This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
(s): Source: Oriens, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Jun. 1, 1948), pp. 1-44 Published by: BRILL Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1579028 . Accessed: 13/03/2013 07:57
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IRRATIONAL SOLIDARITY GROUPS
A SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY IN CONNECTION WITH IBN KHALDUN by
Hellmut Ritter What are the motive forces that are at the root of historico-political
processes? In his book Machtstaat und Utopie, Vom Streit um
die Ddmonie der Macht seit Machiavell und Morus 1, my brother Gerhard Ritter, professor of History at Freiburg University, has pointed out the importance of the Florentine statesman Machiavelli with regard to the question we have raised. Whatever we may think of the doctrines laid down in his famous book Del Principe and their historical significance, Machiavelli was the first political thinker who gave the western world a clear insight in the character of one of those motive forces, the one, however, for power which which is of prime importance: the desire has its origin in the inborn character of the political individual and obeys therefore the laws of natural instincts. The significance and demonic character of this instinctive desire for power has never, either by Antiquity or the Middle Ages, been so clearly understood as by Machiavelli. This desire for power (according to G. Ritter) appears first with the political leaders, but reaches the peak of significance and efficacy only if it is possible to pass it on to a multitude of people, a nation, and to arouse in this nation its correlate, the virtiu, viz. the virtue of combative manliness. The author
Miinchen I94o. Now Die Dimonic der Macht, Betrachtungen iiber Geschichte und Wesen des Machtproblems im politischen Denken der Neuzeit,
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considers this to be a truth of timeless validity. Without a real power interest, he adds, no political organism fit to live comes into existence. Ideals by themselves do not carry weight to make their way. "No ideology has so far been able to subsist in the realm of great Power politics unless it was coupled with some real power interest. The demoniac character of power lies precisely in the fact that even where a struggle for an ideal aim is carried on with absolute disinterestedness, only he will be successful in the long run who fights also with the greatest vitality for his egotistic interest, for the prevailing of his own will, and he who associates his own will-to-power directly with the struggle for his cause" (p. 32). Gerhard Ritter might have pointed out that a century before Machiavelli (d. 1527) an Arab thinker, the historian and historyphilosopher Ibn Khaldiun (d. I406) had put forward similar ideas. What G. Ritter says about "no ideology having in the long run proved vital in the sphere of great politics unless coupled with a real power interest" tallies with certain thoughts developed by Ibn Khaldfn in the sixth part of the third chapter of the first book of his famous "Preface" (Muqaddima). The chapter bears the title: "Of the Impossibility for Religious Propaganda to Prevail without Casabiya".Ibn Khaldun thinks, of course, first of all of the founder of the Arabic theocracy, the Prophet Muhammed, and other religious leaders of the Islamic Orient, who undertook with similar, though less success than Muhammed to create political structure on the basis of religious propaganda. The similarity of this theory with the above mentioned is obvious. Indeed, in the sixth chapter of the book Del Principe Machiavelli says: "That is why all armed Prophets conquered, while the unarmed were destroyed". Only, instead of the idea "real power interest", Ibn Khalduinhas used the often discussed conception of Casablya. What is Casabiya? It has been pointed out repeatedly that this conception is very near Machiavelli's idea of virti. G. Ritter characterizes this Machiavellian conception (p. 36 and 37) as follows: "With regard to the individual it means generally: political ability, a mere natural association of will power and cleverness... This kind of virtu is a purely combative Cability:,the virtue of
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Irrational Solidarity Groups
mere active, organized force, not yet Cethicalreason?, its symbol being a combination of lion and fox..." But that is not the only aspect of virtu. He continues thus: "... therefore still another kind of virtu, which forges stronger ties than the terror of open violence, is required. He, Machiavelli, traces it (as Cicero had done before) to the public spirit of the old Roman Republic, particularly in its older, better period". Ibn Khaldun's conception of casabiya is somehow a synthesis of definite elements of both kinds of virtiu . It is, as it were, the public sense in its dynamic aspect, "the sense of solidarity", bearing in itself not only the will of the community for self-assertion, the readiness of its members to defend each other and the whole community, but also the combative will for attack, which longs to try the accumulated strength it has derived from the solidarity of the community, by proving it in a fight against opposed forces. "It is the casabiya with whose help men protect and defend themselves, bring their rights to bear and carry through all their common decisions". (K. Ayad I93). Ibn Khalduin has in mind first of all the solidarity, the strength giving internal cohesion of a class of leaders, politically active and, as a rule, normally genealogically connected, striving for rule and obtaining it thanks to Casabiya. The most fertile moment for its realization is that of the seizing of power, the first of the five phases of State development, as assumed by Ibn Khaldun (Rosenthal 17). Another substantial characteristic of the conception of Casabiya is that its supporters have a share of the power, though with differences in degree. In the second phase, in which the leader of the Casabiya
Furtherdata may be obtainedfrom the following references:M. Kamil
Ayad, Die Geschichts- und Gesellschaftslehre Ibn Haldiins, Berlin 1930 (For-
publishedby Kurt Breysig, schungenzur Geschichts-und Gesellschaftslehre,
2nd book); Erwin Rosenthal, Ibn Khalduns Gedanken iiber den Staat, Ein Beitrag sur Geschichte der mittelalterlichen Staatslehre, Munich and Berlin 1932. (The translations in both books require partly revision); Francesco Gabrielli, II concetto della ca$abiyyah nel pensiero storico di Ibn Khaldun. Atti della Reale Academia delle Scienze di Torino 65 (1930), p. 473-512; Alessio Bombaci, La dottrina storiografica di Ibn Haldun. Annali della Scuola
di Pisa, Fasc. III-IV, Vol. XV (1946),p. 159-185. NormaleSuperiore
its leading value being the community itself.4 Ritter Hellrmut circle rises to the position of an autocrat. already form a solidarity circle. who "go together through thick and thin". and have done with him for good and This content downloaded on Wed. If I have to blame or criticise another man. One might perhaps say that the smallest solidarity circle is formed by two persons. i. which involves a very different character from the old Casabiya(Rosenthal i8). I We see in this feeling of solidarity a primitive phenomenon. readiness for selfsacrifice. taken in a wider and larger sense to examine its validity and extent. he destroys the Casabiya precisely because he no longer needs it. But it may also come about between two men in a less robust form. he deprives his fellowcombatants of their partnership in the power and provides himself with an independent instrument of power. which appears and must appear in various degrees of strength wherever a community of men forms itself. Two friends. consisting of mercenaries and clients. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . national passion.my intention being only to analyse this conception. and the community held together by it "solidarity circle" or "solidarity group". its aim consisting in maintaining its independence. religious fanaticism. such as faithfulness to the community. etc.) by the comprehensive name "feeling of solidarity". and to find out whether it is not possible to draw still more conclusions from it than has been done by Ibn Khalduin. I can do it in two ways. a community which is more than a mere agreement. internal unity. according to its intensity and to the situation in which it occurs. I do not propose here to embark on the philological and historical interpretation of Ibn Khalduin's conception of Casabiya. In the following I call the emotional component of this phenomenon (which. will for defence. deeply rooted in the irrational depths of human nature. or convention for rational purpose. the necessarily ensuing peculiar relation between the members of the community "solidarity".e. either by giving him the impression that I want to break off my relations with him. common will for power. may have various names. who are tied together for life and death.
We have known fathers to call on their sons' friends for help because they could not get them to listen to reason. The most important smaller solidarity circle is the family. none of whom will ever leave the other in the lurch. He will then take criticism from such circles more readily than if it came from his father. insolence. differences will be overcome. If there is no solidarity. Among the next larger solidarity circles are Young Men's Associations. When the same phenomenon occurs in the political association of a nation. tendencies of estrangement between father and son. If we can manage to include the servants in the family circle. blame and criticism will be accepted. especially when he has differences with his father. is well known. in spite of everything. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . are not kept in check by the feeling of solidarity. a great deal of our difficulties with them will disappear. while the proud consciousness of the force derived from national unity is This content downloaded on Wed. as an offence. How much an harmonious family life depends on the existence of a strong feeling of solidarity between its members. Student Bodies. such as Officers Corps. a feeling generally combined with a proud consciousness of strength. in short. owing to certain subconscious currents. any criticism will more likely be taken as impudence. If. but by the feeling of their normal duty to help each other and to stand by each other.IrrationalSolidarityGroups 5 all. or mother and daughter. associations mostly of male individuals who are bound together not by obligation based on a legal contract. If the bond is strong enough. It cannot be denied of course that. combat soldiers. for finer natures. which are more important to him than that of the family. Sometimes the son may at the same time belong to other solidarity groups. or in such a form that. furthermore such professional associations as have a special code of duty and honour and are therefore to be considered as bearers of irrational solidarity. the feeling of solidarity is called national feeling. the second way is more efficient than the first. a family conflict is unavoidable. The blame is more efficient and the criticism is borne more easily if the solidarity circle is not broken. Comradeship. the warm feeling of friendship is maintained or will soon return.
