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# Previous lecture 2010.09.

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wednesday 22.09.2010 - Anharmonic effects, Phonon transport, matlab One of the usual arguments for existence of anharmonicity - THERMAL EXPANSION. When the oscillators are in higher energetic states, due to the real shape of the potential 2 (departures from the 'harmonic' x , the parabolic shape) the average position moves outward.

1-anharmonic.png Anharmonicity is also important in understanding HEAT CONDUCTIVITY. Harmonic weves - independent - do not interact

## INTERFERENCE IS NOT INTERACTION

2-interference-not-interaction.png Anharmonicities are known from non-linear crystals Frequency doubling - Frequency changing optical elements The understanding of anharmonic effects on the transport: phonons - quanta - change their number (3. order terms x3terms , added to the harmonic x2, the parabolic shape .....

3-anharmonic-a+a.png

4-umklapp.png

## 81-matlab-K.png (added after the lecture)

lecture) % to make the picture: figure (3); x=(-1.5:0.01:1.5); plot (x, abs(sin(pi*x)) ); hold on; plot( [-0.5 -0.5 ], [0 1 ],'-', [0.5 0.5 ] ,[0 1],'-');set(gcf,'color','white') line( [-1.4 1.4 ], [0.3 0.3 ])

Neutron scattering; Eigenmodes A problem - homework - think about: How to the the diagonalization for a 2-dimensional structure

5-neutron+2-dim-matrix.png Matlab programs - inspection of eigenmodes What are the programs doing: They perform a simple diagonalization of a matrix. 2 The eigenvalues provide the allowed value of Omega , to get the shape resembling the dispersion relation, we must take a square root. The values of Omega are plotted by number, there is no value of wavenumber in the model. But plotting the EIGENVECTORS, i.e. the modes - in the following way: ... plots display the value of (maximum, amplitude) of the displacement at position of each 'ball' - and they appear as transversal standing waves - though in the model they are (1 dimension) longitudinal waves. all the matlab codes are found in chains-2003/

51-matri-1.png

57-matri-

## proof.png all the matlab codes are found in chains-2003/

58-M-two-mass.png all the matlab codes are found in chains-2003/ A version with different masses - or with different spring constants - a modified matlab code matri2m.m

59-1two-mass-matlab.png ouput from the matlab code matri2m.m above all the matlab codes are found in chains-2003/

## The same output manipulated to show the earlier plotted behaviour

59-2two-mass-matlab.png

59-3two-mass-matlab.png Different spring constants case is mathematically equivalent with different masses case
EQUAL MASSES / SPRINGS N=8 H1 = 4 -2 0 0 0 -2 4 -2 0 0 0 -2 4 -2 0 0 0 -2 4 -2 0 0 0 -2 4 0 0 0 0 -2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 different MASSES / SPRINGS N=8 0 0 0 0 -2 4 -2 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2 4 -2 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2 4

H1 = 2.8 -2 0 0 0 0 0 0

-2 2.8 -0.8 0 0 0 0 0

## 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -0.8 0 0 2.8 -2 0 -2 2.8 -0.8 0 -0.8 2.8 0 0 -2

0 0 0 0 0 0 -2 2.8

## all the matlab codes are found in chains-2003/

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ashcroft.png TRANSPORT OF HEAT - phonons assumed to be the carriers The concept of MEAN FREE PATH croos section sigma, density of obstacles rho and the mean free path L (greek and script letters are usually used)

60-mean-free-path.png ( The mean free path used in the following derivation; the derived relation is used below - the density of scatterers-obstacles)

## The derivation of the heat conductivity coefficient kappa Fourier Law

When the phonons are scattering from phonons and also from imperfections The picture is plotted in any textbook (here - our online textbook)

a-5-next-

time.png