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Building Critical Reading Strategies in Expository Text through Task Based Teaching Approach at the XI years of SMAN I 2 X 11 Kayutanam

A. Background of the Problem It is widely believe that reading is a window of the world. This means that when a reader opens a book, s /he might see and know many things happening overseas. There are various kind books of printed, starting from story book s to science books. It is worthy said that when a reader want to know about something, then s/he can read a book. Another example is when a reader wonders about how to negotiate with many people around the world, s/he can also read them in a book. It is claimed that reading is the most important activity one can do to survive in life. Whereas, many students like reading for granted. The students hardly question what they read like the writers ideas or attitude toward the text, and the evidence of source whether they representative or not, etc. Students may feel that they are busy to read in order to answer reading comprehensions questions. As a matter of fact, the students do not comprehend what is being read. Even worst, the students do not enjoy it. Reading effectively is extremely important. Somehow, reading for pleasure will improve students life and ability to read. However, reading for pleasure and knowing what is read are not enough. Indeed reading is a complex process that draws upon other skill (listening, speaking and writing) and several strategies (eq: making inferences, distinguishing between fact and opinion, identifying the writers

purpose, etc) that need to be developed at the same time. To interact with a text and to construct meaning from a text, a student has to be able to use the skills and strategies properly. Doing so, students have to read critically. To read critically, students must actively acquire the critical reading strategies such as making inference, distinguishing between fact and opinion, identifying the writers purpose, understanding and evaluating arguments, etc. As a good reader, a student needs to be aware of those strategies. It is might be said that to acquire critical reading strategies needs a complex thinking process done by the students toward what s/he read. Again, these critical reading strategies are essential in

comprehending texts. Students need to build critical reading strategies in order to foster comprehending in the text more or to ensure the comprehension of the text. It is assumed that the critical reading strategies help students encounter what the text is about exactly or what the writer mean exactly. As a good reader, a student should also monitor his or her attention, concentration and effectiveness. She should quickly recognize if s/he is missed an idea and then backup to read again. Mostly the problem in reading comprehension is caused by teachers who give uninteresting topic to the students. Sometimes this topic consider as out-of-date one or unfamiliar such as Australian Federal Democracy, Country Concern, Lighting, etc. These topic make students are reluctant and bored to read. As a result, they do not read effectively and accurately. It is also found that teachers at senior high school have taught few reading strategies to students for years. Most of these strategies are skimming and scanning. However, the strategies could not help students much in reading actively.

Moreoever, the way to teach the strategies might not interesting and enjoyable for students. Consequently, students might not apply the strategies in reading or they might forget them right away. This problem might be happened because students do not pay attention to teachers explanation or teacher or teachers ways are uninteresting. On the other hand the critical reading strategies might be acquired by tasks based teaching approach. This approach offers motivating and interesting ideas in teaching and learning. These ideas derived from the tasks which are very various, starting from question-and-answer, reasoning gab, role play, comparing and matching task. Using task based, students have opportunity to do reading task regularly and intensively in a large portion. It is strongly believe that these students are perceived as playing an active initiating role in the learning process. These tasks help students build critical reading strategies and ultimately these tasks foster active comprehension. For the reason above, task based is an alternative for building critical reading strategies in reading comprehension actively which is more motivating and interesting for students in reading comprehension activity which is more motivating and interesting for students and can help them become more critical readers.

B. Formulation of the Problem As the problem describe above, the formulation of the problem was formulated as follow: To what extend can task based teaching approach build students critical reading strategies in expository text at eleventh year of SMAN 2X11 Kayutanam?.

C. Research Question D. Definition of Key Term 1. Critical reading strategies (CRS) are defined as strategies used to(1) interpret what a reader read by making inferences, distinguishing between fact and opinion, and identifying the writers purpose: and (2) evaluate arguments by understanding and evaluating arguments. 2. Expository text is a text which consist of thesis, arguments, and recommendation(hortatory exposition) 3. Task based is a piece of classroom work that involve students in comprehending expository texts using critical reading strategies