except those which affect solidarity itself". while its antithesis. and therefore arouses instincts of self-defence. Criticism of the State organization of one's own country is tolerated if made by the members of one's own nation. The following principle may be laid down: "Inside the solidarity circle sins may be forgiven. For its preservation is more important than the sin committed. This principle is applied to a large extent to national and religious solidarity circles. I once read the sentence: "Members of a family may allow themselves things in This content downloaded on Wed. Here we may join in criticising. but kills the fatted calf into the bargain. the ability to tolerate different and foreign religious opinions and to maintain the community spirit in spite of them.6 HellmutRitter called national consciousness. Such criticism is easily felt as an attack on the national and religious community to which one belongs. A classic example of this principle inside the small solidarity association of the family is given by the story of the lost son. but he decides to confess it to him and sees to his surprise that his father's happiness caused by such proof of confidence is far greater than his sorrow for what has happened. chauvinism. But there are more vital things. though not in such striking forms. We have seen similar things happen between father and son. overexcited state of the national feeling is named national passion. are so gratifying to the father that he not only forgives. the following experimental law may be deduced: "inside the solidarity circle criticism is borne more easily then outside it". the restoration of the torn bond. is called tolerance. Other important solidarity groups are formed by religious communities. and the enhanced. whereas we are sensitive against criticism pronounced by a stranger. 2 From the above considerations about the smallest solidarity circles. The return of the lost sun. two conceptions which may be applied also to communities outside the religious sphere. There the overheated feeling of solidarity is called fanaticism. The son commits an action which he knows is strongly condemned by his father. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .
in some way or other. He who has apostatized from Islam will. succeed in arousing a strong feeling of solidarity in the nation.IrrationalSolidarityGroups 7 their home for which a stranger would rightly be shown the door" 1. Orthodox Islam professes the doctrine that even the sinful Moslem. according to the Islamic law. as for instance by warning against a threat from outside or by proclaiming popular national-egoistic aims. p. He will thus finally go to Paradise. no matter whether he has committed great sins or not. At the worst the Prophet will intercede on his behalf with Allah on the day of judgement and he will be forgiven. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . to religious communities. 3 The ethically most valuable quality of a true irrational solidarity to help and sacriof its members circle is the readiness f ic e. without expecting any return for themselves individually. I71. The highest degree of such readiness for sacrifice is the sacrifice of one's life in fighting for the community or as a martyr. thanks to his adherence to the Islamic community. Here is the place where genuine altruism thrives. Sin against solidarity is unforgivable. is eo ipso safe from eternal damnation. however. Apostasy from the community. or for each other. for instance. I doubt whether great movements or revolutions have ever taken place in history without an appeal to the duty of men to stand together in solidarity for the common aim. It is not only real longing for power 1 Deutsches Volkstum. This content downloaded on Wed. If political rulers. which would otherwise not be tolerated. are irretrievably doomed to eternal fire. become acceptable. they may practically take whatever liberties they choose. Things. Such is the case in political life also. is considered as a grave offence. who do not belong to the Islamic community. though they may have lived most virtuous lives. June I919. In a true solidarity circle the members make sacrifices for the community as a whole. which represent the widest solidarity circles. be punished with death. On the other hand. The same applies to large associations. the infidels. because he belongs to Muhammed's community.
There is a famous English saying: "Right or wrong. not only the harmony of egotistic interests that leads to the creation of powerful communities. MuhammedanischeStudien. A complete emotional adoption of such communities into the complex of irrational feelings which are the source of genuine long-grown national solidarity. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . no matter whether they are right or wrong in starting the fighting. The instinctively felt obligation for solidarity eliminates the question of right or wrong. cold.8 Hellmut Ritter that helps ideals to conquer. What is its relation to the world outside? The correlate of internal unity is first of all isolation from the outer world. but this is by no 1 Ignaz Goldziher. by all means and through various methods. There are marriage prohibitions in many countries. There are also nations which are anxious to get rid. The ancient Arabs said: "Help your brother. A policy which at home and outside has as its only aim the balance of interests and does not appeal to the feeling of common obligation. will leave most men. 4 So much for the attitude of the solidarity circle towards its members. even repel them. One could produce a whole series of old Arabic poems. The rational reasons put forward for such conduct are by no means altogether plausible. History has known nations whose isolation went to the length of forbidding strangers to enter their country. which partly accounts for the attitude of the population even in unpopular wars. That such feeling may be misused is another thing. whether he suffers injustice or does injustice 1. my country!" This view. 2/157. But even such altruism and readiness for help show that solidarity inside its circle ignores injustice. but the feeling of mutual obligation has the same effect of building up a community as common advantage. This content downloaded on Wed. of alien communities. and surely not the worst of them. arising from thoroughly irrational depths is still alive. is of course not always to be obtained and expected. in which the chivalrous poet proclaims his will to rush to the aid of his tribe. living in their countries.
Thus. etc. which differ from ours. The exaggerated desire for independence may also turn against foreign cultural elements that infiltrated themselves into the community in consequence of historical development. Foreign words are then eliminated-often really to the profit of the language-or else. It may easily have a provoking effect outside and arouse resentment and hatred. is to be seen-if we exclude all coarser material motives-in the overrating of the necessity of isolation. towards the people constituting the majority which will certainly manifest itself -provided that its correlate.Irrational Solidarity Groups 9 means necessary for the State's life. criticism coming an outsider will not. such elements will be compelled to assimilate. and that the community in question enjoy a just and proper treatment-is quite sufficient and may even become the first step towards the building up of a new. because at an earlier historical epoch. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . called loyalty. tolerance. we do not wish to see "strangers" amongst us. Attempts at total economic self-sufficiency may originate from the same feelings. but very mechanically operating protective measure behind which internal weakness may sometimes be concealed. they are declared to be indigenous. fault committed by will hardly be tolerated and a This content downloaded on Wed. the frontiers of cultural communities had been different. Isolation from outside is for the solidarity circle an efficient. positive attitude. exist. the reason for such elimination efforts. nor have to witness their manners and customs. which partly engender great cruelty and brutality. If it does not come to elimination. at least externally. while the forced restriction of the cultural horizon has a delaying effect on the normal course of development. by adopting the language and customs of the majority in such a way that the presence of alien elements will not be noticed. nor hear their language. in the desire to establish a cultural independence. The somewhat cooler. we want to be alone by ourselves. 5 Just as inside the solidarity circle criticism is accepted and faults from outside are forgiven more easily. more far reaching solidarity.
The answer was yes. or against another class which is looked upon with hostile eyes. and it requires a special firmness of character and often the possibility of an independent material existence. This can be very well observed in the propaganda of the parties concerned in times of political and war complications. as we have all witnessed. and a private one. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . What the result of an objective investigation of the methods of acquisition on both sides would be like is without any importance for such purely emotional judgment. are readily turned against the alien elements of the community. is less suspicious and far less provocative. with expulsion from the community. it is not the same thing. in the other circle be considered as shameless lust for power. Wealth within one's own circle. is regarded as legitimate. their riding in cars etc. inside one's own circle. to say nothing of even worse things. is judged with much greater moderation. etc. between which there is unfortunately a tremendous discrepancy. For such objection would be punished. an internal one applying to the members of the community. the others oppress. to object to the prevailing opinion. according to the circumstances. for the thief had put himself outside the com- This content downloaded on Wed. Very often we have a double opinion. Criticism of wealth and the feelings of envy. that of the leaders. deceit and other evil manoeuvres. and it is intolerable to witness their luxury. which we are obliged to profess. an official one. Actions ar judged with different measures. and an external one applying to the non-members. will. as a vital necessity. we ourselves liberate.10 TIellmut Ritter or not easily. It was once discussed in a school whether it would be right to deceive a thief who had entered a home. loss of position and bread. Of no less importance than such double morality in the judgement of other people's actions inside and outside the solidarity circle is the double morality of one's own action. When two people do the same thing. illwill and hatred. Thus a d o u b 1e m o r a 1 code arises. Their wealth has been acquired through shameless exploitation. For the individual it is very hard to evade the judgments imposed upon him by his solidarity circle. be forgiven. for instance. What.
positive Especially for young people the adherence to an "association" is obviously a very happy event. in which one's attitude towards and adherence to the community is sometimes proclaimed.IrrationalSolidarityGroups II munity. have been the scene of similar paroxysms. freed from the distress of mind caused by isolation and its inner defencelessness. other than that of the family. Unfor- This content downloaded on Wed. If the expression of feeling is followed by true sacrifice of one's personality. i. The longing of youth for feelings of power and influence must have a great bearing on this. 6 Viewed from within. Apparently. which are worthy of sacrifice. Among a gang of thieves or robbers there may develop a standard of common morals which stigmatizes most severely lie and deceit among members. It has happened that people.e. but regards them as natural in dealing with those outside the gang. One feels safe within one's community. As long as genuine values. one's collectivity. The right age for the spontaneous rise of smaller solidarity associations. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . organized by leaders. at least with nations where solidarity beyond the family and kinsmen exists. no one will have anything to object to such exaltation. moral precepts are valid only inside the community. Joint emotional experiences of great intensity may cause considerable deviations from the normal status of the soul. strangers to each other. We remember the exaltation in the Young People's Associations about "joint emotional experience" (Gemeinschaftserlebnis). have embraced and kissed each other on occasions that strongly stirred up the common feelings. the age at which the best and most important friendships are made. The peculiar tone of heart-felt conviction. are at stake. is an external sign of this moral exaltation. The enhanced community feeling is generally connected with a strong positive moral valuation of this feeling. solidarity circles are characterized by certain emotional values. and even of one's life. such an attitude will rightly be sure of the whole world's admiration and praise. Some mass events in the community. is youth.
