142.
'
Extraneous
Asymptote, 263.
Base, of a logarithm, 240. for a power, 25. Binomial, 28. Binomial formula, 207. Briggs, 251.
Characteristic, 244.
Coefficient, 18.
Factoring, 88. Fractions, 22, 103. Function, definition of a, 121. Functional notati6n, 126. Fundamental operations of algebra, 3.
Cologarithm, 254.
logarithm, 242. Completing a square, 177.
Common
Complex Complex
Compound
common
Denominator,
6.
Index laws, 25, 31, 142, 154, 278. Index of a radical, 146.
Inequalities, 14, 15. Infinite series, 238. Integral rational polynomial, 28. Integral rational term, 28. Intercepts of a graph, 128.
Dividend,
6.
Division, 6. Divisor, 6.
Ellipse, 264.
Equation, 68.
of a curve, t29. of a line, 129.
Interpolation, for logarithms, 248. Irrational equation, 199. Irrational function, 148. Irrational number, 147.
376
Linear equation, 61. Linear function, 122. Logarithm, base of a, 240.
characteristic of a, 244. definition of a, 240.
INDEX
complete, 173. discriminant of a, 191. graphical solution of a, 189.
pure, 173.
mantissa of
a, 244.
Logarithmic equation, 258. Logarithmic function, 260. Logarithms, properties of, 243, 255. Lowest common denominator, 40, 106.
Lowest common multiple, 38, 106. Lowest terms, for a fraction, 22, 104.
Mantissa, 244.
Real number,
1.
Reciprocal, 44.
Remainder, in division, 34. Repeating decimal, 238. Root, of an equation, 59. of a number, 145.
9.
Rounding
off
numbers, 53.
a number, 249.
Simple
an equation,
Parabola, 186.
Pascal's triangle, 205.
Percentage, 70. Perfect nth power, 100, 148. Perfect square, 82, 90.
Square
Polynomial, 28.
integral rational, 28. Power of a base, 25.
Prime Prime
factor, 88.
Systems of
in three in
two unknowns,
131.
75.
constant
of,
213.