A. Review of the Related Theory 1. Reading and Reading Comprehension Accordance to Troyka (1978:2), Reading is not just looking at words. Reading is receiving and sorting out information from the words. It means that to comprehend a text, a reader need to understand information

presented in the text. Every word has its own meaning. A reader has to figure out information from it. Reading comprehension can be seen as the process of using ones own prior experiences and the writers cues to infer the authors intended meaning. Dalton (2001:1) states that comprehension is a complex transactional process involving the reader, the text and the purpose of reading. 2. Nature of critical Reading Boudoin et al. (1977) says that critical reading demands that reader make judgments about what they read. This kind of reading also requires posing and answering questions such as Does my own experience support that of the author?, Do I share the authors point of view?, A I convinced by the authors arguments and evidence?. It means that it is important for readers to make sense and give their opinion about a text based on the evidence given. Likewise, Gedamke and Kropp(1980:57) mention that in critical reading, a reader needs to draw conclusion, makes interference and application and evaluate the authors style. In short the efficient reader is not only able to recognize and feed back the content of the paragraph, but also s/he is able to think critically about what s/he has read.

3. Critical reading Strategies There are number of linguists who wrote about critical reading strategies. The following linguists will talk about critical reading strategies in turn.

According to gedamke and Kropp(1980:57) there are number of critical reading strategies, like making inferences, drawing conclusion, evaluating the authors style, structuring the article, making application, ect. It means that a reader have to interpret and evaluate a text. It is strongly the supporated by McWhorter(1986:205-247). interpreting and reacting, She and




evaluationg. The interpreting strategies consists of:(1)understanding the writer message:(2)understanding the authors purpose. Then evaluating strategies include asking critical questions. Indeed based on the explanation above, it can be summarize that critical reading strategies are essential for students to foster reading comprehension. These strategies help students figure out meaning and evaluate what meaning conveyed exactly in a text. 4.Nature of Expository text Anderson and Anderson(1955:24) define an exposition as a piece of text that present one side of an issue. The purpose of this text is to persuade the reader or listener by presenting one side of argument, that is, case case for or case against. Widayati(2003:43 states that an expository paragraph explain or analyze a topic. Later the topic will be supported by information, explanation and facts, or illustration. Then she claims that argumentative paragraph as expository text. 5.Nature of Task Based teaching Approach Skehan in Nunan(2004:3) puts forward five key characteristics activity of a task, namely(1) meaning is primary;(2) learners are not given others people meaning to regurgitate;(3)there is some sort of relationship to comparable real-world activities;(4)task completion has some priority and

the assessment of the task is in term of outcome. It means is very important in a task. 6.Conceptual Framework
Reading Problem No Creading Strategies Might Cause Low Reading Comprehension

Task Based Teaching Approach

Before Reading Reading (The Pre-Task Phase) Post-Task Phase)

During Reading (The whilst-Task Phase)

After (The

The Improvement of Critical Reading Strategies And Reading Comprehension

8 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD 1.Kind of the Research The research approach in this study would be a classroom action research (CAR). It was implemented to collect data in order to answer the research question considering the status of the study. Hopkins(1993:9) states that a classroom action research is a research which combines inquiry and substantive action, or a teachers afford in understanding what is going on in her or his class and involving his or her in problem solving. Skerritt(1996:3) defines a classroom action research as it is collaborative, critical and self-critical inquiry by practisioners into a major problem or issue or concern in their own practice. 2. Participants The participants of the research will be the eleventh year students of SMAN 2 X 11 Kayutanam. Randomly, the researcher will choose class XI IA. The class is containing 22 students. Furthermore, SMAN I 2 x11 Kayutanam is located in Padang Pariaman Region, exactly in Kayutanam district. This school has 9 classes9 classes which is consisted 3 classes for each level. There are 5 English teacher in the school. 3.Instruments The key instrument of this research will be the researcher herself as a teacher. She will be involve in any steps in the process of gathering the information. 4. Data Collection First of all to collect the accurate data of critical reading strategies and reading comprehension improvement, the researcher will have a reading comprehension pre-test building critical reading strategies. This pre-test is used to collect the initial data before doing the action.

9 Next to get the triangulation data, the researcher will use observation checklist, field note. Questionnaire, and interview in the action process. Finally, the researcher will use the qualitative form that is refer to the data which will be display in the form of verbal report. 5. Data Analysis Techniques In this case the data collected will be analyzed by using measures of central tendency which is proposed by Millis(2000:107). As stated by Millis that a measure of central tendency is single number that gives information about the entire group of numbers we are. The researcher will analyze the data using this formula: Mean (x) = ( the sum of the scores) N( the number of action