run back into the burning stable. with this or that war-cry. under the influence of a narrowed horizon. 43). we may perhaps admire. Such behaviour of people towards the "apostates" is all the more appalling. such feelings have very often no relation whatever to the objective value of the things for which they are cherished. There may also be cases when. hatred leading up to the most unchivalrous behaviour towards the opponent. To betake oneself to a spiritual defile and defend it with fanaticism will obviously engender such a state of exaltation. all that is perhaps not so gruesome as the complete indifference with which the population witnesses. In relation is coolness. identifies itself with such measures and even jeers at the victims. tormenting and exterminating their minorities. Unity at any cost. reminds us in its tragedy of the sheep who. which were carried on with selfabnegation. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . V. instead of protecting the community. tolerates. and give such a fine feeling of moral achievement that the question as to whether the defile is worth being defended. are regarded to-day as having been out of proportion to the importance of the differences which were at stake. and absolute pitilessness. enmity. approves of such treatment. indifference.12 Hellrnut Ritter tunately. 7 there to the world outside the circle. the readiness for sacrifice is intended for something that. fanatical inquisitors. during the period of the Maccabees. following the ram. since it is even regarded as highly moral. for ritual laws. even if the consequences are apparently disastrous. That. Illadvised governments. He who has attended public executions and observed the attitude of the staring crowd knows how expulsion from the community can paralyse every human compassion. The fierce party struggles in former times. What a horrible spectacle must be that This content downloaded on Wed. however. but we can hardly understand it. "Thou shalt love thy neighbour and hate thine enemy" (Matth. as a sacred duty. a mother should have her seven sons perish in boiling oil rather than let them eat pork-the symbol of apostasy-. for theological formulas. dragging their victims to the stake. brings disaster upon it. is not even asked.
it becomes evident that morals. Whatever we may think of the precepts of the Christian churches.This too. But it is. To the exalted feeling of moral satisfaction corresponds. is a quality of great value. too often influenced by blind solidarity mechanism.IrrationalSolidarityGroups 13 of a little old mother. in its right place. But it is no less appalling when a family. to react at once most violently. how easily will even misled students burst into "flaming indignation"without having the slightest notion of the true facts! How often we have heard the rash words "it serves them right" when what is done to people is in no proportionto what they could rightfully be chargedwith! The history of justice could tell a great deal about cases in which public opinion rose unanimouslyagainst a supposed trespasser simply trying to outdo each other in their clamours for the heaviest punishment. equally valid for all men. nobody will be able to deny that it was the founder of the Christianreligion who.How easy is it to excite a populationto violence against a poor wretch or a group of men. on principleand with vigor broke with double morals.while it subsequentlyturned out that the object of all this indignationwas innocentand the victim of a judicialerror. It is enough for them to imaginethat the solidaritycircle has been injured. for the first time.is boycottedby a misguided populationand refused its supply of food.Such is indeed the content of the Christianidea of Humanity. will only be possible where all men are regardedas belongingto one community. to organize manifestations and pass flaming resolutions. double This content downloaded on Wed.the feeling of moral indignation. unfortunately. who believes that she is doing a pious act in helping to gather wood for the stake of the heretic. whose treason consists in having helped membersof a cruellypersecutedminority.withouteven consideringan objectiveexamination of the case.as its external counterpart. 8 of morals stops at the boundaries If really the validity of the solidarity circle and if the distributionof moral affections is determinedby these boundaries. The feelings of the solidaritymasses are rash and thereforecondemn. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .
are by some people praised as an ideal. An official of a national solidarity circle who witnesses cruelties to certain parts of the population in the country. juridically petrified in a world which can only live through the loosening of these frontiers. 32): "In proclaiming an 'enemy' everything that stands in his way to success and in placing such relation between friend and enemy above all other values. has not to bother about them so long as no "interests" of his country are affected. The world is not organized for the surmounting of solidarity circles. For in loving those who love you. For them. common solidarity circle is of course a small one in public life. V.. for once. in which he represents his nation. the various co-existing political circles of power must respect their mutual interests. They really are fond of that dynamic force which is actuated through the opposition to an "enemy" circle. ethical laws lose their autonomous validity for him". but for their strict and correct preservation. Ritter says in his characterization of the political man of power (p. G. it must absolutely be justified by "endangered interests". But beyond such traditional. and the boundary between friend and enemy: "You have heard that it is said: Love your neighbour and hate your enemy. an intervention is made in favour of those who suffer unjustly. the stabilization in principle of the relation between friend and enemy. official attitude. what will be your merit? Are not the publicans doing the same? And if you are friendly only with your brothers. 45-47).14 Hellmut Ritter affections. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The prospect for the abolition of the boundaries of solidarity through the establishing of one great. If. The difference between this formulation and our point of view. for the official world understands such language only. lies in the fact that we do not consider this division of the world into friend and enemy as a privilege of the political man of power only.. as it were. But I tell you: Love your enemies. what are you doing more than others?" (Matth. The frontiers between the individual sovereign states are. are only a dream and not even a beautiful one. but beyond this as a characteristic feature of the social field of power which we call irrational solidarity This content downloaded on Wed. adjustment of differences. the harsh maintaining of the frontiers between various solidarity circles. eternal peace.
As strong feelings are in general pernicious to the ability of perception. Whether an assertion is true or false will not be decided by the criterion of reason. but the practical decision is generally determined by sociolo- This content downloaded on Wed. owing to the fact that the discernment between true and false may come under the influence of solidarity feelings. like that of habits. it is true. The struggle between religions and. a struggle between different religious solidarity groups. inside a religion. and what the enemy says is a lie. the process goes on quite unawares) by the fact that various groups. but may also turn out a h e a v y o b s t a c e for objective knowledge. whereas what we say is the truth. have taken a different choice among the infinite or finite possible systems. is only seemingly one between truth and error. at the same time he is also the condenser. law and language (as for the latter. How often we have heard the words: "I do not believe that!" He who spreads such reports will not only be called a liar. and we actually believe that without the portentous initiative of political rulers fields of power would not explode into historic catastrophes. but by the fact of one's belonging to the party. Unfavourable reports about occurences inside the solidarity circle will be overlooked or will not be believed. but he will also be regarded as an apostate. the exponent and beneficiary of the irrational solidarity forces. strong solidarity feelings also lead to a peculiar narrowing of the intellectual horizon. it is in reality. consciously or unconsciously. which are always present in a latent form. in the course of their historic development. to a large extent. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . to good and evil. The differentiation of religions comes about. between orthodoxy and heresy. For such things can be affirmed only by an enemy and not by a friend. The political man is only partly the creator of that social field of power. One becomes unable to appreciate the opinion of others and even to realise it or take cognizance of it. to just and unjust. common to both parts. applies not only to moral values. All the greater is his responsibility.IrrationalSolidarityGroups I5 circle. 9 The double valuation of that which is done inside the solidarity circle and outside it.
the system has been adopted by the community. defeats. Victory of truth is thought of. for science. even above the value of truth. ceases to be science. but symbols of psychological. in which really objective results are attained.e. is placed above all values.e. this means that the maintenance of the demarcation lines. Fertile scientific discussion. which he celebrates. it is. since they represent no rational. One claims to be in possession of the absolute truth. in principle. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . on the contrary. and if necessary renewed. as in former times. as a matter of course. The national historian is expected to describe the fortune and misfortune of his national community to which he belongs as an ardent member of that community. and. to be the truth of that solidarity circle which. that of one's own solidarity circle. through conscious acts of resolution on the part of the different parties concerned. as if it were something like a victory of political power. proclaimed as a universal and absolute one. It means renunciation of the truth which is common to mankind. or where such solidarity is formed. by no means convincing to the adherents of another one and cannot be convincing for others. i. There is only one truth. is only possible either where there exists a natural intrinsic. thanks to a restricted horizon in conjunction with the feeling of superiority. But the apparent relativity of historical truth disappears as soon as the historian's look embraces an ideal horizon. of the friend-enemy relation. as it has happened. i. and everything will be viewed from the opposite angle by that nation's historian. etc. even above that of objective knowledge.i6 Hellmut Ritter gical factors. But his nation's triumphs and victories. demonstrable truths. or even to degrade itself to being a servant of policy. unless it agrees to play the part of a servant of theology. The dogmas of one religion are. are another nation's humilities. and finds its limits only where the limits This content downloaded on Wed. will always claim to be universal. If. in which friend and enemy belong together in a higher form of community. embraces all beings endowed with reason. however. Once. science becomes propaganda. entirely irrational attitudes. the will for subjectivity and the negation of the objective is manifested. tradition-established solidarity of work. of the only true religion. or has been assigned to it by historical fate.
That of or arrogantconsciousness power gives strength. In this case the communityembraced by it may present the aspect of a body of people who are by no means united. a religious. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in itself colourless.IrrationalSolidarityGroups i7 of human reason itself lie.e. receives colour. the social dynamism. especially if through an ideology. which accounts for its enormouspolitical importance. incapableof commonaction. to the further stage of a g r e ssion. In taking larger dimensions it becomes more dangerous. and turn a split nationinto a unitedone. As regards the possibility of universal acknowledgmentof the common truth by the thinking men of all solidarity groups. or be confinedto smallcircumstances. actuate the will for the defence of commongoods. guided by the ethos of a pure love of knowledge. as small feuds between families. and the Bedouinshave often enough carried on a predatoryeconomy through incursions into a civilised country. solidarity presents itself in v a ri ous d e- grees o f s t r e n g t h. Io As already pointed out. integrateit. as in battles between boys of various districts of a town. may develop in a harmless way. The desire for aggression and feud. but rather torn by quarrelsand discord. under certain conditions. At sucha stage.thanksto the common directionof will and energy of all members. substance and meaning. Indeed. i.is an immensesource of power. however. national or any other aim. but this is not sufficient to explain such a treORIENSI This content downloaded on Wed. An attempt has been made to explain the conquests of the Arabs as due to mere economicreasons: hunger drove the Arabs beyond their frontiers.More recent studies have not borne out this. which exists perhaps always in a latent state as the wish to try one's strength.desert life has been a scantyone at all times.thingsmay happenwhich suddenly awake the dormant community spirit.Subsequently.and the courageous it leads.the solidaritycircle. despite all disillusionments. science is in principle optimistic. pictured in such lively colours by Shakespeare in the exposition of his play "Romeo and Julia". It may be quite latent. so that the observer from outside perceivesnothing of it.
Ideal varying from comparatively values. Through the Prophet Muhammed's personality.Beyond this.its historicrights. but they do not organize a war. That the popularmasses themselves. harmless to very malicious forms. This content downloaded on Wed. conquests. For a war."naturalvital needs". such as preservationof the community's existence. Howappearsto be mingled ever muchit may inducethe membersof the community to give up or restrain their individualegotism. its honour. leadershipis responsible. strongpoliactivity. it goes very well with a collective egotism.the legitimatefunction of which consists in giving the communitythe power of maintainingitself very often with less noble motives. its dignity. whichhadbeenneutralizing a into of The gamated great solidarity group. which lived in permanent small feuds. II The feeling of solidarity. the Bedouin forces.who organizesthe war.local revolts and raids.organizedafter the smashingof the first apostasy movementfollowing Muhammed's death during the caliphateof Ab*i Bekr.in the form of a mass movement should attack a neighbouringcountry is hardly conceivable. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . sudden expansion. The necessarycondition for such a war of conquest seems to be the initiative of the personalityof the leader. the tribes.again.are replaced by morematerialthings. which sounda little less ideal and are pretty elastic.which. feeling solidaritywas spurredon by religiousideas. as for instance "interests". they tical personality.its safety from aggression. Some of them.The Arabs were split into innumerable small groups.amalfaith.may displayitself in different dynamicdegrees. in which the rapaciouscollective egotism comes to light quite undisguised.Excited popular masses may make noisy demonstrations.a new qualities eachother.who along with his remarkable a as leader. primarily those for foreign riches and foreign territory. there are historic or unhistoric"claims". and the forces thus integrated sought for This in a which found the Omar.Ritter Hellnmut mendous.gave them a stirringideology.are acknowledged in diplomaticlanguageand have becomefamiliar. however.
even if they be not related by blood". Casabiya comes about through social intercourse. the feeling of being tied together may also come about between allies. This content downloaded on Wed. "It is in the nature of men that they should join one another and make a bond. are to a very large extent prompted by a greedy desire to acquire their property. in which case the legitimate components are. the burning of witches. "that one feels tied to relatives by blood". through long reciprocal testing and trying. is mentioned by Kaegi. however. For a given epoch and a given territory the same subject is dealt with by Huizinga. p. the expulsion of minorities. Historische Meditationen (Ziirich i942).IrrationalSolidarityGroups 19 When the solidarity circle passes to the attack. But we can with Ibn Khaldfun mention some special moments. i8 etc. However. usually denied as sheer hypocrisy. as well as between protector and protected. rapacity. which are of course put in the foreground by the leaders. however. 12 How does what we call the feeling of solidarity c o m e abou t in practical life? We regard it as a primitive social feeling. Ritter's sentence on p. These instincts. desire for plunder. receive the shining lustre of the community's more ideal aims. "It is a feature of human nature" he says. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . pure emotions are very rare and in practice hardly ever operate in an unmixed form (compare G. sheer lust of conquest. predatory instincts. The opponents on the other side have then the oppor tunity of "unmasking". The hope of satisfying materialistic interests in the settlements of neighbouring peoples played of course an important part in many of the aggressive wars known to history. p. are practically always found among the cooperating factors. unscrupulous egotism of economic circles. according to Ibn Khaldun. and through the activities t A series of moments. Ibn Khaldiun starts by mentioning blood relationship as the cause. 2). 222 etc. The persecution of heretics. Furthermore. which lead to the creationof nationalcommunities. In real life. which give rise to or foster that feeling1. a relationship characteristic of the Arabian tribes. Im Banne der Geschichte (Basle 1943).
Influences chretiennes dans la litterature religieuse de l'Islam (Revue de l'Histoire des Religions XVIII. etc. of historical merging of weak tribes into another strong tribe. The second cause for the rise of solidarity seems to have been stronger for the Indo-Europeans. which united the Arab tribes did not immediately replace these blood relationship ties. but first of all on the subjective belief of the members that they have the same blood (Ayad p. a common genealogical tree was established. Ibn Khalduin is of course aware of these facts. though for them the existence of tribes did not play the same dominant role as for the Semites. when unrelated people were admitted into a tribe. and therefore. at least after their settling down. at any rate for the Arabs who. The city states of Antiquity. kept up the organization of tribes in the desert. His inference is that the feeling of belonging together does not depend on real common origin. The struggle between these two conceptions is related clearly by Goldziher in his MuhammedanischeStudien. We would say that the idea of relationship has the character and importance of an ideology fostering integration 1. it was not before the massive penetration of non-Arab elements that the religious community became more important than blood relationship. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The ancient Arabs could scarcely imagine an association between men who stood in no relationship to each other. 195). The genealogical tables of the Arabs partly represent relationships in the sense of ancestry research. on peut dire que Fancienne doctrine mahometane manifeste la tendance a faire prevaloir d'une faCon reguliere les devoirs du fidele envers sa famille sur le devoir a l'egard de la foi". 1 Even the Islam. Only gradually did the conception "brother Moslem" became more important than the conception "tribe brother".20 Hellmut Ritter of common occupations. Blood relationship is the strongest bond. Goldziher comes to the following conclusion: "En general. It also comes about between men who were brought up together and who share the vicissitudes of life (Kamil Ayad Io8-9). Io8). partly are records of old political alliances. Halle I888. even after settling down. go back to the organization in tribes.The Omayyad Empire perished owing to tribal feuds. which lead to the rise of solidarity. too. and the Arabs in particular. Here indeed substantial elements have been perceived. especially for semitic nations. The same applies to the closer family ties. This content downloaded on Wed.
Jena 1923. is even to-day playing a paramount part in some countries. At any rate. is connected with the Pythagorean circle. he heard the story from Dionysios II personally. so that it has been said that political leaders recruit themselves from among old schoolfellows. 47I etc. Medieval text of the I5th century in Der Seele Trost (Kiirschners Natiomwl-Literatur XII. CIizaduddinFaqih und die Futitwwa.) The Arabic text. at the later period we see semimilitary and social alliances of various kinds. Duda. Aristoxenos' work was entitled About Pythagorean Life. 1 Herbert W.. is the story of an Akhi who had his hand cut off to save that of a younger member. II2-124. The story known from Schiller's ballad "Die Biirgschaft" of the friend who substitutes himself. belong to this category. for the friend sentenced to death. p. which. Valerius Maximus and others. Qat al-qulzb II. From the same circles comes the sentence: "Our comrades are dearer to us than our wives and children". 477). later a pupil of Aristotle's in Athens. The fragments of the Pre-socratics 5th ed. The mystic Niri (d. It was told by Aristoxenos. (I owe this information to my colleague Walther Kranz. rushed forward to the executioner so as to be executed first and thus to prolong the brothers' lives by a few moments (Al Ghasali. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . family limits seems to have first been stressed by the mystics. harmless forms are the innumerable clubs.IrrationalSolidarityGroups 21 than for the Semites. much altered texts of the Romans': Hyginus. which were considered among them as pre-requisites. who was sentenced to death with a number of comrades. The Prophet is called upon to put forward the necessity of love for non-relatives. This content downloaded on Wed. is substituted for the tyrant. p. The same seems to have been the case with the Turks. 9o7). source for Schiller. bought in Central Asia. according to circumstance. The same is true of the so-called Futuwwa associations. 79). (Berlin I934).. Later. translated by H. and whose newer. Ritter. the necessity of love-ties beyond reach of the 1934. etc. who formed the Mameluke Corps in Egypt. continued in the Anatolian Akhi associations. The Turkish slaves. ist century after Christ. Archiv Orientalni In Islam. 218-19. p. Published by Diels-Kranz. in Saffiiri's Nuzhat al-macalis (Cairo 1313) 213. The third cause of solidarity. show a stronger or looser solidarity. Characteristic of the spirit of comradeship and the readiness for sacrifice. Haccac. youth associations. as bail. comradeships. Abu Talib al-Makki. ist vol. in which the tyrannic Governor of the Iraq. common education. having nothing to do with relationship. Das Elixir der Gliickseligkeit. primitively a pythagorean in Tarent. in which the feelings of solidarity developed considerable strength. VI. condemned for theft 1.
A Study of History II (Oxford I939). Historische Meditationen. sees particularly in emigrations overseas "substitution of locality for kin as the basis of political organization". call forth momentary solidarity affections. Internal quarrels stop whenever external danger is imminent 3. living together in the same geographical space is also a natural condition for the bringing about of solidarity2. rather slowly and steadily acting factors more momentarily acting factors may be added. 21. all religious and language communities. etc.22 Hellmut Ritter The "sharing of the vicissitudes of life". who have nothing in common. a social class. of the native town. 55 the following nice anecdote: "On the death of a Caliph. Toynbee. deeply moving each individual. The adherence to the same political sphere of power may bring about a strong feeling of solidarity. To these. in spite of all blood relationship. may feel solidarity ties with each other. and lbn Khaldun's theory referred to. a motive which acts with extraordinary precision and force. But common habitat is not an indispensable condition for the coming about of solidarity. 3Turtufi (d. Common love of the country. automatically 1 See also Kaegi.. as has already been pointed out. a people. The instincts of defence are actuated. Ibn Khaldun. An event. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . under one central power. and unite others. may. Widely scattered members of a race. just as national consciousness came about chiefly on this basis l. 1126) tells in his Siric al-mulik (Cairo I306) p. and yet a national solidarity feeling may come about inside such quite mechanically and recklessly traced frontiers. had no reason to deal specially with the problem of this kind of solidarity. p. which Ibn Khaldiun mentions. the Byzantines wondered they could not avail themselves of the internal differences of the Moslems to start an attack This content downloaded on Wed. Of course. who saw the Casabiyadeveloped with the nomads only. can also be traced without difficulty in wider circles than those he had in mind. but the most important of the suddenly acting factors is a th re a t f ro m o u t s i d e. The colonized and inhabited space may even become an object of affection. Common fate has been acknowledged by the historians as one of the essential forces leading to the creation of States. 79-80. 2 Arnold F. may certainly engender strong solidarity feelings and arouse defence instincts. It can separate men arbitrarily.
even the mere sequence of generations. p. is illustrated by the adoption of the European costume by Oriental nations. Toynbee. for the rise of which the f a c t o r o f t i m e. Common opposition to. This kind of solidarity too appears in various degrees of intensity. See also Kaegi.che Meditationen. There is an Arab saying: "Men look more like their time than like their fathers". On this the Byzantinesgave up their plan of agression". 13 There is another kind of solidarity. against them. They dress. This applies also to the solidarity of fighting troops. Such a momentous change in clothes fashions. No less harmless is the peculiar solidarity in a community with regard to fashions in clothes. Whoever excludes himself from the fashion of the day becomes ridiculous. which immediately gave up fighting and turned together against the common foe. plays an important role. A study of History II. they even have different opinions about life. 18. Histori. he threw two fierce dogs upon one another. He then suddenly threw a wolf against the two dogs. he promised to give an answer on the next day. The dogs fell upon one another. This content downloaded on Wed. which sets the young generation against the old. and conflicts in family life due to such changes are frequent subjects in modern Oriental litterature. behave. Its most harmless form is the contrast inspired by feelings of superiority. which is enhanced by the common danger of death. Asked for his reasons. common distance from a past which is felt to be out of date and inferior. if change of costume means not only a mere change of fashion. A wise man dissuaded them from doing this. but is to be regarded as the external sign of passing from one cultural community to another. for instance. When they came to get his answer. enjoy themselves. the change of costume may involve tremendous conflicts.Irrational Solidarity Groups 23 engendering the kind of unity which will make defence possible. biting into one another's flesh until the blood began to flow. may bring about solidarity. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . even talk in a different way from the older generation. 169. Unity among people who are in the same plight helps to overcome fear of death. However.
splendid vices. according to the adherence to the solidarity circle concerned. even ethically highly valuable ties which are in contradiction to the new spirit. habits and manners are considered as symbols of the adherence to a certain highly esteemed community. The heritage of the past. Wherever a man wants to exclude himself from the new solidarity and approves of the old. Thus all former. It becomes simply impossible from a certain moment to exclude oneself from the new movement. but rashly. in the rise of Christianity against the antique world. Things were not different in ancient times either. But even in the conflict of these solidarity circles. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . where the contrast lies in the difference between the generations. a romantic. and in that of Islam against the old Arabian paganism. and even an enemy. the value of which is by no means established beyond doubt. The virtues of the ancients. they will be preserved tenaciously over all changes of time. over whom time passes away. The consciousness of solidarity then manifests itself precisely in the preservation of traditional customs and institutions. Solidarity pressure of the new on the old has certainly played an important part in all revolutions. and the same can be said of the hasty zeal with which we witness cultural reformers demolishing and vilifying everything that was valuable and sacred to their fathers. This content downloaded on Wed. precious or worthless. are for Augustine "splendida vitia". to be replaced by new things. is settled not on the basis of objective considerations. When pagan Arabs complained of the terrible faithlessness of the new converts to their old tribe fellows. beginning with the spiritual revolutions which have altered man. the same law is in force that applies to solidarity groups in general: the question of right or wrong. The way in which overthrown governments are characterized and treated by their successors offers edifying examples of this. with whom they were connected by old and valuable ethical ties. he will be considered as a dreamer. proper to the circle concerned. which cannot be denied by reason.24 Hellnut Ritter Distinguished from this kind of solidarity which enforces change is another one which acts in the opposite way. are doomed to disappear. the reply given them was: "Islam has changed the hearts". If certain costumes.
each epoch is direct by relation to God (unmittelbar zu Gott). The true progress of the social ethic. Croce in Huizinga's Im Banne der Geschichte p. the most weakened. which has been brought about by historic development. form of solidarity should be jeopardized. Here sins are not forgiven. Their verdict of what is of value and the objective verdict of history do not by any means always tally. The silent work of the historian. though one knows them to be sheer nonsense. but for the common life of men indispensable. the student of past civilizations. even in the light of the timeless verdict of History. no objections are made to opinions expressed. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . I4 A false product of the true solidarity in which sins are forgiven and controversies settled is the superficial w o u 1d .Irrational Solidarity Groups 25 precious though it may be. but they are ignored. is certainly not depreciated by such considerations. one acts as if one knew nothing. who plunge with love into things that no longer exist and count. the thus established values are not valid. For not everything that comes about "deserves to perish" as Mephistopheles says. This content downloaded on Wed. The most serious differences are overlooked on purpose. but this does not change the fact that solidarities which have risen from opposition to the past are as blind as all the others. the archaeologist. It is not by chance that this kind of intercourse in German is called 1 B. Willy nilly. For what matters is unity at any cost. lest the harmony of the community. in their aggressiveness they destroy the good along with the bad.b e s o li d a rit y which polite social intercourse obliges us to maintain. has been denied more than once at the turning points of civilization 1. or one contradicts in an "obliging" way which gives the impression of essential "unity" and of complete agreement on all points. Viewed from the point of view of the Absolute. According to a famous dictum of RANKE. is an unuttered repudiation of an attitude which approves unreservedly of the prevailing forces of their times and surrenders completely to the narrow horizon of the present with its meagre cultural contents. 76.
whereas Machiavelli puts it in the centre of his work. Freundschaftskult Deutschen Schrifttum des A8. The relation of the leader to the community led by him would 1 im und Freundschaftsdichtung Wolfdietrich Rasch. Here the author of Muqaddima has apparently in mind the Bedouin leader. In the first phase the political leader is a 'primus inter pares' within the Casabiya-community. in Ibn is Khalduin's ruler. Rosenthal I8). acknowledges the role of the leader. too. In the second phase of State development the ruler is put more in the foreground. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . he. of a personality who prevents men from falling upon each other (Rosenthal 8-9). i.Halle 1936. And if he is once called upon to "raise a protest". For he too must keep up good relations in the selfish interest of the State which he represents. in which evolve and develop the techniques of creating a pretended solidarity and displaying the social forms peculiar to it. this must be done in the obliging. and will turn into an autocrat. arguments somewhat left in the background. for in his opinion the true Casablyais only found among the nomads.e. "Good relations" for selfish purposes take the place of friendship. "What is generally understood by friendship in 'Court' literature is the social intercourse which must be kept up for the sake of one's interests 1. polite forms which are so characteristic of his profession that even outside the professional sphere of diplomacy they are called "diplomatic forms".Jahrhunderts. too. Its masterly knowledge formerly belonged to the indispensable armour of the courtier and is still necessary for the diplomat. p. If the leader reaches out for autocracy. for the sake of good relations. Ayad i15. Yet. I5 The initiative of a leading of the political personality. He deals minutely with the general necessity of the existence of a "restrainer" (waziC). must. Such is the atmosphere. to eliminate those who helped him come to power and those who shared it with him. 28. ignore a great deal of what he ought to condemn from a higher point of view.26 Hellmut Ritter "hoflich" (= court-eous). Ibn KhaldCun's. he will endeavour even to break the Casabiyathat made him rise high. (K. This content downloaded on Wed.
the leader. the Majordomo in the Frankish Empire). arouse far greater enthusiasmthan the quiet effects of a ruler'swisdom. is thus satisfied indirectly. God-like honours. The communitysees in him the concentration he of its from him forces. but he does not include them in the in becauseit lacks the characteristic sign of the participation Casabiya This content downloaded on Wed. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The readinessfor devotionto the communityis often concentrated upon its live.and have particularly and successfully served their collective egotism.which man carries within himself but cannot satisfy privately.the ruler. As their great men nations regard primarilysuch political leaders as have increased the power of their country inpromotedits interests tensively and extensively. It is by no means the virtues of justice and clemencywhich secure the attachmentof his adherence. the demonstration of power.whereasreal power and political leadership are left to others (the Emiralumerain the cAbbasid Empire. As every generationof a ruling dynasty does not bring forth a strong leader.he is raised to a superhuman being.which is often doubted. knows the enhancedvenerationof rulers and the solidaritybebetween subjects and rulers. The legitimate descendantsare sometimes the object of a venerationwhich they do not wish at all. which can only be require a special socio-psychological and touchedupon here. and magic force is attributed to it. from simple faithfulness to the paroxysmal indulgence in idealizing phantasies. that It personification expects solidarity representits collectivefeelings and makeits collectiveegotismsprevail as far as possible. personal symbol. A whole scale of irrational feelings go to him. he receives.Irrational Solidarity Groups 27 discussion. Incidental contactwith him brings about exalted feelings of happiness. while still alive. the creationof legendsand mythical poetry ensues. Ibn Khaldfin.The use of power. Or the successor exercises only the role of a symbol. the Prophet. even if combinedwith cruelty. all kinds of interesting situations ensue for the successors.etc. or are assigneda role for which they are not fit (as for some ShiciteImams). and after his death. too. for instance by territorial extension at the neighbour'sexpense.For desire of power and aggression. and to even more than that.
About the Shicite dynasty of the Safawides the German traveller Engelbert Kaempfer writes: "Last but not least. Ayad I85. This content downloaded on Wed. or when an unexpected royal messenger wants to cut his head off. the authority of the Great King becomes enhanced through the peculiar form of faith of the subjects. 17 and 65. his eyes and his life to a whim of the Great King. in fulfilment of the order of the Shah who gave the verdict. as for instance in the various Shicite sects. For him it begins at a stage when autocracy has long been existing. "They submit to the strong religious belief that they must obey him. They would as readily. No son would refuse to cut off his father's ears. Leipzig I940. The era of the Shah Safi (I629-42) has witnessed examples of how. in German Das erste Buch der Amoenitates Exoticae. which makes for unconditional submission to their absolute and sacred ruler. Rosenthal 25). even though he commit the most injurious actions or exact the oddest things from them. it is by no means without cases of political contrasts tearing up every family tie or one family member informing against another politically (as well as religiously) and causing his ruin. when it has been forgotten that the ruling dynasty once came to power through the solidarity union of pares sub primo.Introduced and published edition by Walter Hinz.. Am Hofe des Persischen Grosskiinigs (I684-85). if the ruler so commanded" 1. nose and even head. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The power is then accepted as a matter of course and the subjects fight for their ruler as they do for dogmas (K. fathers stabbed their sons' hearts and sons their fathers'. by an order of the Sovereign. Although European history knows no examples of such an extreme kind. amid the noise of a funeral banquet.. 1 Engelbert Kaempfer..28 HellhnutRitter power. all yielding with a fearless spirit to the necessity of the murder of relatives. cheer the instigator of the murder. for it appears natural to everybody to sacrifice his property. and thht the earth would shake in its foundation if they coveted the power either with him or in his place" (Rosenthal 25). or when the executioner is going to put his eyes out. In the Islamic Orient devotedness of the ruled to the ruler has been strongest where the person of the ruler was surrounded with a religious halo. p. The condemned person will not even protest by gesture when the Treasury confiscates his property.
whether upon every Moslem or only on those who are qualified for it. The question of one's attitude towards the government is discussed in Islamic literature in still another way. This content downloaded on Wed. worried the minds a long time.e. by God's will. which is nothing else but the solidarity feeling dealt with here. Political 1 From the Imam's qualification to exercise by proxy the command of what should be approved of and the forbidding of what should be disapproved of is then inferred the police authority of the State. The question is then raised as to the person upon whom that duty is incumbent. was not in line with the Orthodox conception. i.IrrationalSolidarityGroups 29 Related to the solidarity between ruler and ruled is that between the more impersonal government Here and the governed. according to which one was bound to abstain from abondoning the great masses of Moslems. Orthodoxy has held the view that prayer is allowed behind any Imam good or bad. In the Islamic history of sects and dogmas. or on the Imam himself. from the unquestioning loyalty of the official to the subversive activities of the revolutionary. the problem of whether an impious government should be obeyed or. as the representative of the community. the accurate translation of which is difficult: "to command what should be approved and to forbid what should be disapproved". to put it in a religious way. is expressed the so often emphasised "Catholic instinct" of Islam. from whatever "splitting of the staff". In this conception. and has adopted this theory into its creed. While the sect of the Kharijites would make the Imams' competence of governing dependent on a moral and religious life. is often referred to by a Koranic term. To secede from the ruler invested by historic development. whether the common prayer rite should be performed behind an impious Imam. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but lawful and unlawful acts in general 1. By what "should be approved and disapproved" is meant not only actions of the government. In Islamic religious literature protest against abuses and injustice committed by the government. all possible degrees can be observed. which is supported by many words of the Prophet.
who devote themselves to divine service and religious life. based on the Casabiyaof the tribes and tribal groups. p. 37-38. This content downloaded on Wed. they have of course many adherents and indifferent followers among the crowd and the lower people. Ibn Khaldfn deals with this question in order to demonstrate again the validity of his principle that ideal (religious) propaganda without the help of an Casabiyais doomed to failure. In this chapter belongs the fate of the men of the common people and that of the scholars of the sacred Law who rose in order to abolish what cannot be approved. which the Sultan had erected. The attempts of pious circles and personalities to form an opposition on ideal grounds are according to Ibn Khaldiin. what is then to be expected from others?. as we have already pointed out" 1. A tacit. courageous scholars have protested occasionally. 2 Max Herz-Pascha. calls it to account. it can be discarded or overthrown only if power... These sentences of the Arab philosopher of history have lost nothing of their actuality.30 Hellmut Ritter movements of opposition have frequently adopted the Koranic expression as their watchword. In the I3th century courageous jurists in Egypt declared prayer in a cemetery chapel.. 159. For many men. Compare Rosenthal. p. It is even reported that some pious people considered it forbidden to drink water from a canal dug by the 1 Muqaddimta(Beyrouth I9oo) p. think that one has to rise against the unjust ruler.. he states. "of whom the breaking of habits (in normal life) can be expected first. and they therefore expose themselves to the greatest dangers. But in Islam. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . For the power of Kings and States is strongly established. when any money coming from the government was considered religiously forbidden property. But the majority of them perish in this way. "If that is so for Prophets themselves". as not permitted. and appeal for the "commanding of what should be approved and for the forbidding of what should be disapproved" in the hope of God's reward. boycott-like opposition to the government existed in certain pious circles of the early Islamic Middle Ages. on account of the inhumane methods used during its construction2. 54. too. doomed to failure. Die Baugruppe des Sultans Qaldan in Kairo (Ham- burg 1919).
112-3).i. but not the only one. Ayad p. 17 when backed Just as solidaritygains in power and determination a it in clearness of up by strong leadership. Religion was surely strengtheningthe Casabiya the most importantideology in past times.e. Modernsocialism is hoping for some sort of solidarity feeling between labour and the State as employer.the development of which was preventedfor a long time by the methods of tax-farming and delegation of taxlevying to tax gatherers.becausenationalizedinstitutions are consideredin a certain sense the workers'own institutions.The first condition for the developmentof morality regardingtaxes is. belong in associationsand societies having these corresponding aims. just as children'sduties in the family circle are only talked of when they are neglected. the government. seems to have developed comparativelylate. of course.or to fasten their bootlacesat the light of a lamp belongingto the government. Ideology need not always be formulated. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Even where national feeling is strongly developedeverythingis not always in perfect order in the awardingand receivingof State contracts.Irrational Solidarity Groups 31 "Emirs". Ibn Khaldunknows ideology in the form of religion.Often it is no more than This content downloaded on Wed.To talk about it becomesnecessaryonly if the unwrittenCode of Duties has been infringed upon. The aim pursued must in any case be an ideal one.The ethical expression of the will of a communityof solidarity appears very often in the form of an unwritten Code of Honours and Duties. Whether and how far such solidarity can develop is yet an open question. A positive solidarity with the State. The line of conductis not prescribedin definite terms. A common religious faith would be capable of (K. just taxation. gains purposeand strength when the gatheredforces are shown by an i d e olo g y the direction in which they ought to be active. but is a thing silently understood. in regard to State property. purely economicinterests and practicalaims. which impose a certain conduct upon the members. a State feeling.
13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Yet often an ideology is formulated. small popular enclaves. I8 There are a number of i n f 1u e n c i n g m e a n s by which solidarity is achieved. whereas the rational content of the ideology is less important. An Academy of Sciences does not sing. Thus in the creeds of religious communities. without. This content downloaded on Wed. in Party programs.32 Hellmut Ritter a vaguely felt "Weltanschauung". The role of poetry in such associations is sufficient proof of their irrationality. we know from their poetry. the maintenance of complicated common symbols of faith in religious communities seems to be dependent on the existence of a theological profession. underlines the significance of this phenomenon. Minor sects which have no important theologians and do not own a theological literature usually fall into decay. The interpreter of this not clearly established ideology is very often the poet who is the normal interpreter of irrational feelings. insofar as they express a "Weltanschauung". provided only that some of the irrational needs are satisfied. which even those concerned in it can hardly formulate and which takes the place of a formulated ideology. for that matter. 1 Moreover. losing anything of its unifying power. The considerable part which songs play for the young people's associations. Formulas of religious tenets are retained as symbols of religious communities even where their rational contents are no longer believed. On the other hand. nor does a Loan-Office. which is simultaneously the bearer of civilization and which produces a religious and theological literature or is able to interpret texts handed down by tradition. The best known and most important way of influencing people is the spoken and written word. But there too. strong in the emotional and weak in the rational elements. often persist with great tenacity when the clergy takes care of the maintenance of both. The fact that not all the points of a Party program can be approved of does not always prevent cooperation. What we know of the social ideas of the ancient Arabs. This is due to the desire to maintain the connection with the great epoch which created those symbols 1. which differ in doctrine and rite from their environments. solidarity is essential. preserved and cultivated. The watchword issued may be wrong.
the reduction of complicated contrasts to a couple of splendid antitheses. It has a double function: it wants to convince through arguments. anyhow. On rational minds these things have obviously less influence. thrilling metaphors. of all rites those which symbolize adherence to the community last longest. Their want of definite. of rhetoric. but at the same time rouses the irrational forces of the soul. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . With the establishment of romantic aesthetics. People have their children christened as Christians and cirORIENS I 3 This content downloaded on Wed. plays but a very small part. they easily become worn out. if used beyond measure. Beside poetry. chiefly religious. easily grasped truths is too great for them to be able to grasp real problems. Antiquity and the Middle Ages in East and West possessed a thorough technique of the art of speech. Another means is the use of ceremonial or festival occasions. The quiet common service in a religious community. To obtain this effect rhetorical means are required. The old Arabian poets incited the Casabiya of their tribe to common great actions. The audience is no longer able to discover by what kind of technique they are being influenced and is therefore all the more at its mercy. In certain communities. and this art is noy practised unconsciously. there are also regularly performed rites. easily comprehensible trains of thought have a chance of reaching larger circles. But this by the way. it was the same in Europe in past times.IrrationalSolidarityGroups 33 At certain stages of civilization it is the poet's word to which this role falls. In demagogical mass assemblies the persuasion of the audience through genuine arguments and factual information. and.A clever simplification of complex facts. and last but not least. or the popular masses. its moral exaltation confirmed. patriotic performances. It is well known that only plain. may produce an incredible effect. If we are to believe Uhland's poem "Bertrand de Born". the family holiday. enhanced and animated. the gigantic festivities organized by certain Parties have a stimulating effect on the feeling of solidarity. It is characteristic that in religious communities. there has been from the oldest times the prosaic word in its numerous forms. The audience wants first of all to have its feelings of solidarity. from which everybody returns home in a joyful frame of mind. rhetoric disappeared from the school-program as a branch of study.
a considerable preaching propaganda was used. but his soul does not dare to bear the whole consequence of this attitude and to break with God entirely. His reason denies. To arouse European knighthood to participate in the Crusades. Through the modern means of radio and press the spoken and written word has become an even greater power. Common holidays too are only too often used to the utmost limits. Such boosting consists. The consciousness of cooperating with others for a great and common task constitutes a compensation for the sacrifice of personal freedom. books which may become dangerous for the pious Catholic are put on the index of 1 This attitude has of course other reasons also. For does not the possession of a concrete aim mean the practical answer to the question about the meaning of life? Youth. It is characteristic of the religiously indifferent man that he persists in a certain half-hearted attitude towards religion. though they have long given up going to church. in intensifying the incentive measures for the strengthening and preservation of solidarity. I9 The feeling of solidarity may be a r t i f i c i ally boo s t e d from the Centre and thus stimulated to extraordinary achievements. but to break the tie with the community would be felt as reprehensible faithlessness and distressing self-isolation 1. and secondly. the synagogue and the mosque. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .34 Ritter HelUmut cumcised as Jews and Moslems. it is youth that is grateful when assigned duties which fill it with enthusiasm. To this must be added the concrete common duties of the hour which are imposed on the members of the community from outside. This content downloaded on Wed. First of all. trusts its leadership gladly and in good faith. Isolation from outside and restriction of the intellectual horizon may be created artificially. in the first place. in artificially promoting the natural conditions for its rise. The pious Moslem is enjoined never to read the holy books of the Jews and Christians. One is perhaps most indifferent toward what is going on there. for instance. being desirous of using its forces. Not every man is able to set himself tasks that go beyond the satisfaction of his immediate needs.
or prevented by such drastic measures as the seizure of all receiving instruments. and therefore forbidden. if necessary. is stigmatized as treacherous. Moreover. listening to foreign radio stations. finding and inventing again and again new enemies threatening the community. This brings us to the problem of the creation of political power at home. a family. After all. as we have seen. they are foreign-political tensions and conflicts. is being isolated in special schools with fixed mental horizon. by seeking.IrrationalSolidarityGroups 35 forbidden books. or the sons of one father. The law of experience. For the lacking genealogical root of solidarity a compensation may be created through an artificial race theory. Youth. attempts at fraternization are rendered impossible. or at least the pick of it. they are homeand con f licts. solidarity feeling does not make much critical inquire-and. even though such is not the case-since. but that hatred between nations has to a large extent to be artificially created from the Centre. according to which threatening of the community by an enemy rouses and strengthens solidarity can be taken advantage of by proclaiming the community as threatened from outside. reading foreign newspapers. the use of such methods proves that-luckily-man as a private civilian person bears no natural hatred towards his fellow man in other countries. 20 Between the various solidarity circles there may exist t e n s i o n s Inside the borders of a State. which group has therefore a stronger coherence. the contact with foreigners is largely impeded through supervision methods and similar measures. as a small group of kinsmen. In this group the Casabiyais stronger than in the others. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . This Casabiyagroup is neces- This content downloaded on Wed. with the powerful modern terror methods it is easy to paralyse any breaking away from the desired line and to silence or annihilate any opposition. outside them political. Ibn Khaldun refers to it as follows: "Inside every tribe"-we have already seen that the normal solidarity circle for the Arab is the kinsmen circle-"there is a group of genealogically stronger adherents.
Though in modem democracy. held together by a strong bond of solidarity. But here. owing to weakening through a life of pleasure and luxuriousness the ruling casabiya group has become degenerate. to another clan. imagines of course to be always genealogically connected. but by the polls and by a mechanically resulting majority. The creation of power is therefore for Ibn Khaldiun purely based on a naturally given dynamism. one is bound to be stronger than all of them together. are struggling for power. the rule will pass to a stronger Casabiyagroup of the same nation. Parties. If. as at the origin of a body one of the four elements must outweigh and rule over the others". and then amalgamated into a single great solidarity. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . various solidarity groups. Of legal norms. which prevents its becoming dangerous. which stabilise and regulate the conditions of power in a State. but the struggle is not decided by weapons and violence. Ibn Khalduin does not say much for reasons which do not concern us here (s. in contradistinction to the old feudal State. Creation of power and change of power are considered under a purely dynamic aspect. turns autocratic and destroys the institution which helped it to seize power.e. Rosenthal 60). We cannot deal here with the relation between right and power in European history and the State theory. The regular control of solidarity relations is eliminated or prevented by terroristic means from taking effect. i. all individual solidarities amalgamate. which he. which the Centre tries to consolidate by strongly emphasising irrational values and by the This content downloaded on Wed." (Rosenthal 24). In his aristocratic State opposing solidarities are crushed. the struggle for power at home is free. Ibn Khaldun's second phase may come about mutatis mutandis. "Even if in one tribe there are various noble families and many casabiyas (= solidarities). as an Arab. so that it is like a single great 'asabiya" (Rosenthal II). forced to obey. Ibn Khaldun knows thus the conception of a class of leaders. too. Here too. which has t a k e n o v e r. In this group. overpowering and obliging them to obey. but we may perhaps all the same take a glance at modern democracy and the dictatorial State. it has to observe certain practical rules. The Party.36 Hellmut Ritter sarily destined to rule over others. A sort of compulsory solidarity comes about.
it can undoubtedly only thrive if total solidarity is stronger than the individual Party solidarities. which is in fact the will of the rulers. to a great extent even. Indeed. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . impart to the whole solidarity the peculiar character of something made up. on the other hand. though the richness of the nation's cultural life depends upon them.IrrationalSolidarityGroups 37 means mentioned above. This attitude very often produced an intolerable dullness even in societies and clubs of young people. Such a State is unable to tolerate within its territory the creation of independent opinions and communities. For such enhanced hypersolidarity it is characteristic that it has very little or no understanding at all for the differentiation of political. a State feeling. not freely and quietly grown. to speak with Ibn Khaldiun: the rights of the casabiya community are acknowledged theoretically-but the practical possibility of checking the will of the nation. artificially kindled. ceases. or an economic group whether of employers or employed. This depends on two conditions: the first is that the State form itself be recognised by all Parties and incorporated in the feeling. In this sense the French terrorists in the 1782-4 epoch already interpreted the volonte generale. may become so strong that any difference of opinion at home will be stigmatized as treason to the nation. The second is that the ruling Party or one social class. It goes without saying that a thriving and strong State life can develop best where the members of the State are held together by a feeling of solidarity common to everybody. Artificially created solidarity. uniformity of aims. though successful. That is why we observe a peculiar intolerance toward and jealousy of the formation of any community that has not been organized by the Centre. which. everything that is done is supposed to be determined by the will of the nation. with the utmost possible State-monopoly of initiative. cultural life. put their individual solidarity behind the common solidarity and free themselves from the delusion that their special interests are identical with those of the State. The totalitarian State knows but one alternative: conformity or prohibition. It can obviously imagine solidarity only as sameness of all view. no matter how patient and easily This content downloaded on Wed.
The ideal way of living together would of course be for the minorities to adopt the political feeling of the majority. established by law in the old Islamic countries.e. In the keeping alive of a differentiated life-entity. This content downloaded on Wed. or whether it is reduced to a dull uniformity. as it were. positive. were expected from them. A national community cannot be created in this way. where there is abundance and variety of aims.38 Ritter -Hell. to a mechanical unity. i. The latter relation was. is shown by Switzerland's example. The substitution for the old Islamic conceptions by national and popular ideologies has changed these relations radically. the ruling nation will have to put up with that cooler. by artificial and violent means of political propaganda and terroristic pressure. creative of civilization. 21 A sort of intermediate thing between conflicts in connection with home and foreign policy is constituted by t h e conflicts w ith ethnical minorities. but without crushing individual existence. through solidary activity. attitude called loyalty. But. but they were exempted from the most important contribution of solidarity. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . even where the minorities are ethnically and linguistically nearer to the population of a neighbouring country. but where all contrasts are bridged by solidarity. and love their State in the same way as do they. loyalty. financial contributions. That this is possible. which becomes fruitful. The minorities of other religions enjoyed protection and owned rights of a lower degree. lies the secret of a sound organisation of State. military service in time of war.mtut persuaded thay may be. The latter will be a failure whether the national community dissolves itself into an anarchical body of political and ethnical groups. in the overcoming of inveterate contrasts. One might think that under a wise and moderate leadership it should be possible for various ethnical groups to live peacefully together in a State. For a genuine and prospering community can only subsist where natural tensions and contrasts remain alive. if it cannot be done. fighting against each other.
food and fashion. but still horrifying solution is that designated by the word "resettlement"-the expulsion of defenceless people from their country and their homes. Common country. where religion governed all customs. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . not surprising at all. Strongest is the differentiation in India. the country of caste division and religious contrasts. This way has been repeatedly chosen in history. common habitat. Only too often is the majority anxious to terrorize the minority. to get rid of them is perhaps what is most desired. embracing both majority and minority. and common historic destiny. in fact. in our opinion. is rendered difficult if the individual solidarities formed by religion and historic development are larger in number and stronger than those demanding common solidarity. one has no longer any trouble with him. such as Switzerland and other countries This content downloaded on Wed. prevented from cultivating their own language and from preserving their own cultural aims. and it is then that the majority will have reason to complain of the lack of loyalty on the part of the minorities. practically put in a worse position than the majority. quite successfully so.Irrational Solidarity Groups 39 The setting up of a solidarity feeling between population groups of different origin or different religion. A less radical. for instance. What political difficulties have resulted therefore for the constituting of an all-India government is well known. That is why minorities are. however. They are. play a relatively small part for those sections of the population which are very strongly divided ethnically and religiously. which is. the former is altogether unable to imagine a unified State without assimilating methods. as in the medieval Orient. It is in recent times that the factor of a common country has had a stronger solidarity creating effect in some regions of the Orient. The only sound solution. Nobody will have a word to say for this solution. is the creation of a superethnical solidarity. for the opponent being dead. Wherever the elimination of contrasts seemed hopeless. The most radical one is the physical extermination of the minority. different ways have been tried for the solution of the difficulties. But such measures are liable to prevent precisely what they are meant to obtain: the realization of a genuine solidarity. if not theoretically.
The wars. a force that strives. When the latter proves to be a match for it and can resist. it will naturally try to gain power over another. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . he says. a purely natural ii). it ensues that the friend-enemy relation with its This content downloaded on Wed. just as for Machiavelli. "the power over the nation has been realised through the Casabiya. self-impelled. Machiavelli comes to the same conclusion "untiringly repeating that armies of mercenaries are good for nothing and that only national armies are a useful instrument of power" (G. an aim that is higher and farther reaching than the first one" etc. which Ibn Khaldfn had in mind. We are now coming to e x t e r n a c o n f I i c t s. Ibn Khalduin is also convinced that when the casabiya has become absolutely ingrained in a nation. the internal growth of power thanks to its victory over an opposite casabiya group. If we assume this to be correct. they will become enemies and rivals and each of them will have power over its domain and nation. But if the casabiya manages to defeat that other Casabiyaand to enforce its obedience. It will then look for an aim to develop this power and gain authority. "When". as we have already said. it is the indispensable source of power for success in politics and war. then the conflicts will disappear by themselves. (Rosenthal Power is therefore. 41). Ritter p. For it. the latter will amalgamate with it and increase its power. casabiya. for Ibn Khalditn too. and the external one based on the defeat of an external solidarity circle.40 HellzmutRitter have managed to establish. to rise and spread until it meets with effective resistance. Political solidarity of a nation is a first class source of power. force. distant. is on principle the same thing. it turns aggressive by its very nature. The solidarity circles must become larger and incorporate the individual circles. as has been the case with the tribes and nations scattered over the world. that without the conscious initiative and command from above even the strongest solidarity is unable to start a modern war. however. were of a far more primitive character. 22. We believe. Ibn Khaldfin's theory has still another peculiarity.
for there is no supreme authority to adjust the conflicts between states and nations. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The giving up of the free feudal law in favour of a central settling of all differences has for those concerned the character of submission to a foreign power. The obstacles for the realization of a super-State solidarity are by no means inconsiderable. This conception has undergone a certain restriction in the theory of the constitutional State as established in the i8th and Igth centuries. there were certain international limitations of brute force. The indivi- This content downloaded on Wed. Just as in Ibn Khalduin's theory. War was war and peace was peace. abolishes free feudal law and connects the use of power with legal regulations to the largest possible extent. the dynamic element in political life. it is in our opinion identical with the question of the possibility of super-national solidarity.. is alone regarded as important and decisive. the dynamic forces follow their course unrestrictedly. The individual solidarities of the nations and their desire for isolation are still stronger than the modest tendencies for super-national common feelings. These rules have today (I943) almost gone to pieces. All the same. 23 As regards the question of the possibility of restoring these rules and extending them to the abolition of free feudal law between the nations altogether. The old international limitations are now completely destroyed owing to the methods of warfare used by various nations. The prerequisite of a law-creating foreign policy is the development of a super-national solidarity. insofar as the constitutional State monopolizes the use of power altogether. In foreign policy this has of course been possible only in a far lesser degree than in internal policy.IrrationalSolidarityGroups 41 double morals is on principle equally valid in either case. The establishment of a double morality was solemnly proclaimed through the declaration of war and everybody knew what he was up to. which would then have to be protected and consolidated by supernational legal regulations. Where the purely natural development of power. the external policy is a straight continuation of the home policy and the treatment of opponents in internal and external policy is on principle the same.
42 4Hellmut Ritter dual rulers owe their positions to the fact that they are at the head of a whole orchestra of national solidarity feelings and collective egotisms. is-as a consequence of the century-old division of Europe into individual rival States-in line with the conception of the skilled professional diplomat who. must not and should not go beyond the circle of "interests" of the individual State represented by him. does not in the long run work out in favour of the individual States themselves. Such inflexible thinking in competing national solidarity cilrcles. little fitted to prepare such a solidarity. Instead of helping at least to prepare true solidarity. these conferences are rather the stage on which the representatives of various countries are offered a wished-for opportunity of demonstrating impressively the interests and claims of their countries. Each representative of a country went to such conferences rather with the instruction and firm intention. This. What is required is the integration of the individual solidarities into a super-national solidarity rooted in the heart of man rendered possible by the will for tolerance of other individualities. moreover. These are merely the expression of a temporary. as to get for his country as much as possible. not so much to think of the prosperity of the whole family of nations. just as the parties in a bad Party-State do not make a State policy. This content downloaded on Wed. Is it not a capitis diminutio if they can no longer decide for themselves upon the most important questions. in principle. but must submit to the opinion of others? The hitherto practised form of the organisation of international relations is. those of foreign policy. but an egotistic party policy. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . a conception embodied in the sentence of the Arab thinker Al-Beruini: "The efforts of men in this world are different and on this difference rests the civilization of this world". Nor have the permanent or temporary conferences and congresses of representatives of many or all countries proved to be the sources in which genuine solidarity thrives. however. For it is obvious from what has been said above that such a super-national solidarity can have nothing to do with the spirit in which the usual alliances of interest between States are made. casual constellation of interests and last no longer than the interests themselves. moreover.
Reason. sooner or later. wisely ruled and directed.atantra: This content downloaded on Wed. worse than that which the unleashed forces of nature bring upon men. Overexcited and misguided. not only bring endless blessing on the human society. reason can perhaps lead the irrational forces of solidarity and show the course along which they may work for the good of mankind. that other great force given to us. it may cause horrible disaster and ruin. nor brute force will be able to take the place of this grown solidarity. instead of inflicting disaster on it. such international cooperation will be still more necessary than it used to be in the peaceful prewar times. It must rise from the ardent desire of the nations themselves. Perhaps common opposition to the disturber of peace and rest will then form the common front which is necessary for the maintenance of solidarity. Neither diplomatic skill. but it is even indispensable for the existence of this society. as a genuine longing. The solidarity of scientists will perhaps help a little in getting out of the present disastrous situation which threatens the very civilization of mankind. can neither replace nor create the irrational forces of the soul. Let us therefore remember the old tale from "Kalila and Dimna". For scholars united by the common ideal of searching for and establishing objective truth in every field of human knowledge. But it can only be used if there is goodwill. not a phrase used to disguise or embellish interests of the stronger and liable. like any other natural force. But just as the engineer can force the power of the torrent into harmless and useful courses. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . After all the material and ideal destruction brought upon the world by the last war. however. the establishing of supernational solidarity will be easier than for other people. It may do good and it may bring harm. the Arabic translation of the Indian Mirror of Princes Pan. to be unmasked.Irrational Solidarity Groups 43 This is the only way to free ourselves from situations which have long become intolerable. Thus irrational solidarity has a double face. It is a natural force of the human soul and may. international cooperation having been acknowledged long ago as indispensable for the progess of human knowledge.
spoke up: "Do not leave each other in the lurch in your efforts to rescue yourselves! To none of you shall its own life be of greater importance than its comrade's.44 !HellmutRitter. 13 Mar 2013 07:57:02 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . bu t let us rather and tear off the net help one another together so as to be saved by our joint effort". trying to save its own life. The parable then tells how. with additions made in 1947. Each pigeon was fluttering in the net in which it had been caught. by this common effort. Bebek. when the Queen. the captured pigeons managed to free themselves from the entanglement in the deadly net. 1943. This content downloaded on Wed. the ring-dove. Irrational Solidarity Groups "A flock of pigeons had fallen into the hunter's net.
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